فهرست مطالب

Chemical Health Risks - Volume:14 Issue: 1, Winter 2024

Journal of Chemical Health Risks
Volume:14 Issue: 1, Winter 2024

  • تاریخ انتشار: 1402/12/14
  • تعداد عناوین: 20
  • Armineh Rezagholi Lalani, Nima Rastegar-Pouyani, Ali Askari, Shohreh Tavajohi, Sholeh Akbari, Emad Jafarzadeh* Pages 1-10

    Food additives are substances that have long been applied in processed foods, either natural or synthetic. Several purposes have been fulfilled by the application of food additives, the two most notable of which are known to be preventing food spoilage and providing specific colors and flavors. Some food additives are added to food products through direct contact, whereas the rest are added indirectly e.g., through their packaging bags. In addition to the economic and commercial benefits provided by food additives, over the past two decades, studies have demonstrated a significant correlation between excessive consumption of the foods containing such additives (e.g., BHA and BHT) and several adverse health effects, e.g., the incidence of cancer and skin conditions, among others. Through different age groups, children have been found to be the population at the highest risk for such adverse effects induced by food additives. Indeed, it has been reported that food additives may give rise to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among the child population. Emerging evidence has shown that emulsifiers (e.g., carboxymethyl cellulose and polysorbate), employed as food additives, might alter gut microbiota composition, leading to ulcerative colitis, affecting immune and inflammatory responses, and mental health problems. Therefore, in this review, alongside the beneficial impact of food additives, their adverse health effects as well as their acceptable daily intake have been investigated.

    Keywords: Food additives, ADHD, Ulcerative colitis, Immunity, BHA, BHT
  • Nusrat Tazeen Tonu*, Md. Tanzirul Islam Tanaz, Md. Ismail Hossain, Sumon Chakrabarty, Palash Kumar Dhar, Mohammad Abu Yousuf, Parbhej Ahamed Pages 11-42

    Water is the most essential natural resources in the ecosystem and vital for the existence of all living beings as well as humans growth. Due to the rapid industrialization, water pollution is now the most vital matter of concern. A common ecological issue is water pollution with heavy metals, such as lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg), which has become a major environmental problem due to the detrimental consequences on human health and ecosystems. Additionally, research into new and more effective water treatment methods is being driven by the persistence, toxicity, and accumulation of Pb and Hg in the human body. This is done to reduce the amount of Pb and Hg in water. To remove or lower the amount of Pb and Hg in water, several researchers make substantial use of the adsorption. Adsorption continues to be a practical method with flexible design and execution. In the past few years, nanotechnology has come to be a promising approach for the remediation of water polluted with these hazardous metals by adsorption. It will become more and more difficult to deploy technologically sophisticated alternative water treatments to meet the growing demand for lower levels of Pb and Hg in drinking water using current methods. Compared it to alternative approaches, nanotechnology has a lot of benefits. Nanoparticles, owing to their unique physicochemical properties, have garnered attention as competent adsorbents for Pb and Hg removal from water. This review gives an in depth account of several nanoparticle preparation methods. The review also highlights the recent advancements in the application of different nanoparticles for the remediation of Pb and Hg from aquatic environments.

    Keywords: Lead, Mercury, Nanoparticles, Adsorption, Remediation
  • Mohadeseh Choubdar, Shaghayegh Mousavi, Zohreh Naghdali, Faezeh Mohammadi, Milad Mousazadeh, AhmadNikpey* Pages 43-49

    The presence of microorganisms in healthcare settings environments affected the health of patients and staffs. Air and surfaces contaminated with pathogens are important sources of hospital infections. To evaluate environmental microbial contamination in two hospitals of Qazvin, Iran. This descriptive analytical study has been accomplished in 6 wards of two hospitals in winter 2017.Bioaerosols were assayed by a single-stage Anderson impactor, at an airflow rate of 28.3 L min-1, period of 2-5 min into TSA, SDA and MSA medium. Surface samplings were performed by using sterile swabs impregnated with TSB medium. The EU-GMP standard was used as permissible limit. Data has been analyzed by SPSS20 software and parametric statistic tests. The maximum fungal prevalence was related to Cladosporium and yeast. The ICU ward of the hospital (A) was the most polluted area with 479.3 CFU m3-1. Maximum microbial contamination was observed on ICU food tables (A). Our findings confirm the significant relationship between concentration of microbial air and the surfaces statistically. Surface contamination can be resulted from airborne transmission in hospital; hence, in addition to surface disinfection and decontamination, it is appropriate to purify air by filtration system in order to improve indoor air quality.

    Keywords: Air Pollution, Indoor, Fungi, Cross Infection, EnvironmentalPollutants
  • Zahra Moradpour, Soleiman Ramezanifar, Elham Asgari Gandomani, Rezvan Zendehdel* Pages 51-59

    Metalworking fluids are used in many industries, especially those with metalworking processes. Despite their widespread use, these compounds have harmful effects on human health. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the semi-quantitative health risks of oil mists in the automotive industry. In this study, ACGIH, IARC indexes, LD50, and the risk of corrosion were used to determine the hazard rate, with the biggest index serving as the hazard rate's base. The actual exposure level was used to compute the exposure rate. Sampling and determination of oil mists were performed according to NIOSH 5026 method and using a membrane filter (37-mm). All risk rates of oil mists were in the high-risk range (H). The hazard rate level for all oil mists was equal to 4. The exposure rate for all oil mists except one of them was equal to 4. Considering the health risks identified in this study, it can be concluded that lathe workers in the automotive industries have a high risk in terms of metalworking fluids exposure.

    Keywords: Health risk assessment, Metalworking fluid, Oil mist, Automotive industry
  • Farzaneh Shirani, Hassan Mollahasani, Mohammad Reza Malekipour*, Maryam Rahmatizadeh Pages 61-70

    The type of diet is one of the important causes of caries and one of the techniques to evaluate the carcinogenicity of foods is to measure the pH of saliva after consuming them. This study aimed to measure the pH of artificial saliva after exposure to a series of common snacks in the community. In this laboratory study, all samples (including 18 common snacks in the community) were completely crushed. Then, 8 g of each sample was dissolved in 50 ml of artificial saliva and continuously mixed with a magnet in a human. The pH of the solutions was then measured by a digital pH meter at intervals of 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 minutes after the onset of dissolution. Statistical analysis was performed with related tests and SPSS statistical software version 22. The pH of all groups except chocolate and whole wheat biscuits decreased significantly during 10 minutes (P-value <0.05). The obtained results indicated that the groups lowered the pH of artificial saliva below the critical pH (5.5) including vinegar chips, peanut vinegar, cherry industrial dish, home-made dish, industrial swallow, house swallow, and plum. The pH level of the other groups was higher than the limit was critical. The snack with the least pH change and the snack with the most and most severe pH change were whole-grain biscuits and homemade desserts, respectively. All snacks tested except chocolate and whole wheat biscuits significantly reduced the pH of artificial saliva. The pH drop was high for acidic groups.

    Keywords: Saliva, Chemical health, Snack, Snack consumption, Dental color, Peanut vinegar
  • Efe Endurance Ahama*, Igho Emmanuel Odokuma, Ehizokhale Santos Ehebha, Oghenesuvwe Princess Enakpoya Pages 71-86

    The action of sex hormones could be altered through the introduction of exogenous synthetic substances, which have been shown by several studies to possess deleterious sequelae on the ovaries. Reports on the detailed histology following the exposure to Levonorgestrel (L) are scanty and none has espoused the use of progestin-only contraceptives (post-coital pills) on the ovary. The study, therefore, evaluated the histological sequelae following exposure to Levonorgestrel on the Wistar rat ovary. Ethical approval for the study was granted by the Research and Ethics Committee in the Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences of Delta State University, Abraka. Forty Adult female Wistar rats, grouped into A and B were investigated. A, control, consisting of 20 rats, and B, test group, 20 rats. Both groups were further divided into 10 subgroups respectively, with each consisting of 20 rats. Subgrouping was done accordingly into 3rd, 6th, 9th, 12th, 15th 18th, 21st 24th 27th and 30th days respectively. Group A received food and distilled water only while group B rats received 0.025mg kg-1 of (L), food and water. Ovary revealed untoward effects of Levonorgestrel, seen at day 6 to day 30 for routine staining pattern. Also seen is a gradatory staining intensity of brown nuclei for progesterone and estrogen receptors for immunochemical staining pattern. This treatise underscored the deleterious outcomes in female gonads exposed to Levonorgestrel and cytoarchitectural peculiarities in ovaries exposed to either combined or emergency oral contraceptives were well espoused.

    Keywords: Histological, Sequelae, Levonorgestrel, Ovary
  • Maryam Barati, Sedigheh Safarzadeh Shirazi* Pages 87-95

    The effect of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) levels (4, 6, and 8%), poultry manure (PM), and poultry manure biochar (PMB) on yield, and Cu, Zn, Fe, and Mn uptake in oat plant (Avena sativa) was determined. The results showed that application of 6 and 8% TPHs levels decreased root and shoot dry weight as compared with 4% TPHs level but PM and PMB increased that of parameters. On average, shoot Cu, Zn, Fe, and Mn uptake decreased in oat plants following the application of 6 and 8% TPHs levels as compared with 4% TPH levels. In 8% TPH levels, nutrient uptake significantly reduced by 59.88% for Cu, 52.9% for Zn, 64.61% for Fe, and 62.72% for Mn as compared to 4% TPH levels. However, PMB treatments concluded in an increase in Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn uptake by about 95.5, 47.2, 52.04, and 82.95% in shoot compare with PMB-unamended treatments, and application of PM increased the average of Cu, Zn, Fe, and Mn uptake in oat by 53.46, 31.96, 32.74, and 58.63 % as compared with PM-unamended treatment. It is concluded that the application of PMB and PM in TPHs contaminated soil could significantly improve TPHs dissipation, micronutrient uptake, and growth of oat plants.

    Keywords: Micronutrient uptake, Petroleum hydrocarbons, Poultry manure biochar, Oat, Contaminated soil, Dissipation rate
  • Mohammad Hossein Sadeghi Zali * Pages 97-105

    Mahabad dam was constructed to supply drinking water, irrigation, and electricity generation on the Mahabad river located West Azerbaijan, Mahabad. In this research, bacterial contamination of the water of mahabad dam was investigated. According to the geographical properties of the reservoir, 3 stations (near the dam crest, Koter branch, and Bitas branch) were selected and samples were taken via Rottner from different depths of the reservoir during 12 months. Bacterial contamination (Total Coliforms, Fecal Coliforms, and Fecal Streptococci) were studied after transferring the samples to laboratory. Results indicated that values of Total Coliforms, Fecal Coliforms, and Fecal Streptococci were varied between 2.33 ± 1.20 and 1166.67 ± 33.33, 0.0 and 30.33 ± 6.74 and 0.0 ± 16.67 ± 6.33 MPN/100 ml respectively during over all the year. These values were in the allowed range according to the drinking water and recreation standards of Iran.

    Keywords: Mahabad dam reservoir, Total coliforms, Fecal coliforms, Fecal Streptococci, Seasons
  • Helen Williams*, Srinivasan Ranganathan Pages 107-116

    Due to the progressive nature of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), insulin therapy will almost always be needed to maintain appropriate glycemic control in the majority of patients. Insulin therapy is unfortunately not implemented right away. Beginning insulin therapy is made more difficult by a number of patient misconceptions and erroneous ideas. To study the barriers and perceptions to insulin therapy in type 2 diabetes patients from their perspective. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted from March – September 2023 among 220 type 2 diabetes mellitus patients presenting in the endocrine outpatient department (OPD) at a tertiary healthcare center. A questionnaire inquiring about demographic characteristics, the status of insulin therapy, barriers to insulin therapy, and knowledge about insulin therapy for T2DM was administered during face-to-face interviews.


    The study included 220 participants; the majority were from the age group 45–60 years (62.72%), females (50.90%), illiterate (20.90%), employed (58.18%), monthly income above 5000 (89.09%), duration of treatment with 2 or more drugs above 5 years (80.90%), and less than 10 years of insulin added to the treatment regimen (67.72%). The commonest barrier to insulin therapy is that it can cause blindness, cardiac arrest, and amputation, followed by a negative impact on working efficiency (70%). Seventy percent thought that insulin had a negative impact on social relationships and a fear of injection. Regarding the use of insulin, patients have a variety of worries and attitudes. Lack of knowledge about the benefits and adverse effects of using insulin, as well as misconceptions about these topics, appear to be important deterrents for diabetes patients from initiating this therapy.

    Keywords: Type 2 diabetesmellitus, Insulin therapy, Knowledge, Barriers, Patient perception
  • Leila Monjazeb Marvdashti, Maryam Mohammadbeigi, Samaneh Arab, Arezoo Ebrahimi, Arezou Rezaei, _ Anna Abdolshahi* Pages 117-124

    In this research chemical composition and antimicrobial effects of Elaeagnus angustifolia L. (E. angustifolia L.) whole fruit ethanolic extract was investigated on common pathogenic microorganisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, and Candida albicans). The phytochemical composition of E. angustifolia was screened by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the extract were determined using the broth dilution technique. According to the results, 13 major compounds such as flavonoid, aldehyde, alcoholic and fatty acids were identified by GC/MS. In addition, the extract could inhibit the growth of all examined pathogenic strains. The MIC was 3.75 to 1.87 mg ml-1 while maximum activity was found against Staphylococcus aureus. Besides, the MBC was ranging from 7.5 to 3.75 mg ml-1. Since E. angustifolia whole fruit ethanolic extract contains phytochemical compounds and has antimicrobial potential it can be recommended as a natural active agent for application in the food industry.

    Keywords: Elaeagnus angustifolia, Antimicrobial, Phytochemical, Extract
  • Saba S.M. AL-Obaidy*, Ahmed S. Farhood, Ahmed A. Alkarimi, Luma A. M. Ali, Noor H. AL-Mamoori, Dakhil N. Taha Pages 125-134

    An Eco-friendly and low-cost adsorbent surface was prepared from oxidized black tea leaves for adsorption of Malachite Green (MG) dye by batch equilibrium adsorption technique and investigated the optimum conditions that include dose of adsorbent, contact time, adsorbent particle size, pH, and initial concentration of the dye. All adsorption measurements were performed using spectrophotometry at 618 nm, the maximum wavelength of MG. Maximal adsorption was obtained at 1.0 g of oxidized black tea leaves with a contact time of 120 min. The optimal pH was 8. The maximum adsorption capacity was 97.8 mg g-1. The physic processes were used to prepare the adsorbent surface from oxidized black tea leaves. These included boiling the oxidized black tea leaves for 10 hours using distilled water, filtering, washing, and drying at 80°C. Physic preparation gave a suitable surface for the adsorption process. The adsorption of MG on the surface of tea leaves obeyed the Freundlich and Langmuir equations in adsorption. Isotherm parameters of Freundlich and Langmuir modules were estimated.

    Keywords: Adsorption, MG dye, Low-cost adsorbent, Isotherm
  • Mousa Shaabani Ghahremanlo, Vida Hojati*, Gholamhassan Vaezi, Shahram Sharafi Pages 135-142

    Alcohol consumption during pregnancy causes damage to the mother and the developing fetus, especially the central nervous system. Exposure of pregnant mothers to ethanol activates cell death pathways and interferes in the expression of neurotrophic factors and spatial memory of children. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between hippocampal BDNF gene expression and spatial memory in the offspring of pregnant rats treated with ethanol, and which period of pregnancy the hippocampus suffers more damage from ethanol consumption. The pregnant rats were randomly divided into five groups (six in each group): the control group (received distilled water only) and four treatment groups that received ethanol (20%, 4.5 g kg-1) by oral gavage, in the first 5 days, the first decade, the second decade and the entire period of pregnancy, respectively. The half of offspring was sacrificed on the 30th day after birth according to ethical principles, and their hippocampal brain tissue was extracted. The other half of the children, who were not victims, were subjected to a behavioral test of spatial memory and cognitive memory using the open field test, 24 hours later. BDNF gene expression was measured by RT-PCR method. The mixture of 1 microgram of RNA and 1 microliter of cDNA synthesis primer was incubated for 5 minutes at 70 degrees. Then 2 microliters of nucleotide mixture, 4 microliters of reverse transcriptase enzyme buffer, 1 microliter of reverse transcriptase enzyme, 1 microliter of RNase inhibitor protein were added and incubated for 10 minutes at 25 degrees, one hour at 42 degrees, and 10 minutes at 70 degrees. For data analysis, SPSS and Excel Softwares and one-way ANOVA and Tukey tests were used. The results showed that ethanol administration during pregnancy induced spatial memory disorder (p < 0.001). Alcohol consumption during rat pregnancy led to fetal growth and development disorders and disorders related to learning and spatial and cognitive memory in children, which had the most adverse effects in the treated groups in the second decade and the entire period of pregnancy. It can be concluded that this part of the nervous system during this period of pregnancy suffers more damage from alcohol consumption.

    Keywords: Ethanol, Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, Fetal alcohol syndrome, Memory, Learning
  • Leila Ghasemi, Leila Nouri*, Abdorreza Mohammadi Nafchi _ Pages 143-149

    Supplementing bread probiotics is considered to be challenging because of the high baking temperatures. In this study the influence of encapsulation by tragacanth gum on the validity of Lactobacillus Plantarum and Lactobacillus acidophilus during baking and storing gluten-free sorghum bread for three days. Moreover, the effect of probiotics encapsulation on moisture content and hardness as two major factors of bread staling were investigated. The process of baking process reduced the observed validity of L. Plantarum and L. acidophilus by about 3 logs CFU/g in gluten-free sorghum bread significantly. Additionally, we found that Plantarum, L. acidophilus, and encapsulated L. during baking and storing processes strongly depend on matrix composition to survive. Encapsulation of probiotic cells by tragacanth gum can improve the viability of probiotic cells can be improved by encapsulating them by more than 2 log cycles in gluten-free sorghum bread during the storing process. The tragacanth gum showed a good protecting impact on L. Plantarum and L. acidophilus cells during 72 h storage. Overall, what the findings suggest is that encapsulating probiotics by tragacanth gum is a strategy promising to promote the survival of bacteria and delay staling of gluten-free sorghum bread.

    Keywords: Gluten-free, Probiotic, Encapsulation, Tragacanth, Sorghum bread
  • Alireza Mortazavi, Mahmoud Hosseini, _ Farimah Beheshti, _ Zahra Hakimi, _ Gholam Hassan Vaezi, Hossain Mohammad Pour Kargar * Pages 151-158

    Carvacrol is a phenolic monoterpenoid compound that has antibacterial, antifungal, anti-cancer, and anti-inflammatory effects. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is derived from the outer cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and is responsible for acute kidney injury. In this research, the protective effect of carvacrol on lipopolysaccharide-induced acute kidney injury was studied. For this purpose, 40 male Wistar rats (200-250 g) were used. Animals were randomly divided into 5 equal groups: 1) control, 2) LPS group, 3) LPS+carvacrol (25 mg kg-1), 4) LPS+carvacrol (50 mg kg-1) and 5) LPS+carvacrol (100 mg kg-1). To induce acute renal injury, daily 1 mg kg-1 LPS for 2 weeks was injected intraperitoneally. Carvacrol was administered intraperitoneally daily for 30 minutes before LPS injection. LPS-induced kidney injury was evaluated by blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine, and nitric oxide levels in kidney tissue by spectrophotometric methods. The level of the interleukin 1 beta was detected by ELISA in the kidney. Our results showed that LPS injection increased BUN, creatinine, nitric oxide, and IL-1β levels (P <0.001). Pretreatment with carvacrol reduced BUN at 25 mg kg-1 (P <0.001), 50 mg kg-1 (P <0.01), and 100 mg kg-1 (P <0.001) doses, nitric oxide at 25 mg kg-1 (P <0.05), 50 mg kg-1(P <0.01) and 100 mg kg-1(P <0.001) doses, and IL-1β levels (P <0.001) at all doses significantly but did not affect serum creatinine. These results indicate that carvacrol has an anti-inflammatory effect and protects kidneys against LPS by reducing pro-inflammatory mediators such as IL-1β and nitric oxide.

    Keywords: Lipopolysaccharide, Carvacrol, Kidney, Inflammation
  • Maryam Rangamiz Toosi, Mehdi Pordel*, Mohammad Reza Bozorgmehr Pages 159-166

    Acridine and imidazole were combined and synthesized 3,8-disubstituted-propyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-a]acridine-11-carbonitrile, as a new derivative. The interaction of this new compound with the topoisomerase enzyme was studied by molecular dynamics simulation. The 3,8-disubstituted-3H-imidazo[4,5-a]acridine-11-carbonitrile structure has been optimized by the density functional theory method. According to the results obtained from the molecular dynamics simulation, Arg364, Lys532, Asp533, Tyr537, Arg590, Cys630, Asn631, Gln633 and Adenine11 interact with the ligand by hydrophobic interactions and Arg488 and Adenine12 interact with the ligand by hydrogen bond interactions. Due to the fact that some of these residues, Arg488 and Arg590 are located in the enzyme active site, the new ligand appears to be inhibitory effect. Also, the calculation of the Harmonic Oscillator Model for Aromaticity (HOMA) index showed that the 5-membered ring of ligand and the 6-membered ring attached to the 5-membered ring had more reactivity with the enzyme. The contribution of charged residues in the binding free energy of the ligand is greater than the uncharged residues.

    Keywords: Imidazo[4.5-a]acridine, Molecular modeling, Aromaticity, Topoisomerase
  • Babu Velmurugan, Elif Ipek Satar*, Murat Yolcu, Ersin Uysal Pages 167-174

    Cypermethrin is one of the most commonly used pesticides. In this study, the effects of cypermethrin on serum biochemistry and liver histology of Anabas testudineus were investigated. The fish have been exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of cypermethrin for the 7th, 14th, and 21st days and one control was considered. AST, ALT, and ALP showed concentration- and days-dependent increases in all experimental groups. Bilirubin levels increased significantly (p<0.05) in cypermethrin groups. No statistically significant difference in bilirubin levels was observed between the concentrations of 0.015 and 0.030 mg L-1 on days 7th and 14th. Protein levels decreased in response to cypermethrin on all days when compared to controls. Statistically significant differences in protein levels weren’t observed between all concentrations on days 7th and 14th and between concentrations of 0.015 and 0.030 mg L-1 on days 21st. Light microscopy revealed hepatocyte hypertrophy, sinusoidal dilation, granular degeneration, congestion, pycnosis, and focal necrosis in the liver. AST ALT, ALP, bilirubin, protein levels, and histopathology can be used as possible markers for biological monitoring and chemical risk assessment in aquatic organisms.

    Keywords: Pesticide, Biochemical parameters, Histopathology, Liver
  • Zahra Khezli, Saeed Zavareh, Mojdeh Salehnia* Pages 175-182

    Utilizing antioxidants offers a promising strategy for mitigating the effects of oxidative stress. This study was designed to assess the influence of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) on the maturation of mouse oocytes and their apoptosis-related genes. Germinal vesicle oocytes, obtained from female mice aged 6-8 weeks, were subjected to in vitro maturation. Among these, 488 oocytes were exposed to 100 μM ALA, while 506 oocytes matured without ALA over a 16-hour duration. Subsequent evaluations were conducted to determine oocyte maturation rates. A portion of the mature oocytes at the metaphase II (MII) stage underwent in vitro fertilization, while the remaining oocytes were utilized to analyze the expression of Caspase 3, Bad, Bax, and Bcl2 through real-time RT-PCR. To quantify cell numbers, resulting blastocysts were stained with DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole). The group treated with ALA exhibited significantly higher rates of MII oocytes (77.30%) and a greater proportion of embryos developing into the blastocyst stage (33.87%) in comparison with the control group (55.81% and 25.06%, respectively; P<0.05). Moreover, the average cell count within blastocysts significantly increased in the ALA-treated group (82.37) compared to the control group (68.5; P<0.05). Furthermore, the pro-apoptotic genes expression decreased significantly, while the expression of the Bcl2 gene exhibited a significant increase in the ALA-treated group in comparison to the control group (P<0.05). In conclusion, the supplementation of the maturation medium for mouse oocytes with ALA resulted in improvements in oocyte development and overall embryo quality. This effect was attributed to the downregulation of pro-apoptotic genes and the upregulation of the anti-apoptotic gene.

    Keywords: GV oocytes, Alpha-lipoic acid, Apoptotic genes
  • Ali Abdulrahman Fadhil*, Sajeda Y. Swaid, Samar Jasim Mohammed, Aswan Al Abboodi Pages 183-190

    Soil salinity is an escalating problem that significantly reduces crop yield, particularly in regions with intensive agriculture or poor irrigation practices. This study aimed to assess the impact of salinity on the germination and early growth parameters of four tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) cultivars: 'Sakata', 'US Agriseed', 'Rossen B.V.', and 'Supermarmance'.


    The experiment was conducted under controlled greenhouse conditions with a randomized complete block design. Seeds were exposed to five salinity treatments (0, 4, 6, 8, and 10 ds m 1), and growth parameters including germination rate, seedling length, leaf number, and wet and dry weights were measured over a two week period. The results demonstrated that increasing salinity levels had a significant inhibitory effect on all measured growth parameters across all cultivars. Germination rates and seedling vigor decreased with increasing salinity, and a complete inhibition of growth was observed at the highest salinity levels (EC 8 and EC 10). However, variability among cultivars indicated differential salinity tolerance, with 'US Agriseed' displaying relatively better performance under saline conditions. The study provides clear evidence that salinity levels as low as 4 dS m 1 can adversely affect the germination and seedling growth of tomato plants. The findings highlight the critical need for developing salinity management strategies and breeding programs to improve salinity tolerance in tomatoes, which could significantly mitigate the impact of salinity stress on crop productivity.

    Keywords: Salinity stress, Tomato, Germination, Seedling growth, Soil salinity, Plant tolerance
  • Keivan Saedpanah, Mohammad Ghasemi, Hesam Akbari, Amir Adibzadeh, Hamed Akbari* Pages 191-198

    Providing 24-hour services is an inevitable part of the health care system. Shift work and smoking are major risk factors for cardiovascular disease among nurses. This study aimed to investigate the effects of smoking and shift work on physiological parameters and blood factors among nurses. The present study was a cross-sectional study conducted among 300 nurses in Tehran's specialized and sub-specialized hospital in Tehran. To collect the data, the demographic questionnaire was used. A digital Blood Pressure Monitor and heart rate monitor were used to measure physiological parameters. Blood factors were collected from the results of medical records (Blood CBC). Finally, the data were analyzed using SPSS-20 software. The combined effects of shift work and smoking showed that for people who are smokers and work in shifts, systolic blood pressure and BMI have a significant difference with day workers. Mean diastolic blood pressure and heart rate in shift workers and smokers were slightly higher than those of working day and non-smokers. At the same time, statistical analysis did not show a significant relationship between the parameters (p> 0.05). The results also showed that the concentration of cholesterol and triglycerides in shift workers and smokers was significantly different from day workers and non-smokers (p <0.05). Due to the importance of nurses' health as the main foundation of the health system, it is necessary to carry out intervention programs as well as more detailed studies and research on the effects of shift work and smoking on physiological parameters and blood parameters with lifestyle control.

    Keywords: Shift work, Physiological parameters, Blood factors, Nurses
  • Omarov Nazarbek Bakytbekovich * Pages 199-206

    Cadmium is a toxic metal that can contaminate water sources and pose serious health risks to humans and the environment. Therefore, there is a need for developing low-cost and eco-friendly methods for cadmium removal from water. In this research, we investigated the efficacy of barley straw in removing cadmium ions from aqueous solutions. The adsorbent utilized was laboratory-scaled barley straw that underwent pulverization via standard ASTM sieves, specifically those within the 40 to 120-mesh sieve size range. The functionalization of barley straw was achieved via treatment with a 0.8 M NaOH solution. The adsorbent was subsequently characterized by FTIR analysis to identify the presence of functional groups. The FTIR analysis indicated that the modification of barley straw led to an elevation in the stretch vibration band of hydroxyl and carboxyl groups. At the optimized experimental condition, a cadmium removal efficiency of up to 98.60% was achieved. These results demonstrate the potential of barley straw as an effective adsorbent for removing cadmium ions from aqueous solutions.

    Keywords: Cadmium, Toxicity, Barley straw, FTIR analysis