فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:13 Issue:1, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/11/15
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Zahra Ahmadi, Milad Ashrafizadeh * Pages 1-4
    Background
    Cadmium is one of the heavy metals with harmful effects on different body organs and systems. The aim of this study was to investigate the harmful effects of cadmium, as a heavy metal, on the histological structure of bone and the expression of osteocalcin gene.
    Methods
    Forty chickens were obtained, anesthetized and their femurs were surgically removed. The real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to study the osteocalcin gene expression.
    Results
    The osteocalcin gene expression rate were: 1.000± 0.1; 0.86± 0.01; 0.63± 0.09, and 0.41± 0.06 in the controls, experiment I, experiment II and experiment III groups, respectively (P < 0.05). Also, the nuclear pyknosis in osteocytes and decreased bone formation were observed in the histology slides of the chicken bones.
    Conclusions
    We conclude that cadmium adversely affected the chicken bones as evident by the decreased osteocalcin gene expression and the adverse effects on the bone histology. We recommend that plans be developed to prevent the outbreak of cadmium and other heavy metals in animal and human environment.
    Keywords: Bone Formation, Cadmium, Gene Expression, Osteoblast, Osteocyte, Osteocalcin Gene
  • Rashidat Oluwafunke Ayanniyi *, Hidayah Ayodeji Olumoh, Abdul, Fatimoh Idowu Ojuade, Rasheed Abdullahi, Sherifat Bola Anafi Pages 5-8
    Background
    The leaf extract of Croton zambesicus (CZ) is used in traditional medicine for the management of various conditions including kidney disease. The purpose of this study was to determine the protective effects of leaf extract of CZ on rat kidney toxicity induced by carbon tetrachloride.
    Method
    Male albino rats were divided into 6 groups of 5 rats and treated for 5 days with aqueous extract (200-400 mg/kg) and n-butanol fraction (20-40 mg/kg) of CZ. Carbon tetrachloride (2 ml/kg of 40% in olive oil) was administered subcutaneously for 3 days and the rats were treated with the extract and fraction for 3 days. Animals were euthanized on day 8 with intraperitoneal injection of ketamine (60 mg/kg) and xylazine (7.5 mg/kg). Blood sample was collected for the analysis of serum electrolytes, urea and creatinine. Kidney tissue was harvested to determine the antioxidant enzyme activity.
    Results
    Carbon tetrachloride produced increased serum sodium ion, chloride ion, urea and creatinine with decreased superoxide, catalase, glutathione, oxidized glutathione and an increase in malondialdehyde concentration. Treatment of rats with the aqueous leaf extract and n-butanol fraction attenuated the toxic effects of carbon tetrachloride on kidney with a significant decline in serum electrolytes, urea, creatinine and a significant increase in the concentration of antioxidant enzymes.
    Conclusion
    Results from this study revealed that the aqueous leaf extract and n-butanol fraction of CZ had protective effect against carbon tetrachloride-induced renal toxicity in rats, thus justifying the consideration of this plant for the management of kidney disease.
    Keywords: Antioxidant Enzymes, Carbon Tetrachloride, Croton Zambesicus, Nephroprotective Activity, Serum Electrolytes
  • Mahboobeh Gholamzadeh, Mehrdad Shariati *, Davood Moghadamnia Pages 9-12
    Background
    Tranylcypromine is a monoamine oxidase inhibitor. It inhibits the breakdown of dopamine, serotonin, epinephrine and other monoamines. The aim of this study was to investigate the adverse effects of trarylcypromine on the spermatogenesis in adult male rats.
    Methods
    In this study, 50 adults male Wistar rats, weighing 200-250g, were used and divided into 5 groups of 10. Control group that was not given the treatment; the sham group received normal saline as a solvent and the experimental groups 1, 2 and 3 received 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg of trarylcypromine orally for 21 days. At the end of the trial period, the testes of rats were removed, tissue sections were prepared, stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and the histological features were examined under light microscopy. The statistical analyses performed were ANOVA and Tukey tests, using SPSS software, version 19.
    Results
    The results demonstrated that the number of spermatogonials, primary spermatocytes, spermatids and Leydig cells in the experimental groups 2 and 3 receiving tranylcypromine significantly decreased compared to those in the control group. However, the number of Sertoli cells in the experimental groups did not change significantly at any dose of the drug compared to those in the control group (P≤0.05).
    Conclusion
    Tranylcypromine reduced spermatogenesis and the respective indices in rat testicular tissues.
    Keywords: Male Adult Rats, Spermatogenesis, Tranylcypromine
  • Zahra Hajari, Behrooz Fathi *, Zohreh Saadatfar, Abbas Zare Pages 13-18
    Background
    The snake, Echis carinatus, one of the most venomous snakes in Asia, possesses a deadly hemotoxic venom. It has been reported that suramin, an anti-trypansomiasis drug, can inhibit the toxic effects of some snake venoms. This study was conducted to evaluate the possible antagonistic effects of suramin against the hemorrhagic activity of the venom from an Iranian snake, Echis carinatus, in developing chicken embryos.
    Methods
    One day old fertile eggs (n=250) were incubated for six days at 37ºC and 60% humidity. Paper discs (5 mm diameter) containing different concentrations of E. carinatus venom (5, 10, 20 & 30 μg) were placed on the chorioallantoic membrane over the major bilateral vein and were left in place until hemorrage occurred and the embryos died.
    Results
    We found the standard hemorrhagic dose (SHD) of E. carinatus venom to be (5 μg/disc). Various concentrations (5, 10 & 20 μg) of suramin were tested against SHD of E. carinatus venom in different protocols. Control experiments were performed with the buffered saline solution, venom and suramin individually. The results demonstrated that suramin at 5, 10 and 20 μg significantly (P<0.05) delayed time to death (717, 521 & 208 min) of embryos poisoned with E. carinatus venom in a dose-dependent manner.
    Conclusion
    Suramin exerted protective and inhibitory effects against the deadly E. carinatus venom, and therefore, may potentially offer future therapeutic applications against poisoning with E. carinatus venom.
    Keywords: Antagonistic Property, Chicken Embryos, Embryonal Hemorrhage, Suramin, Echis Carinatus
  • Janefrances Ngozi Ihedioha *, Emmanuel Egwu Okali, Nwachukwu Romanus Ekere, Chidinma Christiana Ezeofor Pages 19-26
    Background
    The present study aimed to quantitatively determine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in pastas consumed in Nigeria with the view of estimating the daily intake amount and the possible risks to consumers.
    Methods
    Sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in locally produced and imported pasta using a GC-Mass Spectrometer. Estimation of daily intake was done on generally exposed (low) and typically exposed (high) consumers. The margin of exposure was used to assess the risk to consumers.
    Results
    The concentration of Σ 16 PAHs in Nigerian and imported brands were in the range of 9 to 800µg/kg and 2 to 7µg/kg, respectively. The benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) concentrations in 25% of Nigerian samples were above the maximum allowable level in processed cereal-based food. The concentrations of Σ8 carcinogenic PAHs in the Nigerian and imported brands ranged from 1 to 10µg/kg and 1 to 4µg/kg respectively. The Margin of Exposure (MOE) based on PAH8 for generally exposed children was less than 10,000 in 25% of Nigerian brands while it was 38% for typically exposed children. For imported brands of pastas, the MOE values were far higher than 10,000 for generally and typically exposed children and adults.
    Conclusions
    The MOE values indicate serious concern particularly for children who are the major consumers of Nigerian pastas. This study is the first of its kind in Nigeria and can serve as a useful baseline for continuous monitoring of PAHs in the Nigerian pastas in order to ensure protection of human health in the country.
    Keywords: Estimated Daily Intake, Human Health, Margin of Exposure, PAHs, Pasta
  • Ahmad Negintaji, Alireza Safahieh, Hosein Zolgharnein *, Soheila Matroodi Pages 27-33
    Background
    The egg yolk precursor protein vitellogenin (VTG) has proven to be a useful biomarker, used to identify organisms exposed to estrogenic compounds.
    Methods
    We investigated variations in the VTG gene expression pattern and plasma sex steroid hormones concentrations in the yellowfin Seabream, Acanthopagrus latus, (A. latus) by various doses of bisphenol-A (BPA) exposure for 7 and 14 days. We developed a quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay for the expression of VTG gene in A. latus. The dose-response pattern of VTG gene expression in A. latus exposed to various doses of BPA was characterized. In order to design RT-PCR primers specific to A. latus VTG, a partial sequence of the VTG gene was obtained.
    Results
    The RT-PCR assay was effective in detecting increased VTG gene expression in A. latus exposed to BPA. It also demonstrated that the VTG expression was affected by BPA in a dose and time-dependent manner. Plasma testosterone (T) levels were decreased in the treated fish in comparison with those found in the control group, when they were exposed to 100 µg/g of BPA and 2 µg/g of E2. In contrast, the plasma levels of 17β-estradiol (E2) were significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner.
    Conclusion
    The results suggest that VTG mRNA quantification can provide a sensitive and early signal in the detection of estrogens in marine wildlife. It also indicated that BPA could lead to an imbalance of sex steroid hormones with potentially harmful consequences on sexually immature male A. latus.
    Keywords: Acanthoparus Latus, Bisphenol-A, Gene Expression, Real Time PCR Assay, Sex Steroid Hormones, Vitellogenin
  • Hidayah Ayodeji Olumoh, Abdul *, Rashidat Oluwafunke Ayanniyi, Fatimoh Idowu Ojuade, Remilekun Justina Agbana Pages 35-39
    Background
    Turraea vogelii has been used as traditional medicine for the treatment of ailments including wounds, stomach aches, malaria, infections, filariasis cutaneous, among others and, it serves as source of food. The present study aimed to evaluate the nutraceuticals content and topical anti-inflammatory effect of hydro-methanol twig extract of Turraea vogelii (METV).
    Method
    METV was obtained using cold maceration with water and methanol in ratio 30:70. The concentration of vitamins A, C and E, total phenolic and total flavonoid contents were evaluated by UV spectrophotometric method. Phenol and xylene-induced ear edema was used to evaluate the topical anti-inflammatory effect in mice.
    Results
    The concentration of vitamins A, C and E was found to be 0.113 0.006, 9.303 0.012 and 0.020 0.001 mg in 100g of dried plant materials, respectively. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were 0.281 0.318 mg/g gallic acid equivalent and 0.112 mg/g quercetin equivalent, respectively. Topical application of METV at a dose of 25 and 50mg/ear in xylene-induced ear edema produced significant inhibition (P<0.05) of 33 and 54% while in phenol-induced ear edema was significantly (P< 0.05) reduced by 44% and 34%. Dexamethasone (0.1mg/ear) produced an inhibition of 83% and 57% in phenol-induced ear edema.
    Conclusion
    Results from this study demonstrated that Turraea vogelii twigs contain flavonoids and phenolic compounds, which may be responsible for the topical anti-inflammatory effect of the plant extract.
    Keywords: Anti-Inflammatory Effect, Dexamethasone, Phenol, Topical, Turraea Vogelii Extract, Xylene
  • Bashir Sobhani, Sahar Roomiani, Zahra Ahmadi, Milad Ashrafizadeh * Pages 41-44
    Background
    Nicotine is a toxic compound in the cigarette smoke and has destructive effects on various human organs. Astaxanthin is a carotenoid with high antioxidant property. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of astaxanthin against nicotine-induced toxicity in mice testes.
    Methods
    Forty-two inbred balb/c male mice were divided into six groups:Group 1, received 1 ml normal saline daily; Group 2, received nicotine (1.5mg/kg); Group 3, received astaxanthin (25mg/kg); Group 4, received astaxanthin (50mg/kg); Group 5, received astaxanthin (25mg/kg) plus nicotine (1.5mg/kg); and group 6, received astaxanthin (50mg/kg) plus nicotine (1.5mg/kg). After collecting testes samples, microscopic slides were prepared at the School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Mashhad, and the prepared slides were examined under light microscopy.
    Results
    The histological structures of the testes were normal in the control group and those receiving astaxanthin, regardless of nicotine (groups 3, 4, 5 & 6). However, group 2 that received only nicotine, showed transformed testicular histology with severe hemorrhage.
    Conclusion
    Based on the results, nicotine caused harmful effects on the mice testes and astaxanthin appeared to protect the organs against the toxic effects of nicotine.
    Keywords: Astaxanthin, Balb-c mice, Nicotine toxicity, Testicular Hemorrhage