فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:13 Issue:1, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/12/19
  • تعداد عناوین: 10
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  • Masomeh Rahimi, Parviz Sabahi *, Imanollah Bigdeli Pages 5-21
    Mood has a significant effect on interpersonal and intrapersonal output. Among the intrapersonal output, creativity can be mentioned. Presently, one of the principle purposes of educational systems is to enhance and promote creativity in people. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of inducing positive and negative moods on the creativity of university students. A sample including 20 female participants was randomly chosen from Semnan University using the simple sampling method. A combination of vignette and music were used for mood induction. Each participant was evaluated in three stages: induction of neutral mood, induction of positive mood, and, finally, induction of negative mood. To control the effect of intervention transfer, the order of interventions was counterbalanced. For manipulation, checking the mood of PANAS was used. To assess creativity, the TORRENCE scale (Form B) was used. Multivariate analysis of variance with repeated measures was utilized for data analysis. The results showed that positive mood induction has a significant effect on creativity components that involve flexibility, elaboration, fluency, and originality. The results of this research were consistent with other findings, demonstrating that inducing a positive mood had an effect on creativity. These findings were explained with a consideration of theatrical and empirical basics.
    Keywords: induced mood, positive mood, negative mood, creativity, induced mood, positive mood, negative mood, creativity
  • Sedigheh Gozal *, Roya Kuchakentezar, Shiva Dolatabadi Pages 22-39
    This research aimed to determine the psychometric characteristics (validity and reliability) of the child abuse self-report scale in a sample of 11-16 year-old children in Tehran. This is an applied, descriptive and correlation research, and the statistical population consisted of Tehranian abused students who are 11-16 years old, out of which, 400 subjects were selected through convenient sampling as the sample. The data was obtained by Persian translation of a child abuse self-report scale (Kent and Waller, 1998). The collected data was analyzed using the SPSS 24, factor, and lisrel software. The results of exploratory factor analysis by major axes analysis method and Promax rotation implied the existence of four significant factors. After removing two inappropriate questions, the fit indices of the confirmatory factor analysis model suggested good fitting of the model and construct validity of the instrument. The value of Cronbach alpha and Guttman's lambda-2 obtained were higher than 0.76, for all the subscales and the entire test. The results indicated that the 36-question version of this instrument has a good validity and reliability and can be used for Tehranian children.
    Keywords: Psychometric characteristics, child abuse, Validity, Reliability, Psychometric characteristics, child abuse, Validity, Reliability
  • Shirin Ahmadi *, Sajjad Basharpoor, Mohamad Narimani Pages 40-62
    Craving is considered as one of the most important factors in treatment failure and relapse in patients undergoing abstinence programs. This study was aimed to determine the role of sensitivity to reward and punishment and the moral disengagement in the prediction of craving in people with substance dependency. The method of this study was descriptive-correlational. The statistical society of this research was comprised of the whole people with substance dependence referring to. Ardabil Centers of Addiction Treatment in the second half of 2015 One hundred and Twenty people were selected from this population through multistage random cluster sampling and they were asked to respond to Questionnaires of sensitivity to reward and punishment (Torrubia et al.,1984), moral disengagement (Bandura et al., 2008), and also to craving (Somoza et al., 1995). Pearson’s correlation and multivariate regression tests were used in analyzing data. The results showed that craving was related to: sensitivity, reward and punishment; total score disengagement moral and components; moral justification; language euphemistic; displacement responsibility; responsibility diffusion; distorting consequences; and attribution of blame. Fourteen percent (14%) variance of craving was explained by sensitivity to reward and punishment and moral disengagement in the multiple regression analysis results.The results of this study demonstrated that moral disengagement and sensitivity to reward and punishment might have significant role in predicting craving among substance abusers.
    Keywords: reward sensitivity, punishment, moral disengagement, craving, substance dependency, reward sensitivity, punishment, moral disengagement, craving, substance dependency
  • Khadije Yazdani, Asie Eftekhari * Pages 63-77
    One of the most important mental health issues in students is shyness. Considering adverse consequences of shyness in students’ lives, this study aimed to determine the efficacy of acceptance and commitment group therapy on the shyness of Zanjan High School female students. The research method was semi-experimental and based on the pretest-posttest control group design, with follow-up after one month. The sample included 38 participants who were selected by a multi-stage cluster sampling method and placed randomly in the experimental and control groups. At first, at the same time and in the same conditions, all the students responded to the Stanford Shyness Questionnaire (SSS; Zimbardo, Personal Communication, 1981). Then,the acceptance and commitment group therapy was performed for the experimental group in eight sessions; the control group received no intervention. In the end, both groups were evaluated by posttest, and then they were tracked after an interval of one month. In order to analyze data, the covariance analysis was applied. Findings showed that the acceptance and commitment therapy was meaningfully effective in decreasing shyness in the experimental group (p<0.01) and after one month, no significant changes were found in the results. These findings show that group acceptance and commitment therapy is an effective treatment for shyness in high school female students.
    Keywords: Acceptance, Commitment Therapy, group therapy, shyness, Acceptance, Commitment Therapy, group therapy, shyness
  • Reza Mehdipour, Nasrin Arshadi *, Abdolkazem Neisi Pages 78-106
    The purpose of this study was designing and testing a model of some antecedents of subjective career success. The participants of this study consisted of 230 employees of Khuzestan Water and Power Organization, who were selected by stratified random sampling method. The instruments used in the study were Work Climate Questionnaire, Perceived Competence Scale, Basic Need Satisfaction at Work Scale, Work Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation Scale, Career Satisfaction Scale, Perceived P-V Fit Scale, & Career commitment Scale. Structural equation modeling (SEM) through AMOS-21 was used for data analysis. Bootstrapping procedure also used to determine the significance of the indirect effects.  The results showed that the proposed model fitted the data properly. Findings showed that work autonomy support and work competency support had significant direct effects on need satisfaction, self-determined motivation, and career success (career commitment, career satisfaction, and perceived p-v fit). Results also supported the meditating role of need satisfaction and self-determined motivation in these relationships. Based on our findings, SDT is a useful framework for predicting subjective career success in the form of career satisfaction, career commitment, and perceived p-v fit.
    Keywords: subjective career success, self-determined motivation, need satisfaction, work autonomy support, work competency support, subjective career success, self-determined motivation, need satisfaction, work autonomy support, work competency support
  • Parisa Khosrotash, Khadijeh Abolmaali Alhosseini *, Kianoush Hashemian Pages 107-132
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of integrative instruction in the executive function and the Collaborative for Academic, Social and Emotional Learning (CASEL) on improving the mathematical performance of students with Mathematical Learning Disability (MLD). The semi-experimental method with pre-test and post-test control group design was applied in the current research. After screening (according to the checklist of DSMV-V, Raven test, and Key-Mat test), fourteen students were identified and randomly assigned to the experimental and control group. The experimental group was given integrative instruction in 11 sessions while the control group did not receive any treatment. The data were analyzed with MANCOVA. The results showed that the integration of the two methods (executive function and CASEL) significantly increased the concepts and the applying dimensions of mathematical performance. Based on the findings of this study, it was suggested that educational psychologists apply the integration of two methods of executive functions and CASEL teaching, to improve the performance of students with mathematical disabilities.
    Keywords: Math Learning Disability, Executive Functions, Collaborative for Academic Social, Emotional Learning, Mathematical performance, Math Learning Disability, Executive Functions, Collaborative for Academic Social, Emotional Learning, Mathematical performance
  • Ali Mehdad *, Maryamalsadat Sajadi Pages 133-156
    Due to the importance of leadership in development of organizations, a wave of interest by focusing on positive approaches to leadership has emerged; one of them is authentic leadership.Accordingly, the present research aimed to study the mediating role of psychological capital in relationship between authentic leadership and work engagement. Statistical population consisted of all employees of a big steel factory in Isfahan, among whom 218 were selected through convenience sampling method. The research instruments consisted of authentic leadership (Walumbwa et al., 2006), work engagement (Utrecht, 2002), and psychological capital (Nguyen et al., 2012) questionnaires. Data were analyzed by using Pearson's Correlation coefficient and structural equation modeling (SEM). Results revealed that significant positive relationship existed between all components of authentic leadership with components of psychological capital and work engagement. Moreover, the proposed model had appropriate goodness of fit and there were significant chain relationships between authentic leadership and psychological capital with work engagement. According to the findings of this study, it can be concluded that authentic leadership directly encourages employees' work engagement, and indirectly, through the impact on the psychological capital, it increases the worker's engagement. Based on the results of the effect of authentic leadership on psychological capital and employees work engagement, in consideration of authentic leaders in selection process, placement and successor planning should be considered through the organizations' top managers.
    Keywords: psychological capital, authentic leadership, work engagement, psychological capital, authentic leadership, work engagement
  • Mozafar Gholizadeh *, Manijeh Shehni Yailagh, Sirous Allipour Biregani, Alireza Hajiyakhchali Pages 157-182
    In this study, a latent growth curve model of academic motivation and academic self-efficacy in Shahid Chamran University students was tested. The research method was developmental and of a longitudinal type. More precisely, the latent growth curve model was used to answer research questions. The statistical population of this study was all newly-arrived freshmen students of Shahid Chamran University in Ahvaz in the academic year of 2016-2017, who were 1988 students. Random sampling method was used to select newly-arrived students. From 13 departments of Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, 4 were randomly selected and all of their freshmen students filled out the questionnaires. The sample size of this study was 678 students. The instruments of this study include Academic Motivation Scale (AMS) and Academic Self-Efficacy Scale. Results showed that the mean score of intercept of academic motivation (at the beginning of university studies) was higher than the mean score of intercept of academic self-efficacy. Although the mean score of slopes of academic motivation and self-efficacy were decreased among the students during the three measurement times in university, the self-efficacy slope was not significant. Also, students who had high academic motivation at the beginning, had high scores in academic self-efficacy too, and those who had made progress in their academic motivation during the one year study, have improved their academic self-efficacy too. Moreover, all the variances were significant. The results showed that the interpersonal variations support adding the predictor variables to the model. Also, the results indicated that gender was a significant predictor for academic motivation at the beginning of university studies. The results showed that the females' academic motivation, at the beginning of university, on the average, was more than the males’, but the difference was not significant during the first year in university. Also, at the beginning, the academic performance was a significant predictor of academic self-efficacy. In other words, at the start of university studies, on the average, the high academic self-efficacy was associated with high academic performance, but the difference was not significant during the three measurements. Moreover, the non-linear model's goodness of fit statistic was better than the linear models.
    Keywords: latent growth curve, Academic motivation, Academic self-efficacy, gender, academic performance, latent growth curve, Academic motivation, Academic self-efficacy, gender, academic performance
  • Somaye Robatmili * Pages 183-205
    Working memory (WM) is responsible for producing, maintaining, and manipulating cognitive representations of stimuli, searching for the same or similar stimuli in memory, and maintaining appropriate behavioral responses. WM is assumed to play a significant role in extant models of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Using a single-case design with multiple baselines, we applied a computer-based cognitive rehabilitation program with adaptive training of WM tasks on 6 children with ADHD (inattention type) during 15 sessions – with each lasting 30 min– and evaluated the effects of the training. The obtained data were analyzed using visual analysis, percentage of recovery, and Reliable Change Index. The findings suggested that the program significantly enhanced the trainee’s performance in abilities pertaining to central executive functioning (CE), phonological loop (PH), and visuospatial sketchpad (VS) subsystems of WM. These results demonstrate that performance on WM tasks can be significantly improved by training, implying that that WM training has the potential to be of clinical use for ameliorating the symptoms of ADHD.
    Keywords: Computer-Assisted Cognitive Rehabilitation, working memory, ADHD, Computer-Assisted Cognitive Rehabilitation, working memory, ADHD
  • Nazila Yazdani, Asghar Aghaei * Pages 206-229
    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of training in positive psychology on quality of married women’s life referring to family centers in Isfahan, Iran. It was also taken into account the moderating effect of spiritual intelligence using a quasi-experimental method by selecting two groups (an experimental group and a control one) with pretest, post-test, and a follow-up stage. The population of interest comprised of all married women seeking family counseling throughout the Isfahan city. Thirty (30) people from the above population were selected using the convenience sampling method.  Then these people were randomly divided into two groups of fifteen (15), which one was called experimental and the other one control group.  The research tools used for this study included the WHO’s 26-question questionnaire on quality of life (1998) and King’s 24-question questionnaire on spiritual intelligence (2008). A training course on positive psychology was held for the experimental group. This course consisted of ten sessions by weekly and each session was 90-minutes. The control group did not participate in any training sessions. Findings from covariance analysis revealed that training for positive psychology had significant effect on increasing married women’s quality of life in the post-test period (p < .05). However, this observation was not seen during follow-up period. Likewise, the spiritual intelligence as a moderating variable was found to increase the degree at which conducting training on positive psychology affected the quality of life among married women within post-test and follow-up stages (p < .05).
    Keywords: Quality of Life, Spiritual intelligence, Positive psychology, Married women, Quality of Life, Spiritual intelligence, Positive psychology, Married women