فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:9 Issue:2, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/05/05
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
  • Musa Chacha, Nicolaus Mbugi * Pages 87-95
    Lannea schimperi and Searsia longipes are plants species under family Anacardiaceae. These plants have been utilized for years in traditional settings for management of an array of disease conditions; however, there is limited information about their safety (toxicity level). The aim of the current study was to evaluate the acute toxicity, cytotoxicity and phytochemical compounds of extracts from the aforementioned plants. Acute toxicity was performed in vivo on Swiss albino mice. Cytotoxicity was done in vitro on brine shrimp larvae and plants were qualitatively screened for five major groups of compounds. Both extracts exhibited good margin of safety on swiss albino mice with LD50 (Lethal dose 50) above 2000 mg/kg body weight. Lannea schimperi and Searsia longipes expressed significant cytotoxicity on brine shrimp larvae with IC50 (Inhibitory concentration 50) of 150.0478 mg/ml and 280.7875 mg/ml respectively. Phytochemical screenings of both extracts have revealed presence of flavonoids, saponnins, tannins and glycosides. The study confirmed the previous reports on the acute toxicity of Lannea schimperi and Searsia longipes, as well as cytotoxicity of Lannea schimperi and for the first time reports the cytotoxicity and phytochemical compounds of Searsia longipes.
    Keywords: Acute toxicity, Brine shrimp, Cytotoxicity, Phytochemical screening, Searsia longipe, Lannea schimperi
  • Edouard Nantia Akono *, Antoine Kada Sanda, Faustin Pascal Manfo Tsague, Aphrodite Choumessi Tchewonpi, Tracy Suimula Kewir, Stanley Tashi, Carine Travert Pages 97-105
    Parastar is a pesticide formulation made up of two insecticides lamda-Cyhalothrin and Imidacloprid. Parastar is one of the frequently used agrochemicals in the North West Region of Cameroon to protect crops. However, exposures to pesticides resulting in health alteration as well as therapeutic effects of medicinal plants have been largely acknowledged. One of such plants is Momordica foetida, which exhibits antidiabetic and antioxidant properties, suggesting its possible efficiency in toxicity alleviation. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of Parastar on pancreatic and duodenal α-amylase activity, and assess the protective effects of the methanol extract of M. foetida in albino male rats. Groups of 8 rats each were orally intubated with either distilled water (5 mL/kg), Parastar (6.23 mg/kg) alone or combination of Parastar and M. foetida (50 - 200 mg/kg) daily for 64 days. Once the follow-up period was over, animals were sacrificed, the pancreas and duodenum excised out and weighed. The pancreatic and duodenal homogenates were prepared and used for assessment of α-amylase activity. Results revealed increased pancreas weight in animals treated with Parastar. However, the latter variation was prevented when the animals were co-administered with M. foetida extract and the pesticide. Parastar decreased pancreatic and duodenal α-amylase activity, which was also prevented by co-treatment of the animals with the methanol extract of M. foetida. These findings highlight the toxicity of Parastar on pancreatic and duodenal functions and support the use of M. foetida in protecting against alteration of the digestive system by the pesticide.
    Keywords: α-amylase, Momordica foetida, Parastar, Protective effect, Toxicity
  • Kazi Mamun, Nirob Saha, Sumon Chakrabarty * Pages 107-115
    Adsorption is a very promising and interesting technique for removal of heavy metal ions. In this study orange peel and waste tea leaves were used as low cost adsorbents for removal of iron (III) ion from wastewater. Batch adsorption studies were employed to investigate the influence of pH, time, doges and initial metal ion concentration. The maximum removal capacity of orange peel and waste tea leaves were observed at pH 9 for iron (III) removal. For both adsorbents 75 min was required in order to achieve equilibrium for the adsorption of Fe (III) ion. The influence of adsorbent dose was checked by using different dosage of adsorbents. Adsorption parameters were investigated by using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm. The removal of Fe (III) ion by using both adsorbents moderately fit the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm. From the result it was observed that the adsorption capacity of waste tea leaves is higher than orange peel.
    Keywords: Contamination, Heavy Metal, Adsorption, Low Cost Adsorbents
  • Ani Amechi *, Ezeugwu Felix Pages 117-132
    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of process parameter on crude oil (CO) biodegradation of palm oil mill effluent (POME) by using response surface optimization. Physiochemical characterization of the uncontaminated soil (UCS), crude oil contaminated soils (COCS), and POME were investigated. Further characterization on the POME was done employing the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR). First and second order kinetics models were used to estimate the kinetic parameters. Results obtained indicated that POME contained valuable soil nutrient as it showed a stimulatory effect on the physiochemical properties of the COCS. However, POME was able to degrade 51% of CO with an initial CO concentration of 130 g/L. The first order kinetics proved a better model with a high rate constant, lower biological half-life and R² greater than 0.96. From the optimization process, the quadratic model with 78.8% contribution and R² of 0.993 satisfactorily explained the interactions between the independent variable and the response. The FT-IR spectrum revealed the presence of nitrogen and phosphorous on the surface of POME, while SEM indicated a smooth surface of POME.
    Keywords: crude oil, Contaminated soil, Palm oil mill effluent, First order kinetics, second order kinetics, Error analysis, RSM
  • Naghimeh Pouri, Esmaeil Seifi *, Mahdi Alizadeh Pages 133-147
    Proline is a vital amino acid, commonly distributed in all plants. It is widely accumulated in plants under salt stress. It has been suggested that foliar application of proline has an important effect in reducing destructive effects of non-living stresses on plants. On the other hand, an excessive amount of free proline has negative effects on cell growth as well as protein functions. In this study, the six-months-old plantlets of three olive cultivars, including Arbequina, Arbosana and Koroneiki were sprayed with proline at 0, 100, and 200 mg/L for three times in intervals of 10 days. In addition, the samples were subjected to salinity at 0, 50, 100 and 200 mM sodium chloride for five months. Measurement of morphological characteristics of stems and leaves was conducted in three stages (4, 12 and 20 weeks after treatment). The results showed that stem length and number of nodes gradually increased over time at all concentrations of proline. Furthermore, at stage 3, stem diameter, number of leaves and branch number increased and leaf width decreased. The highest leaf thickness was observed at stage 1. However, no significant difference was found among the proline concentrations in the mentioned traits in any experimental stage. Plants sprayed with proline were later encountered the increased leaf necrosis. At stage 3, the control plants had a lower percentage of abscission than proline-treated plants. At stage 2, plants sprayed with proline had lower leaf thickness than control plants. Throughout the experiment, salinity, especially 200 mM, reduced cumulative stem length, number of shoots, internode length, number of nodes and number of leaves. The highest percentages of leaf abscission and necrosis, as well as the highest leaf thickness were observed at 200mM NaCl treatment. In general, despite the fact that proline increased in the plants under stress conditions, its external application was not significantly effective.
    Keywords: Arbequina, Arbosana, Koroneiki, Olea europaea, Sodium Chloride, Spraying
  • Narjes Zarei, Nematollah Nemati *, Tahereh Bagherpour Pages 149-155
    The effect of insulin-like adenosine in metabolism regulating, including glucose release and blood lipid metabolism, has been proven before. From one side, physical activity leads to Adenosine Monophosphate Protein Kinase (AMPK) activation and increasing (LPL) levels. Very light lipoprotein has the most combined affinity with the wall of the arteries, which leads to arteries occlusion. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effect of two types of exercise (Endurance and Interval) and adenosine on the concentration of lipoprotein lipase, triglyceride and light lipoprotein in rats fed with high fat diets. In an experimental study, 70 male wistar rats were randomly divided into eight groups. In the first stage, subjects received high fat diet for 13 weeks. After that, they trained for 5 weeks each week for 12 weeks. At the end of the period, after the anesthetic, the heart and blood were removed to measure LPL, triglyceride (TG) and very low levels of lipoprotein (VLDL). High fat diet resulted in a significant increase in lipoprotein lipase, triglyceride and low valprooprotein levels. Intraperitoneal exercise showed a higher reduction in lipoprotein lipase compared with continuous exercise. Moreover, adenosine reduces lipoprotein lipase, and the interactive effect of adenosine and intolerant exercise was higher. Continuous exercise with adenosine had the greatest effect on reducing triglycerides. Regardless of its type, exercise with adenosine resulted in very low levels of lipoprotein levels. The effect of physical activity on the concentration of lipoprotein lipase, triglyceride and low lipoprotein is dependent on its type. Therefore, it is recommended that intensive periodic exercises with adenosine be used to protect the heart from damage caused by high fat diet.
    Keywords: Adenosine, Lipoprotein lipase (LPL), Triglyceride (TG), Very low levels of lipoprotein (VLDL), Exercise
  • Masoud Kazeminia, Razzagh Mahmoudi *, Peyman Ghajarbygi, Shagahyegh Moosavi Pages 157-165
    Although milk and dairy products are considered as nutritious food for human, it serves as a beneficent medium for the growth of many microorganisms such as psychrotrophic microorganisms (PMs). PMs can be affected by the milk quality and dairy products by production thermostable enzymes. The present study aimed to evaluated the psychrotrophic microorganisms count (PMsC) of raw cow milk samples in milk collection centers. A total of 60 raw cow milk samples were collected from 15 main milk collection centers located in Qazvin, Iran for a period of one year (four seasons). The mean±SD of PMs, Ph, and acidity levels for a period of one year was 4.83±0.43 Log10 CFU/ml, 6.30±0.41, and 20.13±3.21°D, respectively. PMsC, Ph, and acidity levels in cold seasons (autumn and winter) were greater than warm seasons (spring and summer). It may be expected that PMs values can affect the pH and acidity levels while no significant relationship (P>0.05) was found among PMs, Ph, and acidity levels. Seasonal variations had a significant effect (P<0.05) on PMs values while seasonal variations had no significant effect (P>0.05) on the pH and acidity levels. 55% (33 out of 60) of milk samples were in the accepted limit. Milk quality properties in Qazvin in terms of PMs were relatively within the hygienic standards limit.
    Keywords: Psychrotrophic microorganisms, Milk, Seasonal variation, Public health, Qazvin, Iran
  • Ali Sharifi, Elham Shafiei *, Morteza Hoseinzadeh Pages 167-172
    One of the most important causes of disability in diabetic patients is diabetic foot ulcers. Native use of medicinal herbs may significantly affect the wound healing process. In this study, a mixture of Arnebia euochroma extracts and essential oil of Pistacia Atlantica in animal oil used for healing diabetic wounds was compared with natural honey. Thirty male Wistar rats weighing 250 g became diabetic. Wounds of equal size were created in their back area and the wound was dressed with a mixture of Arnebia euochroma and essential oil of Pistacia Atlantica in animal oil. Afterward, their recovery process was photographed daily. Finally, when we saw evidence of rats' wound healing; we killed rats and searched tissue granulation and epithelialization process. The study results showed that Arnebia euochroma and gum mixture at a concentration of 5% of animal oils was more effective compared to honey. Local and regional experiences can be a good source to access pharmaceutical products and services for patients, a scientific reason for this study. We found a more effective ointment for wound dressing. It can help diabetic patients. The oral forms of these plants are recommended to be provided.
    Keywords: Diabetic Foot Ulcer, Arenbi Euro Chroma Plant, Honey, Gum Wax