- پیاپی 18 (بهار و تابستان 1397)
- تاریخ انتشار: 1397/04/08
- تعداد عناوین: 10
صفحات 1-36هدف این جستار مقایسه سبک شخصیت پردازی رمانهای "عصفور من الشرق" و"الشحاذ" بر اساس اسلوب آماری است. اسلوب آماری روشی است، که بوزیمان برای شناسایی و مقایسه اسلوبها پایه ریزی نموده است. وی در نظریه خود فرض را بر وجود متغییرهای صرفی می گذارد، که با خطوطی دلالت گر کاهش و یا افزایش می یابند. فرضیه بوزیمان سعی دارد که با کمک آمار از ریشه های وجودی حدس وداوری های سلیقه ای در شناسایی اسلوب بریده و ویژگی های اسلوبی را شناسایی کند تا معقولیت تحلیل در پی داشته باشد. هدف از پژوهش، تحلیل متغیر های آماری دو اثر مذکور است، که بتوان به کمک آن نشانه های نمونه وار تفاوت سبک نویسندگان دو اثر را درفضای علمی یا ادبی تر بودن اثرشان بیان نمود، همچنین تلاش دارد تا در سایه اسلوب آماری میزان پویایی، عاطفی، انفعالی، عقلانی و…دو رمان را مشخص نماید. نتایج پزوهش نشان از آن دارد که اسلوب شخصیت پردازی دو نویسنده کاملا متفاوت است و هرگاه نویسندگان در اسلوب خویش از پویایی وعاطفه وگفتگو بهره جسته اند ارزش (ن ف ص) آنان فزونی و زمانی که از آنها فاصله گرفته اند، کاهش یافته است.کلیدواژگان: شخصیت پردازی، اسلوب آماری، بوزیمان، عصفور من الشرق و الشحاذ
صفحات 37-64قرآن کریم در مقام نزول از علم الهی به عالم طبیعت به اقتضاء زبان مخاطبان نخستین، در قالب تجلی به زبان عربی نازل شده، برخوردار از همه مختصات و تکنیک های ادبیات بشری است. یکی از آن مختصات که ویژه زبان عربی و از جمله امتیازات زبانی آن است، امکان توسعه معنای افعال مجرد از طریق انتقال به ابواب مزید است. افعال بکار رفته در ابواب مزید تقریبا یک دهم از مجموعه الفاظ قرآن کریم را به خود اختصاص داده، نقش برجسته و تعیین کننده ای در پیام رسانی و القاء معانی به مخاطبان دارد. مقاله حاضر پژوهشی نظری است که به روش تحلیلی-توصیفی در پاسخ به این پرسش سامان یافته است: افعال مزید به لحاظ معانی کاربردی چه کارکردی در قرآن کریم دارد؟. پژوهشگر از رهگذر پردازش داده ها به این نتیجه رسیده است که: اولا: افعال موضوع پژوهش غالبا در معانی مشهور ابواب مزید و اندکی نیز در معانی غیر مشهور بکار رفته است؛ ثانیا: افعال مزید موجود در قرآن کریم تنها در ابواب مشهور بکار رفته، باب های افعال و تفعیل به لحاظ کمی از فراوانی بیشتری برخوردارند.کلیدواژگان: قرآن، افعال مزید، معانی کاربردی، افعال، تفعیل
صفحات 65-96ارتباط شعر معاصر فارسی و عربی با فلسفه، به ویژه با دستاوردهای اگزیستانسیالیسم، در برخی اشعار تبدیل به یک هویت مشخص شده است؛ چنان که شاهد یک امتزاج، در دو نوع دستاورد بشری هستیم. از مصادیق چنین ادعایی، تبلور این فلسفه در «ترانه های کوچک غربت» احمد شاملو و «اغانی مهیار الدمشقی» ادونیس است که دو شاعر با پرداختن به مولفه های بنیادین آن به خلق اثری هنری دست یازیده اند.
نوشته حاضر ضمن ارائه تصویری از ارتباط فلسفه اگزیستانسیالیسم با ادبیات معاصر، مصادیق این نوع فلسفه را در دو مجموعه مورد بررسی قرار دهد. بر همین مبنا نتایج، نشان خواهد داد؛ در این کندوکاو، با دو اندیشمند مواجه هستیم که شعر برای آن ها فراتر از یک گفتار یا یک شاخه هنری است. آن ها در مواجهه با اگزیستانسیالیسم رویکردهایی مختلف را اتخاذ می کنند و این رویه فلسفی، باعث تعمیق روابط اشیاء و حوادث در شعر آن ها می گردد و درعین حال، ممکن است منجر به شکل گیری نوعی پیچیدگی و دیریابی برای مخاطبانشان نیز گردد. بااین وجود، مباحثی همچون هستی شناسی، تناقض و تنهایی، حضور دیگری، صیرورت و نمایندگی انسان از جمله قضایایی است که دو شاعر بر مبنای نگرش اگزیستانسیالیسم به طرح آن همت گماشته اند.کلیدواژگان: اگزیستانسیالیسم، احمد شاملو، ادونیس، شعر معاصر فارسی و عربی
صفحات 97-118مساله ترجمه متون نمایشی، در میان منتقدین،کمتر مورد بررسی و موشکافی قرار گرفته است. برای نمونه در این که در ترجمه این متون، چه راهکارهایی کاربرد بیشتری دارد، چیز بسیاری نمی دانیم. تفاوت ساختارهای نحوی زبان ها سبب می شود که پس از گزینش برابر مناسب و نزدیک واژه، معیارها و پیمانه های مشخصی در انتقال این ساختارها وجود نداشته باشد. گاهی ساختار زبان مبدا با توجه به کاربرد درست آن در زبان مقصد، درست آرایش داده نمی شود؛ مانند اشتباه در زمان فعل (مانند ترجمه فعل ماضی ساده به جای استمرار و مضارع و…) ، اشتباه در ترجمه جمله خبری به جای انشایی و… از آنجا که ساختارهای دو زبان مبدا و مقصد با هم متفاوتند، طبیعی است که ترجمه نیز باید بر پایه ساختار زبان مقصد باشد. از سوی دیگر، توجه به سبک و رسایی نگارش جمله زبان مبدا، یکی از محدودیت های مترجم در گزینش جمله برابر به شمار می رود، مانند تفاوتی که می تواند میان نگارش یک متن تاریخی و یا یک متن عاشقانه و خودمانی باشد. این مقاله در پی نشان دادن راهکارهای مترجم در ترجمه متون نمایشی است و نکته های مورد توجه در ترجمه نمایشنامه را در بخش 1-ساختار (ارزش پیامی ساختار زبان مبدا، ترجمه ساختار به ساختار، بینامتنیت و اشتباه در درک معنا) ؛ 2-بافتار (انسجام متنی و عوامل حاکم بر آن، نشانه های سجاوندی، عوامل تاثیرگذار بر معنا) ؛ 3- گونه های زبانی (تفاوت سبک و یا شیوه بیان) بررسی کرده و نمونه های آن را در چهار نمایشنامه گزینشی مورد واکاوی قرار می دهد و در پایان ترجمه پیشنهادی خود را در برابر هر یک از جمله های نمایشی بیان می کند. نتایج بررسی، نشان دهنده وجود روش های گوناگونی در ترجمه متون نمایشی است که برای نمونه، توجه به ساخت و بافت و سبک جمله و… ترجمه را از گزینش زبان اشتباه رهایی می بخشد.کلیدواژگان: ترجمه، نمایشنامه، ویژگی ها، ساختار، بافتار، گونه های زبانی
صفحات 119-147مکتب پراگماتیسم، ادبیات را به منزله موثرترین و زیباترین نوع گفتمان تلقی می کند. گفتمانی که نه تنها زیبایی و جمال در آن موج می زند بلکه تمام کارکردها و وظیفه های ارتباطی زبان در آن موجود است. ازاین رو فن اقناع به عنوان هدف غایی هر نوع گفتمان در زیرمجموعه زبان شناسی کاربردی به عنوان علم گفتمان زبانی قرار می گیرد. ازآنجاکه کاربردشناسی ادبی بیشتر از کاربردشناسی محض و فرضیه ای بیانگر کاربرد عملی زبان در فرآیند گفتمان است، در این پژوهش بر آنیم که به بررسی شگردهای زبانی (دستوری و آوایی) اقناع در دیوان شاعر بزرگ عرب که از وی به عنوان استاد معماری زبان یاد می شود، بپردازیم. جایگاه والای متنبی در عرصه زبانی و حضور استراتژی های زبانی در دیوان وی نشان از آن دارد که شاعر در انتقال بیشتر انگیزه ها، عواطف و احساسات به مخاطبین جهت تثبیت و تاکید بیشتر معنا از کاربست های زبانی اقناع و مهم ترین آن ها همچون تکرار و روش های هارمونی شعری همچون توازن و تصریع بهره جسته است. ضمن اینکه «تکرار» و سویه های گسترده آن به لحاظ ابعاد زیبایی شناختی کلامی و جنبه های اقناع کلامی نسبت به سایر اسلوب های زبانی از بسامد بالایی در دیوان شاعر برخوردار است.کلیدواژگان: اقناع، پراگماتیسم، متنبی، استراتژی های زبانی
صفحات 149-166زبان بدن، تکنیکی ارتباطی به شمار می رود که انسان ها از آن برای بیان احساسات و دلالت های مختلف بهره می گیرند. زبان بدن، ترجمان حالت ها و اندیشه های آدمی است. این مهارت ارتباطی در گستره علم لغت، روان شناسی رفتاری و تربیتی قرار دارد. زبان بدن در متون ادبی و قرآن کریم به کرات مورد استفاده قرار گرفته است. فراگیری اصول و فنون زبان بدن، اقدام موثری برای رمزگشایی بسیاری از دلالت های نهفته در عبارات است و این امر برای پژوهشگران قرآنی بسیار مهم می نماید؛ زیرا با بازگشایی رمز آیات، می توان از روساخت به ژرف ساخت معنایی آن ها پی برد. در این مقاله علاوه بر تعریف زبان بدن و ارائه تاریخچه مختصری از این علم، به ذکر دلالت های زبان بدن در قرآن کریم با تاکید بر زبان دست و شرح نکات بلاغی آن ها پرداخته شده است. مهم ترین دلالت های زبان دست در قرآن را می توان: بخل، تاسف، ترس، سکوت، غم، تعجب و حیرت برشمرد. از جمله نکات بلاغی آیات زبان بدن می توان به آرایه هایی نظیر استخدام جز به جای کل، تشبیه و استعاره اشاره نمود. قرآن کریم، زبان بدن را مهارت ارتباطی هر دو گروه مومنان و کفار دانسته است. با این تفاوت که کفار از این سازوکار ارتباطی برای استهزاء، انکار و تحقیر و مومنان برای بیان اندوه، مسرت، شرم و شگفتی استفاده نموده اند.کلیدواژگان: دلالت، عناصر بلاغی، زبان بدن، قرآن کریم، زبان دست
صفحات 167-191هر فرد از جامعه با تولید رمزگان نشانه ای خاص خود، ضمن نمایش پایبندی به مجموعه ای از هنجارها و تعلق خود به طبقه خاصی از اجتماع، احساس امنیت یا عدم امنیت خود را به تصویر کشیده و به تناسب امر واکنش های متفاوتی را بروز می دهد. نشانه شناسی اجتماعی یکی از رویکردهای پژوهشی است که به بررسی این هنجارها و رمزگان نشانه ای می پردازد. بر اساس این پژوهش که به شیوه توصیفی – تحلیلی انجام گرفته، جلوه هایی از ناامنی نشانه ای را می توان به وضوح در رمان «لیله الملیار» ملاحظه کرد. در این رمان تقابل فرهنگی بین شخصیت ها و بازتاب آن در رفتارهای آنان موجب روی آوردن هر یک از این شخصیت ها به واکنش هایی چون خاموشی، بیش تصحیحی، تلافی، و پدیده های متفاوتی چون تقلید، همانندسازی به عنوان واکنش مقابله با هنجارهای متضاد شده است. برخی شخصیت های رمان از این تقابل در جهت سازندگی خود بهره جسته و خود را از حالت ناامنی خارج کرده اند، برخی در فرهنگ جامعه دوم غرق شده، و بعضا به بیراهه رفته و خود را به نابودی کشانده اند. عده ای نیز حقارت و غربت روز افزون را تاب نیاورده و در پی احساس عدم تعلق به جامعه مسلط، به کشورشان باز گشته اند.کلیدواژگان: غاده السمان، لیله الملیار، نشانه شناسی اجتماعی، ناامنی نشانه ای
صفحات 193-222پیوند دینی، تاریخی و سیاسی میان ایرانی ها و عرب ها را از زوایای گوناگون می توان تماشا و غوررسی کرد؛ و کم نیست آنچه در این زمینه، به رشته تحریر درآمده است. این پیوند و اثرگذاری دوسویه را در بسیاری از زمینه های به ویژه ادبی و دینی به روشنی می بینیم. تصویر ایران تاریخی و افسانه ای در ادبیات عربی، چه در شعر و چه در نثر، یکی از این نشانه هاست. اگر به سروده های شاعران عرب نژاد در دوره عباسی نگاه کنیم، پیوسته با نام شخصیت های ایرانی روبه رو می شویم؛ طبیعی است که در سروده های شاعران وطن پرست ایرانی، چهره ای مثبت از این کسان ارائه شود اما وقتی می بینیم بیش تر شاعران عرب نژادی نیز که هیچ حس وطن پرستی ایرانی ندارند، همواره به نیک نامی از آن ها یاد می کنند، موضوع، متفاوت و ریشه یابی ریزبینانه تری احساس می شود. ازآنجاکه شاعر عرب زبان و به ویژه کسی که ریشه ایرانی ندارد، هرازگاهی این نام های ایرانی را که از لحاظ دینی و ملیت با او هم ساز نبوده فراخوانی می کند، بایسته است بررسی شود که او چگونه این افراد ناخودی را به تصویر می کشد. آنچه در این جستار می آید از یک سو نشان می دهد که تا چه اندازه میراث ایران پیش از اسلام برای عرب ها و مسلمانان دوره عباسی، شناخته شده بوده است و از دیگر سو، به اهمیت و ارزش این میراث در سده های نخستین اسلامی اشاره دارد. تصویر ایرانیان در شعر عربی دوره عباسی، برخلاف متونی که از روی جانبداری از سوی ایرانیان و عرب ها نوشته شده، نه تنها پاک نگشته بلکه چه بسا نیکو و مثبت ارائه شده است.کلیدواژگان: فراخوانی، ایران پیش از اسلام، ناخودی، شعر عربی، عصر عباسی
صفحات 223-248فرمالیسم یکی از مهم ترین نظریه های نقد ادبی معاصر است. بنیان گذاران این نظریه در اوایل قرن بیستم، گامی مهم در زمینه عدول از زبان هنجار برداشتند و با طرح مباحث و اصطلاحاتی مهم، به بررسی و طبقه بندی عوامل قابل شناسایی ایجاد زبان ادبی و به خصوص شعر در قالب مباحثی مانند هنجارگریزی، آشنایی زدایی و… مبادرت ورزیدند. یکی از عوامل مهم در گسترش هنجارگریزی در آثار شاعران دهه های اخیر، نوگرایی و تلاش برای دست یافتن به آزادی اندیشه و نشان دادن جریان های فکری است. محمود درویش یکی از شاعرانی است که انواع هنجارگریزی در اشعار وی به چشم می خورد که یکی از بارزترین آنها، هنجارگریزی نوشتاری است. پژوهش حاضر بر آن است تا با استفاده از روش توصیفی – تحلیلی و بررسی شعر درویش، به بررسی روش های هنجارگریزی نوشتاری در ساختار ظاهری شعرش و تبیین دلالت ها و اهداف آن بپردازد. نتایج پژوهش حاکی از این است که ازجمله شیوه های هنجارگریزی نوشتاری در شعر او می توان به موارد زیر اشاره کرد: کاربرد نقطه چین در آغاز مصراع شعر برای پردازش واژگان شعری، کاربرد نقطه چین به جای مصراع کامل با هدف جلوگیری از ضعف خود و نیز خستگی خواننده، به کاربردن برخی علائم نگارشی همچون مربع، قلاب، خط تیره و خط مورب برای نوسازی ظاهر شعر و نیز تاکید بر یک مسئله خاص و همچنین شکستن مصراع ها و کوتاه و بلندکردن آن ها و آوردن یک بیت شعری به صورت افقی و تکرار آن به صورت عمودی و کلمه به کلمه با هدف تاکید و جلب توجه خواننده به آن مسئله است.کلیدواژگان: شعر معاصر، هنجارگریزی، نوشتاری، محمود درویش
صفحات 249-278شخصیت عنصر اصلی داستان است و به مثابه ستون فقرات آن به شمار می رود؛ پس داستان پرداز باید تمام تلاش خود را برای آفرینش شخصیت هایی مبذول کند که دارنده نشان ه ایی باشند که با حوادث، مفاهیم و اهداف قصه متناسب و با عناصر دیگر هم خوانی داشته باشند. به نظر می رسد که اسامی شخصیت ها از مهم ترین این نشان ه است و به منزله رمزها یا علاماتی هستند که خواننده را به برخی از مفاهیم داستان رهنمون می شوند، و چون عنصر شخصیت در داستان های هزار و یک شب هم از نظر شکل و هم از نظر دلالی اهمیت فراوان دارند، بر آن شدیم که در این مقاله با روش توصیفی - تحلیلی به بررسی نشانه شناسی شخصیت ها در یکی از حکایت های آن به عنوان "ملک عمر نعمان و فرزندانش شرکان و ضوءالمکان" بپردازیم و وجوه تسمیه شخصیت های این حکایت و ارتباط آنها را با روند حوادث و وقایع داستان کشف نماییم. سرانجام به نتایج مهمی پی بردیم؛ از جمله این که اسامی شخصیت ها در این حکایت نقش مهمی در ساختار و مفاهیم و پیام های قصه دارند.کلیدواژگان: نشانه شناسی، هزار و یک شب، حکایت ملک نعمان و فرزندانش، شخصیت
The Analysis of Characterization in 'A Sparrow from the East' and 'The Beggar' Using Busemann’s HypothesisPages 1-36this article aims to compare the characterization style of "A Sparrow from the East" and "The Beggar" based on statistical method. Statistical method is a style that Bouzyman has established to recognize and compare methods. Bouzyman assumes the existence of morphological variables which increase or decrease with connotative lines. This theory using statistics attempts to avoid the origins of conjecture, taste and subjective judgments in method identification and recognize the methodological features such as dynamism, emotionalism, passivity, rationality, etc, in order to achieve a reasonable analysis. This research aims to analyze the morphological variables of the two works and their statistical data, and to draw tables that can help us to express the typical signs of the different styles of the authors in the scientific or literary atmosphere of the works. It also attempts to specify the level of dynamism, emotionalism, passivity and rationality of the two novels. The results of the study demonstrates that the characterization method of the two writers are quite different and that whenever writers take advantage of dynamism, emotions and dialogue in their method their value( R V A) has increased and when they have receded, it has been decreased.Keywords: Characterization, Statistical Fashions, Busemann, 'A Sparrow from the East', 'The Beggar'
Pages 37-64IntroductionGiven its transcendental reality, the holy Quran has been verbally manifested in the material world as it was descended upon humans, forming a text written in human language which includes articles, nouns, verbs, and sentences. Clearly, the truth that lies within this book has resulted in Quran to be the subject of various studies through different approaches. One of the neglected subjects in the area of Quranic studies is the expansion of verbs’ semantic realm through transfer from abstract to mazid structures.Theoretical FrameworkMazid verbs are constructed from abstract verbs through an increasing process observing the meaning. Such a process expands on the semantic realm of verbs and their diverse functions within rhetorical textures. The source of theoretical foundations and frameworks of this subject is the knowledge of morphology (sarf) which is regarded as one of the Quranic sciences. Regarding the background of this study, it can be expressed that the subject has only appeared incomprehensively scattered in particular cases in interpretation works such as Tabarsi’s Majma’ al-Bayan, Zamakhshari’s al-Kashshaaf, Ibn Ashour’s al-Tahrir va al-Tanvir, Alusi’s Ruh al-Ma'ani and other earlier and later works of interpretation; there has been no other independent studies on this subject in the form of a paper or a book. It must be pointed out that even in the book, “Literal Interpretation of the Holy Quran” by Mahdi Islami Panah Yazdi which was written solely and expertly through a literary approach, there has been no mention of the meanings of mazid verbs. It is also worth mentioning that in his book, “The Impact of Literary Sciences on Understanding the Holy Quran”, Mohammad Fallahi Qomi has only specified three pages of the book to this subject and presented insignificant evidence from the Quran for five categories (baab) of trilateral mazid verbs without building on their functional meanings. Also in the book, “The Role of Literary Sciences on the Interpretation of Quran” by Ahmad Taherinia as well as another book by Javad Aaseh, “The Role of Syntax Sciences in the Interpretation of Quran”, both published by Imam Khomeini research and education institute in Qom, there has been no mention of this subject. Moreover, authors who have attempted to analyze and integrate the verses of the holy Quran in books such as “E’erab al-Quran va Bayanah” and “Jadval al-E’erab al-Quran”, etc., were not exposed to this subject. In addition, as far as it has been explored in this study, there has been no theses found to bear the title of “explaining the meanings of mazid verbs in the holy Quran” across university or seminary websites. Consequently, it appears that attending to this very subject independently is both necessary and beneficial, and could be considered as an effective step in asserting the role of literary sciences for interpreting the holy Quran. As an interdisciplinary activity, it could also be an effective action to bring the disciplines of Arabic language and literature and Quranic sciences closer together.MethodThe present fundamental, theoretical inquiry was conducted through the descriptive-analytical method. In this study, first the mazid verbs used in Quran were identified and categorized based on categories (baabs). Then, certain unknown meanings of them were analyzed in several cases.FindingsThe findings of this study can be investigated through a single basic rule; this rule states that, “Increase in the morphological structure of the word (verb), results in an mazid, expanded domain of the word’s meaning.”
It is worth mentioning that the above rule holds true in the entire mazid verbs used across the holy Quran.ConclusionThe purpose of this study which revolved around a theoretical, descriptive-analytical exploration of several cases regarding the functional meanings of mazid verbs used throughout the holy Quran, led to the following results Quantitatively, more than 7000 forms of mazid verbs (derived from 800 paragraphs) are used in the holy Quran. This number is approximately equal to one tenth of all words in the holy Quran, and it is an umpteen number.
Said verbs are used in trilateral and quatrain categories, with ef’aal and taf’eel being the most frequent.
In terms of application, these verbs have majorly been used in their own main dominant meanings.
The views of linguists and interpreters regarding the functional meaning of mazid verbs are parallel to each other and no significant difference was observed.
Ultimately, it is recommended to examine the rhetoric applications of mazid verbs with regards to the present requirements.Keywords: Mazid verb, Holy Quran, Applied meaning
Existentialist Analysis of the Poetry of Shamlou and Adonis (Case Study: Little Songs of Foreign Land and Songs of Mahyar al-Dimashghi)Pages 65-96IntroductionThe connection between literature and philosophy has always been one of the accepted principles in the area of criticism and theorization for a long time. Regardless of the views of those for or against this connection, what is of utmost importance is the role of each in development and meaningfulness of the other. As philosophy contributes particularly to poetry in line with increasing the richness of poems, it offers a novel face to literature whilst attempting to convey its messages through literature so as to diminish the border between literature and philosophy .I In this regard, poetry is effective in a simpler, more beautiful transfer of philosophical notions. Consequently, given the new era in which philosophy and literature have been united once more, philosophical awareness has become immensely important for a better understanding of profound literary works.Theoretical FrameworkAs one of the schools of thought in philosophy, existentialism involves a more tangible connection with arts and literature. This school has integrated philosophy with literature extensively, becoming the focus of many scholars all around the world. The connection between contemporary Arabic and Persian poetry with philosophy, especially given the achievements of existentialism, has turned into a distinguished identity in certain poems. Instances of this claim includes the manifestation of such a philosophy in Ahmad Shamlou’s Little songs of foreign lands and Adonis’s Songs of Mahyar al-Dimashghi; both poets have created these works of art by considering the fundamental components of this philosophy. In the examination of these poems, the readers are faced with poets who think, or thinkers who are also poets; such a phenomenon becomes more prominent when accompanied by the existentialist outlook.
Some of the common prominent themes showing the influence of existentialism on both poets include the meaninglessness and exorbitance of existence, human alienation, and humans’ contradictions regarding the agency and meaningfulness. In addition to offering an image of the connection between the existentialist philosophy and contemporary literature, the present inquiry aims to examine the instances of this philosophy in two cases.MethodThe method used in this study is based on analyzing and comparing both poems through the existentialist outlook. Even though Shamlou and Adonis lived in the same era and met each other several times, it is highly unlikely for them to have been influenced by one another; rather, both have been influenced by the same school of thought, that is, Western existentialism. Accordingly, what is offered here in comparing both works is the American comparative literature method of criticism. In this approach, the proposed figures such as Henry Remak (1916-2009) and René Wellek (1903-1995) not only do not consider the basis as essentially the presence of a historical relation or impression and influence, but also accept the connection between literature and other types of sciences and arts in the area by expanding the scope of the discussion (Alkhatib, 1999). On the other hand, the American school considers the presence of intellectual and cultural similarities between two literatures or cultures producing similar works to be inside the scope of studies in the area of comparative literature. In other words, according to the view that states, “Comparative literature involves comparing a literature to other literatures as well as comparing literature to other areas of human tastes and intellects” (Anoushiravani, 2010, p. 15), the origins of Little songs of foreign lands and Songs of Mahyar al-Dimashghi, which are of the same intellectual and cultural backgrounds, could be a motivation for conducting such a comparison.ResultsOn one hand, the examination of the presence of existentialism in the poetry of Shamlou and Adonis confirms an interdisciplinary connection between literature and philosophy which is considered as one of the functions of comparative literature in accordance with the American school; on the other hand, it represents the feedback which is observed in the poems of both poets, particularly in Little songs of foreign lands and Songs of Mahyar al-Dimashghi. Such a consequence often leads to unity between the mutual ontological approach and outlook of both poets while it sometimes shows minor differences in their orientations. Accordingly, the following results were obtained through examining both works:When faced with the absurdity of existence, Shamlou portrays an atmosphere full of hopelessness and objection, often being under the influence of realism; however, not only Adonis does not halt amidst absurdity, he moves on and confirms the active role of humans by doing so.
In the poems of both poets, offering uncertainties regarding human loneliness is of more importance than providing answers to questions related to the subject. This is due to the fact that for an existentialist, discovering evil is of priority over solving it. In this regard, both poets have attempted to portray the present contradictory atmosphere by using antonyms.
Both poets regard humans as the center of existence. They consider humans as the ones creating meanings and their presence as the beginning of existence. Humans are constantly attempting to provide the means for the presence of another human so as to make pain and suffering more tolerable. They also believe in the agency of humans; however, Shamlou hopelessly regards himself as the agent of the dead, while Adonis looks forward to his next generation, wishing for humans to restore their own values.
Riot and rebellion against the terrible contemporary conditions are mutual mechanisms used by both poets; however, Shamlou acts as a warrior, while Adonis manifests himself in such a role by referring to what lies within him.
On the subject of becoming meaningful, Shamlou initially turns to romanticism followed by the real world, asking his audience to venture beyond themselves. Nevertheless, Adonis portrays this subject by offering a brief trace of romanticism within the surreal world, leading his audience to a vague atmosphere.Keywords: Existentialism, Shamloo, Adonis, Poetry
The Characteristics of Translating Arabic dramatic texts into Persian based on Structure, Context, and Language VarietiesPages 97-118IntroductionThe issue of translating Arabic dramatic texts into Persian has been sparsely treated among critics. For instance, little is known about the basic strategies required to translate such texts. The differences in the syntactic structures of languages deter the adoption and application of suitable criteria and modules while transferring these structures, even after the proper and suitable lexical items have been selected. Sometimes the structure of the source language is not correctly reflected according to its expected use in the target language and is not properly arranged. Making mistakes at verb-tense level is one example where the simple tense is used instead of simple continuous or when statements are used instead of other sentence types. Since the structures of the source and target languages are different, it is natural that the translation should be based on the structure of the target language. On the other hand, paying attention to the style and eloquence of the source text is one of the constraints imposed on the translator while choosing equivalents in the target text, and the same applies to treating the differences between historical, romantic, and intimate texts.
Therefore, the current research has attempted to come up with the possible solutions a translator of dramatic texts can resort to in dealing with: 1) structure (the value of the message in the structure of the source language, the translation of the structure into structure, intertextuality, and misunderstanding of the message); 2) texture (textual coherence and its governing factors, punctuation marks, and the factors influencing the meaning); and 3) language varieties (differences in style or manner of expression), which examines the practical examples in four selective plays, and provide and recommend a translation for each sentence under study.
The results of the survey indicate that there are various methods in the translation of dramatic texts, such as giving direct attention to the construction, texture, and style of the sentence, and the translation of wrong language selection.Theoretical FrameworkThe reason for the complexity and difficulty of translating dramatic works is related to the performativity of these literary works and the fundamental role of dialogue. One of the issues that always engages the minds of these translators is the strategy that should be followed?
In general, the fundamental difficulties involved in translating a play are the vocabulary and structure of the sentences that the protagonists of the plays choose to express their thoughts and feelings. In fiction, we usually encounter a lucid language where the writer adheres to syntactic and structural principles. But in drama, although utterances are produced by the authors, they may suppress the words of a particular character in a specific play. This is because the translators may not be familiar with the protagonists' dialects and may not find their words in any glossaries.MethodThe current research attempts to answer the following questions. What are the translation-related solutions in translating dramatic texts? How can the language as one of the interconnected parts of the text convey the perspective of identity?
The present researcher intends to find a suitable answer to the above questions through a descriptive-analytical method along with their individual knowledge and concludes that the translator should translate the text of the play into a literary text. Therefore, the translator should pay attention to the expressions or the structures of the Persian language used while translating Arabic sentences in order to decide what structure, texture or style is more appropriate to reflect the intended interpretation.
Accordingly, by studying plays such as Isis (translated by Abdulmohammad Ayati), Taht Al-Mizalah (translated by Mahdi Shahrokh), As-Sit Huda (translated by Zeynab Khademi Haetan), Wal Shaytan Y‘aiz (translated by Muhammad Javaher Kalam), the various applications and adaptations of the structure, context and language varieties have been examined, while their observance in translating dramatic texts from Arabic into Persian has also been analyzed to compare the proposed translations with other possible equivalents in order to measure the accuracy or proximity of these translations to the original texts.Results and DiscussionAll in all, paying attention to the style and eloquence of the source text is one of the constraints imposed on the translator while choosing equivalents in the target text, and the same applies to treating the differences between historical, romantic, and intimate texts.
Since the structures of the source and target languages are different, it is natural that the translation should be based on the structure of the target language. But the problems of translating dramatic texts are not limited to lexical and grammatical issues; finding semantics equivalents is more difficult than arriving at lexical-grammatical equivalence. In fact achieving equivalence in all these areas is perhaps so crucial and valuable as the context of performance goes far beyond the structure to the issue of understanding the text and reaching the exact meaning. This extends the visibility of the reader to the point where it is safe to say that texture also incorporates effective phonetic elements in the formation of speech, beyond the comprehension of the surface of the text.
Since texture-equivalence, especially in dramatic texts, explores the exact meaning of the text through the semantic link between sentences besides other structures such as words, the reader may sometimes have to take into account the linguistic context and the link between two or more texts and styles.ConclusionIn the translation of a dramatic text, one comes across the close interconnection and working of various textual elements such as grammatical links and sentence structures (i.e. the arrangement of words, tense, verbs, etc.), and most importantly, textual and inter-sentence links (i.e. pronouns and referents, semantic links between sentences, paralinguistic elements, punctuation, stress and intonation, underlining) and the all emphasize part(s) of the message in the text and convey the message to the audience. Disregarding any of the aforementioned elements would confirm that translating literary and dramatic texts in particular, is a very difficult, if not an impossible task.Keywords: Translation, Dramatic texts, Structure, Context, Language varieties
Pages 119-147IntroductionThe pragmatism regards the literature as the most beautiful and effective kind of discourse. Indeed, literary pragmatism attempt to study literature in context using principles and strategies of linguistic pragmatism, because all of the usages of the language, meaning, and message occur in context before the lingual condition. This school technically possessed extraordinary ability in finding persuasive mechanisms and dimensions of language, eloquence and logic in all literary texts, especially poems. Suffice it to say that the pragmatism school familiarizes audience with a variety of communication functions and explanatory and expressive mechanisms. From this point of view, persuasive instruments of the announcer not only exalt the beauty of a literary discourse, but also it will have double effect on emotions and feelings on the audience; this reveals the persuasive aspects of poetry in the school of pragmatism.Theoretical FrameworkIn this work we have attempted to analyze the persuasive-lingual usages from the perspectives of pragmatism in Mutanabbi’s poetry. Indeed, Mutanabbi has utilized grammatical and phonetic techniques to persuade his audience, which are discussed in the following:Grammatical techniquesRepetition, a persuasive-communicative usage that leads to emphasize the word in the mind of the audience (Alaskari, 1952), is noticeable. Mutanabbi has used pronoun repetition to show his exalted spirit and has used derivative verbs to set musical rhythms to offer his ideas. In Arabic, elimination also plays a major role in the dynamic of the text and the engagement of the audience. The poet also has used this utility to donate beauty to his work and also to strengthen the ability of interpretation as a rhetoric mechanism (Fazl, 1992). Furthermore, Mutanabbi used some techniques such as Exception as an argumental and logical structure and Presentation and Delay as an approach for highlighting and conveying secondary meanings.Phonetic techniquesMutanabbi has used two phonetic techniques in his poetry. The first is parallelism, which is used as a lingual factor in musical order. In this technique, he has used meters such as Tavil, Kamil, Basit and Vafir as they are more effective in terms and expressions (Al-atibi, 2007). The second technique he has used is called Tasri through which the poet prepares the audience’s mind so that the audience can guess the rime of second line via hearing the first line.MethodThe current research aims to adopt the method of analytical pragmatism to review lingual persuasion techniques in the poems of Mutanabbi. To this send, first the authors pay attention to the concepts of persuasion and pragmatism and also the relationship between them. Then, they comparatively discuss the grammatical and phonetic techniques of persuasion in Mutanabbi’s poems. In this sense, this research is novel and new.Results and DiscussionAbu-Tayyeb Mutanabbi’s poems in the interaction or discourse field remain a wonderful mission in which the poet expresses his philosophical arguments and crucial evidences to emphasize fundamental purposes. With the knowledge of the effective lingual mechanisms and considering that Arabs have attention to verbal music, the poet has used syntactic and rhetorical means to persuade the audience. Such things promote lingual and philosophical aspects of pragmatism. For this reason, this poet is distinct from other poets of his era. Thus, today his wondrous techniques are significant and are considered as a comprehensive source of linguistic competence and persuasion.ConclusionBased on the overview of previous discussions, we conclude that the persuasion process in poetic discourse of Mutanabbi is rather a language-based mechanism. Mutanabbi’s influence on his audiences is a good evidence that he has a great persuasive-communicative skills. In fact, this ability has high frequency in Mutanabbi’s poetry. He has aimed to communicate what is not mentioned by elimination. So the transmission of his messages with few words is the manifestation of his magical works. He has used the repetition and exception styles for further explaination, emphasis, and consolidation; however, the musical and harmonic context includes lingual structures which represent the discourse. Mutanabbi also makes understanding the meaning easier for the audience and provokes emotions using homogeneity in his words of poems and adds music in verses as such.
As a result, Mutanabbi has taken advantage of two important elements (i.e. phonetics and syntax) in the eyes of his audience. In this way, he has been able to inspire his audience and convinced them with important parts of his poetry without using any logical reasoning; this has made him superior in many ways to his peers.Keywords: Pragmatism, persuasion, Mutanabbi, lingual strategies
Examining the Conceptual and Rhetorical Implications of Body Language in the Holy Quran (Case Study: Hand Language)Pages 149-166IntroductionConcepts can be conveyed using body parts; concepts which may bear various emotions and implications. Awareness on the states and thoughts of individuals could be attained through such a language. In the area of literary studies, body language can be investigated technically using linguistics. The application of such a language can be placed under the analysis of ancient literary manuscripts, religious texts, and divine books. Albeit, many people are not familiar with this language technique; in case the scholars of literary sciences and linguistics as well as university professors in the area of literary studies are not sufficiently familiar with principles of such a language, they would remain alien to numerous implications of this language which would then be solely understood as a set of ambiguous signs. By opening the secrets of body language we can show and express our feeling to others without speaking and writing. With body language we can communicate to others as well as speaking.Theoretical FrameworkThe results obtained in the study include the discovery of concepts such as stinginess, regret, fear, silence, and discomfort in hand language. In addition, rhetorical elements of aesthetics in hand language were found such as the application of metonymy, simile, allegory, and paradox. The language of hand in Quran involves figurative meanings which are pointed out in eight verses in this study. The present inquiry could serve as a proper clue for religious-literary research into body language in Quran.
Mastery of body language skills not only helps discover implications within texts, but also aids teachers and even university professors in understanding the states of their students during the education process. Gaining familiarity with the principles and criteria of such a language is considered as necessary for everyone, given the subject of forming healthy, social relationships. Many disagreements and misunderstandings among members of a family or friends is due to lack of familiarity with language.MethodResulting from intensive study of research references, the present inquiry was conducted and completed on the subject of hand language with respect to Quranic verses, according to opinions of interpreters as well as the literary devices and rhetoric science in Arabic language and literature.
This study was conducted as a scientific introduction for other subjects related to body language and serves as a clue for other studies of religion. Nonetheless, the present study provides answers to the following questions: Can the principles and criteria of the rhetoric science be adapted to body language? In other words, does body language involve literary devices? Can a set of rhetorical criteria be indicated for such a language? The present study is conducted using the narrative-analytical method.Results and DiscussionThe present study could contribute greatly to the understanding of hand language for students and those interested in the subject. If the signs produced using body language cannot be understood by scholars, the implications of literary and religious texts may remain hidden. An awareness on the intrinsic emotions of learners, family members, friends and colleagues can be gained through a complete understanding of body language criteria. However, signs produced by this language could be employed by clinical psychologists for treating their patients in addition to the deciphering of literary text by literature experts. Consequently, body language is a means through which people convey their diverse intentions and gain information on the states and thoughts of others. Body language falls in the area of linguistics and employed in a variety of texts; to understand its implications, it is necessary for its audience to become familiar with language. Should the implications of this language remain unclear, they would continue to be nothing but a set of passive signs for the audience. As a result, the present study was conducted revolving around the holy Quran and a consideration of interpretations and rhetoric sciences so as to serves as an illustrative introduction to understanding the hand language.ConclusionThe study tried to provide answers to questions such as whether rhetorical elements exist in this language similar to spoken language. Conducted using the narrative-analytical method, the results of the present study includes various implications of hand language such as stinginess, regret, fear, silence, discomfort, etc. along with rhetorical elements of hand language such as metonymy, simile, allegory, and paradox. Additionally, figurative meanings used in eight verses were also examined. The study offers useful data on sign language in the holy Quran so as to provide scholars with the understanding of joyful aesthetics through the discovery of its ambiguous signs.Keywords: Body Language, the Holy Quran, Rhetorical Implications of Hand Language, Hand Language, Conceptual Implications of Hand Language
Pages 167-191IntroductionSocial semiotics, as one of the subfields of semiotics, investigates into each text in its particular cultural and social context;, it also investigates into the issue of semiotic insecurity which is one of the topics of social semiotics and a subcategory of control model occurrings when the individual is aware of the contrast between their behaviors and the norms the people in that environment believe in. The Laylat Al Miliyar by Ghadah Al-Samman (2002) narrates the story of the immigration of a group of Arab citizens from Beirut to Geneva during the wartime, which is a good example of the representation of the phenomenon of semiotic insecurity and the reactions the characters of the story have. The present paper attempts to explain the phenomenon and its signs and to evaluate the relevant reactions through answering the fundamental question: What are the most outstanding reactions of the characters of the novel "Laylat Al Miliyar" in terms of the semiotic insecurity, and what are the effects and consequences of this phenomenon on the characters?
As no research has been conducted to analyze this novel in terms of semiotic insecurity, the present research can add up to the importance and novelty of this paper.Theoretical FrameworkThe issues of semiotic security or insecurity as the model proposed in the field of linguistics and semiotics are the phenomena concerning the value and objective norms of the society. In other words, the awareness of the individual of the inconformity of their linguistic or semiotic code (behavioral, clothing …) with the common and value-related semiotic and linguistic code of that of another society makes them face the feeling of insecurity. The individual stuck in the insecure conditions may react in one of the following ways: mutism, hyper correction, compensation. Concerning the mutism reaction, the individual attempts to minimize his social behavior and to remain silent. What we mean by the hypercorrection reaction consists of indulging in assimilating with the society the individual suffers complex inferiority, incompetency, and low power. The compensation reaction consists of changing the rules of the game in favor of oneself, such that they will adapt with the personal information.MethodThe research method of the present paper in the field of (theoretical) information collection, criticism, and investigation is descriptive-analyticResults and DiscussionThe present paper has achieved some results concerning the phenomenon of semiotic insecurity through the examination of the phenomenon in the novel Laylat Al Miliyar by the Syrian writer Ghadah Al-Samman (2002) and the reactions of each character in the story. The obtained results are as follows:In addition to the above-mentioned reactions, namely mutism, hyper correction and compensation, some other reactions can be seen in this semiotic model including imitating and, emulating the behavior of the other person with shyness and assimilation.
The novels whose subjects are on immigration and in foreign countries can examine the semiotic insecurity model because all the characters are placed in another society with different norms.
First, the above-mentioned reactions, namely mutism, hyper correction and compensation seem to be the same because the individual attempts to make he/she look like the other person and emulate their behaviors, but the important difference between these two reactions lies in the hyper correction reaction. However, the individuals make themselves seem like the surrounding environment and assimilate with them in order to escape from the insecure conditions, without any exaggeration or indulgence. Finally, the difference between assimilation and imitation lies in constraint dominant on the imitation reaction and the free will dominating the assimilating reaction.ConclusionIt can be concluded from the analysis of the novel of "Laylat Al Miliyar" in which the conditions of Arab immigrants to European countries are explained through outlining the multiple fates of the characters of his story, the writer has warned about the consequences of the possible approaches of each of the immigrant groups based on her knowledge of the impact of immigration from an Eastern undeveloped country afflicted with poverty and economic and living problems to a Western developed and modern country with different groups. Finally, she recommends that the immigrants return to their own country. She is aware of hegemonic relations, and she believes that insisting on maintaining the relation with the world, which makes the individuals to distance themselves from their own culture, and leads them to banality, isolation, and silence, is incorrect. In fact, the way to obviate these problems is to return to the real self and one's own repertoire, even though the individual has to bend over backs to keep their repertoire. In other words, feeling insecure resulting from the war atmosphere is better than the feeling of social-cultural insecurity. Ghadah Al-Samman accepts only the relationship consisting of challenging interaction from among the possible options available to the immigrants, while the individual can change the atmosphere according to their interests. However, even in these conditions the individuals have to come to terms with the norms that are not compatible with their soul.Keywords: Ghadah al-Samman, Laylat Al Miliyar, Social semiotics, Semiotic insecurity
The Portrayal of Outsiders in the Works of Arab Poets of the Abbasid Era (Case Study: Portrayal of Pre-Islamic Iranians)Pages 193-222IntroductionThe religious, historical, and political links between Arabs and Iranians could be observed and thoroughly explored through various dimensions, and there has also been many works written in this area. These links as well as a bilateral influence could clearly be seen in many religious and literary fields. The image of historical and legendary Iran in Arabic literature, whether in poetry or prose, is considered as one of these signs, which clearly asserts the cultural, social, and political role and dominance of Iran before Islam, especially during the Sassanid era, over the cultural and political outlook of Muslims during the first centuries.Theoretical Framework:The names of Iranian characters could be seen all throughout the works of Arab poets during the Abbasid era. Naturally, these characters have been portrayed positively in the works of patriotic Iranian poets; however, since these characters are also portrayed positively in the poetry of Arab poets who are devoid of any patriotic feelings for Iran, the subject appears to require a different, more precise investigation. Given how an Arab poet having no Iranian origin calls on such Iranian names with different religion and nationality, it is essential to examine why and how these poets would portray these outsiders; is it due to personal motives? Or is it the result of collective, all-inclusive motivations leading these poets to create such works? Here the majestic, glorious portrayal of Iranian characters before Islam through the words of patriotic Iranians as well as their negative, undermined portrayal in the poetry of biased Arabs are irrelevant. What is presented here is a generally positive image of Iranian outsider figures offered by Arab poets of the post-Islamic eras, particularly the Abbasid period.MethodThe present inquiry was conducted through the descriptive-analytical and statistical methods. In this regard, following the extraction of poems in which Iranian characters before Islam are mentioned, it is attempted to examine and analyze the portrayal of these Iranian outsiders. Then, using the statistical method, these figures along with their period were classified. Given how the study inevitably requires referring to historical reports, the approach for this study is historical-literary.Results and DiscussionThe sociopolitical challenges between Iranians and Arabs during the first centuries have been demonstrated rather inconspicuously, while Arab poets and scholars often praised Iranians and their prominent figures. Not only the image of outsiders is not omitted in the Arabic poetry of the Abbasid era, but also it is manifested in a glorious manner. Here, it could be understood that the implications on being the enemies of Iran during the early centuries have been nothing but a disadvantageous, failing advertisement, whereas Arab poets and people had believed and accepted Iranian outsiders before Islam. For instance, by looking at books written during the early Hijra centuries under the title of “Al-Mathaleb” in which the shortcomings of nationalities, including Iranians, Arabs, Turks, and Romans, are presented, it could be observed how they are incompatible with the image of these nations portrayed in Arabic and Persian poems.ConclusionOn one hand, the examination of motives and reasons for the presence of pre-Islamic Iranian figures in Arabic poetry of early centuries shows the extent to which the Iranian heritage before Islam had remained known to Arabs and Arab Muslims; on the other hand, it denotes the importance and value of this heritage during the first centuries of Islam. The majority of these figures are of historical nature (religious and political), who have been listed amongst mythical, artistic figures of ancient Iran. This is easy to understand considering how Islamic rulers, particularly during the Abbasid period, have attempted to follow the conventions of Sassanid Kings in their approach for governance. Consequently, everyone including poets who were considered as the intellectuals of the society were fairly familiar with such figures. In this regard, there have been a number of books translated from Pahlavi into Arabic. Nevertheless, the familiarity between Muslims and Iranian religious figures has been clearly insignificant in terms of religious aspects, whether willingly or unwillingly. As this society had apparently rejected Iranian religious conventions, it had neither a compromising response to Manichaeists, Mazadakists nor even to Zoroastrianists. Seemingly, a few number of these people are from the Sassanid, Parthian or Achaemenid empires. The Sassanid, who regarded themselves as superior over previous reigns due to perhaps reasons such as the history of this dynasty and its magnitude for the Muslims of early centuries, have been portrayed more prominently compared to other Iranian rulers before Islam.Keywords: Iconology, Calling, Iran before Islam, I & Others, Arabic poetry of the Abbasid Era
Pages 223-248IntroductionWritten norm deviation is a foregrounding element in today’s poetry in which poets distance themselves from conventional means of writing and employ various ploys in writing and line arrangement of their poetry. Although this matter does not change the major meaning of the poem, such strategies only adds an objective notion to the poem, completing its message to some extent. As a powerful, contemporary Arab poet, Mahmoud Darwish has exploited norm deviation in his works through various means. In this study, it is attempted to explain and analyze the most prominent instances of his exploitation.Theoretical Framework:Norm deviation is a newly emerged principle and phenomenon in literary criticism which has significantly been taken into account in structural studies and contemporary linguistics. This phenomenon is one of the formalists’ most significant findings, which forms the basis for discussions on stylistics today. Formalists introduced literary language as “deviation from the norm” and studied various styles according to this principle (Shamisa, 2002, p. 157).
In fact, deviation from norm involves moving away from the dominant principles of norm-based language as well as inconformity with the common language. In case of a proper artistic application, "it may introduce some foregrounding to the language and put an end to the automated norms of language which are no longer capable of aesthetic transfer" (Salajegheh, 2004, p. 50). However, certain scholars such as Leech consider a boundary for this and believe that "deviation from norm could continue until it does not disturb communication and involves translatable foregrounding" (Leech, 1969, p. 40).
In Arabic language, deviation from norm is called al-Enziyah. It is worth mentioning that deviation from norm is an artistic improvement used by poets to translate their own emotional experiences, and it is not exclusive to the poets of a certain era. Following the World War II, Arab poets turned towards modernism and rejected many of the accepted norms in poetry and prose. The first people to follow modernism in Arabic literature were Badr Shakir al-Sayyab and Nazik al-Malaika (Abbas, 2004).
Until now, a number of studies have been conducted in the area of paranormal in the poetry of Mahmoud Darwish, each pointing out a part of various paranormal instances in his poems, including phonetics, mixed, and rhetorics; however, the present study is an attempt to complete these findings by examining the deviation from norm in Darwish’s poetry.MethodThe present research is a descriptive-analytical study.FindingsMahmoud Darwish is a powerful poet who has used written norm deviation in his poems through various means, the clearest instances of which are pointed out in this study. One of the most obvious of these instances is the use of dots over letters, which usually occurs amidst the text or at its end. In fact, if the poet had intended to express the entire events, he should have used more words; this would naturally have increased the volume of his messages, forming a type of prolixity in his words. This also allows the reader to imagine their own interpretations over the dots and understand the poem’s content as they wish. In some cases, Darwish has used dots and pauses instead of a full verse; for instance, in the first verse of the ode, “KafarQasim” he portraits people who are dreaming of wheat and violets. He uses dots instead of words as he continues to better demonstrate the abundance of their dreams and wishes.
Another method of written norm deviation is the use of certain shapes to explain the purpose and intention of the poet as well as inducing them to the reader. One of the most artistic poems of Mahmoud Darwish is the ode called “Metr Muraba’a fi al-Sejn”. In this poem, he has used a type of unique style of writing, creating a sort of written norm deviation of poetry which is in line with the poem’s contents. He has written this poem in continues lines, which ultimately forms a square with four corners. The poet is attempting to describe prison, its space and its emotions, and express the challenges and hardships he had to face. Yet, to better demonstrate such hardships to the reader, he has employed a type of particular writing which is one of a kind. Given the contents of this poem revolving around describing a prison, Darwish has written this poem in the form of a prison itself. This means that he has written his verses back to back, in the form of a long line with no spaces, which forms a square at the end of the poet depicting a prison cell usually in the form of a square.
Darwish has used other writing styles in his poetry; one of them involves writing the same verse in a poem in two different forms. He writes the first verse horizontally and then repeats it vertically, laying out the words of the verse in a fixed, separated manner. Doing so, the poet places more assertion on his words and transfers the meaning and content of his poetry to the readers, better, and clearer.
Another method of deviation from norm employed by this poet is the use of dash at the beginning of verses. By doing so, he intends to communicate a particular semantic load to the reader through each verse; in fact, it is a type of independent element which serves the whole, plays a certain semantic role, and transfers a particular message to the reader.ConclusionMahmoud Darwish has employed deviation from norm at the written level through various means:The use of dots at the beginning of verses.
The use of dotes rather than a whole poetic verse.
The use of certain punctuations such as squares, brackets, dashes, and slashes.
Writing a verse horizontally and repeating it vertically word by word.
Darwish has also neglected the old presentation norms and principles, breaking the structure of verses by writing them in short or very long length.Keywords: Mahmoud Darwish, Poetry, Written norm deviation
Pages 249-278IntroductionCharacters and characterization are one of the most important elements and components of any story; therefore, selecting the names of characters in accordance with their roles and the overall chain of events is considered as a successful platform for writers in creating their stories. According to this view, not only the creator of a story would not name the characters accidently, for no reason, they would select their names thoughtfully, with precision, so as to form a meaningful connection across the structure, textures, implications, and concepts of the story.Theoretical FrameworkGiven the important role of characters' names in the design and theme of the story, an investigation of this issue in light of semiotics could contribute greatly to story criticism and assessment, opening a new window to the concepts inside the story for readers. According to semiotics, characters' names are regarded as signs guiding readers through the process of reading and assessing the story. During this process, readers find out about the writer’s purposes through contemplating on characters' name as well as discovering the relation between these names and their roles in the story, the overall chain of events, and the theme. In this regard, it is attempted to perform a semiotic analysis on the characters' names of one of the tales in 'One Thousand and One Night' collection entitled 'Malik Omar al-Nu’man and His Children, Shirkan and Zou al-Makan', which is particularly prominent in this area. There have been many studies on 'One Thousand and One Night' collection along with diverse research conducted on the semiotic analysis of characters in various stories and tales. For instance, in studies on the art of narration in ‘One thousand and One Night tales’, Al-Shuwaili (2000) has examined the narration techniques and technical structure of these tales. In addition, Ali Abd al-Rahman Fattah (2012) has examined the physical, mental, social, and rational features and dimensions of the characters in this novel; however, he has not investigated the implications of characters' names from semiotic perspectives. In addition, BouGharoumah (2016) has examined the implications of characters' names in this novel. Bin Aisha and Lāmyah (2015) have also examined the characters of this tale from semiotic perspectives. Following a brief introduction of semiotics Arjaa (2004) has analyzed the characters' names in this novel using the same approach. The new aspect of the present study as compared to the aforementioned background works is that these studies have examined the novels to a higher extent, neglecting an investigation of the anecdotes related to the Islamic civilization heritage. Moreover, the results and findings of the present inquiry are different from the results of studies listed above.MethodThe purpose of the present study is to explore the implications of characters' names in the tale 'Malik Omar al-Nu’man and His Children, Shirkan and Zou al-Makan' through semiotic perspectives using the descriptive-analytical method. Furthermore, it is attempted to examine the appropriateness and the relation between their implications and the overall chain of events as well as their roles in light of the semiotic theory. Using semiotics, in which language and everything existing in the world are regarded as a set of signs, the analysis of characters' names in a story clarifies certain thoughts presented in the story for readers. Consequently, to analyze the aforementioned tale, first the intended characters were selected according to their significance and role in the story. Then, their names were examined according to the theme of the story through the related resources revolving around the tale as well as semiotics. Finally, it was attempted to provide answers to the following questions: What are the etymologies of characters in the tale 'Malik Omar al-Nu’man and His Children, Shirkan and Zou al-Makan'? What is the congruency between the characters' names and their roles as well as the overall chain of events in this tale?FindingsThe 'Malik Omar al-Nu’man and His Children, Shirkan and Zou al-Makan' tale is one of the most important anecdotes in “One Thousand and One Night” collection in which the characters' names and their implications have a significant relationship with the overall chain of events as well as the theme of the story. This tale contains symbolic implications related to various aspects of Islamic/Arabic history and culture. Such a view has been manifested in the majority of elements in the story, particularly the characters' names and their roles.ConclusionIn this study, the names of characters in the aforementioned tale was assessed and analyzed in light of semiotics. The obtained results show that this tale symbolically reflects many historical, cultural, and civilization-related subjects in the Islamic world in general, and the Arab world in particular. Additionally, the names of characters in this story involve special implications in accordance with the overall chain of events as well as their roles. For instance, 'Malik Omar al-Nu’man' in this tale is the symbol of different eras of Arabic reigns along with their vast, flourishing civilizations in previous ages. Moreover, 'Vazir Dandan' is the symbol of wisdom, prudence, and knowledge, while 'Qaza Fakan' and 'Kaan Ma Kaan' are the symbols for submission to the God’s fate and providence, and surrendering to destiny.
Ultimately, it is recommended to explore 'One Thousand and One Night' story collection through various Islamic historical, cultural, and civilization-related dimensions so as to offer parts of the education and heritage of the Islamic world culture and civilizations denoted within the tales in this collection to the world.Keywords: semiotics, The Arabian nights, the story of “Malik Omar No’man, his son’s, character