فهرست مطالب

رفاه اجتماعی - پیاپی 70 (پاییز 1397)
  • پیاپی 70 (پاییز 1397)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/11/12
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • بهزاد دماری* صفحات 9-30
    مقدمه
    شبکه بهداشتی و درمانی کشور در سه دهه گذشته دستاوردهای فراوانی ازجمله کاهش شاخصهای مرگ نوزادان، کودکان و مادران باردار و همچنین کنترل بیماری های عفونی داشته است. تغییر در نیازها و مشکلات جدید مرتبط با سلامت در جامعه، ضرورت تحول عملکرد حوزه بهداشت را ایجاب می کند. هدف از مطالعه حال حاضر تحلیل وضعیت و تدوین برنامه تحول سلامت در حوزه بهداشت است.
    روش
    مطالعه با رویکرد کیفی در سه مرحله تدوین مدل مفهومی و تحلیل ذی نفعان، تحلیل وضعیت شاخصهای سلامت و تعیین جهت گیری ها انجام شد. برای گردآوری داده ها، درمجموع از سه روش مرور منابع، نظرسنجی و بحث گروهی متمرکز میان ذی نفعان استفاده شده است.
    یافته ها
    بر اساس نظرات خبرگان 19 هدف راهبردی در حوزه بهداشت مورد اجماع قرار گرفت. برای دستیابی به این اهداف سه راهبرد کلان تعیین شد: ارتقاء سواد سلامت و توانمندسازی مردم، توسعه همکاری بین بخشی برای ایجاد محیط و سیاستهای سلامت محور و توسعه خدمات شبکه مراقبتهای اولیه سلامت (PHC). به منظور عملیاتی شدن این راهبردها شش برنامه ملی و هشت پروژه پشتیبان تعریف شده و انتظارات به تفکیک واحدهای درون بخش بهداشت تعیین شد.
    بحث
     اجرایی شدن این برنامه نیازمند فراهم کردن عوامل بسترساز ازجمله بازطراحی ساختار حوزه بهداشت (از ستاد تا سطح محیطی)، تعیین انتظارات سایر معاونتهای وزارت بهداشت و دانشگاه های علوم پزشکی و همچنین تعیین سهم و نقش بخشهای خارج از حوزه بهداشت است.
    کلیدواژگان: برنامه، حوزه بهداشت، طرح تحول سلامت، عوامل اجتماعی موثر بر سلامت، شاخصهای سلامت، راه آینده
  • حمیرا سجادی، هادی عبدالله تبار*، عزت الله سام آرام، علی اکبر تاج مزینانی صفحات 31-76
    مقدمه
    ازآنجاکه یکی از زمینه های اصلی فهم سیاست اجتماعی و به تبع آن، سیاست سلامت، توجه به چگونگی اهتمام دولت به توسعه اقتصادی، اجتماعی، سیاسی و فرهنگی کشور است؛ بنابراین، می توان روند تحول و پیشرفت آن را از خلال چگونگی تحول و پیشرفت کشورها در امر توسعه پی گرفت. این تحقیق با هدف بررسی تحولات نظام سلامت ایران در خلال برنامه های عمرانی و توسعه قبل و بعد از انقلاب سال 1357 به انجام رسیده است.
    روش
    تحقیق حاضر به روش تطبیقی و با تکنیک تحلیل محتوای کیفی به انجام رسیده است که مبتنی بر گردآوری داده ها از منابع معتبر مرتبط با نظام سلامت در ایران (اعم از پزشکی، بهداشت و...) و متن برنامه های عمرانی و توسعه و ارزیابی ها و گزارشهای مرتبط با آنها است.
    یافته ها
    تفاوت اصلی برنامه ریزی در دو دوره موردمطالعه به جهت گیری حکومتهای مستقر برمی گردد؛ در حکومت پهلوی تجدد و مدرن سازی کشور مبتنی بر دولت ملت سازی مبنای تصمیم گیری ها و سیاستهای کلان بوده؛ اما در حکومت جمهوری اسلامی برقراری عدالت اجتماعی مبنای سیاست گذاری های کلان بوده و تامین رفاه مردم نیز بخشی از تحقق این اهداف به شمار آمده است. نتیجه اجرای برنامه های عمرانی و توسعه تغییرات گسترده ای در شاخصهای بهداشتی کشور را نشان می دهد، اما برنامه های عمرانی قبل از انقلاب نه تنها در مدرن سازی کشور ناموفق عمل کردند، بلکه به دلیل بی توجهی به عدالت سبب افزایش نابرابری و نارضایتی در عموم مردم شدند و بعد از انقلاب نیز علی رغم تاکید برنامه های توسعه بر گسترش عدالت اجتماعی، در حوزه سلامت این امر محقق نشده است.
    بحث
     موفقیت در اجرای سیاستهای نظام سلامت و تحقق عدالت اجتماعی منوط به داشتن برنامه های متکی بر داده ها و برآوردهای منطقی و واقع بینانه، حرکت به سوی برنامه های مختلط (دستوری ارشادی) و انجام اصلاحات اساسی ساختاری در برنامه ریزی های اجتماعی و اقتصادی است.
    کلیدواژگان: برنامه های توسعه، سیاست اجتماعی، نظام سلامت، نهادگرایی
  • حسن موسوی چلک، عزتاللهسام آرام*، سیداحمد حسینی حاجی بکنده صفحات 77-104
    مقدمه
    یکی از وظایف دولتها اتخاذ سیاستهای مناسب برای ارتقاء شاخصهای سلامت اجتماعی و کنترل و کاهش آسیبهای اجتماعی است. در شرایط فعلی کشور شاهد روند افزایشی آمار آسیبهای اجتماعی، تنوع آنها و کاهش سن افراد آسیب دیده اجتماعی هستیم. تحقیق حاضر با هدف تدوین سیاستهای پیشنهادی در حوزه کنترل و کاهش آسیبهای اجتماعی در ایران انجام شده است.
    روش
    تحقیق از نوع تحقیقات کیفی و به روش دلفی بوده و طی آن، نظرات تعداد 20 نفر از نخبگان و صاحبنظران برجسته کشور در این حوزه استخراج گردید.
    یافته ها
    یافته های تحقیق در چهار مرحله شامل یک پیش راند و سه راند به دست آمده است. در مرحله پیش راند که به صورت یک سوال باز بود 52 سیاست توسط نخبگان پیشنهاد شد. پس از تحلیل اطلاعات در مرحله اول 48 سیاست، در مرحله دوم 31 سیاست و در مرحله سوم 32 سیاست پیشنهادی حاصل شد که اولویت دارترین آنها رصد مستمر آسیبهای اجتماعی، توجه به رویکردهای اجتماع محور، توجه ویژه به مسائل اقتصادی، توجه به راهکارهای قضازدایی، گسترش روحیه نشاط و امید، همکاری بین بخشی، توجه به ارزشها، آینده پژوهی، توجه به نقاط آسیب خیز اجتماعی، حذف ساختارهای موازی و ناکارآمد، سنجش سلامت اجتماعی، تهیه پیوستهای اجتماعی و فرهنگی بودند.
    بحث
    با وجود اقدامات انجام شده، جای سیاستهای اجتماعی مشخص در سطح کلان در جامعه (به جز در حوزه اعتیاد به مواد مخدر) درزمینه کنترل و کاهش آسیبهای اجتماعی خالی است تا از این طریق برای ترسیم نقشه راه برای مدیریت آسیبهای اجتماعی، پرهیز از سیاستگذاری های سلیقه ای، بهره گیری از همه ظرفیتها در بخش دولتی و غیردولتی، هماهنگی های بین بخشی و فرابخشی، مدیریت بهینه منابع، اولویت دهی سیاستگذاری های اجتماعی، افزایش فراگیری، جامعیت و کفایت برنامه های اجرایی و تقسیم کار بهتری بین دستگاه های مرتبط اقدام شود.
    کلیدواژگان: آسیب های اجتماعی، امنیت اجتماعی، برنامه توسعه، سیاستگذاری اجتماعی، مددکاری اجتماعی
  • ملیحه عرشی، مریم شریفیان ثانی، مرضیه تکفلی* صفحات 105-140
    مقدمه
    در جوامع امروزی خانواده، به عنوان عامل و ذی نفع توسعه دیده می شود و لذا سیاست گذاران و برنامه ریزان، کلیه تصمیمات و اقدامات خود را بر مبنای ارتقا و حفاظت از این نهاد اجتماعی قرار می دهند. کشورهای مختلف سیاستها و خط مشی های مختلفی درزمینه سیاست گذاری برای خانواده دارند که برای نمونه می توان به تفاوت دیدگاه میان همگانی بودن ارائه خدمات رفاهی در مقابل استحقاق سنجی، اشاره کرد. لذا این پژوهش سعی بر آن دارد تا سیاستهای خانواده در ایران را با توجه به اسناد و قوانین موجود، بررسی و تحلیل کند تا مشخص شود، چه سیاستها و به تبع آن خدماتی برای عموم خانواده ها تدوین و برنامه ریزی شده است.
    روش
    پارادایم این مطالعه کیفی است و برنامه ها و سیاستهای اجتماعی حوزه خانواده، تحلیل محتوای کیفی شده اند. جامعه آماری این مطالعه شامل کلیه قوانین و اسناد بالادستی پس از انقلاب جمهوری اسلامی ایران تا پایان سال 1395 است. حجم نمونه در ابتدا 171 سند بود و درنهایت 130 سند با توجه به معیارهای تعیین شده باقی ماندند که پس از طبقه بندی اسناد در 14 گروه مخاطب خدمات رفاهی، 35 سند مرتبط با عموم خانواده ها بودند. برای تجزیه وتحلیل داده ها از روش تحلیل محتوای کیفی استفاده شد تا مفاهیم و تمهای اصلی استخراج شوند.
    یافته ها
    از تحلیل و کدگذاری 35 سندی که مرتبط با سیاستهای کلان و اجرایی رفاه عموم خانواده ها بودند، سه مقوله اصلی ارزشمندی و قداست خانواده، توجه به نیازهای اساسی خانواده و تنظیم خانواده استخراج شده است. با توجه به مقوله قداست خانواده، حفظ و حراست از بنیان خانواده و تلاش برای پایداری آن بر اساس ضوابط اسلامی را می توان هدفی کلان و معیار حاکم بر تمامی مقولات دیگر دانست. انواع راهبردهایی که برای تحکیم بنیان مقدس خانواده مورداشاره واقع شده اند، شامل مواردی چون ایجاد واحدهای مشاوره، ایجاد دادگاه های اختصاصی خانواده و پیشگیری از طلاق است. همچنین قانون گذار توجه به نیازهای پایه عموم خانواده ها را در حوزه های بهداشت و سلامت، بیمه، مسکن، اقتصاد و درآمد و امنیت مدنظر قرار داده است که در اسناد مختلف به آن اشاره شده است. درنهایت نیز مقوله تنظیم خانواده و جمعیت، در اسناد مختلف پیرو تغییرات مربوط به سیاست گذاری در خصوص جمعیت متغیر است و هم راهبردهای کاهش و هم افزایش جمعیت را شامل می شود.
    بحث
    با توجه به یافته های حاصلی از تحلیل اسناد و قوانین می توان عنوان کرد که سیاستهای رفاه خانواده در اسنادی که به عموم خانواده ها توجه کرده کمتر صراحت دارند و در قالب توجه به نیازهایی مانند مسکن و درآمد و... مطرح شده اند. همچنین در راستای تحقق هدف تداوم خانواده در اسناد، به جای ایجاد بستر و ساختار برای پایداری خانواده، سعی بر حفظ و تداوم آن با ایجاد دادگاه ها، مشاوره خانواده و ایجاد تسهیلات حقوقی شده است. لذا لازم است که راهبردهای کلانی که برای حفظ و حراست از قداست خانواده پیشنهاد شده اند، در سطح میانه و خرد برنامه ریزی شوند و همچنین سیاست گذاری صریح در حوزه رفاه خانواده ها به صورت مشخص بخشی از سیاستهای کشور را به خود اختصاص دهد.
    کلیدواژگان: سیاست خانواده، رفاه خانواده، همگانی بودن
  • محمد صادقی*، فاطمه بهرامی، رضا اسماعیلی صفحات 141-180
    مقدمه
    در فاصله دو سرشماری 1390-1385 میزان زنان سرپرست خانوار از 6.5 به 12.1 درصد جمعیت خانوارهای کشور رسیده است.  از طرفی میزان ازدواج مجدد زنان مطلقه ایرانی 25 درصد کمتر از نرخ جهانی شده و اکثر این زنان به دلیل عدم ازدواج مجدد و فقر مالی تا پایان عمر تحت حمایت نهادهای حمایتی باقی می مانند.
    روش
    پژوهش حاضر از نوع مطالعات ترکیبی( کیفی-کمی) است. قلمرو پژوهش در مرحله کیفی تمامی زنان سرپرست خانوار(60-15 ساله) مددجوی کمیته امداد در سال 1395 و متخصصان صاحبنظر و مقالات و متون مرتبط با ازدواج مجدد زنان بود که نمونه گیری به صورت هدفمند متوالی از زنان تا سرحد اشباع (12 نفر) و دو منبع دیگر تا سرحد کفایت (متخصصان 20نفر و منابع 62 مورد) انجام پذیرفت و با روش مصاحبه اکتشافی از زنان و متخصصان و مطالعه متون عوامل موثر بر آمادگی زنان سرپرست خانوار برای ازدواج مجدد شناسایی و داده های هر سه منبع به روش کدگذاری سیستمیک (باز، محوری، انتخابی) نظریه برخاسته از داده تحلیل و به طور مجزا و ترکیبی (مثلثی) دسته بندی شد. مرحله دوم (کمی) از نوع مطالعات توصیفی- تحلیلی و در حیطه پژوهشهای رگرسیونی و با کمک نرم افزار Amos22 و SPSSver.24 و با روش های تحلیل معادلات مدل ساختاری، تحلیل واریانس یک طرفه، آزمون t مستقل، ماتریکس همبستگی، تحلیل عامل اکتشافی و تاییدی انجام گرفت. جامعه هدف زنان سرپرست خانوار مشابه مرحله کیفی بود و حجم نمونه برای دو گروه مستقل زنان مطلقه و بیوه (740 نفر) تعیین و با روش نمونه گیری سهمیه ای متناسب با حجم، به صورت تصادفی انجام شد. ابزار پژوهش، پرسشنامه محقق ساخته با روایی همگرا، روایی تشخیصی (0/90 p>) و پایایی (ضریب آلفای کرنباخ ، 0/70 α >) مناسب بود.
    یافته ها
    با کدگذاری باز اطلاعات سه سویه سازی شده به 148 مقوله که در کدگذاری محوری بر اساس شباهت موضوعی در 7 مقوله اصلی و در کدگذاری انتخابی در یک مقوله اصلی دسته بندی شد و مدل بومی عوامل بازدارنده ازدواج مجدد زنان سرپرست خانوار بر اساس نتایج فوق و استنباط محقق و مشورت با متخصصین ذی ربط تدوین شد و پرسشنامه ای جهت سنجش برازش مدل ساخته شد. همچنین، تحلیل داده های کمی و میدانی نشان داد که مدل مفهومی بومی تدوین شده در مرحله کیفی برازش داشت و مورد تایید قرار گرفت (ضریب تعیین 0/73). و بین متغیرهای عوامل اجتماعی پژوهش با متغیر میزان آمادگی برای ازدواج مجدد رابطه معنادار معکوس (کاهنده) وجود دارد.
    بحث
    میانگین میزان بازدارندگی ازدواج مجدد برای عوامل اجتماعی پایین تر از متوسط و مقولات عدم تعادل بازار عرضه و تقاضای ازدواج مجدد و روابط آزاد بین دو جنس به ترتیب بیشترین بازدارندگی را بر میزان آمادگی ازدواج مجدد زنان سرپرست خانوار دارند و میزان آمادگی برای ازدواج مجدد در گروه زنان مطلقه به طور معناداری بالاتر از گروه زنان بیوه بود. با افزایش سن زنان، افزایش تعداد فرزندان و داشتن فرزند دختر، میزان آمادگی برای ازدواج مجدد زنان سرپرست خانوار کاهش می یابد، ولی تنوع محل سکونت، قومیت، تاثیری بر آن ندارد.
    کلیدواژگان: عوامل اجتماعی بازدارنده ازدواج مجدد، زنان سرپرست خانوار، آمادگی برای ازدواج مجدد، مدل بومی
  • قاسم شیرخدایی، آرش رحمان* صفحات 181-208
    مقدمه
    صاحبنظران بر این باورند که انتشار بیماری های مسری و ایمن سازی جمعیت تاثیرات بسیار زیادی در سلامت و اقتصاد جوامع دارد و واکسیناسیون یکی از موثرترین روش های مداخله پیشگیرانه است. هدف از مطالعه بررسی و تحلیل اثرات انتشار بیماری مسری و ایمن سازی جمعیت بر رفاه اجتماعی با رویکرد محاسباتی مدل سازی مبتنی بر عامل بود. در پژوهش سعی شد تا انتشار بیماری مسری و ایمن سازی در جامعه ای از عاملها شبیه سازی شود و اثرات آنها روی برخی از شاخصهای رفاهی نظیر ضریب جینی، میانگین ثروت و میزان مرگ ومیر ناشی از گرسنگی عاملها موردبررسی قرار گیرد.
    روش
    روش مدنظر در تحقیق، مدل سازی و شبیه سازی مبتنی بر عامل همراه با انجام مطالعات کتابخانه ای و ابزار مورداستفاده نرم افزار NetLogo بود. بنابراین مدلی گسترش و توسعه یافت و جامعه یکبار در شرایط عدم وجود عامل بیمار و آلودگی در محیط شبیه سازی شد. عوامل با توجه به سطح دید و یا میدان حرکتی که داشتند شروع به جمع آوری قند از محیط می کردند. شبیه سازی بعدی، جامعه ای شامل عوامل بیمار و یا آلوده و انتقال بیماری در بین جمعیت بود و همچنین عوامل به جمع آوری و مصرف منبع محیط (قند) اقدام می کردند. در شبیه سازی سوم ایمن سازی جمعیت (از طریق واکسیناسیون) اعمال شد تا آلودگی و انتشار بیماری کنترل شود. بدین ترتیب آزمایشهایی صورت گرفت و مشاهدات و یافته ها، ثبت شدند تا درنهایت مقایسه و تحلیل صورت گیرد.
    یافته ها
    وجود و انتشار بیماری مسری در جمعیت می تواند منجر به کاهش میانگین ثروت عاملها و افزایش میزان مرگ ومیر ناشی از گرسنگی و افزایش ضریب جینی (توزیع نابرابرتر ثروت) شود. لذا می تواند منجر به کاهش رفاه عاملها در یک جامعه مصنوعی شود. همچنین ایمن سازی جمعیت و کنترل بیماری با انجام واکسیناسیون می تواند موجب افزایش میانگین ثروت عاملها و کاهش میزان مرگ ومیر ناشی از گرسنگی و کاهش ضریب جینی شود. لذا می تواند منجر به بهبود وضعیت رفاهی عاملها در یک جامعه مصنوعی شود.
    بحث
     با بهره گیری از مدل سازی مبتنی بر عامل، انتشار بیماری مسری در جمعیت و ایمن سازی جمعیت (از طریق واکسیناسیون) شبیه سازی شد و در قالب آزمایشهای مختلف موردبررسی قرار گرفت و تاثیرات آنها روی توزیع ثروت، مرگ ومیر ناشی از گرسنگی و میانگین ثروت عاملها مشخص شد. نگاشت نتایج حاصل از محیط مصنوعی به جهان واقعی حکایت از آن دارد که انتشار بیماری مسری در جمعیت می تواند منجر به کاهش رفاه اجتماعی در یک جامعه شود. ایمن سازی جمعیت و کنترل بیماری می تواند منجر به بهبود رفاه در جامعه شود. مطالعات کتابخانه ای انجام شده نیز اعتبار نتایج نشات گرفته از مدل را تایید می کند. مطالعات حکایت از آن دارد که واکسیناسیون قادر است تا حد قابل ملاحظه ای مرگ ومیر و نابرابری را کاهش دهد. مطالعات نشان می دهد که بیماری های مسری بخصوص در کشورهای کم درآمد، هنوز بخش قابل توجهی از مرگ ومیر را تشکیل می دهند. واکسیناسیون می تواند بار ناشی از بیماری های مسری و هزینه های تحمیلی ناشی از آنها را کاهش دهد، از اختلافات در ثروت بکاهد و به توسعه اجتماعی و رشد اقتصادی نیز کمک کند. علاوه بر این، مطالعات نشان می دهد که کنترل بیماری های مسری می تواند باعث ذخیره شدن ثروت برای جوامع و کشورها شود و مزایای اجتماعی و اقتصادی را به دنبال داشته باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: انتشار بیماری مسری، ایمن سازی جمعیت، جامعه مصنوعی، رفاه اجتماعی، مدل سازی مبتنی بر عامل
  • محمد مهدی لبیبی*، غلامرضا خوش فر، مصطفی باقری جلودار، شهربانو میرزاخانی صفحات 209-239
    مقدمه
    موضوع اصلی این تحقیق، چگونگی پیوند میان اعتماد اجتماعی و مشارکت سیاسی است. ازآنجاکه مشارکت سیاسی به عنوان یکی از شاخصهای کلیدی در مفاهیم توسعه اجتماعی و سیاسی مطرح است، ضروری به نظر می رسد که عوامل مرتبط و تاثیرگذار بر این مفهوم به ویژه عامل اعتماد اجتماعی به عنوان یکی از عوامل مهم و ضروری وابسته به مفهوم جدید سرمایه اجتماعی، موردمطالعه و بررسی علمی قرار گیرد. بنابراین هدف اصلی تحقیق، شناخت رابطه اعتماد اجتماعی و مشارکت سیاسی است.
    روش
    به لحاظ روش شناسی، این تحقیق در زمره تحقیقات پیمایشی جای می گیرد که با استفاده از ابزار پرسشنامه محقق ساخته در میدان پژوهش، اقدام به جمع آوری داده ها شده است. جامعه آماری تحقیق کلیه شهروندان شهر گرگان بوده که 407 نفر از شهروندان به عنوان نمونه آماری تعیین و با استفاده از روش نمونه گیری تصادفی طبقه ای متناسب موردمطالعه قرار گرفتند. برای تایید اعتبار متغیرهای تحقیق از روش اعتبار صوری و همچنین پایایی ابزار نیز با استفاده از ضریب آلفای کرونباخ که به ترتیب برای اعتماد اجتماعی (782/0) و مشارکت سیاسی (780/0) مورد تایید واقع شده است.
    یافته ها
    نتایج حاصل از آزمون فرضیات نشان داد که بین اعتماد اجتماعی و ابعاد آن (اعتماد نهادی، اعتماد عمومی و اعتماد بین شخصی) با مشارکت سیاسی و ابعاد آن (رفتار انتخاباتی و مشارکت فعال) رابطه ای مثبت وجود دارد. و همچنین نتایج حاصل از رگرسیون بیانگر این نکته است که درمجموع 1/6 درصد از تغییرات متغیر وابسته از طریق متغیرهای مستقل تبیین می شود.
    بحث
    با توجه به نتایج به دست آمده، مادامی که افراد به نظام حاکم، دستگاه ها و سازمان های وابسته آن، اعتماد داشته باشند، در جریان مسائل و رخدادهای سیاسی کشور، حضور و مشارکتی فعال خواهند داشت. همچنین، به موازات گسترش اعتماد عمومی در سطح جامعه، مشارکت افراد در حوزه های مختلف، من جمله مشارکت سیاسی افزایش می یابد. علاوه بر این، با توجه به نتایج به دست آمده، مشارکت سیاسی افراد تحت تاثیر روابط بین شخصی و اعتماد آنان نسبت به افرادی نظیر خانواده، خویشاوندان، دوستان و... نیز قرار دارد که می تواند رفتار یا مشارکت سیاسی فرد را در دو جهت فعال یا منفعل قرار دهد.
    کلیدواژگان: اعتماد اجتماعی، اعتماد عمومی، اعتماد نهادی، اعتماد بین شخصی
  • رحمان غفاری* صفحات 241-270
    مقدمه
    این پژوهش با هدف ارتقاء سطح حکمرانی خوب سازمانی و مدیریت سرمایه انسانی سبز به واسطه شایستگی مدیران انجام گرفت. جامعه آماری این پژوهش شامل مدیران، معاونان و کارشناسان ارشد ادارات کل تعاون، کار و رفاه اجتماعی بود (که برای تحلیل در سطح سازمان از میانگین نظرات مدیران چند اداره کل استفاده شده است).
    روش
    نمونه ها به روش خوشه ایو از سه اداره کل شمال کشور به تعداد 108 نفر از 350 نفر جامعه آماری، انتخاب شدند. به گونه ای که از اداره کل تعاون گیلان (31 نفر)، گلستان (23 نفر) و مازندران (54 نفر) انتخاب شده اند. ابزار گردآوری داده ها پرسشنامه های استاندارد؛ شایستگی مدیران الریک (2000) (با آلفای کرونباخ 98/0)، حکمرانی خوب سازمانی امایت و میلرز (2009) با (با آلفای کرونباخ 84/0) و نهایتا سرمایه انسانی سبز احمد (2015) (با آلفای کرونباخ 93/0) بوده است. برای تایید اعتبار این سه پرسشنامه، از آزمون تحلیل عاملی تاییدی استفاده شد که تمامی گویه های پرسشنامه ها مقادیر بار عاملی بیش از 4/0 کسب کرده اند که نشان از روایی مناسب ابزارهای این تحقیق است. مدل ساختاری پژوهش با استفاده از مدل سازی معادلات ساختاری (SEM) و از روش حداقل مربعات جزئی احصاء و تایید شد.
    یافته ها
    بررسی مدل اندازه گیری سه متغیر حکمرانی خوب سازمانی، مدیریت منابع انسانی سبز و همچنین شایستگی مدیران نشان از برازش سازه ای مناسب این متغیرها و ارتباط مطلوب متغیرهای مکنون و آشکار داشته است. همچنین نتایج بررسی آزمونهای فرض در این پژوهش نشان داد شایستگی مدیران تاثیر مثبتی بر حکمرانی خوب سازمانی و ایجاد مدیریت سرمایه انسانی سبز دارد. همچنین حکمرانی خوب سازمانی تاثیر مثبتی بر مدیریت منابع انسانی سبز داشته است.
    بحث
    بررسی مدل در حالت استاندارد و ضریب تعیین نشان داد، تقریبا 56 درصد از تغییرات منابع انسانی سبز و 31 درصد از تغییرات حکمرانی خوب سازمانی به تغییرات در متغیر شایستگی مدیران بستگی دارد
    کلیدواژگان: شایستگی مدیران، حکمرانی خوب سازمانی، مدیریت سرمایه انسانی سبز
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  • Behzad Damari* Pages 9-30
    Introduction
    The achievements of the healthcare network in the country have changed over the past three decades, and in some cases the healthcare network has achieved success at international level as well; for example, the decline in infant mortality, children and pregnant women mortality rates, and the control of infectious diseases. These successes have been due to the development of health services in rural and deprived communities. The main reasons of these successes has been the development of human resources in the health sector as well as the promotion of social factors, such as increasing people’s literacy and the development of health, welfare, and infrastructures facilities in rural communities by other sections collaboration. Due to several reasons, it seems that the quality and quantity of health services in the healthcare networks of the country need to be changed and improved. Some main causes are as follows: 1- The reversal of urban and rural populations over the past three decades, population density in cities and its margins (or informal settlements). 2- Changing the causes of the diseases and early deaths from infectious to non-communicable (which is dependent on the lifestyle of people and economic, social, political, technological, international, and environmental factors). 3- Low coverage of primary health care in cities and towns. The major aim of this study is situation analysis and defining health transformation plan.
    Method
    This study was conducted using a qualitative approach at three stages: conceptual framework designing and stakeholder’s analysis, health indicators status analysis, and direction determination. Data were collected in three ways: literature review, written opinion polls, stakeholders’ focused group discussions.
    Findings
    According to the health challenges which was achieved by analyzing the people health indicators in addition to stakeholders’ views, in the beginning, 19 strategic health goals were agreed upon in order to improve the physical, psychological, and social health indices. Due to the lack of a similar program and subsequent evaluations, determining the success rate for each goal in the coming years was defined on the basis of a set of documents and stakeholders’ views, including the Global Prevention Program,Control of Non-Communicable Diseases, and the Millennium Development Goals. These 19 strategic goals are as follows: 1- Promoting awareness, attitude and self-care group skills by 30% compared to base year. 2-Increasing community participation in equitable health promotion by 30% compared to base year. 3-Increasing coverage and benefiting from early diagnosis services. Issuing health cards and increasing care coverage up to 60% of the country population. 4-Five percent reduction in deaths from cardiovascular infarctions, cancer, and respiratory diseases. 5-Organizing inter-sectoral cooperation in reducing health risk factors 6- Ten percent reduction in salt intake and rate of smoking, high blood pressure, and low physical activity. 7- Reducing the slope of the diagram of changing overweight people in to obese ones. 8- Reducing the prevalence of prevalent psychiatric disorders (depression and anxiety disorder) by 5% compared to baseline (based on the results of the National Mental Health Survey). 9- Reducing the prevalence of drug abuse by 5% compared to the base year. 10-Reducing the prevalence of alcohol consumption by 5% compared to the base year. 11-Improvement of social health indicators by 5% compared to the base year (based on the results of the indicators of the Iranian social health scale in the National Survey of 2014) 12-Improving the quality of care for chronic non communicable diseases by 30% compared to base year. 13- Increasing the number of health protection places (place of residence, study, work, recreation, worship, and provision of services and neighborhoods) to 15% of the base year until the end of the program. 14- Decreasing of sugar, fat, and salt of food to standard levels declared by the Ministry of Health. 15- Increasing the safety of health units in terms of functional readiness, structural and non-structural safety status up to 50% of the status quo. 16- Improving preparedness of the population covered by health care centers for disasters to the extent of 50% of the existing situation. 17-Reducing the deaths of target groups including infants, children, and pregnant mothers. 18- Improvement of the evolutionary level of children up to 20% (in the fields of talking, counting as well as physical, social, emotional, and educational situations). 19-Promoting total fertility rates up to alternative rate. Based on stakeholders’ perspectives, three major strategies were proposed: 1) Promoting health literacy and empowering people; 2) Inter-sectoral collaboration for safe environments and health policies; and 3) Developing primary health care network services (PHC). In order to establish and ensure the implementation of the above-mentioned aims, redesigning of the principles in the health services network of the country is necessary. Accordingly, 18 principles have been designed, for example: 1) Establishing the rights and duties of citizens’ health (self-care and participation. 2) Being responsible for the burden of diseases, especially non-communicable diseases and social injuries. 3) Assisting the process of equitable improving of citizens’ quality of life. 4) Making strategic purchases by hiring well-educated staff capable of updating themselves. 5) Providing services actively, social marketing for utilization of the services, and the other 13 principles. Totally six national programs were proposed based on the three major strategies and 18 principles in the provision of comprehensive health services to gradually develop throughout the country by the end of the eleventh government. In developing these programs, three axes of political support, operational capacity building, and culture promotion were taken into account.
    Discussion
    In a study conducted in the eighties, it was determined that the Ministry of Health and Medical Education, based on the analysis of the role and share of devices at that time, had the range between 14% to 17% of the share in improving the health of the population, so as long as other devices would not do their defined share and role, it is not expected to improve the situation of the health indicators. The implementation of the proposed plan requires the provision of contextual factors, such as redesigning the organizational structure of health system (from staff to line level), determining the expectations of other deputies of the Ministry of Health and medical universities, as well as defining the role and sharing of non-health sectors.
    Keywords: Future pathways, Health indicators status, Health transformation plan, Plan, Social determinants of health
  • Homayra Sajjadi, Hadi Abdollahtabar Darzi*, Ezatolah Sam Aram, Aliakbar Tajmazinani Pages 31-76
    Introduction
    Since one of the main areas of understanding of social policy, and that of health policy, is the attention to how the government focuses on the economic, social, political, and cultural development of the country; therefore, it can be traced to its development through the evolution of countries. This research was carried out with the aim of investigating the changes in the health system of Iran during development and development programs before and after the 1979 revolution.
    Method
    The present study was conducted using a comparative method with qualitative content analysis technique based on data collection from valid sources related to the health system in Iran (including medicine, health, etc.) ,the text of development programs ,evaluations , andrelated reports. In this way, the success or failure of development and development programs before and after the Islamic Revolution was compared to achieve social policy objectives, including health policy, and the impact of previous programs on future policies and programs. The research data were extracted from first-hand sources, second-hand sources,  previous evaluation, and research reports, and they were analyzed using the basic concepts of institutionalization approach.
    Findings
    In addition to analyzing the impact of developmental plans and development on the changes in the health system, and showing the trend of these changes, the differences and similarities between developmental plans and their impact on health system orientation were counted. The main difference in the planning of the two study periods is the orientation of the established governments; in the government of Pahlavi and modernization of the country happened based on the nation-state andlarge-scale decisions and policies, but in the government of the Islamic Republic, establishing social justice is the basis of large-scale policy making and the welfare of the people. It is also part of the realization of these goals. Another difference is that there was not a long history of programming in Pahlavi era and strategies for achieving goals, and development plans were often conducted with the guidance and involvement of European and American experts and planners. Moreover,hardware infrastructures, such as asphalt roads and railways, appropriate communication facilities, and software infrastructures, such as the level of education and desire to participate in the advancement of programs are very insignificant, and this impediment has been an obstacle to many of the development goals, especially in the field of health.. However, in the post-revolutionary period  due to the particular circumstances of the revolution, the thinking of the mid-term planning was abandoned (the sixth development plan was generally ignored), and attempts to approve the development plan had not survived until 1988, but development plans one after the other was developed internally by experts and, in some cases, by modeling afterother countries. Besides, the required hardware and software infrastructure was provided to a large extent, and implementation of health and medical programs was facilitated more easily.  the planning differences in the two pre and post-revolutionary phases is related to foreign relations and international conditions. In the second half of the year, with the exception of the short period after the nationalization of the oil industry, there was little international pressure on Iran’s economy. After 1332 the American influence onIran’s politics and economy, and financial advisers hasalways been advocating for a dependence on the United States after implementing the policies of the White Revolution. After the 1357 revolution, consideringthe anti-capitalist ideology of the revolutionary architect from the very first days of opposition to the United States and other influential countries, such as the Soviet ::::::::::::::union:::::::::::::: and the United Kingdom beganas a result. After the revolution,the country has always been subject to international tensions and pressures. The imposition of eight years of war, the confiscation of the properties of the state and the Iranian people in the United States, the adoption of a variety of economic, scientific, and military sanctions, and ultimately, the boycott of Iranian oil purchases over the past decade have been examples of the measures that have always been an obstacle to the implementation of development and justice promotion programs. The most important similarity of development planning and social policy before and after the revolution is the dependence of the program resources on the proceeds from the sale of oil, which is the main component of the development and development costs of oil money, and ithas two major consequences for the health system: The formation of the rentier government, the reduction of government accountability to the public ,the creation of uncertainty in the provision of resources for development programs, and the failure to implement many social policies, including health policies. The other similarity of the administrative system before and after the revolution is thatthe scope of the government’s involvement in the administration of state affairs and recruitment has had its roots in both corruption and ineffective administration. Finally, as it is the case in many developing countries, the share of health financing has been very low, and the efforts made to transfer part of health care to the private sector have not been so successful; hence, allocating more funding to the health sector can help improve the health of the people.
    Discussion
    After seven decades of development planning in Iran, despite the advances and changesmade in the health sector, equity in health, especially in the treatment sector, has not yet been achieved, and inequalities in access to health servicesstill exists, and its cost is high and has increased over the past decade, partly due to rising health care costs and the other part because of lower income levels and an increase in the gap between income groups, which is not reflected in the objectives of development plans in other headings, especially the economic headline. Therefore, the success of the implementation of health policy and the realization of social justice depends on developingprograms based on data and rational and realistic estimates, moving towards mixed plans (guiding grammar), and implementing fundamental structural reforms in social and economic planning.
    Keywords: Developmental plans, Health system, Institutionalism, Social policy
  • Hassan Mousavi Chelak, Ezzatolla Samaram*, Seyed Ahmad Hoseini Hajibekandeh Pages 77-104
    Introduction
    Governments are expected to adopt proper policies to promote health indicators and to control and decline social harms. However, current social harms statistics and types as well as age range of people who are involved in them show an unsuitable situation. Lack of convenient policy underlies poor interdisciplinary work, inadequate resource management, and arbitrary decision. There are many barriers which prevent social harms to be well identified and figured out: politicians and the public must intend and demand special consideration towards social harms; media activists should be concerned about it instead of focusing only on trivial or unsolvable topics; remarkable research evidence must be provided, and social harms must be well conceptualized as they vary time to time and place to place. The present study has been conducted to provide a list of recommended policies in order to control social harms in Iran, utilizing experts’ opinions.
    Methods
    This is a qualitative and applied-developmental research study, conducted implementing a Delphi method. Delphi is a systematic data gathering method through which experts’ opinions are obtained as regards a particular subject or question. In this study, during three rounds, experts answered written questions anonymously. The participants could see feedbacks of others and change or insist on their viewpoints. Finally, the research team continued the procedure until they felt that relative consensus has been reached Twenty experts were asked to participate in the study. The experts were selected based on some criteria that could enable researchers to reach the study goals. They all had academic and scientific reputation, and they were also nationally known for their works on the topics related to the present study, either in social harms field directly or germane areas, such as sociology, social health, social work, social policy, economics, etc. They had also prominent practical experience in the fields that assured researchers that they are knowledgeable in the study topic. Since this method is inherently time consuming, the participants should have been provided with sufficient time to answer and get to know the topic. All recommended parts of Delphi method including controlled feedback, results analysis, and consensus were respected until  the best possible agreement was reached.
    Findings
    Results were discovered differently in any round. In pre-round stage, one single open question was posed and 52 policies were taken out. In order to purify the received responses, 48 items were sent back to the participants. In the next rounds 31 policies were agreed upon and in the last round, experts noted that one of the items must have been divided into two, accordingly 32 policies were identified, and it was assessed and pointed out that the participants have agreed on 32 policies. Some of the most prioritized subjects were identified as, continuous monitoring of social harms, attention to community-based approaches, special attention to economic issues, attention to expanding alternative dispute resolution, developing happiness and hope, inter-organizational cooperation, attention to religious and social values, futurism, attention to high-risk areas, removing parallel and ineffective organizational structures, continuous assessment of social health, providing social and cultural attachment for programs, attention to educational centers, training specialized and professional persons, attention to virtual space and social media, healthy lifestyle, social identity, improving health-care, social support promotion, social inclusion, social responsibility and social demanding, attention to social responsibility of corporations, decreasing workplace stress, using mass media, using capacity of urban and rural management system, sense of social security, recreations, occupational training and empowerment, international communication and insurance coverage.
    Discussion
    Based on the findings, it can be claimed that despite all the efforts that have been made, there is still a long way to go to reach a satisfactory point to be able tackle social harms. Results of the present study revealed that except for addiction field that has already been made, macro-level social policy as regards social harms seems necessary to be built. Just by taking a macro-level policy into account, it will be possible to design pathways to avoid arbitrary decision making, to get all capacities, either in GO or NGO parts together, to begin an inter-organizational coordination, to manage sources effectively, to determine priorities for policy making, to administer programs comprehensively, inclusively, and adequately, and finally, to do a better work division among related organizations at different levels. It is, of course, a noticeable progress that high ranking politicians did acknowledge that we are still several years behind compared to the way social harms change, since it helps scholars and managers to address the problems and find ways to solve them. Since social issues are interrelated, governments are supposed to make policies by which all indicators of health, including social health indicators become continuously investigated and along with changes of social issues, particularly social harms, policies become flexibly modified. Media and civil society would be good partners for governments to adopt and implement policies against social harms.
    Keywords: development program, social harms, social policy, social security, social work
  • Maliheh Arshi, Maryam Sharifian Sani, Marzieh Takaffoli* Pages 105-140
    Introduction
    Nowadays in societies, families are seen as agents and beneficiaries of development, and therefore policymakers and planners make all of their decisions and take necessary actions based on the promotion and protection of this social institution. Different countries have different policies in the field of family policies, such as in the terms of the universal approach vs. mean-tested one to the provision of welfare services. Therefore, this research aims to analyze family policies in Iran according to existing documents and laws, in order to determine which policies, and consequently, services are planned for families universally.
    Method
    The paradigm of this study is qualitative, that is, the social policies and laws about family have been analyzed qualitatively. The study population includes all laws and legislations of Iran since the Islamic Revolution (1979). It should be noted that the laws and legislations that have been approved before February 1979 would also have been considered as study population if they had still been valid. All laws and legislations which have been approved by the end of March 2017 were reviewed and analyzed. The sample size was initially 171 documents, in the end, 130 documents remained according to established criteria (1- The family is addressed directly in the title or goals of the law; in fact, preservation, promotion or health of the family are some goals of these laws; and 2- It is mentioned directly that the law is for the individual and his or her family, or seeing the person in the context of the family, such as being a spouse and mother, or considering the family relations, such as child custody and marriage). After classification of documents in 14 welfare service user groups, 35 documents were found to be related to the universal family policies. The qualitative content analysis method was used to analyze the data so that the main concepts and themes were extracted.
    Findings
    According to analysis and coding of 35 policies and laws related to families, three main themes of sanctity of the family, addressing the basic needs of the family, and reproduction of family have been extracted. Most of the laws refer to the family as a worthwhile and sacred unit. The goal of most of these laws is to strengthen and assure sustainability of the family. Some of them specifically address family stability and divorce by establishing counseling systems, special family courts, and prevention of divorce. In some of the laws, the responsibility of family protection is provided by the family with strategies of nurturing and providing the children’s emotional needs and promoting the interaction of the husband and wife. Finally, the three macro policies refer to the family-centered laws and policies. Considering the importance of this concept, the preservation and protection of the family can be considered as a great goal and criterion governing all the other categories in different levels of policy making and legislation. According to the second category, the legislator has also taken account of the basic needs of the all families in five areas of health (such as family physician program), insurance (all the family members’ insurance), housing (such as considering housing as a right and priority to provide housing for low-income families), economics and income (such as paying attention to family poverty, Economic Development Program and Subsidies Targeting Program), and security (general and limited use of this term). Finally, the issue of reproduction of family and population, in various documents, varies according to changes in population policy-making, and includes both reducing and increasing population growth and in fact the purpose of these documents is the population, which can be regarded as a top priority.
    Discussion
    Considering the results of analysis of laws, it can be stated that family welfare policies are less explicit in documents that are for of all families and mostly addressed the needs, such as housing and income.  Although in this study the policies and laws for general population of families have been extracted and analyzed, in many of these documents, there is not a universal approach to family. In many of addressed needs, the terms, such as vulnerable, unemployed, and so on could be seen. Thus it can be concluded that there is a pathological and mean-tested approach to family welfare in Iran. According to the study, family-centered laws and policies have been mentioned in limited documents which is in contrast to a significant number of documents mentioning sanctity of the family. The operationalization of this family-centering has not been mentioned either, and it is limited to overall and macro recommendations. It seems that the goal of maintaining and sustaining a family is predestinarian, in fact instead of developing a context for family sustainability, efforts have been made to preserve and sustain it by establishing specialized courts, family counseling, and legal facilities. The strategies proposed to protect the family’s sanctity are macro strategies that need to be planned in operational levels. Finally, it could be concluded that explicit policies in the area of family welfare have to become a specific part of Iran policies. Besides, universal services should be defined and, of course, for vulnerable families, some specific policies and services should be considered in further studies since they were not addressed in this article. In fact, family-centered laws can help reducing family risks and even influences of other policies on family, such as the economy.
    Keywords: Family policy, Family welfare, Universality
  • Mohammad Sadeghi*, Fateme Bahrami, Reza Esmaili Pages 141-180
    Introduction
    The family and marriage institution has undergone significant changes in recent decades and has been transformed due to the speed of social change of marital attitudes. In the two censuses of 1385-1390, the number of female headed households has risen from 6.5 to 12.1 percent in the country’s household population, and unlike other countries that are witnessing a rise in marriage as divorce increases, in Iran re-marriage is faced with barriers, such that the rate of marriage of Iranian divorced women is 25% lower than the global rate. Most of these women are supported by supportive organs, and they remain in these organs because of non-remarriage until the end of their lives.
    Method
    A mixed methods research design was used in this reseach. The aim of this study was to develop a qualitative section of the native model of social factors preventing the marriage of female as heads of households, and in the quantitative part of the study, the focus was on the fitting of the conceptual model developed by the qualitative stage. In the first stage (qualitative) with exploratory interviewing method, the factors influencing the readiness of female head of household for re-marriage identification and systematic (open, axial, selective) coding of the theory of data were summarized. In the second stage (quantitative), descriptive-analytic studies and the field Regression analysis was carried out using Amos22 and Spss24 software, and structural equation analysis, one way ANOVA, independent T test, correlation matrix, exploratory, and confirmatory factor analysis were conducted. The domain of research in qualitative stage of all women as heads of households is 15 to 60 years old according to Assistant Relief Committee in 1395, experts in the field of marriage of women and women Lots, and texts related to women’s remarriage. The random sampling was carried out from the three sources to the saturated boundary. After studying and verifying the texts and related articles, interviews were conducted by a researcher with a sample of female headed households (N = 12) and Experts (N = 20) , and the data of all three sources of systemic coding of the theory were  separately derived from data analysis together with three strains of information in a combination (triangular). The target society in the quantitative stage of all women headed by households (aged 15-60) in the commission of the Relief Committee of Iran in 1959 was 520.962. The main sample size based on the formula 20-10 equation (Number of Variables), structural equation for two independent groups of female headed households (due to differences in the ways people would think of them and the chance of marriage (divorced women) (740),female widows (740), and the sample size of the pilot sample (0.1) was identified by the method of determining the proportion of the proportional to the volume, the target population of each one of the classes (provinces) was determined. Moreover, within the classes sampling was randomly done and replaced. The research instuments were a questionnaire of domestic marital deterrent factors of female head of household, whose items were confirmed by qualitative stage findings together with a survey of female headed households and faculty members and their content and structure. By performing a pilot study using factor analysis exploratory and confirmatory, convergent validity, diagnostic validity (p > 0.90), and reliability (Cronbach’s alpha coefficient, α > 0.70) were tested and then field-tested to evaluate the fit of the developed model.
    Findings
    By unencrypted data, three stratified trivial data were collected and divided into 148 categories in axial coding based on the similarity of the subject in seven main themes (market supply and demand imbalance, uncoordinated rules of marriage, free-to-life relationships, lifestyle, social conscience, media, and other social barriers) were categorized in selective coding in a main category as the social deterrence factors of the marriage of women as heads of households and the native model of the barriers to marriage of women as heads of households based on the aforementioned results and the inference of the researcher and consultation with relevant experts was developed, and a questionnaire for measuring the fit of the model was made. The quantitative findings of the study showed that the indigenous model presented (qualitatively) fitted the social barriers to remarriage of women as heads of households with field data (coefficient of determination > 0.73), and the native conceptual model developed in the qualitative stage was confirmed. There is a significant relationship between the independent variables (social factors) and the dependent variable (readiness for remarriage). In sum, it can be said that sociological factors have a deterrent effect on the level of readiness for the remarriage of female headed households.
    Discussion
    The average retardation rate for social factors below the average and the categories of supply imbalance and demand for re-marriage and free-sex relations between the two sexes respectively have the most deterrent effect on the level of readiness of married women in the households and the rate of readiness for remarriage in the group of divorced women was significantly higher than that of widows’ groups. With increasing age of women, increasing number of children, and having a female child, the level of readiness for re-marriage of female heads of households decreases, but the diversity of the place of residence, ethnicity, does not affect it
    Keywords: Social remedies, Retirement marriage, Female heads of households, Retirement preparation, Native model
  • Ghasem Shirkhodaie, Arash Rahman* Pages 181-208
    Introduction
    Scientists believe that the spread of contagious diseases and immunization of the population has huge effects on the health and economy of the community, and vaccination has been pointed out to be one of the most effective methods of preventive interventions. The purpose of the study was to investigate and analyze the effects of contagious disease spread and immunization of the population on social welfare by the agent based modeling computational approach. In the current research, attempts were made to simulate the spread of contagious disease and immunization in a society of agents and investigate their effects on some welfare indicators including Gini coefficient, wealth average, and mortality rate due to starvation.
    Method
    The intended method in the present study was agent-based modeling and simulation along with conducting library studies, and the instrument used was NetLogo. Therefore, a model was extended and developed, and the society was simulated once in the absence of the sick agent and infection in the environment. Depending on the level of vision, the agents began to collect sugar from the environment. Next simulation was a society consisting of sick or infected agents and transmission of disease among population. Besides, the agents collected and consumed the environmental resource (sugar). In the third simulation, immunization of the population (through vaccination) was applied to control the infection and spread of the disease. Thus, some experiments were carried out, and the observations and findings were recorded to eventually be compared and analyzed.
    Findings
    Findings of the experiments suggest that the presence and spread of contagious diseases in the population could lead to decreased wealth average of agents, increased rate of mortality due to starvation, and increased Gini coefficient (more unequal distribution of wealth) as well. Thus, it can lead to reduced welfare of agents in an artificial society. Moreover, immunization of the population and control of disease by vaccination can increase wealth average of agents, decrease the mortality rate due to starvation, and decrease Gini coefficient. Therefore, it can lead to the improvement of welfare status in an artificial society.
    Discussion
    Using agent-based modeling, the spread of contagious disease in the population and immunization of the population (through vaccination) was simulated and investigated through various experiments, and their effects on wealth distribution, mortality rate due to starvation, and wealth average of the agents were identified. Mapping the results of the artificial environment into the real world suggests that the spread of contagious disease in the population could lead to decreased social welfare in a society. Immunization of the population as well as controlling the disease can lead to the improvement of welfare in a society. Library studies also confirm the validity of the results derived from the model. Studies indicate that vaccination is capable of significantly decreasing mortality and inequality. Studies also show that contagious diseases, especially in low-income countries, still account for a significant part of mortality. Vaccination can reduce the burden of contagious diseases and their imposed costs, decrease differences in wealth, and support social development and economic growth. Moreover, studies show that controlling contagious diseases can save wealth for societies and countries and provide social and economic advantages. Finally, some points should be mentioned about the methodology of the study: despite the strengths and advantages of using of agent based modeling approach in social, economic, and health studies, some points should be noted. Some social science experts believe that an intelligent computational agent has little similarity with being human. In addition, in the development of computational models, some variables, or parameters or conditions, and rules affecting a system or a real problem may not be considered. Furthermore, the results from the artificial environment may be accompanied by errors in comparison with the results from the real environment, although the error value may be acceptable. Additionally, Some questions remain, like: Is using such modeling always possible while facing any complex problems or systems? With what combination of parameters, rules, and conditions? Is any developed model (in the artificial environment) reliable and valid? Does any developed model have the required validity and quality? What approaches or methods and issues should be considered in order to validate and verify agent based computational models? These are some of the concerns and questions that are still likely to exist in the face of the developers of these models and users of this approaches (methods) and these can be referred to as some of the limitations and challenges in similar research studies.
    Keywords: Agent based modeling, Artificial society, Spread of contagious disease, Immunization of population, Social welfare
  • Mohammad Mehdi Labibi*, Mostafa Bagherian Jelodar, Shahrbanoo Mirzakhani Pages 209-239
    Introduction
    The major goal of this study is political participation, highlighting the role of social trust. In fact, how social trust and political participation are united is analyzed and assessed. Since political participation is one of the key traits in social and political progress, influential factors need to be pointed out indeed. So the main focus of this study is to find the relationship between social trust and political participation. In addition to trust, five other basic variables have been concentrated on by the researcher. These include gender, age, education, marital status, and mental class. The theoretical framework is according to the comments of Lipst, Almond and Verba, Engleheart, Nelson and Huntington, etc. Political participation is the entry into the arena that has led to the fulfillment of a collective will or hinders its realization. Michael Rush sees political participation as being involved in various levels of an activity in the political system, from non-conflict to having a political official. The fundamental idea behind the participation is to accept the principle of equality of people, and its purpose is to promote intellectual, cooperative, and collaborative efforts to improve the quality and quantity of life in all social, economic, and political fields. In this study, in order to measure the impact of social trust on political participation, a combination of theories of social scientists and sociologists has been taken into consideration. In his book entitled Political Person, Lipst explains political participation. In the book, he tries to explain the political participation of individuals,groups, and social groups based on several general social determinants, using his own sociological model. In his opinion, people participate in the following: 1. Their interests are heavily exposed to government policies, such as dependence on the government as its employee, if they are not exposed to economic constraints or have moral-religious values affected by government policies. 2. Access to information that identifies the relationship between political decisions, interests, and their interests, such as the direct and obvious effects of government policies, job training, empirical general insight, and leisure time are among the most influential factors. 3. People vote if they are exposed to social pressures; pressures, such as deprivation and alienation, the strength of the political class organization, and the level of social contact. 4. Finally, the crossover pressures, that is, individuals do not vote for the compulsion and pressure of the political parties, which have opposing interests, in different directions and in different ways, providing different information. Inglehtar also explains the increase in participation by promoting education and political information, changing the norms governing women’s participation and changing value priorities. In his view, the variables of formal education, socioeconomic status, skill levels,information, communication skills, career experience, organizational networks, and the reduction of sexual differences in social and political tasks affect the increase in participation. Giddens mentions the three dynamics of modernity, the titles of the separation of time and place, from rebelliousness and appropriation. These factors have changed the model of trust in contemporary modern society; he mentions the impact of communication systems (media) on the formation of micro-level characteristics, trust in the process of socialization and personal identity, the trust of individuals in abstract and political systems, mechanisms in the current world, and the main areas of trust in a traditional world that either destroyed or neglected the traditional kinship system, local community, and religion. According to Putnam, the commonplace traditions and norms in society, including trust and cooperation are among the most important determinants of political participation. In some areas of the world where civil traditions, with trust in interpersonal relations and high public confidence, are witnessing active political participation, but political partnerships  also decrease in the areas where the norms of trust and cooperation are low. Thus, trust, both among individuals and in the political trust of individuals in government, is shaped by factors, such as the rethinking process and the impact of information,the access and use of a variety of media, and other mechanisms in the modern society. Robert Putnam pointed to the fluctuations of political participation in social capital, where social trust was one of the important dimensions of Putnam’s definition of social capital. Thus, Putnam’s theory as one of the most appropriate theories in this field can provide a coherent framework for analyzing the relationship between social trust and political participation.
    Method
    This study is among those surveying research studies that use questionnaires to collect data. The subjects were the people of Gorgan, and 407 of them were chosen as a sample and the proper classes were chosen and studied using random sampling. To confirm the variable credit of the study, the formal credit method was used. Besides, the fixity of the tools was also calculated by the Cronbach’s alpha coefficients, which are respectively 782 and 780 for social trust and political participation.
    Findings
    The findings of this study show that the average level of political participation is 825.2 out of 5. The level of social trust of the responses was also average. The average of political participation of men was more than that of women, and that of the married was found to be more than the single. The highest political participation was between the 50 to 59 year-old people. The result of all these theories showed that there is a positive relationship among social trust and its aspects (institutional trust, public trust and people trust) together with political participation with its aspects (election behavior and active participation). The results of regression analysis show that generally 061.0% of the changes in variables is assessed via other variables, like social trust, age, sex, marital status, and education.
    Discussion
    According to the results, when people trust the government, institutions and organs become active participants in political incidence and happenings. As the social trust increases in the society, people participate more inpolitical events. Besides, as shown by the findings, political participation is influenced by peopl’s relationship and their trust among family members, friends, and relatives, resulting in an active or inactive participantion.
    Keywords: Social trust, Public trust, Institutional trust, Personal trust
  • Rahman Ghaffari* Pages 241-270
    Introduction
    Every two years, the World Bank along with some research institutes ranks the countries and governments based on the specific indexes, such as the degree of transparency, anti-corruption, and accountability and show their good governance realization. The current study adapted these indices to the organizational governance level in order to identify and evaluate the organizational governance fulfillment. besides, one of the newly coined terms in the social and human resources research studies is the “green” concept which is being used in environmental, marketing, welfare, and so many other fields. The study tries to evaluate the green human resource management realization in cooperatives, labor, and social welfare headquarters. Human resource management has certain responsibilities, such as recruitment, reward, performance management, promotion and appointment, succession planning ,etc. which are integrated with green concept. The main objective of green management is to make the employees be aware of the environmental management complexities. Environmental management concerns and values in applying human resource innovations entail higher productivity and improvement in environmental performance. In fact, the green viewpoint to human resources considers the organizational growth from two perspectives, general quantitative growth and improvement and sustainable attention to the environment. When the green recruitment is discussed, managers have to recruit and retain staff and employees whose initiatives and values ease the complexities on the environment management. Organizational good governance and green human resource management cannot be achieved unless accountable and competent managers are available; the ones who are set to realize such objectives. The competencies of the managers must be consistent with main organizational merits and potencies, and they should be initiative, efficient, and accountable in terms of technical and behavioral issues.
    Method
    The study aimed at increasing the organizational good governance and green human resource management status through appointing competent managers at cooperatives and labor and social welfare headquarters. The statistical population of the study comprised all managers, vice managers and senior experts working in these administration offices. One hundred and eight subjects were selected for the study sample through cluster sampling technique from three headquarters of the northern region of the country comprising 350 subjects. The samples were from Gilan (N = 31), Golestan (N = 23) and Mazandaran (N = 54) headquarters. The data collection instruments were Elric competent managers’ questionnaire (2000) with the reliability of 0.98, organizational good governance questionnaire by Mite and Millers (2009) with the reliability of 0.84 and green human resource questionnaire by Ahmad (2015) with reliability of 0.93. The confirmatory factorial analysis test was used to confirm the validity of the questionnaires in which all the items in the questionnaire achieved a factorial load of more than 0.4 showing the appropriate validity of the questionnaires. Using the regression analysis like structural equation modelling (SEM), the research model was formulated. Since the data distribution followed a non-parametric model and the subjects for the study were under 200, the partial least square (PLS) approach was conducted. To analyze the data, the SPSS 22 and the Smart PLS software were used.
    Findings
    the results of confirmatory factorial analysis test showed the appropriate validity of the items included in the questionnaires. The results of three variables measurement model of organizational good governance as well as green human resource and managers’ competency also showed the appropriate goodness of fit index for the variables and appropriate latent and observable variables relation. Moreover, the analysis of the tests used in this study revealed that the managers’ competency had a positive impact on the organizational good governance and green human resource management. The organizational good governance had a significant positive impact on the green human resource management as well. The evaluation of the standard model and R2 coefficient showed that 56% of the changes in green human resource management and 31% of the organizational good governance changes were dependent on the changes in the competent managers’ variable.
    Discussion
    the study aimed at determining the impact of managers’ competencies on green human resource management based on the organizational good governance role in different cooperatives together with labor and social welfare cooperatives. The results showed that the relationship among all variables were significant. Considering the literature on the managers’ competencies, organizational good governance and the green human resource management, it can be concluded that the human resource management can lead to good governance establishment in the organization by cooperation, compromise, accountability, transparency, responsibility, effectiveness, efficiency, and general justice. It was also justified that establishing good governance in the organization may also be possible through the activities related to human resource management which supports the 8 given features of good management. Evaluating the good governance indicators at the organizational level and green human resource management in governmental offices can be regarded as the knowledge raising aspect of the current study. The functional recommendation of the current research is that the cooperatives and  labor and social welfare headquarters should try to implement the competent managers’ indices and consider the competency aspects when appointing managers by creating establishing assessment centers in order to realize the green human resource management and organizational good governance.
    Keywords: Manager’s competency, Organizational good governance, Green human resource management