فهرست مطالب

مهندسی اکوسیستم بیابان - پیاپی 22 (بهار 1398)
  • پیاپی 22 (بهار 1398)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/03/11
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • سهیلا افراسیابی، مهدی تازه*، روح الله تقی زاده مهرجردی، محمد جواد قانعی بافقی، سعیده کلانتری صفحات 1-14
    زبری سطح خاک از جمله موانع در مقابل فرسایش بادی است. زبری با ایجاد مانع در مقابل جریان باد، باعث کاهش سرعت باد و پیرو آن کاهش میزان فرسایش بادی می شود؛ ازاین رو اندازه گیری آن در بحث فرسایش بادی حائز اهمیت است. از جمله روش های سنتی اندازه گیری زبری روش پین متر است. امروزه با توجه به پیشرفت تکنولوژی استفاده از ابزارهای الکترونیکی مانند فاصله یاب لیزری در حال گسترش است. هدف از این تحقیق، مقایسه شاخص زبری به دست آمده از طریق دو روش پین متر و فاصله یاب لیزری است. بدین منظور 10 نقطه تصادفی در دشت سرهای اپانداز و لخت در محدوده دشت یزد-اردکان انتخاب و نمونه برداری به هر دو روش صورت گرفت. مقادیر زبری با استفاده از شاخص زبری آلماراس و انحراف معیار مقادیر برجستگی ناشی از وجود سنگ فرش بیابان محاسبه شد. طول ترانسکت ها 50 سانتی متر، فواصل پین ها 2 سانتی متر در نظر گرفته شد. همچنین مقادیر زبری با استفاده از فاصله یاب لیزری از طریق دستگاه متر لیزری اندازه گیری شد. نتایج به دست آمده از زبری نقاط نمونه برداری با دو روش مذکور، با توجه به نرمال بودن داده ها از طریق آزمون t test بررسی شد. نتایج نشان داد بین دو روش مذکور در تمام نقاط نمونه برداری در سطح 95درصد، اختلاف معناداری وجود ندارد. بنابراین می توان گفت گرچه استفاده از روش فاصله یاب لیزری از تکنولوژی بالاتری بهره می برد، با توجه به هزینه بیشتر آن نسبت به روش پین متر، در نتایج تفاوتی با روش سنتی ندارد.
    کلیدواژگان: زبری آلماراس، آزمون t test، سنگ فرش بیابان، فاصله یاب لیزری، پین متر
  • اعظم خسروی مشیزی*، محسن شرافتمندراد صفحات 15-26
    ذخیره نزولات از مهم ترین اقدمات برای بازسازی اکوسیستم های مرتعی در مناطق خشک و نیمه خشک است. با توجه به تنوع روش های ذخیره نزولات، هزینه بالای اجرا و عملکرد متفاوت آن ها، ارزیابی این روش ها از نظر معیارهای مختلف برای انتخاب بهترین روش ضروری است. هدف از این مطالعه، اولویت بندی روش های ذخیره نزولات (پخش سیلاب، پیتینگ، هلالی، تورکینست و کنتورفارو) در مراتع دشت جیرفت بود. برای انتخاب بهترین روش ذخیره نزولات از روش های تصمیم گیری چندمعیاره تحلیل سلسله مراتبی، تاپسیس، ویکور و مجموع ساده وزنی استفاده شد. نتایج تحلیل سلسله مراتبی نشان داد که معیار اقتصادی مهم ترین معیار، بازگشت سرمایه مهم ترین زیرمعیار اقتصادی، کنترل سیل مهم ترین زیرمعیار اکولوژیکی، مشارکت مردم مهم ترین زیرمعیار اجتماعی و طول عمر سازه مهم ترین زیرمعیار فنی بودند. در این روش، پخش سیلاب بیشترین مقدار وزن نهایی و پیتینگ کمترین وزن نهایی را داشتند. در روش های مجموع ساده وزنی و تاپسیس نیز پخش سیلاب در رتبه اول و پیتینگ در رتبه پنجم قرار گرفت. در روش ویکور، پخش سیلاب در رتبه اول و تورکینست در رتبه آخر قرار داشت. به منظور دستیابی به اجماعی کلی برای رتبه بندی عملیات های ذخیره نزولات، از روش های تلفیقی استفاده شد. نتایج روش های تلفیقی نشان داد که پخش سیلاب، کنتورفارو، هلالی، تورکینست و پیتینگ برای ذخیره نزولات در مراتع دشت جیرفت، به ترتیب بیشترین اولویت را دارند.
    کلیدواژگان: ذخیره نزولات، پخش سیلاب، مرتع، معیارهای اقتصادی
  • غلامرضا مقامی مقیم*، علی اکبر تقی پور صفحات 27-42
    امروزه افزایش جمعیت و نیازهای گسترده انسانی به منابع آب، سبب بهره برداری غیرمتعارف از آب های زیرزمینی شده و افت سطح آ ن ها را در پی داشته است. افت سطح آب های زیرزمینی باعث بروز مشکلاتی چون شورشدن آب های زیرزمینی و فرونشست زمین و انسداد منافذ نفوذ آب شده است. این تحقیق با هدف مشخص شدن عوامل موثر در تغییرات سطح آب زیرزمینی دشت صفی آباد اسفراین به منظور کنترل این عوامل و کاهش برداشت از منابع آب زیرزمینی این دشت با روش میدانی و کتابخانه ای انجام شد. پس از جمع آوری اطلاعات هواشناسی از جمله دو عنصر بارش و دما و همچنین آمار مربوط به سطح آب های زیرزمینی، نمودار سالانه سطح آب زیرزمینی این دشت ترسیم و مشخص شد؛ از زمان انجام مطالعات ژئوفیزیکی (1368) تا به حال (1395) سطح آب های زیرزمینی این دشت بیش از 9 متر افت داشته است. این تغییرات در  قالب تغییرات منفی و مثبت بررسی و مشخص شد. عواملی چون خشک سالی، افزایش جمعیت، تبدیل شدن صفی آباد از روستا به شهر، بازدارنده نبودن جریمه های مربوط به تخلفات اضافه برداشت و مسائل فرهنگی، سبب افزایش برداشت و در نتیجه تغییرات منفی و عواملی چون استفاده از شیوه های نوین آبیاری، تغییر نوع کشت و استفاده از کنتورهای هوشمند، سبب تغییرات مثبت در سطح آب های زیرزمینی شده و شیب کاهش سطح آب در این دشت را تعدیل کرده است. انتظار می رود با انجام اقدامات فرهنگی تاثیر عوامل بازدارنده و تعدیل کننده بیشتر شود و با کنترل برداشت آب از سفره های زیرزمینی، سطح آب های زیرزمینی این دشت افزایش یابد.
    کلیدواژگان: دشت صفی آباد، آب زیرزمینی، کنتورهای هوشمند
  • محمدرضا رضایی، محمدجواد رضایی، جعفر رضایی، شهلا پایمزد* صفحات 43-58
    در نواحی خشک و نیمه خشک، به دلیل کمبود جریان های سطحی، فشار عمده بر آب های زیرزمینی وارد می شود. سطح منابع آب زیرزمینی محدوده مورد مطالعه (دشت عباس) نیز به دلیل استفاده بی رویه، دچار افت شدید شده و بیش از 30 سال است که به عنوان دشت ممنوعه اعلام گردیده است. در این تحقیق، از چهار مدل متفاوت شبکه عصبی تکاملی شامل شبکه عصبی پرسپترون چندلایه با الگوریتم ژنتیک (ANN-GA)، بهینه سازی ازدحام ذرات (ANN-PSO)، الگوریتم رقابت استعماری (ANN-ICA) و بهینه سازی کلونی مورچگان (ANN-ACOR) برای تخمین سطح آب زیرزمینی استفاده شده است. داده های مورد استفاده شامل بارش، تبخیر، متوسط دمای سالانه، نفوذ موثر و داده های گذشته سطح آب زیرزمینی برای یک دوره 22 ساله است. ترکیب ورودی ها با استفاده از تجزیه و تحلیل خودهمبستگی، خودهمبستگی جزئی و همبستگی متقابل برای هر مدل آماده شده است. مدل های بهینه با تغییر پارامترهای کنترلی به دست آمده اند. بهترین دقت از بین مدل های ارائه شده برای ورودی (GWLt-1، GWLt-2 و Pt) به دست آمده است. دقت میانگین مربع خطا برای مدل های ANN-ICA، ANN-PSO، ANN-ACOR به ترتیب 0033/0، 0039/0 و 0044/0 و برای مدل ANN-GA 0030/0 به دست آمده است. روند تغییرات سطح آب زیرزمینی دشت در مقطع زمانی 72 تا 84 روند کاهشی و از سال 85 تا 94 با ورود آب سد کرخه، روند افزایشی داشته و بیلان آب دشت مثبت شده است. با توجه به نتایج به دست آمده، مدل ANN-GA عملکرد بهتری نسبت به سه مدل دیگر برای تخمین سطح آب زیرزمینی از خود نشان داده است.
    کلیدواژگان: آب زیرزمینی، ازدحام ذرات، الگوریتم ژنتیک، رقابت استعماری، شبکه های عصبی، کلونی مورچگان
  • رضا قاسمی فسایی*، سمیرا کشاورز، زهره بوالحسنی صفحات 59-72
    روی عنصر غذایی ضروری برای گیاه است و کمبود آن در اراضی زراعی، مرتعی و بیابانی مشاهده می شود. اطلاع از توزیع روی بین شکل های شیمیایی مختلف برای درک واکنش های شیمیایی این عنصر در خاک و توسعه روش های آزمون خاک اهمیت دارد. خارشتر و اسفند از گونه های غالب و با اهمیت مناطق بیابانی است و اثرات مثبت بر این مناطق دارد. در این مطالعه، شکل های شیمیایی روی در خاک زیر سایه انداز و خارج سایه انداز گیاهان اسفند (Peganum harmala) و خارشتر (Alhagi camerolum) واقع در زمین های مرتعی باجگاه واقع در 15 کیلومتری شیراز و چاهتیز جهرم با روش عصاره گیری دنباله ای بررسی شد. نتایج نشان داد خاک زیر سایه انداز ماده آلی بیشتری دارد اما میزان pH در سایه انداز کمتر است. از بین شکل های شیمیایی روی، میزان روی محلول و تبادلی، آلی و متصل به اکسید منگنز در خاک زیر سایه انداز هر دو گیاه بیشتر از خاک خارج از سایه انداز بود. مقایسه دو منطقه مورد مطالعه نشان داد که در منطقه باجگاه، فراهمی روی در مقایسه با منطقه چاهتیز بیشتر است. به طور کلی به نظر می رسد اثرات مثبت سایه انداز گیاهان خارشتر و اسفند بر خاک زیر سایه انداز همچون کاهش pH و افزایش ماده آلی، باعث افزایش فراهمی روی در خاک زیر سایه انداز نسبت به خاک خارج سایه انداز می شود. این گیاهان می توانند به عنوان پوشش گیاهی مناسب در این مناطق به کار برده شوند و ویژگی های مثبت در سایه انداز این گیاهان می تواند برای کاشت گیاهان مرغوب تر مورد استفاده قرار گیرد.
    کلیدواژگان: عصاره گیر دنباله ای، خاک های آهکی، فراهمی روی
  • حمزه احمدی، یحیی اسماعیل پور*، عباس مرادی، حمید غلامی صفحات 73-88
    اکوسیستم شکننده مناطق بیابانی نیازمند تدوین برنامه های مدیریتی مناسب به منظور حفاظت پایدار از منابع آن است. اولین گام برای توسعه پایدار اکوسیستم های بیابانی ارزیابی خطر و سپس تدوین برنامه مدیریت مناطق بیابانی است. ازاین رو در این تحقیق به منظور ارزیابی وضعیت بیابان زایی حوضه جازموریان، از دو مدل ESAs و IMDPA استفاده شد. بنابراین مدل IMDPA با استفاده از 5 معیار و مدل ESAs نیز به کمک 3 معیار خاک، پوشش گیاهی و اقلیم مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفتند. در نهایت، نقشه وضعیت بیابان زایی برای منطقه مورد مطالعه با استفاده از دو مدل به دست آمد. نتایج مدل IMDPA نشان داد که حوضه جازموریان از سه کلاس I، II و III بیابان زایی تشکیل شده که کلاس بیابان زایی با شدت کم با 22/52درصد از سطح منطقه، بیشترین مساحت را به خود اختصاص داده است. همچنین 46/19درصد از منطقه نیز در کلاس بیابان زایی شدید قرار دارد. بر اساس مدل ESAs حوضه جازموریان به چهار کلاس (بی اثر، بالقوه، شکننده و بحرانی) و هفت زیرکلاس (N، P، F1، F2، F3، C1، C2) تقسیم شد. از بین کلاس های نامبرده، زیرکلاس شکننده متوسط (F2) با 68/29درصد بیشترین سطح منطقه را به خود اختصاص داد. معیارهای خاک و پوشش گیاهی در هر دو مدل IMDPA و ESAs، موثرترین معیارهای بیابان زایی منطقه جازموریان معرفی شدند. در نهایت، کلاس بندی مناسب مدل ESAs باعث شده است روند مناسبی از کلاس وضعیت بیابان زایی در حوضه جازموریان مشخص شود و می توان آن را به عنوان مدل برتر برای ارائه برنامه های مناسب مدیریتی مورد استفاده قرار داد.
    کلیدواژگان: معیار، خاک، پوشش گیاهی، اقلیم، کلاس بیابان زایی
  • فاطمه شاکر سوره، اسماعیل اسدی* صفحات 89-100
    سیستم های پایش نقش مهمی در تدوین طرح های خشکسالی و مدیریت آن ها دارند. گرچه شروع خشکسالی با وقوع پدیده خشکسالی هواشناسی ناشی از کمبود بارش منشا می گیرد، خشکسالی‏های هیدرولوژیکی معمولا با تاخیر بیشتری نسبت به خشکسالی‎های هواشناسی یا کشاورزی رخ می دهد. هدف از این تحقیق، مطالعه تاثیر خشکسالی هواشناسی و هیدرولوژیکی دشت سلماس بر نوسانات سطح آب زیرزمینی است. در این پژوهش با محاسبه سه شاخص بارش استانداردشده (SPI)، رواناب استانداردشده (SRI) و منبع آب زیرزمینی (GRI) در محدوده مطالعاتی دشت سلماس در دوره آماری 13641365 تا 13951396 به بررسی اثرات خشکسالی بر نوسانات هیدرولوژیکی پرداخته شد. با توجه به آزمون t جفتی، ارتباط بین شاخص‎ ‏SPI‏ و سطح آب ‏زیرزمینی قابل توجه بوده است و می توان گفت این شاخص تقریبا شاخص مناسبی برای بررسی اثرات خشکسالی بر منابع آب زیرزمینی است‏. نتایج به دست آمده نشان دهنده رابطه بین شاخص SPI دوازده ماهه (SPI-12) و شاخص SRI یک ماهه (SRI-1) در مقیاس کوتاه مدت با شاخص GRI است. نتایج حاکی از آن است که خشکسالی هواشناسی با خشکسالی آب زیرزمینی رابطه معنی داری با تاخیر فاز زمانی یک ماهه GRI  در مقیاس زمانی میان‏مدت (P-valueSPI-12=0.998) دارد و خشکسالی هیدرولوژیکی نسبت به خشکسالی آب زیرزمینی با تاخیر شش ماهه GRI  در مقیاس کوتاه‏مدت (P-valueSRI-1=0.993)  ارتباط بسیار خوبی دارد.
    کلیدواژگان: آب زیرزمینی، خشکسالی، دشت سلماس، SPI، GRI، SRI
  • علی مهدوی*، زهره رضوی نیا، مسعود بازگیر، محمود رستمی نیا صفحات 101-113
    امروزه، تغییر و تبدیل کاربری اراضی جنگلی و مراتع به کشاورزی به یکی از نگرانی های قابل توجه در سطح دنیا در زمینه تخریب محیط زیست و تغییرات اقلیمی جهانی تبدیل شده است. هدف از این مطالعه، بررسی شاخص های کیفی و مقادیر کربن ترسیب شده در خاک چهار کاربری جنگل بلوط (طبیعی)، جنگل کاج و سرو (دست کاشت)، کشاورزی و کشت زیرآشکوب در جنگل بلوط در محدوده پارک جنگلی چقاسبز شهرستان ایلام است. برای این منظور، در هر کاربری 10 نمونه خاک از عمق 0 تا 30 سانتی متر با روش تصادفی سیستماتیک برداشت شدند. علاوه بر اندازه گیری میزان ترسیب کربن خاک، برخی از خصوصیات فیزیکی و شیمیایی خاک (نیتروژن، فسفر، پتاسیم، آهک، رس، سیلت، شن، اسیدیته، هدایت الکتریکی، جرم مخصوص ظاهری و پایداری خاک) در هر کاربری نیز اندازه گیری شدند. نتایج نشان داد که ترسیب کربن خاک در کشت زیر آشکوب درختان بلوط (09/58 تن در هکتار) و جنگل طبیعی بلوط (72/56 تن در هکتار) به طور معنی داری بیش از دو کاربری جنگل کاری کاج و سرو (95/37 تن در هکتار) و اراضی کشاورزی (80/31 تن در هکتار) هستند. این در حالی است که میزان ترسیب کربن خاک بین دو کاربری جنگل طبیعی بلوط و کشت زیرآشکوب درختان بلوط اختلاف معنی داری را نشان نداد. نتایج این تحقیق بر ضرورت حفظ کاربری جنگل طبیعی و جلوگیری از تغییر آن به سایر کاربری ها از جمله کشاورزی تاکید دارد.
    کلیدواژگان: اراضی کشاورزی، پارک جنگلی، جنگل بلوط، کشت زیرآشکوب، استان ایلام
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  • Soheila Afrasyabi, Mahdi Tazeh*, Rouhollah Taghizadeh Mehrjardi, Mohammad Javad Ghanei Bafghi, Saeideh Kalantari Pages 1-14
    Introduction
    Wind erosion is one of the main factors of soil degradation and air pollution. Roughness by creating an obstacle to wind flow, decreases wind speed and consequently reduces the amount of wind erosion, hence its measurement in wind erosion is important. Roughness is one of the most effective factors. In soil erosion by water and wind by accuracy measurement of soil surface roughness, can be used by them as indicators of ecosystem healthMethods for measuring of soil surface roughness using Roughness meter can be classified into two large classes. Contact methods which mechanical devices are directly in contact with the soil. Non-contact methods that the measuring instruments are far away from the soil surface and do not touch with surface of the soil.
    Pin meter includes a row of pins with equal distances which is placed in a frame that can be placed according to high and low levels of roughness.
    Materials and methods
    Yazd - Ardakan Plain with a total area of 7,15950 square kilometers Is located in the northern part of Yazd province.and Is located in   Longitude 748337 to 296893 East and in latitude 3559572 to 3566743 North


    After determining the studied area, 10 randomly selected samples were selected in the Yazd-Ardakan Plain and the sampling was carried out in both methods. Roughness data of soil surface were taken randomly by using laser distance measuring and pin meter in 10 transects. In each transect, roughness height was measured of length 50 cm. The distance between the pins in pin meter method is 2 cm and measuring distance in Laser Distance Meter is 2 cm. Thus, the height of the points was recorded separately by both methods, in each transect,

    Methods for measurement of roughness index

    Pin meter
    In this way, with the help of pins on the soil surface, Height of pebbles, is measured at several points to the base level. That way, Roughness altitude information was recorded. According to the definition, this index (roughness) is the standard deviation of the height of the points, which is obtained using the following equation:That in, SD, , , and n are respectively, standard deviation of points Height, the height of each of the points (mm), Average height and the number of sample points in the transect

    Laser
    method
    This method, measures roughness using the laser meter model (X310) from the Leica Company. The laser meter is A small and handy device, that calculates the exact distance, by using laser technology and by calculating round-trip time of laser lightworking method is as follows: The laser beam is emitted to the target and the calculation is performed with an error of less than 3 mm. Thus, the height of the points is measured at 50 cm up to the base level

    (Result)
    The maximum amount of the calculated average by the method of the pin meter and laser distance meter is 2 and 1, respectively. The minimum amount of calculated average for both methods is in the point 10. The highest and lowest amount of standard deviation derived from laser distance meter and pin meter methods are for points 2 and 10 respectively.

    In Table 1, are presented the results of the comparison of the two methods of pin- meter and Laser rangefinder. As can be seen: 
    Table (1): Statistical comparison of roughness index of two methods at 2 cm distance


    t

    Degrees of freedom


    Mean ± Invalid Criterion


    Groups2cm

    characteristics


    438/1
    24
    70/1±83/21
    pin meter
    Point 1
    The roughness index

    28/2±66/23
    Laser

    120/1-
    24
    37/2±50/23
    pin meter
    Point 2

    53/2±50/22
    Laser

    646/0-
    24
    99/1±58/17
    pin meter
    Point 3

    30/2±87/16
    Laser

    040/1-
    24
    1±50/10
    pin meter
    Point4

    08/1±08/11
    Laser

    924/0
    24
    91/1±62/19
    pin meter
    Point5

    69/1±50/18
    Laser

    793/0-
    24
    30/1±66/9
    pin meter
    Point 6

    54/1±37/10
    Laser

    221/1-
    24
    10/1±29/14
    pin meter
    Point 7

    95/0±12/15
    Laser

    175/0-
    24
    11/1±79/11
    pin meter
    Point 8

    16/1±12
    Laser

    135/0
    24
    10/1±9
    pin meter
    Point 9

    23/1±12/9
    Laser

    809/0
    24
    59/0±04/7
    pin meter
    Point 10

    09/1±83/7
    Laser



    Figure (1): shows the Matching charts, two methods of laser distance meter and pin meter.
    These two methods are Good match to all points, But this match, have more matches at points 2, 3, 5, and 6 Compared to other points.

    ure (1): Charts for the matching of the two methods at the sampling points.
    Discussion and Conclusion The Calculated Statistical indicators by the two methods, are almost the same at all harvested points. The results of the t- student test also showed that, the mentioned two methods, in all sampled points, there is no significant difference at 95% level. Which indicates the ability of two devices For measuring roughness Which, depending on the conditions, can replace each other.the results of this study, with the results of the studies of Zhang et al. (2012), that investigated the methods of measuring the roughness of the soil to provide a Universal and comprehensive method, and concluded that the best method for determining the roughness is laser scanning method and followed by it is pin meter method. labideh (2015), measuring the aerodynamic roughness length of the harvested soil using اa pin meter. It was concluded that a pin meter could be used to estimate aerodynamic roughness. Which is accommodation with the results of our studies.so it may be concluded that so it may be concluded that using the pin meter method as a traditional tool in pavement roughness measurement, similar results will be obtained using laser method. Therefore, according to the cost of laser distances, pin meter method can be used with similar results.
    Keywords: Almaras roughness, t test, desert pavement, laser distance meter, pin meter
  • Azam Khosravi Mashizi*, Mohsen Sharafatmandrad Pages 15-26
     
    Introduction
    lacking of the water and low availability of soil moisture are the subject matter of the dry and semi-arid areas of the world, which has caused the brittleness of the living conditions for plants. It is necessary the use of new technologies to solve the problem of water scarcity through storage rainfall methods in arid and semi-arid areas. Due to the variety of storage rainfall methods, the high cost of their implementation and their different performance, it needs to evaluate these methods base on different criteria to find the best and suitable method in dry and semi-arid climates. Since decisions will be faced with multiple criteria that they have a complex relationship In such a situation, decision is difficult to choose the best method. The use of multi-criteria decision-making methods is highly effective to solve this problem. This study was aimed to prioritize rainfall storage methods (flood spreading, pitting, turkey nest, arc basin and contour furrow) in rangelands of Jiroft plain according to ecological, economic, technical and social criteria using multi-criteria decision making
    methods
    Material and methods
    Jiroft plain is part of the Jazmoriyan watershed in the south of Kerman province. Its height varies from a surface of 500 to 800 meters. The annual rainfall is 191.1 mm. Recent droughts and drainage of groundwater due to water abstraction in agricultural sectors are among the factors of water shortage in the region that have had adverse effects on vegetation in the region. Multi-criteria decision making methods AHP, TOPSIS, VIKOR and SAW were applied to select the best method for storing rainfall. Combined methods (Statistic, Borda, Copeland and Poset method) were used to unite ranks resulted by MSDM methods.
    Results and discussion
    Results showed that the economic criteria had the highest rank, the ecological, social and technical criteria were in the following order respectively. The relative weighting of different methods altered in different criteria. Hence, flood spreading was the best storage rainfall method based on all criteria. Turkey nest had the lowest economic rank. The lowest ecological and technical ranks belonged to Pitting. Contour furrow had the lowest rank in social criteria. Assessment of sub-criteria showed that flood control was the most important ecological factors, structural lifetime was the most important technical factor, the participation of people in the implementation was the important social factor and return on investment was the most important economical factor influencing storage rainfall methods. Flood spreading and pitting had the highest and the least amount of final weight in the AHP method, respectively. The results of the TOPSIS method showed that flood spreading had the highest relative proximity index. In the VIKOR method, the lowest Q value belonged to the flood spreading, so it was placed in the first rank. The highest Q was also for the turkey nest method. According to the SAW method, the best method was flood spreading. The combined methods showed that arc basin method was located in units 2 and 3, and each of the other methods had unique units. As the flood spreading was located in the first unit, the contour furrow, turkey nest and pitting were placed in unit 2, 4 and 5 respectively.
    Conclusion
    Various factors can affect the failure or success of restoration operation in rangelands. The results of this study showed that the economic factor is the first criterion to be considered in choosing the best method to storage rainfall in jiroft plain. In economical criterion, return on investment should be measured based on incurred costs and the benefits derived from the ecological and social impacts of methods. People’s participation is the most important social factor in storage rainfall plans, because people’s acceptance and people's participation guarantee the sustainability of storage rainfall plans in the region. In general, various multi-criteria decision making methods showed that flood spreading has the highest priority for storing rainfalls in the Jiroft plain. Contour furrow, arc basin, Turkey nest and Pitting were in the next ranks for best method respectively. Flood spreading is not only a simple and inexpensive way to improve the quality of natural ecosystems but also has a high societal value by increasing groundwater and increasing the income of inhabitants through enhancing grazing and farming activities.
    Keywords: Storage rainfall, Flood spreading, Rangeland, Economical criteria
  • Gholamreza Maghami Moghim*, Ali Akbar Taghipour Pages 27-42
     
    Introduction
    Based on human needs, the usage of underground is increasing. By the time of the 12th century, the use of these waters was carried out in traditional ways, but at the beginning of this century, the technique of exploitation is developed which is caused to be water withdrawal and made many problems such as the drying of the Qanats and springs. Because of the importance, the study of these resources has been chosen. The oldest studies in this regard are related to Greek philosophers. AbouiryhanBeiruni and HamdollahMostofi also conducted studies in this regard in Iran, also in this field Nayak (2006), Zang (2009) by Plutp (2011), Jang (2012), Sins (2014), Yang (2012), Zaho (2015) have been studied in recent years. In spite of the fact that nearly one century passes from the usage of underground water through Safi Abad plain, but its underground water has not studied. In this research, it is attempted to identify the factors which are affecting the level of underground water changing in the Safi Abad plain that its results can be used to control and manage its groundwater
    Materials and Methods
    For doing this research, was first determined the scope of the study. Then Statistics data which are related to groundwater was obtained from the Regional Water Authority of North Khorasan province. The climate studies were performed by using Safi Abad and Esfarayen weather stations statistics. The information of smart meters was obtained through experts from the Regional Water Authority. The issues which are related to draw the diagrams and plans were done by using the mini-tab, Excel, spss and Adobe Illustrator software.
    Results and discussion
    Safi Abad plain is located in the eastern part of Iran, in coordinates between 57-39˚ and 58˚ 06˚eastern longitude, and 35˚36 to 36˚55 northern longitude. The hydrographs study of groundwater of this plain indicates that the groundwater levels were reduced significantly. In the early studies, it was assumed that in the reduction of groundwater of this plain were affected because of the factors such as rainfall, increasing in population, political issues, irrigation systems, and Installing smart meters. On the basis of assumptions, the effect of rainfall was first studied. The average rainfall is 259 mm in this plain. The correlation between precipitation and groundwater level by SPSS software indicated that there is not the significant relationship between rainfall and groundwater. Also, the rainfall magnitude of 40 years was normal in this plain., In addition, water withdrawal is considered as another effective factor in this area, which is related with increasing population. The population of SafiAbad has doubled from 1335 to 1395. Moreover, with conversion Safi Abad to city, the population immigration from surrounding villages was led to an increase of in groundwater withdrawal of the plain.  Fines for unauthorized water withdrawal also do not have a positive effect on controlling of groundwater in this plain because fines which are considered for these issues were not deterrent. Some researchers consider new irrigation techniques are useful to reduce water withdrawal. Although the use of these methods has increased on this plain, it does not prevent the depletion of groundwater level because farmers have cultivated another part of its land. The use of smart meters is one of the most recent groundwater controlling methods, which is considered. for the first time in this plain has been investigated, the effect of these meters which has installed in three stages. The first step was before the installation of the meters when the level of water had dropped sharply, after the installation of the meters, their effects were not very clear since the 2011 and for the first time the surface of the groundwater level in this plain was higher than the data line.
    Conclusion
    One of the plain where its groundwater level is decreasing is Safi Abad plain. In the early studies, it was assumed that this decrease is because of the factors such as precipitation, population increasing, the development of the Safi Abad and changing to the city, political issues, irrigation systems and installing smart meters. The study of rainfall statistics indicated that precipitation in this plain has not reduced in recent years, so that rainfall cannot have considered as a reason for this issue. The second assumption was related to the excessive overtaking of groundwater because of population growth. The population of Safi Abad has doubled from 1956 to 2016, which this increasing has doubled the water requirements. Elections have had an impact on this issue as a political result which is noticeable during the 1998-1997. Also, the fines which were considered for water withdrawal have not been able to overcome excessive consumption. The use of modern irrigation methods in this plain cause water saving consumption, but it has not been able to reduce groundwater withdrawal because farmers has been cultivated another part of this plain. But the installation of intelligent meters somehow is considered as the factor could reduce the water withdrawal which would prevent about 10 million cubic meters of unauthorized water withdrawal in the Safi Abad plain.
    Keywords: Safi Abad plain, Groundwater, Smart meters
  • Shahla Paimozd*, Mohammad Reza Rezaei, Mohamad Javad Rezaei, Jafar Rezaei Pages 43-58
     
    Introduction
    Groundwater is one of the main sources of drinking water, agriculture and industry. It is worth noting that groundwater is considered as reserve resources in some areas, while in other areas it may be used for supplying potable water due to their availability (Daliakopoulos et al., 2005; Nayak et al., 2006). Groundwater analysis is an essential factor in maintaining its access. Modeling and predicting the groundwater level for environmental protection, maintaining the balance of the groundwater system, controlling changes in groundwater levels and protecting the escalation of land subsidence are important. Groundwater management techniques and solutions, and control measurements by researchers and operators to address the long-term problems of land subsidence and groundwater conservation (Affandi and Watanabe 2007; Mohanty et al., 2015). The main aim of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of evolutionary neural network models in the monthly groundwater level estimation.
    Materials and methods
    In this study groundwater level, precipitation, evaporation, annual average temperature and effective influence between 1993 and 2016 were used. The purpose of this study is applying neural networks to estimate the groundwater level. To use the neural network, we must optimize the weights and biases of the network. In this research, weights and network biases were obtained using optimization algorithms such as genetic algorithm, particle swarm algorithm, Imperialist Competitive algorithm and ant colony algorithm.
    Results
    Different control parameters have been used for models, and they are compared with each other based on the mean square error and the coefficient of determination. All four models showed the best accuracy for input combinations. Comparison of the results shows that the ANN-GA model has a better performance than the other three models for groundwater level estimation. The advantages of GA are: 1) The nature of the random search of this algorithm in the problem space is in some way a parallel search. Because each of the random-generated chromosomes generated by the algorithm is considered as a new starting point to search for part of the problem-space and searches in all of them simultaneously. 2) Due to the breadth and dispersion of the points to be searched, it yields a satisfactory result in issues of great search space. 3) A kind of random search is targeted and will come from different paths to different answers. In addition, there is no limit to the search and selection of random answers. 4) Because of the competition, the answers and the selection of the best among the population, with a high probability, will reach the optimal level. 5) Its implementation is simple and does not require complex problem-solving procedures. It can be said that this algorithm may be a good candidate for hydrological modeling. Investigating the trend of groundwater level changes in the plain over a period of 22 years shows that from 1993 to 2006, due to excessive withdrawal and droughts, the level of stagnation with a steep slope has fallen. Since then, with the arrival of the water of the Karkheh Dam and the reduction of withdrawal, the groundwater level of the plain table has risen and reaches 14 meters in 2015.

    Discussion & conclusion
    Most commonly used methods for training neural networks from descending gradients using back propagation are to calculate real gradients. In recent years, some researchers have developed evolutionary techniques for estimating groundwater level changes, including genetic algorithms (Dash et al. 2010, Jalakamali and Jalakamali 2011), Imperialist competition algorithm (Tahershamsi and Sheikholeslami 2011), particle swarm optimization (Xi et al. 2012, Gaur et al. 2013) and comparing these methods with each other (Kisi et al., 2017). In addition to the above-mentioned models, the ANN-ACOR model was also used. Comparison of the results shows that the ANN-GA model has a better performance than the other three models for estimating groundwater level, which contradicts the results of (Xi, 2012) and (Gaur, 2013), and matches with the research (Jalalkamali, 2011) and (Dash, 2010).
    Keywords: Groundwater Changes, Evolutionary Neural Networks, Genetic Algorithm, Particle Swarm Optimization, Imperialism Competition Algorithm, Ant Colony Optimization, Modeling
  • Reza Ghasemi, Fasaei*, Samira Keshavarz, Zohre Bolhasani Pages 59-72
    Introduction
    Zinc (Zn) is an essential nutrient for optimum plant growth and development. Zn deficiency is a constraint especially in calcareous soils located in arid and semi-arid zones of Iran. It is important to know the distribution of Zn among different chemical forms to understand the chemical reactions of this element in the soil and to develop soil testing procedures. Ziaeian and malakouti (2001) reported that due to different reasons such as high pH and exceed use of phosphorus fertilizers (Sepahvand and forghani, 2011), more than 60 percent of Iran's soils have a zinc deficiency problem, with an average product reduction of about 50 percent. Plant canopies keep a large percentage of plant and animals in itself. The characteristics of soils such as fertility and chemical forms of nutrients can be influenced by plant canopies because canopy with different mechanisms improves the nutritional status of the soil. Higher microbial activities in the soil beneath canopy is due to more rhizosphere leakage than the interspace soil resulted in increasing the organic matter mineralization, nitrogen fixation and solubility of potassium, phosphorus and zinc elements (Meena et al, 2017). Little information is available regarding the influence of plant canopies on the redistribution of chemical forms of Zin in arid and semi-arid zones. The objectives of present study are, therefore, to investigate the impact of canopies of Alhagi camelorum and Peganum harmala, two common plant species of arid and semi-arid regions on the redistribution of chemical forms of Zn using sequential extraction technique.
    Material and methods
    This study was conducted in Fars province at two areas with different climates, e.g., moisture and temperature. In present study, chemical forms of Zn in the soil beneath canopy and the interspaces soil of Alhagi camelorum and Peganum harmala plants in Bajgah and Chahtiz were investigated using sequential extraction method. Samples were collected from 0 to 20 cm depth under-canopy and interspace soil (about 75 cm far from the plants). Also, the values of pH and organic matter, which are effective on the chemical form of this element, were measured. Seven chemical forms of Zn including soluble and exchangeable, Zn associated to carbonates, organic materials, Mn oxides, amorphous Fe oxides and crystalline Fe oxides and also residual form were extracted using the method proposed by Singh et al. (1988). The concentration of Zn in each chemical form was measured using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Shimadzu-AA-670 G, Japan). Data related to the influences of plant species, canopy and location of sample collection on the chemical forms of Zn were statistically analyzed using SAS software package. Means were compared by using Duncan’s multiple Range Teat at p≤ 0.05.
    Finding and Results
    Results showed that the soil under canopy had higher organic matter, but lower pH as compared to interspaces. Among different chemical forms, the values of Zn in forms of soluble and exchangeable, organic matter-bound and bound to manganese oxide was higher in the soil beneath canopy of both plants as compared to the interspaces soil. In Bajgah site for both plants the values of soil organic matter and also organic matter bound Zn and soluble and exchangeable Zn were higher than those of Chahtiz. But in Bajgah, Zn bound to crystalline Fe oxide was lower. The amounts of carbonate bound Zn, and also Zn associated with Mn oxides and residual Zn were not significantly different among two sites. In general, the relative amount of the chemical forms of zinc were as follows: residual >> crystalline iron oxide bound > amorphous iron oxide bound > Manganese oxide bound > Carbonate bound > organic matter bound > soluble and exchangeable.
    Discussion and Conclusion
    This study showed that most of Zn most was present in the residual form that is unavailable to plants. Comparison of the two studied regions showed that in Bajgah region available forms of Zn such as soluble and exchangeable and organic matter bound were higher than Chahtiz region. Generally, it appears that the positive effects of Alhagi camelorum and Peganum harmala plants canopies on increasing the available forms of Zn in the soil beneath canopies, was due to lower pH and higher organic matter in the soil beneath canopy in comparison with interspace soil. Also, lower pH and higher organic matter in the soil beneath canopy of Bajgah as compared to Chahtiz caused the presence of higher values of available forms in the former as compared to the latter. Overall, it appears that the presence of plant species including Alhagi camelorum and Peganum harmala caused increases in the values of Zn forms with higher availability in the soils of arid and semi-arid regions.
    Keywords: Sequential extraction, Calcareous soils, Zinc availability
  • Hamze Ahmadi, Yahya Esmaeilpour*, Abbas Moradi, Hamid Gholami Pages 73-88
    Introduction
    Desertification, the process of land degradation in arid semi-arid and sub humid areas, is one of the most complex environmental and socio-economical threatening events. Global desertification has serious implications for biodiversity, environmental safety, poverty eradication, socioeconomic stability and sustainable development around the world. The most suitable method for determining the severity of desertification hazard is the use of empirical models. To evaluate desertification, various studies have been carried out both inside and outside the country, which has led to the provision of many regional models, including ESAs and IMDPA models. In the Jaz_Murian basin, the presence of natural constraints along with the lack of suitable economic and cultural infrastructures has led to excessive utilization of natural resources and has exacerbated secondary problems such as migration and poverty.
    In addition, in recent years, the Jaz_Murian wetland has been wrecked and the desertification signs are intensifying in the region, so that the studied area has been identified as one of the centers of refuge in Iran. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to use IMDPA and ESAs desertification hazard models to assess the hazard of desertification.
    Research Methodology
    The studied area is located in Kerman and Sistan and Baluchestan provinces with coordinates 33 26 to 36 29 north latitudes and 16 56 to 26 61 east and 69374 square kilometers. In this study, according to Jaz_Murian province conditions, studies of two ESAs and IMDPA models were used to assess the hazard of desertification.
    Five criteria were used to assess the hazard using the IMDPA model. Each criterion consists of indicators that according to its effect on desertification and according to the region conditions, weighted from 1 to 4. Finally, based on the average of the indicators, a map of each criterion was obtained.
    Based on the weighted average of the criteria map, the IMDPA model for the desertification hazard map was prepared for Jaz_murian. The ESAs model also uses a mathematical method similar to that of IMDPA. In the ESA model, three soil criteria, vegetation and climate were used. The range of scores for model indicators is 1 to 2. Finally, desertification hazard maps were obtained using two models.
    Here Q1 is indicative of water and climate components, Q2 the geology and geo-morphology, Q3 the ground cover and geo-morphology and Q4 the societal aspect. 
    Results
    Geomorphic facies were used to assess the hazard of desertification using IMDPA and ESAs desertification models. The Jaz_murian area consists of twelve facies; the upper facies of the highest mountains with the highest 1837679.51 hectares (26.3%) were Jaz_Murian.
    Desertification models were evaluated in each of the geomorphic facies and finally the desertification hazard class was obtained for each facies.
    The results of the study of the hazard map of desertification with the IMDPA model showed that Jaz_Murian province consists of three classes I, II and III of desertification, with the lowest class with 52.22% of the area's area has the highest area. 19.46 percent of the area is in severe desertification. Based on the ESA model, the Jaz_Murian area was divided into four classes (No effect, potential, fragile and critical) and seven subclasses (N, P, F1, F2, F3, C1, C2). Among the classes, the sub-class F2 (29.68%) of the region had the highest surface area.
    Discussion and conclusion
    The results of this study showed that, based on the IMDPA model, the majority of the study area (52.22 percent) is at low risk class (I). The ESAs model also divides the area into four classes of desertification risk that the fragile class having the largest area. Soil and vegetation criteria in both IMDPA and ESAs are the most effective factors in desertification of Jaz_murian area.
    Flood plain units have been identified as the most critical part of the region due to heavy clay, clay and drainage, with the highest ESAI (ESAI = 1. 53), which requires more attention.
    The sand dune workshop with a value of 1.52 is next due to the depth of the soil and the lack of vegetation, and requires management arrangements in this area.
    The results of the two models show that the ESAs model is efficient in the Jaz_Murian area versus the IMDPA model.  Finally, it is suggested using ESA model to propose appropriate management plans to control desertification.
    Keywords: Criterion, Soil, Vegetation, Climate, Desertification class
  • Fatemeh Shaker Sureh, Esmaeil Asadi* Pages 89-100
    Introduction
    The occurrence of droughts in a region is closely related to water supply. Since water supply in each region is related to the climatic regime of that area, so the definition of droughts varies according to the conditions of each region. Drought can be attributed to a period of abnormally dry conditions that is sufficiently long to produce an imbalance in the hydrologic state of an area. Monitoring systems play an important role in the management of drought plans. The beginning of droughts is due to the occurrence of the meteorological drought caused by the precipitation shortages. The hydrological droughts are usually more delayed than the meteorological or agricultural droughts.
    Materials and Methods
    The purpose of this study is investigating the effects of the meteorological and hydrological droughts of Salmas Plain on the fluctuations of the groundwater level in the period of 1986-2017. In this study, the data synoptic stations and hydrometric stations, as well as aquifer level of Salmas plain, were obtained from Regional Water Company of West Azerbaijan. After sorting the data, SPI, SRI and GRI drought indices were calculated. The effects of drought on the Groundwater fluctuations are investigated with calculating three indicators, Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), Standardized Runoff Index (SRI) and Groundwater Resources Index (GRI) in the case study of Salmas plain. The Pearson correlation coefficient and Paired-Samples T Test were calculated between SPI and GRI, and SRI and GRI. These indicators are almost appropriate indicators for investigating the effects of drought on the groundwater resources.
    Results
    The results showed the significant relation between SPI-12 and SRI-1 with GRI index. These results indicate that meteorological drought has a significant relation with hydrologic drought, especially in the short-term scale and lags occur between the hydrological and groundwater drought. According to the results from the beginning of the statistical period of the study until 2009, the Metrological and hydrological and groundwater droughts have a direct relations with each other; however, after 2009 despite the favorable condition of rainfall, groundwater level is not in a favorable situation, which can because of the excessive water use of groundwater. SPI indicates a drought with a moderate intensity during the statistical period. This index shows the drought in the region during the years of 1998-2003 and 2008-2010. SRI was calculated only for three stations that located upstream of dams in the Salmas plain. According the SRI, the drought has happened in the period of 2001-2017. GRI in Salmas plain shows the groundwater drought from 2000 to 2017.
    Discussion and Conclusion
    Salmas plain is a drought-sensitive region in Urmia lake basin and due to the development of agriculture in this region and the exploitation of the groundwater resources for agricultural and even drinking purposes. Undoubtedly, one of the reasons for Groundwater decline is the usage of these resources to provide water for various sectors. The groundwater drought has been influenced by the other factors more than the meteorological drought and hydrological drought. One of the reasons could be Groundwater depletion that is primarily caused by sustained groundwater pumping. Other factors such as the geological structure of the region and the soil permeability of the Case study also play a significant role. The results of the research in the region showed that there is a 1-Month delay between the meteorological drought and groundwater drought and the 6-Month delay between the hydrological drought and groundwater drought.
    Keywords: Groundwater, Drought, Salmas Plain, SPI, SRI, GRI
  • Ali Mahdavi*, Zohreh Rezavinia, Masoud Bazgir, Mahmoud Rostaminia Pages 101-113
    Introduction
    The rapid concentration of greenhouse gases (GHGs) especially carbon dioxide (CO2) is considered as the main cause of global warming and climate change. Todays, the change and conversion of forest lands and rangelands to agricultural lands has become one of the important concerns in the world in terms of environmental degradation and global climate changes. Land use change causes disturbance of the ecosystem and can influence the carbon stocks and fluxes. Soil organic carbon tends to be decreased when transforming grasslands, forest or other native ecosystems to croplands or agricultural lands. Therefore, the estimation of carbon storage would be useful to evaluate the amount of carbon potentially emitted to the atmosphere due to land use changes.
    Aims
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the soil quality indices and amount of carbon sequestration in four land uses namely oak forest (natural), pine and cedar (plantations), agriculture, and under tree crown cultivation in oak forests in Chaghasabz forest park in Ilam.
    Materials and Methods
    For this purpose, 10 soil samples from each land use (total of 40 samples) were taken from 0-30 cm depth of soil using systematic random sampling method. In addition to measuring the amount of carbon content of soil, some physical and chemical properties of soil (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, lime, clay, silt, sand, acidity, electrical conductivity, bulk density and soil stability) were also measured in each land use. Statistical analysis of physical and chemical properties of soil for four land-uses was carried out base on a systematic randomized design with 10 replications for each land use. Normality of data using Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and homogeneity of variance of data were analyzed based on Levene test. To compare soil quality and carbon sequestration properties in different land uses, one-way analysis of variance (F test) was used and the Duncan test was used for grouping and comparing the averages at 95% confidence level.
    Results
    The results showed that the soil carbon sequestration in under tree crown cultivation (58.09 ton/ha) and natural oak forest (56.72 ton/ha) was significantly higher than the two other land uses namely pine and cedar plantation (37.95 t ha-1) and agriculture (31.80 tons / hectare). However, there was no significant difference in soil carbon sequestration between the two land uses namely natural oak forest and under crown oak trees cultivation. The results of Pearson correlation test between soil physical and chemical indices showed that the cation and potassium exchange capacity are positively correlated and lime has a negative correlation with the amount of organic carbon.
    Discussion and Conclusion
    The results showed that the soil quality in the natural oak forest is more favorable than the other three land uses. Therefore, based on the results of this research, the need for preserving the natural forests and preventing it from changing into other land uses, including agriculture should be emphasized.
    Keywords: Agriculture lands, Forest park, Oak forest, Under- story cultivation, Ilam province