فهرست مطالب

Shiraz Emedical Journal - Volume:20 Issue: 4, 2019
  • Volume:20 Issue: 4, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/02/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Hassan Mahmoodi , Sahar Dalvand , Reza Ghanei Gheshlagh *, Amanj Kurdi Page 1
    Context
     Health literacy includes social and cognitive skills determining individuals’ motivation to obtain and understand health information, thus empowers them to promote healthy behaviors. The exact level of health literacy in the Iranian population is unknown, as different Iranian studies have reported different health literacy rates in the Iranian population.
    Objectives
    Therefore, this study aimed to investigate health literacy in the Iranian population by systematically combining and analyzing findings from the previous studies.
    Methods
    A total of 26 articles in Persian and in English, published up to December 2017 were reviewed. Searching for articles with the keywords prevalence, abundance, health literacy, and Iran was conducted in the following national and international databases: Scientific Information Database (SID), Medline, Magiran, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, PubMed, and Scopus. The data were analyzed using the meta-analysis method and a random effects model. The heterogeneity among the studies was examined using the I2 statistic. All statistical analysis were performed using STATA version 12.
    Results
    The highest levels of health literacy were for the region 1 of Iran, including the following provinces: Alborz, Tehran, Qazvin, Mazandaran, Semnan, Golestan, and Ghom (46.7% with 95% CI: 25.7 - 67.7). Moreover, pregnant women (37.4% with 95% CI: 27 - 53.3) had the highest level of health literacy. In contrast, older people (60.2% with 95% CI: 43.7 - 76.8) and patients with diabetes (55.4% with 95% CI: 35.6 - 75.2) had the lowest health literacy levels.
    Conclusions
    The lowest health literacy level was in older people and patients with diabetes. Therefore, it seems necessary to provide education for communities and groups with inadequate health literacy levels, especially older people and patients with chronic diseases to improve their health.
    Keywords: Health Literacy, Systematic Review, Iran
  • Somayyeh Khazaeian, Nourossadat Kariman *, Abbas Ebadi , Malihe Nasiri Page 2
    Objectives
    Health education is the only effective way to fight against AIDS. The present study aimed to determine the effect of a health belief model (HBM)-based educational intervention on the prevention of AIDS among female heads of household.
    Methods
    This quasi-experimental study was conducted among 70 female householders in Zahedan, Iran. The participants were randomly assigned into the two groups of control and intervention. The data were collected using a researcher-made questionnaire including demographic information, HIV knowledge, and HBM components. The intervention group was subjected to two 90-minute training sessions that was based on the HBM. These sessions were conducted using lecture, group discussion, and question and answer. The two groups filled out the questionnaire before and one month after the intervention. Data analysis was performed in SPSS (version 21) using descriptive statistics, chi-square test, independent t-test, paired samples t-test, and UNIANOVA.
    Results
    There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of demographic characteristics. According to the findings, the mean score of knowledge in the intervention group was increased significantly post-intervention (8.65 ± 2.30) compared to pre-intervention (2.54 ± 1.80), but in the control group, the mean score of knowledge was not different pre- (2.42 ± 1.89) and post-intervention (2.97 ± 1.45). Also, the mean score of components of HBM, with the exception of perceived barriers (23 ± 5.26), was increased significantly in the intervention group post-intervention. Nonetheless, there was no significant difference in this regard in the control group (P > 0.05).
    Conclusions
    As the findings indicated, HBM-based education had a positive impact on the adoption of HIV preventive behaviors. Consequently, it is recommended to use this model or similar models to remove the barriers to AIDS preventive behaviors and raise individuals' knowledge in this regard.
    Keywords: Health Education, HIV, Head of Household, Female
  • Habibeh Mohammadian , Hakim Azizi , Mansour Dabirzadeh * Page 3
    Background
    Cryptosporidium parasite is the cause of human gastroenteritis and other cold and warm-blooded animals that have been widely distributed throughout the world. Genetic information on opportunistic pathogens in immunocompromised patients leads to an increase in the information on epidemiology, patient care, patient management, and rescue. In Iran, infection to Cryptosporidium spp. has been reported, yet only molecular genes can differentiate species and genotype discrimination of the cyst. The molecular assays indicated that Cryptosporidium parvum is the most common species found in Iran, followed by C. hominis.
    Objectives
    The present study aimed at determining the genetic diversity of Cryptosporidium (C.) in children with diarrhea using the PCR-RFLP method and SSU gene.
    Methods
    In this study, stool specimens were collected from 182 children with diarrhea referring to Zabol hospitals. Slides and shitter procedure were done and Ziehl-Neelsen stain was observed directly; an examination was made to identify the parasite, and PCR-RFLP were eventually performed on DNA extracted from the isolates.
    Results
    Out of 182 stool specimens, 27 isolates were identified as Cryptosporidium, using Ziehl-Neelsen stain method, of which 17 and 10 isolates were respectively reported to be C. parvum and C. hominis after the molecular examination.
    Conclusions
    Both human and cattle genotypes are seen in children with diarrhea, yet since the dominant species is C. parvum, zoonosis is more common than human transmission and human-livestock contact is considered as the most important source of human contamination.
    Keywords: Genetic Variation, Cryptosporidiosis, Child, Genotype
  • Faranak Firoozfar, Seyed Hassan Moosa, Kazemi *, Abbas Bahrami , Mustapha Ahmed Yusuf , Abedin Saghafipour , Zeynab Armoon , Rezvan Rajabzadeh , Seyed Hamid Hossein Page 4
    Background
    Human pediculosis is an important factor in assessing the level of public health and personal hygiene.
    Objectives
    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of pediculosis (head lice infestation) and the factors affecting the rate of infestation.
    Methods
    A cross-sectional study design was used to conduct the study among the Kormanj tribes in North Khorasan province, northeastern Iran. The study was conducted between April to June of 2016. A total of 867 subjects were selected randomly and an interviewer questionnaire was used on each subject to sort for information on demographic profile and factors associated with rate of infestation to pediculosis.
    Results
    Data was statistically analyzed using Excel 2015 and SPSS Statistics 24 software; t-test and Chi-square tests were used to check for any statistical significant association between the variables. A total of 28 cases (3.2%) were found to be infected with head lice, 10 cases (35.7%) out of the 3.2% prevalence had a history of infestation with head lice in the past while the remaining 18 cases (64.3%) had no history of lice infestation in the past. Significant statistical association was observed between the sex and history of head lice infestation (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference between lice infestation and the level of education of the subjects, family size, sharing of personal belongings, length of hair, hair posture, showering frequency, the frequency of brushing hair, and permanent scarf coverings at home.
    Conclusions
    The pediculosis is one of the main public health problems in nomadic tribes such as Kormanj tribes in North Khorasan province. It seems that improvement of personal health conditions in females and also appropriate treatment in previous infestations for nomadic tribes could significantly reduce the prevalence of human head lice infestation.
    Keywords: Human Pediculosis, Infestation, Tribe, North Khorasan, Iran
  • Hasan Jafary , Abbas Yazdanpanah , Rahim Masoomi * Page 5
    Background
    Organizational silence has irreparable consequences for the organization, since withholding ideas (silence) will stop employees' minds from generating organizational knowledge. Therefore, this study aimed at identifying the factors affecting organizational silence among middle managers as well as providing solutions to this problem.
    Methods
    The present qualitative research was conducted through content and thematic analysis. The viewpoints of the managers of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences during years 2016 and 2017, were collected using the purposeful sampling method. The findings were saturated after conducting ten semi-structured interviews.
    Results
    The findings of the research showed that factors affecting organizational silence among middle managers of the university were categorized to: (1) organizational factors (including three main themes: (a) organizational structure and process, (b) organizational communication, (c) organizational culture); and (2) and individual factors (including three main themes: (a) psychological factors, (b) communication skills, and (c) demographic factors).
    Conclusions
    The findings showed that organizational silence exists among university mangers and reduces the effectiveness of decision-making and organizational change processes due to restricting the amount of data provided for decision makers.
    Keywords: Organizational Silence, Organizational Voice, Qualitative Research, University of Medical Sciences
  • Akram Ghadiri, Anari , Nasim Namiranian , Narjes Hazar , Shadab Kharazmi , Maryam Jalili Sadrabad , Khatereh Kheirollahi *, Azra Mohiti , Reyhane Azizi , Mohsen Aliakbari Page 6
    Background
    Oral mucosal lesions are more prevalent in diabetic patients compared to healthy individuals. Periodontal disorders have been known as the sixth complication of diabetes mellitus after microvascular and cardiovascular complications. The aim of this research was to assess the relationship between oral mucosal lesions and retinopathy and nephropathy in type 2 diabetic subjects in the Yazd province.
    Methods
    This analytical cross-sectional study was conducted in diabetes research center during 2014 - 2016 in Yazd. Individuals with glomerular filtration rate (GFR) less than 60, oropharyngeal cancer, pregnancy, lactation, type one diabetes, or newly diagnosed diabetes (< 2 years) are excluded from study. The subjects’ demographic data and oral examination was performed by an oral medicine specialist. Soft tissues oral cavity findings consist of any form of candidiasis, periodontitis, gingivitis, xerostomia, geographic tongue, lichen planus, gingival hyperplasia, delay oral wound healing, fissured tongue, and burning mouth sensation. Fasting blood sugar (FBS), HbA1c, and micro-albuminuria were checked. Diabetic nephropathy defined to the urinary excretion rate of albumin above 30 mg/g creatinine. The retinal specialist evaluated diabetic retinopathy. Finally, frequency of soft tissue oral lesions in individuals with and without retinopathy and nephropathy were compared. We analyzed data using the SPSS version 20. Statistical significance less than 0.05 were accepted.
    Results
    Totally, 274 patients (48% male) participated in this study. Most of the patients (70.8%) suffer from at least one of the diabetic microvascular complications (retinopathy, nephropathy or both) and 80 diabetic patients (29.2%) had no complications. Gingivitis (P = 0.049) and fissured tongue (P = 0.047) were more prevalent in retinopathic individuals compared to subjects without retinopathy. Fissured tongue and delayed wound healing were high in nephropathic persons compared to other groups (P = 0.047 and 0.039, respectively). Presence of at least one of the oral lesions are higher than in patients with retinopathy and nephropathy compared to individuals without complications (P = 0.047 and 0.049 respectively).
    Conclusions
    High frequency of oral problems in subjects with micro-vascular complications were found. Our findings showed that closer cooperation between the endocrinologist and the oral medicine specialist is required. In addition, diagnosis of oral problems in diabetics, especially with micro-vascular complications, is necessary to improve the oral health of them.
    Keywords: Diabetes Mellitus, Retinopathy, Periodontitis, Nephropathy, Candidiasis
  • Roqayeh Aliyari , Shakiba Imani , Tooba Rezaiy , Mohammad Shariati , Parastoo Hanifehzad Masooleh , Seyed Mohammad Mirrezaie * Page 7
    Background
    Adequate research has been done on many factors associated with influenza vaccine uptake; however, some studies disagree on the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and the influenza vaccination.</p><p>
    Objectives
    This study aims to investigate the relationship between SES (and related factors) and seasonal influenza vaccination in northeastern Iran.
    Methods
    This cross-sectional study was conducted in two tertiary hospitals in 2014. Demographic data was collected from the participants who were HCP (health care personnel) or were high-risk patients for the influenza disease. A principal component analysis (PCA) of the data was used to determine the participants’ SES. Relevant statistical tests were then used to assess the association between influenza vaccinations and several independent variables, including demographic features, asset indices, and health-related factors.
    Results
    Of the 672 participants, 24.7% (166 people) had received an influenza vaccine within the past 12 months. The rate of vaccination in patients was 21.3% and 30.7% in HCPs (P = 0.007). A higher SES was positively associated with a greater likelihood of vaccination in patients (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.7; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.35 - 5.43). However, there was no significant relationship between influenza vaccination and SES among HCPs. History of attending a training course on influenza vaccination was associated with vaccination coverage in both HCPs (AOR = 4.29; 95% CI = 2.39 - 7.69) and high-risk patients (AOR = 2.11; 95% CI = 1.24 - 3.56).
    Conclusions
    A low SES was associated with low rates of vaccination among high-risk patients. Higher vaccination rates were associated with attending a training course on the influenza vaccination among both HCPs and high-risk patients.
    Keywords: Vaccine Uptake, Determinants, Seasonal Influenza, Iran
  • Mehrvash Amini , Mitra Amini *, Parisa Nabiee , Somayeh Delavari Page 8
    Introduction
    Emotional intelligence (EI), also known as Emotional Quotient, is defined as an individual’s alertness on his or her own emotions, together by an alertness of the emotions in other people and the capacity to manage them and act appropriately.
    Objectives
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the EI (Emotional Intelligence) and communication skills of healthcare staff working at ambulatory clinics in Shiraz.
    Methods
    108 healthcare staff was selected using simple random sampling. To assess the EI, a valid and reliable Persian version of Goleman’s questionnaire was used. To assess the communication skills, a questionnaire was designed based on previous questionnaires. For each healthcare staff, five patients were selected randomly to complete the questionnaires.
    Results
    The total score of the EI was 76.49 ± 2.83 out of 112. The mean total score of the communication skills was 96.80 ± 11.63 out of 120. There was a significant relationship between the total score of EI and communication skills. The R2 coeffcient was 0.74. There was also a significant relationship between EI dimensions and the total score of communication skills (P < 0.001).
    Conclusion
    Having a higher level of EI leads to better communication with patients and better health outcomes.
    Keywords: Emotional Intelligence, Communication Skills, Healthcare Staff