فهرست مطالب

Social Determinants of Health - Volume:4 Issue: 3, 2018
  • Volume:4 Issue: 3, 2018
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/07/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
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  • Jeanette Carlin * Pages 115-116
  • Justin Chin *, Patrick J. O’Toole, Jun H. Lin, Julie M. Lavalliere, Narcisse Amine, Amanda Milam, Grace Huang, Mahnoor Asghar, Junsanto Bahri, Sonu Sahni Pages 117-123
    Objective
    For many in the United States, standard health insurance does not cover eyecare, leading to lapses in care and exacerbations of pre-existing conditions. Touro College of Osteopathic Medicine (TouroCOM) recognizes the importance of ocular health and offers the opportunity to engage the community through student-run vision screenings. This study aims to assess the effect of medical student-run vision screenings in supplementing pre-clinical education and to review health fair data on common vision pathologies seen in Harlem, New York.
    Methods
    Pre- and post-surveys were administered to medical student volunteers to assess their comfort in performing a basic vision screening. Training was given in regards to screening protocols and applied at health fairs.
    Results
    90% of medical students (n=20) indicated discomfort in performing a basic vision screening when solely relying on their preclinical coursework. In comparison, after a training session and use during a health fair, 100% (n=20) indicated that they were comfortable with performing a vision screening. 60% of health fair participants (n=193) met referral criteria in requiring further testing or follow-up care. 100% of participants had some degree of refractive error, with 6% (n=7) having concomitant color vision abnormality and 9% (n=11) with macular abnormalities.
    Conclusion
    Osteopathic medical students are better equipped to perform basic vision screenings and recognize visual disease with additional training and practice at health fairs. This engagement allows for early clinical experience, osteopathic outreach, and interprofessionalism. Furthermore, this provides an opportunity for community members to receive information that may guide future health decisions.
    Keywords: vision screening, medical student, ophthalmic education, visual impairment, osteopathic medicine
  • Ali Namaki, Nadergholi Ghourchian *, Parivash Jafari Pages 124-136
    Background
    A new competitive factor between universities is the production of knowledge, in which the material benefits are gained. Competition in achieving such a situation has created the new systems of ranking and evaluation of universities. The purpose of the present study was to present an appropriate model for university ranking and to evaluate the effectiveness of social factors in the final ranking model.
    Methods
    First, the indexes of 29 global ranking systems were studied and analyzed using content analysis method. Then, an interview was conducted with faculty members and the model was presented through theme analysis and open coding. A questionnaire was designed for the study and to confirm the reliability of the questionnaire, Cronbach's alpha coefficient was used. Also, the validity of the questionnaire was confirmed using the expert opinions. Convergent validity technique was also used using Amos graphics software
    Results
    The importance of social factors affecting academic ranking was obtained through calculation of the means. Based on our results, the importance of the factors from the largest to the smallest was as follows: 1. educational performance 2. research performance 3. entrepreneurship and employment 4. scientific rank, national and international image, and 5. the ability of the university to meet the needs of the society. All of which show moderate to high levels.
    Conclusion
    Based on the results, the calculated values of fitness indices were in desirable range and the proposed model for the ranking of universities was suitable with empirical data and enjoys a favorable situation.
    Keywords: Educational Function, Faculty, Scientific Ranking, Universities, Research
  • Fahime Rajabi *, Rohollah Khodabandelou Pages 137-144
    Background
    Marital satisfaction has been identified as one of the most important determinants of healthy and quality functions of family life. The present study aimed at examining the mediatory effects of quality of life in the relationship between lifestyle and marital satisfaction among employed women.
    Methods
    In the context of a cross-sectional study, 120 married employed women were studied in Abadeh, Iran. Lifestyle Questionnaire (LSQ) including 70 items was used to evaluate different aspects of participant’s lifestyle. The Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) questionnaire was used to assess the health-related quality of life. Also, ENRICH Marital Satisfaction Questionnaire, including 35 items, was used to examine marital satisfaction. Data analysis was done using IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 24.0., running Pearson’s correlation coefficient, and Structural Equation Modelling using AMOS.
    Results
    The mean age of participants was 38.9 (9.84). Also, 58% (70) of participants had a bachelor's degree, 36 (30%) had associate degrees, and 14 (12%) had masters and above. The results showed that there was a significant relationship between lifestyle and quality of life (r=0.061 and P<0.001). Also, there was a correlation between lifestyle and marital satisfaction (r=0.039 and P<0.001), and a significant relationship between quality of life and marital satisfaction (r=0.058 and P<0.001). It was also found that the quality of life partially mediates the relationship between lifestyle and marital satisfaction (β=0.32, P<0.001).
    Conclusion
    Lifestyle based on cooperation and common goals leads to a life of marital satisfaction. By modifying their lifestyle, married employed women can amend their selfish tendencies and choose goals with high social orientation.
    Keywords: Employment, Female, Life Style, Quality of life, Personal satisfaction
  • Reza Davoodi, Shahrbanoo Ghahari * Pages 145-153
    Background
    this study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of emotion regulation and distress tolerance skills training on coping strategies, emotion regulation, and perceived stress in prisoners
    Method
    The esearch method of current study was semi experimental method in form of pretest and posttest with the control group.statistical population consisted of 200 prisoners in Fooman Prison in Iran; of individual who had inclusion criteria, 30 members were selected using convenient sampling method then assigned to two experimental and control groups (n=15 in each group). They were match base on education level and age. Experimental group received 12 sessions teaching of emotion regulation and distress tolerance skills, while control group were waiting. Both groups filled in coping responses, emotion regulation, and perceived stress reduction questionnaires at baseline and after treatment. Data were analyzed using SPSS21 Software.
    Results
    Emotion regulation and distress tolerance skill training could affect improvement of coping strategies, emotion regulation, and perceived stress reduction in prisoners (P<0.001).
    Conclusion
    Emotion regulation and distress tolerance skills led to improved emotion regulation, coping strategies, and reduced use of emotion-focused coping strategies and decreased perceived stress in prisoners. So we could introduce this approach for emotion regulation in prisoners.
    Keywords: Keywords: Emotion Regulation, Distress Tolerance, Coping Strategies, Reduction of Stress, Prisoners
  • Zahra Rahnamoon, Akbar Shafiee, Arash Jalali, Saeed Sadeghian * Pages 154-161
    Background
    There exist gaps in the implementation of guideline-recommended treatments and interventions to manage syncope. The present study aimed to investigate the adherence to the current guideline for the diagnosis and management of syncope patients referred to a tertiary center.
    Methods
    A cross-sectional study was carried out with the study group consisting of 324 consecutive patients, who were diagnosed with unexplained syncope with one or more attacks and were referred for head-up tilt table test (HUTT) between September 2009 and September 2011 to Tehran Heart Center. All the patients underwent a thorough evaluation, including a careful medical history and physical examination as well as a thorough history of all procedures performed before referral. The data collected was compared between patients with positive and negative HUTT results and also based on the referring physician, in order to assess the deviation from syncope guideline in their management. We compared the selected groups using a chi-square test for categorical variables and student t-test or analysis of variance (ANOVA) for continuous variables where appropriate.
    Results
    A total of 324 patients with a Mean (SD) age of 41.04 (17.74) years were enrolled in the study (158 patients, i.e. 48.8%, were male). HUTT was positive in 181 (55.8%) patients. Brain computed tomography scan and coronary angiography were performed more in the initial assessment of the patients with a negative HUTT compared with patients with negative HUTT (P=0.001 and P=0.01, respectively). Significantly higher rates of brain MRI (P=0.01), brain imaging (P=0.03), and electroencephalography (P=0.002) were observed among the neurologists' referrals while echocardiography (P<0.001), exercise tolerance test (P=0.001), electrocardiogram Holter monitoring (P<0.001), and coronary angiography (P=0.02) were significantly more performed in patients referred by a cardiologist.
    Conclusion
    We observed a noticeable deviation from the current guideline for the management of syncope although the patients underwent expensive tests with little benefit.
    Keywords: Coronary Angiography, Exercise Test, Physical Examination, Syncope, Tilt-Table Test
  • Sara Asadi, Parvin Farzanegi *, Mohammad Ali Azarbayjani Pages 162-170
    Introduction
    Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a common type of articular disorder worldwide. Interleukin 10 (IL-10) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) are considered as an essential regulator contributing to inflammation and knee OA pathogenesis. In this study, effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), ozone (O3) and exercise training were considered on IL-10 and TNF-α expression in rats with knee OA.
    Materials and Methods
    Surgical method was applied to induce knee OA in rats. OA rats were randomly divided into patient, MSCs, ozone, and exercise groups. Rats in MSCs group received intraarticularly injection of 1×106 cells/kg. Rats in ozone group received O3 at the concentration of 20μg/ml, once weekly for 3 weeks. Rats in exercise group were trained on rodent treadmill for three times per week. 48 hours after the final exercise training, cartilage tissues were isolated and expression of IL-10 and TNF-α was considered using RT-PCR.
    Results
    Ozone therapy significantly increased the expression of IL-10 compared to the patient (3.12-folds; p=0.031), MSCs (2.78-fold; p=0.042) and exercise (4.64-fold; p=0.034) groups. The patient group had significantly higher expression of TNF-α compared to the control (32.27-fold; p=0.000), MSCs (1.58-fold; p=0.001) and ozone (3.02-fold; p=0.000) groups. MSCs and ozone therapies significantly decreased TNF-α expression compared to the patients (p=0.001 and p=0.000, respectively) and exercise (p=0.042 and p=0.000, respectively) groups; however, ozone therapy was significantly more effective than MSCs therapy (p=0.007).
    Conclusion
    Ozone therapy was significantly more effective than exercise and MSCs therapy to improve knee OA in rats.
    Keywords: Osteoarthritis, O3, MSCs, exercise, IL-10, TNF-?