فهرست مطالب

  • سال چهل و چهارم شماره 4 (پیاپی 88، زمستان 1397)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/12/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 12
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  • شهاب الدین زارع زاده مهریزی، اسدالله خورانی*، جواد بذرافشان، ام البنین بذرافشان صفحات 587-602
    در حوضه رودخانه ها رژیم طبیعی جریان در حفظ تنوع زیستی، بومی و یکپارچگی اکوسیستم نقش مهمی دارد. لذا مطالعات هیدرولوژیک هر حوزه تحت شرایط تغییر اقلیم جهت ساماندهی و مدیریت آن ضروری است. این پژوهش در حوزه رودخانه گاماسیاب به عنوان یکی از سرشاخه های اصلی رود کرخه انجام شده است. در پژوهش حاضر از خروجی های مدل CSIRO-Mk از سری مدل های CMIP5 و دو سناریویRCP2.6 RCP8.5 برای آینده نزدیک (2020 تا 2049 میلادی) و آینده دور (2070 تا2099 میلادی) استفاده شده است. در این پژوهش از مدل SWAT نیز برای شبیه سازی هیدرولوژیکی جریان استفاده شده است. از شاخص های حداقل دبی هفت روزه، حداکثر دبی هفت روزه، تداوم سیلاب، ضریب تغییرات و میانگین دبی برای بررسی تغییرات جریان استفاده شده است. نتایج نشان می دهد رژیم جریان تحت سناریوهای مختلف در دوره آتی تغییر خواهد کرد. شدت این تغییرات در آینده نزدیک کم و هرچه به سمت پایان قرن حاضر پیش برویم بیشتر خواهد شد. تحت سناریو RCP2.6 ضمن افزایش آب در دسترس از شدت سیلاب ها و وقوع سیلاب های ناگهانی کاسته می شود. از طرفی تحت سناریو RCP8.5 با کاهش آب در دسترس احتمال وقوع سیلاب های ناگهانی و خطرات ناشی از آن افزایش می یابد.
    کلیدواژگان: گاماسیاب، رژیم جریان، مدل SWAT، مدل های CMIP5
  • فاطمه درگاهیان*، مهدی دوست کامیان صفحات 603-623
    پدیده گردوغبار یکی از بلایای مهم آب وهوایی در بسیاری ازکشورهای جهان بویژه درکشورهای واقع درمنطقه خشک ونیمه خشک ست. این مطالعه به بررسی و شناسایی الگوی فضایی مکانی هسته های گردوغبار استان خوزستان پرداخته است. برای این منظور داده های گردوغبار 20 ایستگاه سینوپتیکی از سال 1986 تا 2016 از سازمان هواشناسی کشور اخذ شده است. ، داده ها به دوره های آماری 5 ساله تقسیم شدند. سپس برای بررسی الگوی خودهمبستگی فضایی از دو شاخص هات اسپات(G*،) و شاخص موران (I) استفاده شده است همچنین برای بررسی جهش رخداد گردوغبارها از نمایه الکساندرسون (SNHT) بهره گرفته شد. نتایج حاصل از این مطالعه نشان داد که رخداد گردوغبارهای استان خوزستان طی دوره های مختلف در بخش های غربی و جنوبی شدید تر بوده است. از طرفی از دوره سوم به بعد رخداد گردوغبارها به سمت دوره های اخیر روند افزایشی قابل محسوسی تری داشته اند. نتایج حاصل تحلیل الگوی خودهمبستگی فضایی هات اسپات بیانگر این است که در دوره اول تا سوم هسته ای گردوغبار به صورت لکه هایی در بخش هایی از مرکز، شمال (بخش های از صفی آباد دزفول) و بخش های از جنوب و غرب استان خوزستان پراکنده شده است؛ در دوره های اخیر هسته های فضایی گردوغبارها بیشتر بر محور نوار مرزی خوزستان با عراق تمرکز یافته است.
    کلیدواژگان: خودهمبستگی فضایی، شاخص هات اسپات(GI*)، شاخص موران (I)، نمایه الکساندرسون
  • میرمهرداد میرسنجری*، سحر عابدیان صفحات 625-642
    آگاهی از میزان فرسایش و پهنه بندی مناطق می تواند نقش موثری در امر حفاظت از خاک داشته باشد. هدف از تحقیق، تهیه نقشه پتانسیل هدررفت خاک براساس معادله تجدید نظر شده جهانی هدررفت خاک در حوضه آبخیز قره سو است. میزان هدررفت خاک از تلفیق فاکتور های فرسایندگی باران، فرسایش پذیری خاک، طول و درجه شیب، پوشش گیاهی و عملیات حفاظتی حاصل گردید. نتایج نشان داد که مقادیر فرسایش از صفر تا بیش از 650 تن در هکتار در سال متغیر است. نتایج نشان می دهد 9/65 درصد از وسعت حوضه در فرسایش متوسط (1/9 درصد) تا زیاد (8/56 درصد) قرار می گیرد. براساس نتایج، در نواحی شمالی به دلیل کاهش تراکم پوشش گیاهی و کاربری کشاورزی آبی علی رغم کاهش فاکتور طول و درجه شیب و نواحی جنوبی به علت تراکم پوشش گیاهی متوسط و طول و درجه شیب زیاد، میزان فرسایش افزایش پیدا کرده است. همچنین نواحی میانی حوضه به دلیل پوشش جنگلی پرتراکم کمترین میزان فرسایش خاک را داشته است، اگرچه این مناطق شیب 10 تا 30 درجه داشته اند. همچنین نتایج نشان داد فاکتور پوشش گیاهی با ضریب تبیین (69/0) بیشترین تاثیر را در برآورد پتانسیل هدررفت خاک داشته است. نتایج این پژوهش می تواند در پیاده سازی اهداف مدیریت خاک و اقدامات حفاظتی در حوضه آبخیز موثر باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: پتانسیل هدررفت خاک، پهنه بندی فرسایش خاک، فاکتور فرسایندگی باران، RUSLE
  • عرفان خداویسی، حسن سجادزاده*، محمد معتقد صفحات 643-652
    امروزه در اکثر کلانشهرها و شهرهای بزرگ رشد و توسعه ساختمانهای بلند مرتبه مشهود است و اثرات مثبت و منفی زیادی را برجای گذارده است. در این میان، یکی از جنبه های اصلی تاثیرگذاری ساختمانهای بلند مرتبه، تاثیر برآسایش اقلیمی است. روش انجام این پژوهش به این صورت که در ابتدا مولفه های موثر بر آسایش حرارتی با مطالعه ی و بررسی دیگاه صاحب نظران به دست آمد.برای تجزیه وتحلیل داده ها از نرم افزارAutodesk Flow Design وEcotect Autodesk استفاده گردید. نتایج به دست آمده از تحقیق نشان می دهد که برای برج آریان در فصل پاییز باید تمهیدات بیشتری برای ایجاد سایه استفاده کرد در فصل زمستان باید شرایط بهره گیری بیشتر از آفتاب و کاهش جریان باد را دنبال کرد.اما در برج زاگرس در فصول بهار تابستان و پاییز باید تمهیدات بیشتر را برای بهره گیری از سایه و جریان باد به کار گرفت و در فصل زمستان شرایط برای بهره گیری از آفتاب بیشتر کاهش جریان هوا مورد استفاده قرار گیرد. لذا این پژوهش تلاش می کند تا پس از بررسی تجارب عملی ونظری مطرح در این حوزه، اصول و رهنمود های طراحی را در مبحث آسایش حرارتی ارائه نماید.
    کلیدواژگان: آسایش حرارتی، آسایش زیستی، ساختمان های بلند، خیابان بوعلی همدان
  • سحر ندایی طوسی*، عاطفه ملک خانی صفحات 661-688
    تداوم رویکردهای مرسوم و یک سویه ی رشدوتوسعه در دهه های اخیر، مبتنی بر مدل های اقتصادی هزینه-فایده و حسابداری های مالی، نگرانی های جهانی شدیدی را در سرتاسر جهان برانگیخته است. این الگوها، گرچه باعث ارتقاء شاخص های رشدوتولید ثروت شده اند، اما عمدتا به تنزل و افت محیط زیست، افزایش آلودگی ها، تخریب و زوال منابع محیطی، توزیع نابرابر ثروت و در نتیجه ناپایداری توسعه در کشورها و مناطق منجر شده اند. در راستای تحقق وعملیاتی سازی رویکردهای پایدار توسعه در سال های اخیر انگاشت اقتصادسبز، به مثابه اقتصادی سازگار بامحیط زیست، کم کربن و با انتشار پایین، به جریان اصلی گفتمان توسعه واقتصاد تبدیل شده و مدل های عملیاتی متعددی نیز جهت سنجش وضعیت و ارزیابی عملکرد کشورها و مناطق در راستای این هدف پیشنهاد شده است. بااعتقاد به کاستی روش های مرسوم ارزیابی و رتبه بندی در سنجش قیاسی وضعیت مناطق، در این پژوهش از روش شناسی پویا و چندجزئی نوینی برمبنای"تحلیل گونه شناسی" در چارچوب روش تحلیل(فشار-وضعیت-پاسخPSR) استفاده شده است. در این رابطه، با نیت پرداختن به موضوع اصلی "آسیب شناسی وضعیت وجایگاه مناطق استانی ایران برحسب انگاشت اقتصاد سبز"، هدف "تدوین چارچوب مناسب سنجش و ارزیابی وضعیت قیاسی مناطق استانی برحسب انگاشت اقتصاد سبز" در دستورکار قرار گرفته است. به عنوان برون دادپژوهش، مناطق به شش گونه مناطق ابتدایی(توسعه نیافته)، مناطق ناپایدار، مناطق دارای رشد لجام گسیخته، مناطق حفاظتی و توزیعی، مناطق درحال گذار به سوی اقتصاد سبز و مناطق دارای اقتصادسبز طبقه بندی شده ودر نهایت و متناسب با جایگاه هر منطقه چهار رویکرد حفاظت مطلق/پیش گیری، پیشایندی یا ترمیمی، پایداری و نوآوری اکولوژیک پیشنهادشد.
    کلیدواژگان: اقتصاد سبز، توسعه پایدار، چارچوب سنجشی اقتصاد سبز، برنامه ریزی منطقه ای، مناطق استانی ایران
  • ایمان سعیدی*، حسن دارابی صفحات 689-701
    فضای سبز شهری از قطب های مصرف کننده آب در شهرهاست. وابستگی فضای سبز به منابع آب زیرزمینی در ایران منجر به کاهش سطح آب زیرزمینی و افزایش تقاضا برای آب شرب شده است. شهرها با خلق سطوح نفوذ ناپذیر منجر به ایجادسیلاب و کاهش تغذیه آب های زیرزمینی در فصل بارش می شوند. شهر مهاجران یکی از این شهرهاست. به نظر می رسد طراحی شهری حساس به آب توام با طراحی کولوژیک که بر استفاده بهینه از منابع موجود و استفاده مناسب از آنها دارند می تواند راهکار مناسبی برای تعدیل اثرات سوء کم آبی باشد. در این مطالعه ابتدا منابع و مصارف آب مبتنی بر رویکرد طراحی شهری حساس به آب در شهر مهاجران تحلیل و در ادامه استراتژی_هایی به منظور توسعه فضای سبز در چارچوب طراحی اکولوژیک و با استفاده از منابع آب شناسایی شده، ارایه شد. نتایج نشان می دهد منابع آب غیرمتعارف پتانسیل قابل توجه ای در جایگزینی با منابع آب زیرزمینی برای آبیاری فضاهای سبز در محدوده مطالعاتی دارند. لذا استراتژی های توسعه منظر در محدوده با استفاده از بهترین اقدامات مدیریتی از رواناب شهری، ذخیره آب باران در خانه های مسکونی، تصفیه فاضلاب برای توسعه منظر و فضای سبز مقاوم به خشکسالی پیشنهاد شد.
    کلیدواژگان: طراحی اکولوژیک، منابع آب، طراحی شهری حساس به آب، شهر مهاجران، کم آبی
  • احمد نوحه گر، مریم حیدرزاده*، آرش ملکیان صفحات 703-720
    پیش بینی رفتار هیدرولیکی کانال خور گورسوزان در مقابل سیلاب های احتمالی جهت کاهش خسارت وارده به مناطق شهری، تاسیسات در حال ساخت در اطراف خور از اهمیت ویژه ای برخوردار می باشد. هدف این تحقیق تلفیق مدل هیدرولیکی HEC-RAS با نرم افزار ARC GIS و از طریق الحاقیه HEC-geoRAS به منظور شبیه سازی پارامترهای هیدرولیکی کانال خور گورسوزان شهر ساحلی بندرعباس می باشد. به منظور ارزیابی مدل، طی 5 واقعه بارش در 3 نقطه از کانال خور اندازه گیری عمق و سرعت آب با استفاده از اشل و مولینه انجام شد. از شاخص های ناش- ساتکلیف (N.S) و میانگین مربع خطا (RMSE) برای واسنجی و اعتبارسنجی دبی سیلاب استفاده شد. نتایج نشان داد طبق معیارهای آماری عمق آب (میانگین ضرایب اعتبارسنجی N.S=0.733 و RMSE=0.1296؛ صحت سنجی N.S=0.753 و RMSE= 0.0828) و سرعت جریان(میانگین ضرایب اعتبارسنجی N.S=0.7085 و RMSE=0.0705؛ صحت سنجی N.S=0.8102 و RMSE= 0.0352)، مدل شبیه سازی شده کارایی مناسبی دارد. براساس نتایج سناریوها، خورگورسوزان ظرفیت انتقال دبی منطقه شهری را دارد و با وجود دبی از بالادست شاهد سیلاب های شدیدی خواهیم بود. همچنین نتایج نشان داد از کل مساحت در قلمرو سیل 100 ساله، به طور متوسط حدود 5/50 درصد مستعد سیل گیری توسط سیل های با دوره برگشت 25 سال و کمتر از آن است.
    کلیدواژگان: خور گورسوزان، سیل، پهنه بندی، ظرفیت هیدرولیکی، آنالیز حساسیت
  • سمیه سلیمانی علیار، رسول یار احمدی* صفحات 721-733
    تصفیه آلاینده های هوا با استفاده از تکنیک های تلفیقی پلاسما- کاتالیست رویکردی قابل قبول، با کارآیی و اثربخشی اقتصادی در دنیا محسوب می شود. حذف آلاینده CO منتشره از منابع ساکن و متحرک در محیط های باز و بسته مبتنی بر روش تلفیقی پلاسما - کاتالیست با پایه ی فلزات گرانبها توسط تعدادی محققین گزارش شده است. در تحقیق حاضر، حذف این آلاینده در حالت تلفیقی پلاسما با کاتالیست فلزات اکسید فلزی مخلوط کم بها مورد هدف واقع شده است. راکتور تلفیقی تک مرحله ای (1PDC) متشکل از فیلم کاتالیست اکسید فلزی گاما آلومینا، سریم و زیرکونیوم (2CZA ) لایه نشانی شده به روش سل ژل- غوطه وری در نقش کاتالیست در داخل ناحیه تخلیه پلاسمای سرد استفاده گردید. طراحی آزمایشات و شرایط عملکرد مطلوب برای آزمایشات راکتور تلفیقی، با درنظر گرفتن شرایط بهینه عملکرد راکتورهای پلاسما و کاتالیتیک انتخاب شد. میانگین راندمان حذف CO (33/36 درصد) در شرایط بهینه راکتور تلفیقی تک مرحله ای معادل دمایoC 80 ، زمان ماند 13/0ثانیه، نسبت پروپان به کربن مونوکساید 05/0 و مصرف انرژی ورودی ویژه j/l 860 به دست آمد. نتایج حاصل از تحقیق، اثر مثبت هم افزایی دو تکنیک پلاسما و کاتالیتیک در حذف آلاینده بوده و فاکتور سینرژی در شرایط بهینه فوق برابر 03/2 به دست آمده است.
    کلیدواژگان: کربن مونوکساید، پلاسما- کاتالیست، PDC، حذف، سینرژی
  • بنفشه کاویانی فر*، بابک توکلی، جواد ترکمن، ابوالفضل محمدطاهری صفحات 735-746
    سواحل دریا از جمله مناطق گردشگری هستند که در قالب پلاژهای ساحلی مورد استفاده قرار می گیرند. هدف از این تحقیق، بررسی کمیت و کیفیت پسماند های تولیدی سواحل شهر نور در سال 1397-1396 و تخمین سناریوهای مدیریتی مناسب پسماند می باشد. داده های به دست آمده به وسیله نرم افزارهای excel و spssمورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار گرفت تا آزمون های آنالیز واریانس یک طرفه و توکی اجرا گردد. نتایج نشان داد، درصد اجزای پسماند به ترتیب شامل مواد فسادپذیر(50/53) درصد، پلاستیک(39/17) درصد، کاغذ و مقوا(48/8) درصد، سایر(69/6) درصد، شیشه(98/4) درصد، PET (22/4) درصد، پارچه(96/2) درصد و فلز(77/1)درصد می باشد. مقدار سرانه تولید پسماند به ازای هر نفر 620/0 کیلوگرم در روز می باشد. با توجه به نتایج به دست آمده، به دلیل افزایش میزان پسماند تولیدی و تعداد مراجعین در تابستان و ایام نوروز، سیاست های تفکیک از مبدا توسط مراجعین و اخذ تضمین وجه مناسب جهت بازگرداندن اجزاء تر و خشک پسماند به عنوان روش مدیریتی پیشنهاد می شود. علاوه بر این به دلیل قابلیت تبدیل بخش قابل توجهی از پسماند تولیدی به کود، ایجاد واحدهای ورمی کمپوست پیشنهاد می گردد. از طرفی(8/39) درصد پسماند تولیدی، قابلیت بازیافت دارد که می توان گام موثری در زمینه بازیافت آن برداشت. همچنین به دلیل بالا بودن سطح آب های زیرزمینی منطقه و آلودگی منابع خاک و آب، اجرای دفن بهداشتی پسماند پیشنهاد می شود.
    کلیدواژگان: کمیت و کیفیت پسماند، مناطق ساحلی، شهر نور
  • نرمین عبداللهی، سعید دهستانی اطهر*، مهدی صفری، مریم صفای، هیوا دارایی صفحات 747-761
    هیومیک اسید در آب های سطحی، از تجزیه بقایای گیاهان و حیوانات به وجود می آید. این آلاینده در فرآیند تصفیه آب، اصلی ترین پیش ساز محصولات جانبی گنذزدایی است. در این مطالعه حذف فتوکاتالایستی هیومیک اسید با استفاده از نانوذرات دی اکسید تیتانیوم آلایش شده با نیتروژن، آهن و منگنز (MnFeN-tridoped TiO2) بررسی شد. این تحقیق به صورت تجربی-مداخله ای در یک رآکتور ناپیوسته در مقیاس آزمایشگاهی انجام شد. تکنیک های XRD، FTIR، SEM و EDX جهت ساختارشناسی نانوذرات سنتز شده با روش سل-ژل بکار برده شد. اثر پارامترهای pH (11-3)، دوز نانوذره (g 5/2-5/0) ، غلضت هیومیک اسید (mg/l 50-2) و منبع تابش نور (مرئی و فرابنفش) در مدت زمان معین آزمایش گردید. همچنین تجزیه فتوکاتالیستی هیومیک اسید توسط نانوذرات TiO2، N-doped TiO2 و FeN-codoped TiO2 به طور جداگانه در شرایط بهینه مطالعه شد. نتایج نشان داد که راندمان تخریب هیومیک اسید توسط MnFeN-tridoped TiO2 در شرایط بهینه، به میزان 72/86 درصد در برابر نور فرابنفش و 05/63 درصد در برابر نور مرئی بدست آمد. بر اساس یافته های این تحقیق، تخریب فتوکاتالیستی هیومیک اسید، با افزایش دوز کاتالیست افزایش و با افزایش غلظت اولیه آلاینده و مقدار pH کاهش می یابد. همچنین افزایش کارایی دی اکسید تیتانیوم آلایش شده نسبت به دی اکسید تیتانیوم خالص مشاهده شد.
    کلیدواژگان: فرآیند فتوکاتالیستی، دی اکسید تیتانیوم آلایش شده، رادیکال هیدروکسیل، هیومیک اسید
  • ملیکاسادات امیرزاده، ناصر برک پور* صفحات 763-781
    یکی از جدیدترین رهیافت ها در عرصه پژوهش های مرتبط با تاب آوری، تاب آوری اجتماعات محلی است. اما با وجود تدوین چارچوب های متعدد تاب آوری اجتماعات محلی، ملاحظه می گردد که پژوهشگرانی اندک بر اتخاذ دیدگاه ذی نفعان در اجتماعات محلی و در برابر مخاطرات آهسته و تدریجی، نظیر خشکسالی و خشک شدن رودخانه ها و آبراه ها متمرکز بوده اند. این در حالی است که از دیدگاه بسیاری از پژوهشگران تاب آوری، پدیده ای پیچیده، چندبعدی، محدود به زمینه و وابسته به فرهنگ است. به همین دلیل پژوهش حاضر بر آن است تا از طریق تشریح نظرات و تجربه های ذی نفعان و متخصصان، به مفهوم سازی و تدوین چارچوب ارزیابی تاب آوری دو اجتماع محلی همجوار با مادی ها در شهر اصفهان (محله عباس آباد و محله برازنده) بپردازد. بدین منظور در این پژوهش، پارادایم تفسیری و طرح پژوهش کیفی مد نظر قرار گرفته است. به منظور گردآوری داده ها از تکنیک مصاحبه استفاده شد و تحلیل داده ها با روش تحلیل محتوای کیفی و با بهره گیری از نرم افزار ATLAS-ti صورت گرفت. در مجموع 32 مصاحبه با ساکنان و متخصصان مختلف در دو اجتماع محلی مورد نظر در شهر اصفهان انجام شد. نتایج به دست آمده نشان می دهد که تاب-آوری در این دو محله، قابل مفهوم سازی در دو سطح اصلی جامعه و اجتماع محلی است.
    کلیدواژگان: تاب آوری اجتماعات محلی، مفهوم سازی تاب آوری، تحلیل محتوای کیفی، ATLAS-ti، اصفهان
  • سعیده خاک سفیدی، بهزاد وثیق*، محسن تابان صفحات 783-798
    با خشک شدن دریاچه هامون خاصیت فرسایش بادهای 120 روزه در سیستان افزایش یافته است. با توجه به شدت این بادها و حجم بسیار ذرات شن و ماسه که با خود حمل می کند مهار و پاک سازی آن بسیار دشوار است. در کنار انجام برخی مسایل زیست محیطی، قرارگیری مناسب ساختمان ها نیز می تواند به کاهش آسیب های ناشی از این بادها کمک کند. این مقاله بر شبیه سازی جریان هوا مرتبط با طوفان های شن و ماسه ، با مطالعه ی نحوه ی قرارگیری ساختمان ها می پردازد و هدف این است که به این نکته پی برده شود که چه نوع جانمایی از ساختمان ها در گونه ردیفی می تواند عبور شن و ماسه را تسهیل کند و تا آنجا که ممکن است رکود شن و ماسه در منطقه ساختمان را کاهش دهد. مدلسازی ساختمان ها با استفاده از نرم افزار سه بعدی اتوکد انجام شد و شبیه سازی جریان هوا با استفاده از نرم افزار شبیه سازی سیالات Flow 3D مورد بررسی قرار گرفت و هر بار رفتار جریان هوا در مدل های مختلف آزمایش شد. رابطه ی بین سرعت باد شهری و پارامترهای مورفولوژیکی مانند هندسه ، رابطه با زمین، تراکم و محصوریت بین ساختمان بررسی گردید و این نتیجه حاصل شد که سرعت باد شهری می تواند به کاهش رکود شن و ماسه با در نظر گرفتن مقادیر مناسب این پارامترها کمک کند.
    کلیدواژگان: سیستان، بادهای 120 روزه، شبیه سازی CFD، رکود شن و ماسه
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  • Shahaboddin Zarezadeh Mehrizi, Javad Bazrafshan, Omolbanin Bazrafshan Pages 587-602
    The first effects of climate change are visible on temperature and precipitation; changing these variables will disrupt the current order of the hydrological cycle. The new state of the hydrological cycle causes a change in the flow regime. Natural flow regime plays a major role in sustaining native biodiversity and ecosystem integrity in rivers (Poff et al., 1997). Stream flow regime alteration may also affect aquatic organisms, sediment movement and flood plain interactions (Gibson et al., 2005). Characterization of flow regime has been examined by Mohammad et al. 2015 via metrics that describe the magnitude, frequency, duration, timing and rate of change for stream flow. Their results in the Champlain lake basin in the United States indicated 30% increase in 7 day maximum flow, an increase in flood days, and a threefold increase of the base flow index.
    Material and Methods
    Study area The Gamasiab River watershed is located between Hamedan, Kermanshah and Lorestan provinces. The watershed area is about 11690 square kilometers, with 515816 hectares of agricultural land, 619583 hectares of pasture, 4938 hectares of urban land, and 28663 hectares of others lands. In this study, the SWAT model was used to simulate flow discharge. The SWAT model needs three maps to simulate discharge including digital elevation map (DEM), soil and land use map. This model divides sub-basins into a number of hydrologic response units (HRUs), each HRU is the main simulation unit in the SWAT model (30). Daily precipitation (Pcp), minimum and maximum air temperatures (Tmin and Tmax) for the period from 1977 to 2005 were obtained. The daily discharge in the Polchehr hydrometric station during the years 1977 to 2005 were used for calibration of the model as well as the comparison of changes in flow regime under climate change conditions. Optimization of parameters and uncertainty analysis of the SWAT model were performed by using SWAT-CUP software by the SUFI2 algorithm (Sequential Uncertainty Fitting Ver. 2). In order to simulate and predict the effects of climate change in the future, general circulation models (GCM) were used. The main problem in using general circulation models in regional research is their large scale. There are various methods for producing regional climate scenarios from these models, which called downscaling (38). In this research the Change Factor Mean-Based Method was used to downscaling CMIP5 models. The flow regime and its changes were studied under conditions of climate change for high flow disturbance and low flow disturbance distribution. The distribution of high flow was investigated by using three indexes including 7-day maximum flows (7QMAX), a high discharge distribution (Q1.67) and flood duration (FLDDUR). A seven-day minimum flow (7QMIN) parameter was used to investigate the distribution of low flows. The Daily flow Coefficient of variation was also used to show the overall changes of the flow regardless of the time series. 7-day maximum flows are the average of maximum daily discharge of seven days per year. For this purpose, the moving average of the daily discharge in seven-day is calculated for each year and the biggest one selected as 7-day maximum flows of the year (9). The Q1.67 index is defined as Flow of magnitude exceeding a return interval of 1.67 years based on a log-normal distribution (13). Flood duration (FLDDUR) is also the average number of days per year when flow equals or exceeds Q1.67 (27). Seven-day minimum flows are the average of minimum daily discharge of seven days per year (27). The Kernel probability density graph was used to show the flood duration for observational data and scenarios
    Results
    The results of future flow simulation in the Gamasiab basin show that the mean of the discharge based RCP2.6 scenario will be close to 36.6 m3/s in the near future, which is slightly more than the mean of the discharge in observation period (33.1m3/s). Continuing this scenario would increase the average of discharge by 17.8% and reach 40.4m3/s in the future. The average discharge under RCP8.5 scenario will be reduced to 30.6m3/s in the near future, and the continuation of the RCP8.5 scenario in the far future will cause a very sharp decrease in average of discharge and reach 19.1 m3/s. The 7QMAX changes under RCP2.6 scenario in the near future show the same trend by comparing observation period. The average of 7QMAX in the observation period is 209m3/s. Under the RCP2.6 scenario, the average of 7QMAX in the near future will reach 154.4m3/s, and in the far future it will reach 183.7m3/s. The 7QMAX under the RCP8.5 scenario will be reduced in the near and far future. The average 7QMAX in the near future will be close to 146/6 m3/s, and in the far future it will reach 96.8m3/s. The 7QMIN in the near and far future will be a little change compared to the observation period. The average of 7QMIN in the observation period is 2m3/s, and this average under RCP2.6 scenario for the near and far future will be 1.2 and 1.6 m3/s respectively. Under the RCP8.5 scenario, 7QMIN will be significantly reduced, with an average of 0.9 m3/s in the near future and 0.48 m3/s in the far future. With the fitting of the log-normal distribution, the maximum instantaneous velocity of the discharge was calculated with a return period of 1.67 years, thus, the value of Q1.67 was calculated 211.29m3/s.To calculate the flood duration in each year, the number of days which flow was equal to or greater than Q1.67 was counted. According to the kernel density diagram, during the observation period and the selected scenarios, flood events with a maximum of 5 days duration are most likely to occur. It is also observed that under RCP2.6, in the near and far future, the probability of occurrence of floods with longer duration is expectable.
    Discussion
    The study shows that the Gamasiab River watershed is flashy. Under the scenario RCP2.6, which is a favorable scenario with minimal greenhouse gas emissions, the coefficient of variation will be reduced significantly. It can be concluded that in addition to increasing the average of the runoff under RCP2.6, the flash floods of the river will reduce. In this regard, Wu et al. (2015) achieved similar results. Under the scenario RCP8.5, more floods in the Gamasiab River watershed occurs. Alkama et al. (2013) and Dirmeyer et al. (2014) also predict more flooding event under the RCP8.5 scenario. The 7QMAX and 7QMIN in all scenarios will decrease compared to the observation period. In both indexes, the lowest decreases are under RCP2.6 in far future, and the largest decline is under RCP8.5 in the far future. The results of Papadimitriou et al. (2016) show a decrease in minimum flow, but the results of Mohammed et al. (2015) indicated 7QMAX increase and a minimum discharge increase as well. The kernel chart in observation period shows that the duration of floods occurrence most likely is maximum 5 days. Under RCP2.6, in the near future floods with a maximum duration of 5 days are the most likely to occur but are less than the observation period, instead of under RCP2.6 10 to 15 days of floods duration are more than the observation period. Base on this chart it can be concluded that under the scenario RCP2.6, the duration of the floods will be increase compared to the observation period, and it will be longer in the end of this century, In this regard, Mohammed et al. (2015) predicted an increase in flood days. The results under the RCP8.5 scenario indicate that the flood duration in the near future will be dramatically reduced and at the end of the current century, the flood frequency with a discharge equal to or greater than Q1.67 will be sharply reduced.
    Keywords: Gamasyab, Flow regime, SWAT, CMIP5
  • Fatemrh Dargahian *, Mehdi Dostkamian Pages 603-623
    Dusting phenomena are among the most serious environmental problems in certain areas of the world. Most of the dust in the atmosphere is due to the origin of fine particles, and these fine particles are more prevalent in the arid and semi-arid regions of the world. In general, a dust storm is a heavy wind that carries sand particles in the air and transfers them from one place to another. The diameter of the particles of these grains has a direct relation with the wind speed, so winds can transport more coarse material faster and vice versa. In examining the scientific sources available in the field of dust, it can be concluded that so far there has been a lot of research in this regard. And in most of these studies, the transmission, publication, synoptic causes and the destructive effects of this phenomenon are expressed. In this research, we try to investigate and analyze the spatial pattern of dust and changes in spatial displacement of these patterns during different periods.
    Materials & Methods
    The purpose of this study was to investigate and analyze spatial Autocorrelation of Khuzestan province over recent decades. For this purpose, data collected from 20 synoptic stations on a daily basis from from 1986 to 2016 were obtained from the country's Meteorological Organization. In order to investigate more accurate changes of dust, the spatial variations of Dust cores were investigated and analyzed in six periods of 5 years ((1990-86, 1995-1991, 2000-1996, 2005-2001, 2010-2006, 2016-2011) and three decades (1995-1986, 2005 1996, 2006, 2016-2006) was analyzed. In order to obtain a general view of the dusts of Khuzestan province, some descriptive characteristics of the dusts of Khuzestan province were first studied and analyzed. The Alexander's method was then used to identify the dominant mutations in the Khuzestan circle. In this study, two parameters of Moran (I) and GI * index have been used to study and analyze the spatial pattern of dusts of Khuzestan province.
    Discussion of Results
    The results of the frequency distribution of dust in different periods showed that in the first period (1986-1986), the Core of the occurrence of the summits was observed in the central parts of Khuzestan province and south, while during the second period Core events It is formed in the form of spots in northern parts of the province. In the third period (1996-1996), the core of dusts are almost the same as in the first period, with the exception that during this period the severity of the events has decreased. Distribution of dust events in the fourth period (2005-2001) has almost reached the same level as the second period, with the exception that the aggregate core have tended to be closer to the border areas of Iran and Iraq. In the fifth period (2010 - 2006) and the sixth period (2016-2011), the frequency of the occurrence of storms in comparison to previous periods, in addition to being increased, has been observed more in the border areas of Iran and Iraq. The results of spatial pattern changes in the dusts of Khuzestan province showed that the positive spatial Autocorrelation pattern on the districts of the province was more dispersed in the first three periods more sporadically, especially in central parts, southern parts and insignificant parts of Northern Province. Since the third period, the spatial variations of the dust patterns of Khuzestan province have been quite evident. The status of the spatial autocorrelation pattern of dust on the annual scale is approximately the same as the pattern governing the dust of the fifth and sixth periods. In the annual scale, the pattern of the dusty areas of the province in the border areas and parts of Ahwaz has formed a high cluster pattern and the southeastern regions and parts of the north of the province, especially Hossein, have a low cluster pattern (negative spatial autocorrelation pattern). As a result of recent periods, the pattern of positive spatial Autocorrelation patterns is more concentrated in the border areas of Iran and Iraq and southern parts of Khuzestan province. The low cluster pattern (negative spatial Autocorrelation pattern) is more focused along the Zagar Mountains and the southeastern provinces of the province.
    Conclusions
    The dusty phenomenon is one of the most important climatic events in many parts of the world, especially in countries in the dry and dry land, especially in the subtropical regions. In this study, the spatial pattern core of dust the Khuzestan province has been investigated. Then, the spatial autocorrelation pattern was used from two indicators of the Hot Spot Index (GI *) and Moran (I) or Moran Index. The results of this study showed that the dust of Khuzestan province were more severe in the western and southern parts of the country. On the other hand, since the third period, the incident has increased dramatically over recent periods. The results of the analysis of spatial autocorrelations hotspot indicates that during the first three core dust for spots in parts of central, northern (part of Safiabad) and parts of South and West Khuzestan province scattered. The low cluster pattern (negative spatial autocorrelations pattern) is further concentrated along the Zagros Mountains and the southeastern provinces of the province. So, we can say that as far as recent periods are farther away from the border regions, the severity of positive spatial mapping patterns is reduced and, in spite of the severity of the spatial autocorrelations pattern, is increased.
    Keywords: spatial Autocorrelation, hotspot index, Moran index, index of Alexanderson
  • Mir Mehrdad Mirsanjari *, Sahar Abedian Pages 625-642
    Introduction
    Soil erosion is one of the serious land degradation processes, which can be exacerbated by intensification of land utilization, land degradation and global climate change. Therefore, it is necessary to take actions such as management, conservation, and control in the watershed to restore the soil production potential and to prevent further damages. Generally, experimental methods and field observations are often time consuming and costly in developing countries. Therefore, use of alternative and less expensive methods such as various erosion risk models are more desirable to predict and assess of soil erosion rate. The zoning models of soil erosion potential identify critical areas to erosion. Awareness of erosion rate in watershed helps planners and managers to identify critical areas of the watershed as well as to select and prioritize appropriate practices and conservation strategies to control erosion and conservation of natural resources. A wide range of empirical models has been developed to quantify and assess the soil loss. Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) is one of the most widely used erosion models to soil loss predictions that introduced by Wischmeier and Smith in 1965. The advantage of this model is its convenience in implementation and compatibility with GIS technique, which can be considered as an efficient approach for estimating the magnitude and spatial distribution of erosion. In conclusion, the study shows the application of the RUSLE model in estimating the total annual erosion rate in Gharahsoo watershed, north of Iran. By applying erosion models, we are able to identify the areas with high erosion potential in watershed, and then prioritize them for soil conservation schemes.
    Material & Method
    Soil erosion is one of the environmental problems that can be considered as a serious threat for natural resources, agriculture, and the environment. This study aimed to qualitative estimation of annual soil loss in the Gharahsoo watershed, northern Iran, using the RUSLE model in Geographic Information System (GIS) technique framework. The soil erosion parameters were evaluated for this model applying different methods. The parameters involved: soil erodibility factor (K), rainfall erosivity factor (R), land cover management (C), slope length and steepness factor (LS), and support practice (P). The R-factor map was obtained from the rainfall data, the K-factor map was obtained from the litological map, the C factor map was generated based on Landsat-ETM image, and the LS-factor was generated by using digital elevation model with a spatial resolution of 30m. Because the watershed doesnt has conservation practices, the P-factor map was assigned the value of 1.0 for the watershed. The spatial distribution of soil loss in the watershed was generated by overlaying and multiplying pixel-by-pixel soil erodibility factor, rainfall erosivity factor, land cover management, slope length and steepness factor, and support practice.
    Discussion of Results
    RUSLE is an empirical model that has the ability to estimate average annual rate of soil loss. Several data were used for the production of RUSLE factors that each factor is represented as a map layer in the GIS-based database to quantify, evaluate, and generate the map of soil erosion potential. Soil erodibility factor (K) The soil erodibility factor determines intrinsic susceptibility of soil particles to detachment and transport by runoff and raindrop impact according to soil texture, organic matter, and permeability. For the present study, the soil erodibility (K-factor) was generated with the use of the soil map provided by the Soil Geographic Data Base of Iran at the scale of 1:100,000. By considering the particle size, permeability class, and organic matter content, the K-value for the soil types were obtained from the USDA soil erodibility nomograph (Fig. 2). Soil erodibility values vary from 0.08 to 0.48 t ha MJ-1 mm-1. Rainfall erosivity factor (R) The rainfall factor determine the erosive power of rainfall to soil erosion that kinetic energy of rainfall (A storm’s maximum 30-min precipitation intensity) is used for indication of erosive power. If the values of these factors have not recorded at meteorological stations, researchers can use readily available rainfall values like annual rainfall that have correlated with R-values. The R-factor for Gharahsoo watershed was calculated according to available station data. After calculation of the MFI value, the rainfall erosivity was estimated by equation. The R-factor was in the range 3.9 to 274.2 MJ mm ha-1 h-1yr -1. The highest R-values prevail in the southern part of watershed and the lowest occurs in the upper of watershed. Land cover and management factor (C) The land cover management factor (C) reflects the effect of vegetation cover on soil erosion. Plant cover can protects the soil surface from runoff velocity. In order to determine the C factor coefficient, the NDVI layer is required. The NDVI layer was produced by Landsat–ETM satellite image. Then the C factor layer producted according to NDVI values. The C factor coefficient was in the range 0.002 to 1.0. As a result, the mean C values range inside the watershed from 0.002 for the forest class to 1.0 for the bare land and residential area categories. Slope length and Steepness factor (LS) The slope length and steepness factors (LS) are topographic factors that reflect the effect of topography on soil erosion. The LS calculation was performed using flow accumulation and slope steepness. The flow accumulation and slope steepness were computed from DEM layer using ArcGIS Spatial analysis plus and Arc hydro extensions. The LS factor values in the watershed vary from low 0 to high 32.6 %. High LS values are associated with steep slopes greater than 15°- 20° and 20°- 30° slope category in the middle and lower of the Gharahsoo watershed. Support practice (P) Because most regions in Gharahsoo watershed have no conservative practice management, so the P factor coefficient has been assigned as 1.0. When all factors required for the RUSLE were prepared, these data layers were overlaid and multiplied pixel-by-pixel for soil loss per year according to the RUSLE equation.
    Conclusion A
    quantitative assessment of average annual soil loss for Gharahsoo watershed was undertaken applying GIS based well-known RUSLE equation, which considers rainfall, soil, land cover pattern and topographic datasets. In the studied watershed, the land use pattern in potential areas to soil erosion indicates that areas with natural forest cover in the have minimum rate of soil erosion, while areas with human intervention have higher rates of soil erosion. By reviewing the value of parameter A and correlation coefficient of the study area, we noted that the cover management and slope length and steepness factors were more influential than the others. The highest amounts of erosion have occurred in the north and southern regions. In the central parts of the watershed, in spite of high values of LS factor (10– 30), the areas depict low to moderate erosion potential. This is due to the dense forest coverage in the region that decreases the energy of rain droplets. In the southern part of the watershed, the erosion rate increased by factors such as steep slopes and medium vegetation density. The predicted amount of soil loss and its spatial distribution can provide a basis for comprehensive management and sustainable land use for the watershed. Areas with high and severe soil erosion warrant special priority for the implementation of controlling practices.
    Keywords: Potential annual soil loss, Zoning of soil erosion, Rainfall erosivity factor, RUSLE
  • Erfan Khodaveysi, Hassan Sajadzadeh *, Mohammad Motaghed Pages 643-652
    The effect of high-rise buildings on the pedestrian thermal comfort in urban areas, based on the Penn index. Case Study of Hamadan Jihad Axis (from Bu Ali Sina Square to Jihad Square) Erfan Khodaveysi1, Hasan Sajadzadeh *, Mohammad Motaghed3 1. Master of Urban Design, Faculty of Arts and Architecture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran. 2. Associate Professor, Faculty of Arts and Architecture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran. 3. . Master of Urban Design student, Faculty of Arts and Architecture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran. In relation with buildings behavior against wind, could be said that, buildings, because of being three dimensional, allow air flow around lateral sides same as their top.The wind (air) diverts into 3 sides following contact on unpermeable building, top of roof, lower face to wind edge and sides of the building the most of main flow is transferred to bottom of wall face to wind which cause to increase of small vertical flows back to the wind created by around short buildings and makes extreme vertical flow near the ground. If, the building to have sharp corners, the increasing wind flow separates on top and sides of building. In result, a suction wind is created for roof, sides and back to the wind wall, from the main perturbation which tall buildings are creating, could refer to downward wind stormy flows and towards street that, in cold climates, this phenomenon could have unpleasant effect on residents. The proportion of width, height and direct of radiation influence greatly on thermal comfort level on the street level and enclosure rate of passage becomes determinant factor. The shadowing in streets, most important, is dependent on main geometry of internal space of street and could be considered function of time. Location and geometric proportions of the street in termis of quality.Generally, tall buildings could be described based on two indices, i.e. height limit determination and settlement location.the city of Hamedan which is the center of Hamedan province, was located on foothill of Alvand. The height of these mountains reduce towards city until reach on a plain. These mountains enclosed Hamedan and only from northeast side, have open and free span. The Hamedan- Tehran road passes through this span. The altitude of Hamedan is 1747 m. The easternmost and westernmost points of Hamedan are 49', 27" and 48', 20" away from Grennwich meridian respectively and was located in median of 34', 35" to 35' northern latitude. In view of topography. Hamedan, from south and south west leads to heights of Zagros mountaion range such as Alvand with 3574 m altitude which was located between Tuyserkan and 18 km from Hamedan that come back to third era of geology and as move toward north, the level of heights is reduced and in north parts of city, reach to plains with average 1550 altitude which these figures show height difference about 2020 m. the general slape of the area which Hamedan is located on it is toward north and only in parts of north east, the general slope changes toward west. Baded on it, it became possible to recognize using type in whole unit and is appreciable the utilization type of passages in different hours of day and various parts of the road. The conducted interpretations and land use map. The review of available activites on Jahad road, has introduced this road as an active commercial road with 90 percent activity, this fact is justifiable with regard to location of Jahad road along the old bazaar of Hamedan. The reason for selection of this road is the presence of tall buildings of trade and administrative ones (Arian and Zagross towers).The methodology of research is of description analytical one. In the present research, we conducted library research on Persian and English resources and also field review following recognition of influensive factors on comfort through these resources and determination of research frame in next step in order to designate the heights of total buildings was specified. Also, the latest weather data of Hamedan was prepared from provinces meteorology organization (temperature, wind speed…). Following review the height data of buildings, total of these data has became three- dimensional in AutoCAD software. With regard to placement position. Construction masses were reviewed through the year, and time gap to analysis were considered as the middle of urdibehesht, Mordad, Aban and Bahman months and also in daily reviews, was based on 10 Am and 16 pm. After that, high- rise buildings were recognized with regard to components of high-rise buildings. Then, data related to temperature and shadow mask and air flow one were analyzed in Ecatect and Air flow Design softwares respectively and the results of this research was obtained. Based on provided case, could recognize that through context comfort index could benefit from provided quidence in order to evaluation of thermal situation of one location, determination of it's eating demands and in result, designation of confrontation politics in order to control and promotion of thermal comfort conditions.For example, if it is inferred from comfort index such, the weather of an urban space will be felt comfortable because of presence of shadow and sensible wind flow in summer, it means that, should utilize the solutions related to provision of shadow and increasing wind speed and more ventilation of space and if it is inferred, the weather of desired urban space will be felt comfortable because of presence of sun and lack of sensible windflaw in winter, it means that, designer should utilize design quidences in terms of provision of more sun and reducing wind flow in order to provide space thermal comfort.With regard to that, Hamedan is located in cold and mountainous climate, it firstly was seemed, the presence of tall buildings would disturb the comfort of passengers. But, following review the high-rise building in temrs of thermal comfort on BuAli road, could conclude that, any of these buildings provide different comfort conditions for passengers in various environmental situation and couldn't considers high- rise buildings generally, unsuitable for comfort of passengers. 1) In order to prevent turbulent wind flow on the passage as much as possible should avoid construction of tall buildings over than 25 m around urban spaces. 2) in the case of construction of tall buildings over than 25 m around urban spaces, in order to divert the created wind pressure by these buildings on the passage, the surface toward urban space of these building should have projections and depressions. 3) In order to reduce the created downward wind pressure around the tall buildings inside the urban spaces, it is recommended that, tall buildings to have circular or poly gonal form. 4) in order to reduce the effect of downward vortex and consequently, promotion of comfort conditions against the winter wind, the tall building should have circular and aerodynamic comers and it's narrow front be toward winter wind and/ or be angular relative to wind. 5) In order to prevent from intensification of created turbulent flows by tall buildings around or inside the urban spaces, the concave front shouldn't be used for the front face to winter wind. 6) In order to prevent from intensification of the effect of corner around tall buildings, it is recommended that. Tall buildings with wide plates don't be directed against dominant wind. 7) In case of locating passage beside the tall buildings, in order to protect passage surface from created corner effect by tall buildings, the passage should be preserved with windbreak. 8) In order to reduce underside winds in urban spaces in cold season for buildings higher than adjacent ones face to wind, they should be designed as stepping and retreat form Retreat should be started from 6-10 m above street level. Key words: Thermal comfort, Tall Buildings, Hamadan Jihad Axis
    Keywords: Thermal comfort, Biological comfort, high buildings, Bou Ali Boulevard, Hamadan
  • Sahar Nedae Tousi *, Atefeh Malekkhani Pages 661-688
    In recent years, the concept of ‘green economy’ has become mainstream in the economic development debate. Like the vague concept of sustainable development, there is still no comprehensive definition and model for green economy and green growth. Despite the difficulty of distinguishing this concept from sustainable development, most scholars believe that the green economy is a new redefinition of sustainable development, as well as the new agenda and pattern for the 21 Century, which seeks to provide innovative solutions to various global challenges within the framework of ecological capacities. The Green Economy Theory points out economic systems must be committed to the logic of ecological systems. However, what is clear is that It intents combating stagnation and ensuring long-term economic security while simultaneously reducing carbon and achieving sustainable development. This trend has led to the introduction of global development strategies around the world and the transformation of policies towards new low-carbon or zero-carbon economic sectors. Green economy is defined as equivalent to environmentally compatible economy with low carbon content and low emissions, which respects ecological frameworks and capacities while supporting the peaceful coexistence of humans and nature. The theoretical foundations for the green economy show that most of the existing approaches and assessment models, which aim to determine the status and position of regions and countries in terms of the green economy, have tried to reach this goal through the composite index using bench-marking methods. Among the main shortcomings of this method are to ignore the interrelationships and causal relationships among variables that are combined mostly with the same weight in the form of a role (independent or dependent variables). In order to confront the shortcomings of the aforementioned, the writers proposed a different methodology based on a typological analysis to measure the sustainability of these regions. Acknowledging the pitfalls of global ranking and benchmarking methods in the context of deductive assessment of regions, in this research, a new methodology and a multidisciplinary analysis-based model has been used in the framework of pressure-state-response (PSR) analysis. With an intention of addressing the question of “what the status and challenges of urban regions are in regards to green economy”, this study aims to develop a framework for assessing the analogical snapshot of urban regions in regards to green economy and the pathology of the situation of these regions. In terms of the case study context Iranian provinces are selected Based on the PSR Sustainability Model, answering the three fundamental questions for achieving the goals of sustainability is in the agenda: (a) How is the current status of the environment? This question is answered in the current situation in terms of assets and natural resources and human resources; (b) what is the reason for this situation as the result of what pressures on the environment? In this regard, the tensions and pressures on the environment come from nature (direct) and also as a result of human production and consumption (indirect) activities; (c) What activities and responses have been put in place by the communities to respond to the current state of the environment to alleviate and counteract the negative effects of human activities? This is a question sought by all plans, programs, actions, new technologies, resource and energy efficiency, environmental considerations, laws and regulations, and, in general, community action to address environmental instability. The answer to these three questions is in the form of a green economy sustainability system. On the other hand, it is necessary to study the status of production, income and employment (distribution of wealth) in the context of the ‘growth and development system’ dimension. The results present the regions under six categories—i.e., undeveloped, unstable, with unsustainable growth, protected, distributional, emerging regions. Finally, according to the status of each region, four absolute protections/prevention, contingency, or restorative, sustainability and ecological innovative have been proposed. Based on the proposed methodology of the research, in order to provide an accurate understanding of the relative situation of the provincial regions, the four-dimensional analyzing and assessing logic of analogy for the regional state according to the composite index of the green economy. Based on the logic depicted in the following conceptual diagram, the regions are classified according to their state in one of these four dimensions based on the six states:  that have a relatively higher productivity, economic growth and competitiveness, but at the same time have made a lower relative pressure on the environment and also provide optimal response to environmental issues are classified as the regions with green economy.  Regions with a relatively high productivity, economic growth and competitiveness (higher than average) and at the same time have brought a relatively low (below average) pressure on the environment, provided that they offer an appropriate response to environmental issues, are classified as the regions moving towards a green economy.  Regions with a relatively high impact on environment (above average) experience a range of very high to moderate growth and are categorized as the regions with unpredictable growth. Of these, the regions that are facing environmental poverty and have not responded adequately to environmental challenges, are far more unsustainable.  Regions that have a low growth and production but at the same time add high pressure to the environment are categorized as unstable regions.  Regions of relatively low growth and low pressure on the environment are classified as protective regions.  Regions with very low economic growth, which have little impact on the environment are classified into undeveloped and basic regions. Based on this conceptual classification and the analysis made in the following diagram: (a) There are no provinces with the green economy in the country; (b) Yet, the province of Semnan can move towards the green economy in case of providing measures to confront existing environmental issues and planning to respond to environmental challenges. This will be achieved by adopting strategies such as enhancing carbon efficiency, energy efficiency, resource efficiency, managing the production structure towards environmental product and services as well as managing and implementing environmental regulations and training green skills. Also, Kohkiluyeh and Boyerahmad province can maintain this in case of controlling the pressure on the environment by improving the tension and water poverty, reducing carbon dioxide and carbon emissions in different sectors, with an emphasis on oil and gas industries, as well as optimizing water consumption and energy carriers.  Ilam, South and North Khorasan provinces are considered as undeveloped regions.  Hormozgan, Khuzestan, Yazd, Markazi, Tehran, Kerman, Isfahan, Qazvin and Fars provinces are growing rapidly due to high consumption and high pressure on the environment. Thus, they are far from achieving the status of green economy. Among all, Tehran province will have the opportunity to access the green economy due to the better position in the environmental responses in case of controlling the pressure on the environment and improving the productivity of the economy. But provinces such as Yazd and Hormozgan will lose their resilience in the face of the ongoing economic downturn and environmental constraints (natural poverty), and will face future constraints on economic growth, which leads to a state of complete instability. Other provinces of the country are considered unsustainable because they have neither good economic efficiency nor proper control of their environmental pressures. Among them, the provinces of Qom, Zanjan, Hamedan, Golestan and Alborz have a much more critical situation because of the limitations and poverty that they have in terms of renewable and non-renewable environments and the quality of human environments as well as human health and safety.
    Keywords: Green Economy, Sustainable development, Green Economy Measurement Framework, Regional Planning, Iran's Province
  • Iman Saeedi *, Hassan Darabi Pages 689-701
    Increasing urbanization has a profound effect on the ecological structures. One of the most important challenges is water shortage. Concurrently, urban green space is major water consuming. The green space dependence on groundwater and drinking water in Iran has led to a decline in groundwater levels and increasing water demand. While, cities embrace impervious surface which not only create run off, but also it determinate recharge and flood in rainy seasons. Mohajeran is one of those cities facing with these problems. It seems that water sensitive urban design (WSUD), beside ecological design frameworks are able to represent appropriate solution. In this study First, the sources and uses of water is identified on basis of water sensitive design then, the strategies for green spaces development in the city of Mohajeran is presented. The results indicated that potable water resources (Runoff, rain and grey water) have a considerable potential to substitution with groundwater resources in watering the green spaces. Therefore, development strategies were proposed to develop drought resilient green space on basis of the best management practices such as urban runoff management, rainwater harvest in residential houses, sewage treatment.
      Introduction
    Today, cities face a variety of challenges, but also complex, which is called as wicked problems. Climate change with increasing frequency and severity of rainfall, long periods of heat and drought, urban population growth and its consequences, water crisis and its supply challenges, environmental pollution in all its dimensions, and extensive changes in land use are among these issues. Meanwhile, the interaction of climate change, water and urban environments, and the challenges it poses, is a challenging part of the issue. There are different approaches to integrate managing water resources in urban areas. This theme was titled "Integrated drinking water management" between 1960 and 1970 by the Civil Engineering Society. This topic has been introduced as “low impact development” in the United States, “sustainable drainage system” in the UK, water sensitive urban design in Australia and New Zealand, “the sponge cities” in the Netherlands, or generally known as the Green-Blue Infrastructure. Australia is antecedent in developing of water sensitive urban design (WSUD) approach due to climate change and drought. WSUD is based on decentralizing approach in water resources management which focuses on a local Practice. Its purpose is to Plan and design of urban fabric to manages and protect natural water cycles in the urban environment in a way that ensures the sensitivity of water management to hydrological, natural and ecological processes. This approach seeks to manage two contradictory problems of flood / runoff and water stress which caused by drought. For this reason, it tries to conceive the cycle of water as a multi-layered system and, avoiding isolated and fragmented approaches, manage water system in the artificial environment and ecosystem appropriately. WSUD Approach includes two key dimensions: the first dimension is water sensitivity consideration and design is the second dimension. In the first dimension, the integrity of water management in the urban environment is considered. While, the planning and design landscape in related to the management of water resources is addressed. In hydrology the concept of ecological design is well defined by Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD). Ecological design could be considered alongside of WSUD in landscape design which is any form of design that minimizes environmentally destructive impacts by integrating itself with living processes. Nowadays, more than 500 cities in Iran face with water shortage problems. Mohajeran city is one of them which is the subject of this study. This city suffer difficulty emitting runoff during rainy season and suffers from drought in dry season. It seems that the best manner to curb these problems is following WUCD principles and employing ecological principles concurrently. .
    Methods and materials
    Mohajeran city is located at the West of part of Markazi province. Mohajeran's climate is semi dry. The average precipitation of this region is 337 mm rain annually. The city is about 1600 hectares. Total green spaces area is about 160 hectares. Figure 1 shows the location of Mohajeran on the map of Iran, and indicates the study area in Mohajeran which is an urban residential district with an area of 0.19 km2. Fig. 1 Location of the study area in Mohajeran, Iran At first this article reviews WSUD literature related to water shortage conditions, collecting rain water, reusing of gray water in urban landscapes, promoting water consumption efficiency, then applies ecological principle to create an strategic plan to promoting urban landscape. The second part of research was conducted based on ecological design principles that expressed by Van der Ryn and Cowan in 1996. At first a review of WSUD literature related to water shortage conditions, collecting rain water, reusing of gray water in urban landscapes, promoting water consumption efficiency and ecological was carried out. Then we tried to use the ecological design and WSUD concepts in order to design more effective green landscape. To achieve this goal the exact volume of rainwater had to be estimated. So equation1 was used: (1) Where Q [m3] is the annual volume of collect able rainwater; Ca is the average runoff coefficient; S is the seasonal loss coefficient (the ratio of rainfall in rainy season to annual rainfall); I is the initial split-flow coefficient (the ratio of rainfall rejecting first flush to annual rainfall); A [m2] is the rainwater harvesting area; H [mm] is the rainfall with different occurrence probabilities; Ca was estimated by using Eqs. (2) (2) Where Ci is the runoff coefficient of different underlying surfaces; Ai [m2] is the areas of different underlying surfaces It is believed that runoff is a precious resource and should have been used in Mohajeran city but unfortunately has been neglected and many problems such as inundation and flooding and water shortage in dry seasons have roots in ignoring it. Therefore, runoff must be stored and reused. To calculate cisterns which have capability to store water in rainy season and use it during dry season we use equation 3: Cistern capacity can be estimated by using Eq4 (3) Where Ca is the runoff coefficient of different underlying surfaces; Ai [m2] is the areas of different underlying surfaces and h [mm] is the rainfall with different occurrence probabilities Another uncommon water resource in Mohajeran city is grey water. Passing some stages of purification will help it to be reused in landscape irrigation Annual precipitation in the study area is 337 mm so by use of equation 1 the volume of the collectible water is 4021.7 m3 annually. The Maximum volume of runoff is for Rooftops and pavement areathe minimum amount of runoff. Figure 3 shows volume of collectible water in different land uses in the study area.
    Keywords: Ecological Design, Water resource, Water Sensitive Urban Design, Mohajeran, Water shortage
  • Ahmad Noheh Gar, Maryam Heydarzadeh *, Arash Malekian Pages 703-720
    Introduction
     The flood can be considered as the most important natural disaster which has the highest probability to occur, and has the most impact on the people life in comparison with the other natural risks. Furthermore, climate changes increase the probability and frequency of flood. The floods have direct relationship with the social and civil problems, environmental problems, and economic losses. The Hydraulic Simulation Models are a proper substitute for improving and managing the channel function by understanding the flow behavior in channel network. HEC-RAS software is provided by Hydraulic engineering center which is related to the engineering team of America army, to analysis the River System
    Materials & Methods
    The coastal city of Bandar-abbas is the capital of Hormzgan province and is located in the south of Iran. This city has five estuaries. Gor-souzan estuary as a large transmission channel in the center of Bandar Abbas, has major role in moving upstream flood the city to the sea and its environment. The steady area is 0.252 km2. The height change of the district is between 1.05 and 44.58. In the section to determine the exact border of the channel bottom and its surrounding was used of GPS device, the number of the Ground Control Points in each 500 m range was considered 32 points. All of the points were moved to the Arc GIS environment. Then we designed 187 cross- section, 6 bridge structures and 2 culverts. In the area, there is no hydrometric station any discharge registration base. Therefore, we measured the flow speed and depth during 5 event rainfall, in 3 points of the channel, by the help of gauge and Current meter. The Manning Coefficient was checked in the sections that the depth and the speed of the flow were measured between 0.016 and 0.024, and the results were evaluated based on N.S coefficient and squares error and mean. In the study area nearest station, Bandar-Abbas synoptic station with 30 year was used. To determine the absolute sensitivity of each parameter, we calculated the relative sensitivity level (SL) according to it the flow features are categorized based on their level of importance. To analysis the model two methods The Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency and the Root Mean Square Error was used. In order to study the flood and the flood area, we been simulated the hydraulic behavior in four scenarios. The first scenario: in this scenario, we have no input discharge from the upstream basin, and the sea is tide. The second scenario: in this scenario we have input discharge to the urban basin from the upstream out of the city basin, and the downstream condition of the urban basin is sea tide condition. The third scenario: in this scenario, we don’t have the upstream discharge input but, the downstream condition which is the sea is the high. In this condition we measured the water height in the estuary. This measurement was done in the time of maximum high. The forth scenario: In this scenario, for the upstream condition, input discharge of the out city basin, and for the downstream condition, the height of the high water, was introduced.
    Results
    The results showed that by increasing the Roughness coefficient, the amount of the water depth increased but, the flow speed showed an inverse relationship. The results of the evaluation showed that by considering the RMSE and N.S factors for the water depth and the flow speed, the simulation model of HEC-RAS has proper efficiency. The results of the calibration of the Soil Conservative Structure (SCS) is also caused by the proper efficiency of the model. The result conclusions of hydraulic simulation of the under study estuary flow is presented in the following based on the different scenarios. Scenario 1: Based on the first scenario, the capacities of all intervals of the main channel of Gor-souzan estuary have the ability to transport the flows with the different return periods. Of course, in some intervals, some parts of the estuary channels do not have the ability to carry 100 year discharge. But, the most of the intervals own the ability to carry discharge with the different return periods. Scenario 2:In this condition on average, from the first interval to the fifth one, have the ability to carry 10 to 25 year discharge, and in some parts there is the ability to carry discharge with 50 year return period. But in the sixth and the seventh interval, the best ability of these two parts of the channel is in transporting the discharges with under 100 year return period. Scenario 3:In this condition, the situation of the first to the fifth intervals of the channels is the same of that of the first scenario, but in the sixth and the seventh intervals, because of the high water condition and rising the sea water in the estuary, the ability of discharge transportation from these parts in the different return periods decreases to 23.5 and 40 respectively. Scenario 4:Based on the fourth scenario, the first to the fifth intervals show the ability to carry discharges with 25 year return period. The sixth and the seventh intervals, with the high water condition in some sections, and full capacity, generally have shown a good ability to carry discharge with 50 year of return period.
    Discussion and Conclusion
    In this research for zoning the flood risk, the results of the validation showed that this method, by considering data shortage, can present good results, as in the calibration level, on average, the statistical coefficient amount was higher than 0.75, which shows the good simulation (Pluntke et al, 2014). The obtained results from calibration and validation of HEC-RAS model, between the amounts of model simulation and the observations of the water depth and flow showed that based on the statistical coefficients RMSE and N.S, this model has a proper efficiency. Therefore, in each measured sections, the average amount of the roughness coefficient was determined. These results are correspondent to the findings of the Parhi et al 2012; Siqueira et al 2016; Timbadiya et al 2011; Parhi, 2013. Also the findings shows that HEC-RAS model with the high accuracy and low cost can be used for studying the hydraulic features of estuary channel flow, by considering the conditions of Bandar-abbas city which is located on the coast (Silva et al 2014). From the other hand, the two software Arc GIS and HEC-RAS have the proper ability to show the results of the flood zoon, and this is correspondent to Patel and Gundaliya, 2016. The results of the flood zoning shows that from the total of the area in the 100 year flood zoning, exception for scenario 4, on average about 63.34 percent are ready for flood by the floods with the return period of 25 year or less. This is correspondent to the findings of Ghafari et al (2004) Ghafari and Amini (2010), Yamani et al. (2010), Parisaei et al (2014), Golshan et al (2016) who know the percentage of the 100 year flood zone ready for the 25 year floods. Existence of the tide and high water, which has impact on the Gor-souzan estuary channel, is somewhat uncontrollable. Based on the third scenario and the condition of the high water, although some parts are faced rising the water, but still the estuary channel has the ability to transport the 100 year discharge. But, based on the second and the forth scenarios which we have input from the upstream basin of the discharge, the capacity of the channel is decreased extremely and we observe the extreme floods. In fact the estuary channel only has the capacity to transport the discharge of the urban area
    Keywords: Gor-souzan estuary, flood, zoning, Hydraulic capacity, Sensitivity analysis
  • Somayeh Soleimani, Alyar, Rasoul Yarahmadi * Pages 721-733
    Introduction
    air pollution treatment using plasma- catalytic hybrid process is an acceptable approach, accounts for high efficiency and economic effectiveness in the world. In spite of various advantages of non- thermal plasma, two technical problems associated with this technology should be solved before its industrial application. Also, catalytic treatment alone has limitations such as; performance at high temperature, deactivation of catalytic active sites, not economic for treatment of low concentration of pollutants. Therefore, the combination of plasma with catalyst has been interested by most of the researchers. The technology of Plasma driven catalysis (PDC) possess energy saving importance to treatment of exhaust gases from stationary and mobile sources. In comparison with common catalyst, PDC has advantages including high distribution of active species, reduction of energy consumption, increase of catalytic activity and selectivity as well as low sensitivity to poisonous. Removal of carbon monoxide pollutant emitted from stationary and mobile sources at indoors and outdoors based on plasma combined catalyst supported on precious metals, in particular, PGM had been investigated by most of the researchers. In addition to the high cost of these catalysts, they have also performance limitation in low temperatures. At the present study, CO removal using plasma combined mixed metal oxide catalyst has been investigated.
    Materials and Methods
    in present study, three types of reactors have been applied. A coaxial double dielectric barrier discharge reactor (DDBD), a catalytic reactor including catalytic mixed metal oxide film of Ceria-Zirconia- gamma alumina (CZA) coated on quartz tube by sol- gel dipping method, and a single stage plasma- catalytic reactor (plasma driven catalysis) which is combination of two above mention reactors and catalytic film has been applied in NTP discharge zone. In design of reactors, two inner and outer tubes of quartz and Pyrex have been used with outer diameter of 4 and 10mm respectively. It is notable, in catalytic and Hybrid reactors, quartz substrate (inner tube with D_out = 4mm) is coated by catalytic film of CZA. In plasma alone and plasma- catalytic reactors, Tungsten wire is used as cathode, copper foil as anode, and high voltage AC power supply has been applied to support strong electric field. Design of Experiment (DOE) and desired performance conditions for hybrid reactor have been chose by considering of optimum performance condition of plasma and catalytic reactors. Discussion of Results &
    Conclusions
    The effect of gas stream temperature on removal efficiency: This effect is found significant in plasma alone reactor (P-value< 0.05) but not significant in catalytic alone and hybrid reactors (P-value > 0.05). The positive effect of temperature on removal efficiency is described by improvement in the secondary decomposition of hydrocarbons as well as increase of impaction surface of active molecules following suitable temperature and decrease of gas stream viscosity in reactor space. The interaction of gas stream temperature and space time is found significant (P-value< 0.05) in hybrid reactor which, could be important from specific input energy aspect. The effect of space time on removal efficiency: this effect in plasma alone reactor is significant (P-value < 0.05) and the mean removal efficiency is improve with increase of space time. At the catalytic and hybrid reactors, this effect is not significant (P-value > 0.05). However, the optimum condition of removal efficiency is when the space time is decreased. Improvement in removal efficiency of CO due to positive effect of space time is explained by mean power enhancement of discharges and thereby space time increase, as, mean power determines the mean electron density which in turn, gives the excitation rates and molecule separation in gas. Also, from specific input energy aspect, optimum removal efficiency is achieved at low specific input energy (SIE) and lower space time of experiments (0.13 s) at 80 oC. The effect of C3H8/CO ratio on removal efficiency: This effect is positively significant in the catalytic reactor (P-value < 0.05) but not significant in plasma and hybrid reactors (P-value > 0.05). However, presence of propane shows better removal efficiency in both NTP and Hybrid reactors. It is concluded that carbon monoxide removal is being improved due to hydrocarbon decomposition and thereby, generation of hydrocarbon radicals. Figure 1. The optimum performance conditions of CO removal using non- thermal plasma only (a), catalytic only (b) and plasma- catalytic hybrid reactor (c). Temperature and space time interaction: according to data analysis, the interaction of temperature and space time in hybrid reactor is significantly positive (P-value= 0.001) (Figure 2). Based on the studies, this effect can be explained by the key role of some active species, in particular, OH radicals at the presence of hydrocarbons. Figure 2. Temperature and space time interaction in hybrid reactor Synergy factor: The synergistic effect of plasma combined with catalyst on CO removal at 80 oC is better, due to improvement in catalyst activation temperature, reduction of activation energy and also, better selectivity results from positive interaction of plasma discharges and catalyst active sites (Figure 3). Figure 3. Synergy factor of plasma catalyst hybrid process in CO removal
    Conclusion
    air pollution is a worldwide challenge and its control using clean technologies is being interested of many researchers from different aspects. Carbon monoxide removal using plasma- catalytic hybrid reactor has been studied from different viewpoints of; improving removal efficiency, catalytic performance temperature, energy consumption, hydrocarbon decomposition, and synergy factor of hybrid process. The mean removal efficiency of CO (36.33%) is achieved using single stage hybrid reactor at optimum experimental condition of: temperature= 80 oC, space time= 0.13 s, C3H8/CO= 0.05 and specific input energy of 860 j/l. Also, our findings confirm positive synergy effects of plasma and catalytic techniques in pollutant removal and synergy factor of 2.03 is achieved.
    Keywords: Carbon Monoxide, Plasma- Catalyst, Removal, Synergy, PDC
  • Banafsheh Kavyanifar *, Babak Tavakoli, Javad Torkaman, Abolfazl Mohammadtaheri Pages 735-746
    Shoreline is one of the tourist areas that use as coastal plagues.Coastal areas are always attractive for tourists due to special features. Tourism as an effective factor Couse pollution of the coast. . A large amount of solid waste is accumulated daily on the coast and causing serious damage to these areas(Rezazadeh et al, 2013; Joozi et al, 2012). One of the most important factors in improving the environmental and health conditions of the coast is proper waste management. The first step in designing waste management systems is to know the amount of produced waste. Lack of knowledge about the amount of produced waste causes health and aesthetic problems in the environment. generally, various factors Are effect generation rate increase, including economic status, geographical location, seasons, days of the week, and customs(Del angiz et al, 2012). One of the most important duties of the municipality is waste management, which includes: collecting, transporting and disposing of them, and a significant portion of the municipal budget is allocated to it. Therefore, increasing the amount of tourism in coastal areas and the amount of waste generated by them couse to increase the cost of the municipality(Monavvary, 2008). In addition, other effects are various health problems, such as diseases caused by water and soil pollution, and illnesses caused by an increase in the population of vermin animals. Therefore, in order to improve the environmental and health conditions of the coasts, planning and generated waste is necessary. Also, it has ease of access to the Tehran and other populated areas of Iran. At present, the municipality of the Noor city, as a trustee of waste management in the coastal areas, collects waste from these areas and other areas on a daily basis and transfers directly to the waste disposal site of the Noor city. This research is a cross-sectional descriptive study and the solid waste of coastal areas of Noor city during 12 months from July 2017 to May 2018 has been investigated. The weight analysis method has been used to measure the quantity of waste. Random samples were taken from the contents of the bins available at the selected stations. Sampling of the contents of each beans was performed to separate the components and determine the weight. These components were divided into eight categories: degradable, paper and cardboard, glass, plastics, PET, metal, textile and others. From collection of the results obtained each month, a numerical mean for each of the eight components was obtained. In order to measuring density of solid waste, one sampling every month and tree sampling every season perfumed and means of them selected as a seasons density. collected data were analyzed using SPSS software, ANOVA and Tukey tests.Because of some innovating analyze this research, we used the results studies of coastal cities in order to compare the some of the parameters used and the lack of similar research in coastal not whole coastal city. Based on the results of this research, the highest part percentage of waste components were included: degradable (53/50 %), plastic (17.39%), paper and cardboard (8.48%), other (6.69%), glass (4.98%), PET (4.22%), textile (2.69%), and metal (1.77%). The results of density measurement of waste showed that the average annual density of waste was 172.70 kg/m3. The innovation of this study is density measurement of coastal area wastes. The results showed that the per capita of daily waste generation in the Noor city and in the study area is 1.4 kg and 0.155 kg, respectively. The results of this study showed that the highest amount of waste generation was in September and the lowest amount was in December.This comparison shows that the situation in the regions is somewhat similar because of the months of the tourist's presence. In this research, with the survey of the tourist's presence in the coastal areas was showed that the difference between the number of visitors in the middle days and the weekend. There was also a significant difference between visitors to the coastal areas of the Noor city in different seasons of the year, which is the summer has the largest number of visitors. One-way test (ANOVA) was used to examination the different components of waste in the months of the year. There was a significant difference in the variables of degradable, glass, plastic, and PET in different months (p < 0.05). Average difference between the different components of the waste and the months based on Tukey's test was presented. The results showed that there was the highest amount of spoilable materials in the July, August, and September, and a significant difference between them and other months (in a significance level of 0.05) was seen. It is expected that the generation of degradable will increase in the range of study area due to holidays, weather conditions, increase in the number of tourists, and more use of fruit, vegetables in accommodation period. Tukey's test showed that the glass has the highest content in July and August, and there was a significant difference between July and August with other months, also there was no significant difference in compared to April, July, and September. The reason for this difference can be the increase in people's use of drinking glass bottles to relieve thirst in hot summer months. The results showed that the highest amount of plastic was in April, and there was a significant difference between April with November, December, and March, but there was no significant difference with other months. One of the reasons for this item can be traveling tourist on noroz and their excessive use of plastic jars and vacuumed food in the coastal areas. The results showed that the highest amount of PET was in August and it had a significant difference with other months, but there was no significant difference in compared to April, July, August, and October. The reason of this item could be from increasing the use of water bottles by travelers due to thirst in hot months in coastal areas.According to the results of this study, due to increased amount of produced waste and the number of visitors in summer and Nowruz, the policies of waste sorting in the source and obtaining deposits to separate wet and dry parts of waste as a management method is proposed. In addition, due to the ability to convert a significant amount of waste to fertilizer, it is recommended to create vermicomposting units. On the other hand, 39.8% of the waste products are recyclable, so it can be an effective step in recycling. Also, due to the high groundwater level in the area and pollution of soil and water resources, the implementation of sanitary landfill is proposed.
    Keywords: Quantity, quality of waste, Costal areas, Noor city
  • Narmin Abdollahi, Saeed Dehestaniathar *, Mahdi Safari, Maryam Safay, Hiua Daraei Pages 747-761
    Humic acid (HA) is produced by the decomposition of plant and animal debris in surface water. The presence of HA in the water disinfection process is considered as the main precursor for disinfection by-products. The present study aim was to evaluate photo catalyst degradation of HA, using MnFeN-tridoped TiO2 nanoparticles. The study was conducted in a lab-scale batch photo-catalytic reactor using the interval experimental method. MnFeN-tridopedTiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized by sol-gel method and characterization of nanoparticles was determined by XRD, FTIR, SEM and EDX techniques. The effect of different parameters such as pH (3-11), catalyst dose (0.5-2.5gr coating on glass bed), initial HA (2-50mg/l) on the degradation efficiency of HA were investigated. Also photo catalyst degradation of HA by TiO2، N-dopedTiO2 و FeN-codopedTiO2 nanoparticles was studied in optimal conditions. The results showed that efficiency of photo catalytic degradation of HA in optimum conditions (pH=3, nanoparticle dose of 1.5 gr and the concentration of HA 10 mg) were 86.72%.and 63.05% under ultraviolet and visible light, respectively. The results showed that photo catalytic degradation of HA using MnFeN-tridopedTiO2, increased with increasing catalyst dose and decreased with increasing initial concentration of pollutant and pH. Also the results showed photo catalytic activity of doped TiO2 is higher compared to pure TiO2.
    Keywords: Photocatalyst Process, doped Titanium dioxide, Hydroxyl radical, Humic acid
  • Melikasadat Amirzadeh, Naser Barakpour * Pages 763-781
    Introduction
     Over the past few decades, studies on local communities have been increasingly developed. In these studies, there is an emphasis on the role of social interactions between community members and the bottom-up approaches to encourage local communities’ participation and identify human agents on community level. Amongst the most recent approaches is community resilience. Despite considerable progress in defining community resilience and its attributes, there are several ambiguities in the theorization of this concept. Due to the nature of resilience as a complicated and multi-dimensional concept, which is strongly linked to the cultural context of a society, the investigation of the beliefs, attitudes, and values of stakeholders is essential in its conceptualization. Thus, this study conceptualizes community resilience and develops a framework for resilience assessment through the qualitative analysis of various stakeholders’ viewpoints and experiences in regard to the matter. Although, before entering the research field, diverse studies related to this concept were reviewed. After reviewing the literature on community resilience and its conceptualizations, research method is presented. Then, the findings are discussed, and lastly, conclusion is presented.
    Materials and Methods
    The current literature on community resilience mostly focuses on the reaction of communities to the external risks, pressures, changes, and stresses that threaten their welfare, physical and mental health, and identities. The majority of these studies examine the local and small communities with limited geographical extent, such as neighborhoods or small towns. Finding appropriate indicators for resilience assessment highly relies on developing an appropriate conceptual model for conducting the research on community resilience. Thus, after reviewing the prior conceptualizations, an initial conceptual model was extracted. However, this diagram is merely a primary model and, due to the exploratory nature of the study, it is modifiable, and its components can be eliminated or added during the study process. Since community resilience is a complex and multi-dimensional phenomenon, which is significantly affected by the stakeholders’ attitudes, it can be defined differently in diverse communities. Therefore, it is essential to target the identification of participants’ beliefs, attitudes, and values. It is also necessary for the researcher to develop a close relationship with the participants, and he/she has to consider the participants as collaborators. In order to achieve this goal, this study utilized the interpretive paradigm and qualitative research method. *Corresponding author: Email address: melika.amirzadeh@gmail.com Several in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with key stakeholders including local residents, government officials, non-government organizations, consulting firms, university lecturers, and researchers. The residents were recruited via available sampling technique and other participants were recruited via purposive sampling technique based on an initial list that was developed including key stakeholder categories. This was followed by sequential sampling to identify more participants relevant to each stakeholder group on the list. The snowball sampling began with the recommendations of the first group of respondents. Lastly, to be able to include stakeholders outside the social network of the first respondents all key stakeholders on the initial list were also contacted. Each interview was completely recorded and during interviews notes and memos were written. The gathered data were analyzed through qualitative content analysis using ATLAS-ti software. ATLAS-ti was mainly used for accuracy and comfort of data analysis process. There were three main steps in data analyses: 1) the initial coding of interviews’ texts, 2) the concepts’ categorization and themes’ identification, 3) the reduction/ modification of codes and themes to achieve the research model. Case studies were two local communities in the vicinity of Madies (neighborhood aqua-ducts from Zayandehrood River) in Isfahan, namely Abbasabad and Barazandeh districts.
    Discussion of Results
    Overall, 32 interviews were conducted from May to September 2018. The average time of each interview was 57 minutes. After initial content analysis, 96 codes were extracted. Following several reviews and modifications, some of these codes were combined and integrated into mutual categories. The study conceptualized the resilience of both cases in two major social and communal levels. Additionally, 48 sub-themes and 10 major themes were identified. Therefore, this study confirms the prior conceptual frameworks. However, some other themes and sub-themes also were identified in two selected communities. The main themes of social level include urban governance, economic situation, sustainable development, and laws. The major themes of local community level consist of economic, socio-cultural, political (local governance-institutions), natural, spatio-physical, and informational and communicational. The main difference between the final model and the initial model involves the addition of social level and its sub-themes. In addition, social and cultural domains were combined, and according to the data analysis, spatio-physical domain was added to the model. Finally, due to the critical role of informational and communicational domain, it is placed in the center of the final model. Fig. 1. Isfahan’s Resilient Communities Framework
    Conclusion
    Recently, many studies have examined conceptualization of different natural and urban systems’ resilience. One of the recent approaches in the resilience literature is community resilience. Despite developing various community resilience frameworks, few studies have highlighted the role of stakeholders and just few of them have focused on a unique slow-onset hazard, such as drought or rivers and aqua-ducts’ drying up. Whereas, resilience is a complicated and multi-dimensional concept that is strongly linked to the cultural context of a society. Thus, this study studied the stakeholders’ beliefs, attitudes, and experiences about the main contributing factors to the resilience of two diverse communities in Isfahan. The study conceptualized the community resilience of the selected communities in two major levels. These levels included society and local community. Additionally, 48 sub-themes and 10 major themes were identified. The main themes of social level critical for community resilience include urban governance, economic situation, sustainable development, and laws, and the major themes of local community level consist of economic, socio-cultural, political (local governance-institutions), natural, spatio-physical, and informational and communicational factors. Amongst all of the identified themes in this study, the most contributing factor to the resilience of selected communities in Isfahan is socio-cultural domain. This domain included 16 sub-themes and 289 quotations of all the 32 conducted interviews. Lastly, it is suggested that the qualitative research methods be utilized by researchers working on development of urban and community resilience frameworks. Keywords: Community Resilience, Resilience Conceptualization, Qualitative Content Analysis, ATLAS-ti, Isfahan
    Keywords: community resilience, resilience conceptualization, content analysis, ATLAS-ti, Isfahan
  • Saeide Khaksefidi, Behzad Vasigh *, Mohsen Taban Pages 783-798
    The drought has caused a kind of wind that is called as Sadobistroze wind in Sistan. This wind has accumulated sand and gravel. Due to the severity of these winds and the volume of very fine particles of sand, it is very difficult to control their flow. Creating an appropriate urban form can help reduce these problems. wind erosion causes problems such as the influx of sand grains, which can lead to severe dust and air pollution, reduced public health, reduced immune system against diseases, children's asthma, threats of sensitive electronic power transfer systems, damage to agricultural land, rural settlements, roads and increaseaccidents. Sistan area with 15197 square kilometers is located latitude 31 ° 2 'north longitude and 61 ° 29' east longitude and 489 meters high in the north of Sistan and Baluchestan province and east of Iran. This area is bordered by the north and east with Afghanistan, the border with the Southern Khorasan province and the south with the city of Zahedan. The average number of sunspots per annum for more than 260 days of sunshine, the range of high temperature changes overnight, an average annual rainfall of 64 mm with inappropriate dispersion, high temperature and sunny hours Sistan is one of the windy areas in eastern Iran. In fact, the wind has three main characteristics: direction, speed and frequency. According to estimates of the number of days with storm and dust for a period of 10 years, the Sistan region has more than 1500 days, the highest proportion at the national level. Drought is a dominant phenomenon in the Sistan region, which has also had a profound negative impact not only on the biodiversity of the communities (plant-animal) but also on the physical environment of urban and rural residential areas. Although in Sistan (due to the presence of 120 days of winds and the existence of a soil susceptible to wind erosion in this area), erosion has already occurred in the past, but after drought, due to the provision of wind erosion conditions, Dust storms have been formed and reached their maximum intensity. In addition to the incorrect management of the drought in the area, it seems that problems such as inappropriate physical shape and inappropriate building patterns in accordance with the existing climatic conditions and the lack of planting of climate-friendly plants in the area seems to have increased the severity of these damages. The statistical data (wind speed and direction) is derived from the statistics of the synoptic meteorological station in Zabul. Subsequently, using computational fluid dynamics (CFD), using simulation to understand the behavior of the wind in urban form. Flow3D software is used for simulation. In this software, the k-standard model is selected, this model is mostly used to simulate the mean flow characteristics in turbulent flow conditions. Modeling was done using 3D drawing software. Boundary conditions and direction of flow and speed were determined. Due to the nature of the wind, the most important factor in controlling the flow of air on a city scale is space geometry. All spaces between buildings, both horizontal distances, the relationship of the building with its height, are the parameters that, when exposed to the wind, affect wind in terms of pressure distribution, average speed and etc. This paper focuses on modeling the airflow associated with natural disasters, Specially sandstorms. Article focus on the modeling of airflow related to natural disasters, such as sand accumulation, with urban form studies. The goal is to understand Which kind of urban form can speed up the flow of sand and prevent sand deposits in the building area (streets, alleys, open spaces). Urban design was studied through simulation of airflow using Flow 3D software. Initially, a flat surface was selected with an initial configuration for the model. Each time the flow of air was tested in different models. In this study, the relationship between urban wind speed and morphological parameters such as dimensions, building geometry and building density were investigated. By creating an appropriate geometric form of the buildings, this research is looking for solutions to reduce this accumulation. For this purpose, simulations were first performed to find the threshold velocity for sand particles, and it was concluded that the wind carries sand particles with a diameter of 50 microns at speeds greater than 2 to 4 m/s and Able to move them. So, to prevent sand accumulation, the wind speed should not be less than 2 m/s. Since sand is more near the surface of the earth and during the winds are not much off the ground due to heavy loads, the study of the airflow at the ground connection to the building was tested in various cases. According to the simulations performed in four urban models, it is observed that the highest proportion for achieving this goal is for buildings clinging together in a column with an urban length of 80 meters and building buildings in a row. It was concluded that the maximum urban length is 80 meters when the buildings are 1 meter above the ground. It was concluded that urban wind speed could help reduce the depression of sand, taking into account the proper values of these parameters. Therefore, the study of the shape of the city can be avoided by studying the urban form and choosing relationships such as placing a building at a distance of more than one meter from the ground, and an urban length of eighty meters, and connected buildings.
    Keywords: Sistan, Sadobistrozeh wind, CFD Modelling, sand deposit