فهرست مطالب

  • سال هفتم شماره 3 (پیاپی 22، پاییز 1397)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/04/22
  • تعداد عناوین: 6
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  • کمال کوهی*، طیبه فریادی صفحات 1-16
    هدف پژوهش حاضر، مطالعه روابط بین دینداری و بیگانگی اجتماعی با همنوایی دانشجویان با هنجارهای اجتماعی است. پژوهش به روش پیمایشی انجام شده و جامعه آماری آن دانشجویان دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی تبریز است که 363 نفر از آنها برای مطالعه انتخاب شدهاند. روش انتخاب دانشجویان نیز براساس نمونه گیری طبقه ای تصادفی و متناسب بوده است. داده های مورد نیاز پژوهش با استفاده از ابزار پرسشنامه از دانشجویان دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی تبریز گردآوری شده است. برای تحلیل داده ها از نسخه 22 نرم افزار SPSS استفاده شده است. یافته ها نشان می دهند میزان همنوایی دانشجویان با هنجارهای اجتماعی در سطح بالا قرار دارد. همچنین نتایج تحلیل استنباطی نشان دهنده آن است که متغیر دینداری اثر مستقیم و مثبتی بر همنوایی دانشجویان با هنجارهای اجتماعی داشته است؛ در حالی که اثر متغیر میزان بیگانگی اجتماعی بر همنوایی دانشجویان با هنجارها معکوس و منفی بوده است. در مجموع این دو متغیر توانسته اند 8/42 درصد از تغییرات همنوایی دانشجویان با هنجارهای اجتماعی را تبیین کنند؛ بنابراین، دینداری و بیگانگی اجتماعی از عوامل تاثیرگذار بر همنوایی دانشجویان با هنجارهای اجتماعی اند.
    کلیدواژگان: همنوایی، هنجارهای اجتماعی، دینداری، بیگانگی اجتماعی
  • محسن معروفی*، اسعد خانی، جعفر هزار جریبی صفحات 17-32
    موضوع امنیت و مشارکت با پلیس در جامعه شهری اهمیت ویژه ای دارد. امروزه، با افزایش جوامع شهری و در هم تنیده تر شدن آنها، شرایط تامین و برطرف کردن نیازها هم شکلی پیچیده تر یافته است. شناخت و کنترل امنیت در شهرها مستلزم نگاه دقیق و همه جانبه ای است تا از طریق آن، بتوان ابعاد گوناگون امنیت را درک و ارتباط های پنهان میان آن ابعاد در سطوح مختلف را کشف کرد. پژوهش حاضر در همین زمینه سعی دارد درباره عوامل موثر بر مشارکت شهروندان ساکن شهر ارومیه در برقراری امنیت و نظم کاوش کند و تاکید ویژه ای بر حقوق شهروندی و آگاهی مردم از این حقوق و عضوشدن و فعالیت آنها در نهادهای مدنی و مشارکتی دارد. روش پژوهش پیمایشی و ابزار گردآوری داده ها پرسشنامه استاندارد استخراج شده از پژوهش های پیشین است. جامعه مطالعه شده شهروندان بالای 18 سال ارومیه است که دست کم تحصیلات راهنمایی داشته باشند. نمونه بررسی شده براساس فرمول کوکران برابر با 392 نفر است. نتایج پژوهش نشان می دهند بین متغیر جنسیت (p<0.01)، سن (p<0.01)، زبان (p<0.05) و تحصیلات (p<0.01) با مشارکت مردم در برقراری امنیت رابطه وجود دارد. میزان همبستگی متغیرهای مستقل و وابسته به این ترتیب است که متغیر همگرایی قومی با 536/0 (p<0.01)، آگاهی از حقوق شهروندی با 572/0 (p<0.01)، احساس محرومیت نسبی با 563/0- (p<0.01)، عضوشدن در نهادهای مدنی با 444/0 (p<0.01) و انسجام و وفاق اجتماعی با 570/0 (p<0.01) با متغیر وابسته همبستگی دارند. در بخش تحلیل رگرسیون نیز نتایج نشان می دهند متغیرهای مستقل حدود 46 درصد از تغییرات مربوط به متغیر وابسته را تبیین می کنند. گسترش روزافزون فیزیکی شهر و چندفرهنگی و چندقومیتی بودن آن مشکلاتی مانند کاهش انسجام اجتماعی، افزایش احساس محرومیت نسبی و... را به وجود آورده است. ازسوی دیگر، ضعف نهادهای مدنی در جلب مشارکت مردمی و آگاهی شهروندان از حقوق شهروندی سبب می شود ایجاد فضای امن شهری با چالش روبه رو شود. یافته های پژوهش نشان می دهند توجه متولیان امنیت به متغیرهای بررسی شده می تواند به بهبود امنیت به ویژه امنیت مشارکتی در فضای شهر کمک زیادی کند.
    کلیدواژگان: نظم و امنیت، مشارکت، همگرایی قومی، احساس محرومیت نسبی، انسجام اجتماعی، حقوق شهروندی، نهاد مدنی
  • علی قنبری برزیان*، شاپور سلمانوندی، نرگس السادات فاطمی صفحات 33-54
    پژوهش حاضر با هدف بررسی تاثیر روابط جنسی پیش از ازدواج بر میزان گرایش به ازدواج انجام شده است. جامعه آماری آن همه دانشجویان دختر و پسر در سال تحصیلی (96-1395) دانشگاه اصفهان و روش پژوهش، پیمایش است؛ ابتدا از روش نمونه گیری سهمیه ای طبقه بندی شده و در مرحله بعد از روش تصادفی ساده استفاده شده است. نمونه آماری 430 نفر است و داده های موردنیاز با استفاده از پرسش نامه به دست آمده اند. میزان آلفای کرونباخ این پژوهش 81 درصد به دست آمد که نشان دهنده پایایی پذیرفتنی پرسش نامه است. در مبانی نظری از نظریه های عشق سیال از باومن، تحول ارزش ها از اینگلهارت و سکسوالیته پلاستیکی از گیدنز استفاده شده است. یافته ها و نتایج این پژوهش نشان می دهند روابط جنسی پیش از ازدواج، سبب کاهش گرایش به ازدواج جوانان دانشجو و نگرش منفی آنها نسبت به ازدواج و تشکیل خانواده و بی اعتمادی به جنس مخالف می شود. همچنین کاهش گرایش به ازدواج، زمینه را برای افزایش میانگین سن ازدواج و بستر را برای رسیدن به تجرد قطعی فراهم می کند که پیامد چنین امری در درازمدت، از یک سو تهدیدشدن رشد طبیعی جمعیت و ازسوی دیگر، ایجاد تحول ساختاری در روابط بین دو جنس زن و مرد است که در هر دو حالت، مطلوب چشم انداز تعالی فرهنگی جامعه ایرانی - اسلامی نیست؛ ازاین رو، انجام دادن پژوهش درباره این مسئله اجتماعی با توجه به جوانی جمعیت ایران، ضرورتی کارکردی دارد.
    کلیدواژگان: رابطه جنسی پیش از ازدواج، دوستی با جنس مخالف، نگرش، گرایش به ازدواج
  • مریم رحمانی* صفحات 55-82
    تمرد از فرمان پلیس طبق ماده 607 قانون مجازات اسلامی (تعزیرات و مجازات های بازدارنده) جرم محسوب می شود و مجموعه قوانین، مقررات و شرایط موجود تاکنون نتوانسته اند بازدارنده مناسبی برای جرم تمرد شهروندان از فرمان پلیس باشند. برای شناسایی بهتر شرایط موجود، این نوشتار با رویکرد تفسیرگرایی اجتماعی، دلایل تمرد شهروندان از فرمان پلیس در استان خراسان شمالی را بررسی کرده است. در این پژوهش از روش نظریه زمینه ای برای تجزیه و تحلیل داده های حاصل از مصاحبه عمیق نیمه‎ساخت یافته بهره گرفته شده است. برای انتخاب نمونه از جامعه آماری (شامل ترکیبی از شهروندان، ماموران پلیس و کارشناسان و صاحب ‎نظران)، دو نوع نمونه گیری هدفمند و نظری به طور همزمان به کار گرفته شد. نمونه ها به شیوه در دسترس با ملاک حداکثر تنوع انتخاب و بر پایه اشباع نظری نمونه گیری پایان یافت؛ پس از استخراج مفاهیم اساسی (85 مفهوم)، مقوله های فرعی (28 مقوله) و مقوله های عمده (10 مقوله)، همه مقوله های عمده برحسب جنبه های شرایطی، تعاملی و پیامدی با همدیگر تلفیق شدند و الگویی تلفیقی، همگرا و دارای سطح انتزاعی بالاتر - که بیان کننده سوال اصلی پژوهش است - استخراج شد. بر این اساس تمرد از فرمان پلیس به منزله پدیده محوری شامل چهار نوع ابزاری، اعتراضی، خاص گرا و نمایشی، شرایط علی تمرد از فرمان پلیس شامل سه مقوله عمده قانون نارسا و آموزش ناکارا، اجتماع تسهیلگر تمرد و فرسایش سرمایه اجتماعی، شرایط زمینه ای شامل دو مقوله عمده برزخ زندگی و نارسایی زیرساخت ها و تجهیزات، شرایط مداخله گر شامل مقوله عمده مدیریت ضعیف صحنه تعامل، شرایط تعاملی شامل راهبردهای تمرد کلامی و غیرکلامی و پیامد تمرد از فرمان پلیس شامل دو مقوله عمده کاهش مشروعیت قانون و کاهش اقتدار پلیس اند که از متن مصاحبه ها استخراج شده ‎اند.
    کلیدواژگان: نظریه زمینه ای، تمرد، پلیس، شهروند، خراسان شمالی
  • سمیه حشمتی، فرزین چاره جو* صفحات 83-100
    داشتن حس امنیت در فضای شهری از عوامل متعددی سرچشمه می گیرد که مهم ترین آنها، عوامل محیطی است. هدف از این پژوهش، بررسی مولفه های تاثیرگذار بر امنیت ادراک شده در محلات بافت فرسوده شهر سنندج، مطابق با اصول نسل اول و دوم نظریه CPTED و ارائه راهکارهای بهینه محیط مصنوع برای کاهش جرائم شهری است. برای بررسی تفاوت امنیت محلات از آزمون واریانس یک طرفه، برای سنجش سطح اثرگذاری متغیرهای مستقل از تحلیل رگرسیون و برای مقایسه تعقیبی میانگین کیفیت های تاثیرگذار بر امنیت از آزمون Tukey در نرم افزار SPSS استفاده شده است. در پایان، در نرم افزار GIS اقدام به پهنه بندی امنیت محلات شده است. نتایج به دست آمده نشان می دهند اگرچه محلات هدف، همه در بافتی همگن قرار دارند، تفاوت در کیفیت های محیطی موجب بروز سطوح متفاوتی از امنیت ادراک شده شده است. به گونه ای که محله قطارچیان با آماره واریانس 82/2 و سطح معنی داری 000/0 بیشترین و محله قلاچوارلان با آماره واریانس 27/2 و سطح معنی داری 000/0 کمترین امنیت ادراک شده را دارند. نتایج همچنین نشان داده اند حمایت از فعالیت ها و نظارت طبیعی با ضرایب بتای 265/0 و 167/0 و سطح معنی داری 000/0 از فاکتورهای نسل اول و آستانه ظرفیت و فرهنگ جمعی با ضرایب بتای 280/0 و 246/0و سطح معنی داری 000/0 از فاکتورهای نسل دوم، بیشترین میزان اثرگذاری را داشته اند که لازم است برای برقراری امنیت لازم در این محلات به آنها توجه بیشتری شود.
    کلیدواژگان: امنیت محیطی، کیفیت محیطی، CPTED، بافت فرسوده، شهر سنندج
  • حمید قاضی زاده*، سمیه احسانی صفحات 101-114
    هدف پژوهش حاضر، بررسی وجود رابطه میان انسجام، اعتماد و باورهای اجتماعی نوجوانان با میزان گرایش آنان به استفاده از کتابخانه های عمومی است. روش پژوهش، توصیفی و از نوع همبستگی بوده است که از میان 773 نفر از نوجوانان 11تا 14 ساله عضو کتابخانه های عمومی شهر شوش، تعداد 256 نفر با استفاده از فرمول کرجسی مورگان برای نمونه انتخاب شدند و برای جمع آوری اطلاعات از سه پرسشنامه استاندارد استفاده شد. تحلیل یافته ها نشان داد هرچند بین دو مولفه انسجام و اعتماد اجتماعی با ضریب همبستگی به ترتیب 593/0 و 462/0 با میزان استفاده ازکتابخانه های عمومی رابطه معناداری وجود دارد، میان مولفه باورهای اجتماعی با ضریب همبستگی 11/0 با استفاده از کتابخانه ها، رابطه معناداری بین نوجوانان دیده نمی شود. همچنین تحلیل رگرسیون گام به گام (Step wise) از دو مولفه انسجام و اعتماد اجتماعی، به مقدار 722/0 R= نشان داد آن دو در مقایسه با باور اجتماعی، معیار پیش بینی کننده خوبی برای میزان گرایش به استفاده از کتابخانه های عمومی محسوب می شوند. نتایج پژوهش آشکار کردند توجه نکردن به مولفه های پنهان در سرمایه اجتماعی ازجمله باور اجتماعی، موجب شده است هم مخاطبان از کتابخانه ها کمتر استقبال کنند هم کتابخانه ها در تحقق برخی اهداف و رسالت خویش موفقیت چندانی به دست نیاورند.
    کلیدواژگان: انسجام اجتماعی، اعتماد اجتماعی، باورهای اجتماعی، کتابخانه های عمومی، نوجوانان، شوش
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  • Kamal Koohi *, Teyebeh Fayadi Pages 1-16
    Introduction
    Individuals do a lot of things in their everyday of social life that is compatible with social laws. In fact, community members have accepted them as a social norm. Norms guide all human activities in the community and determine what behavior a person has in different situations. Behavioral deviation is a phenomenon that is not compatible with the common expectations of members of a community, and most people consider it to be inappropriate and inaccurate. In fact, those who are in harmony with the norms of society are considered "normal", and those who do not conform are called "abnormal". An overview of the status of Conformity with the norms and anomic conditions in society, especially the academic community, shows that a significant proportion of students are in anomic status. Given that the demographic structure of the society is mainly Teenager and young, young forces are shaping the future of society, if their needs and desires are not obviate and they suffer from various types of social problems, they can't be considered as useful forces in Society advancement. In this regard, the aim of this study is the relationship between religiosity and social alienation with student conformity with social norms.
    Material and Methods
    Research was done through survey method and the population study was Islamic Azad University of Tabriz that is approximately 22810 person. In this research, sample of 363 people was selected for study. Proportional stratified and random sampling methods were used for choosing the samples and the necessary information has been collected from students of Islamic Azad University of Tabriz by questionnaire. In this research was used theories of Emile Durkheim, Talcott Parsons, Kinsley Davis and Simon and the research results of researchers. Also, the present study tested the hypothesis such as " There is a relationship between the Rate of students' religiosity and their coherence with social norms." and "There is a relationship between the degree of social alienation of students and their coherence to social norms." also, the reliability test results of variables show that  Items designed to measure the variables are good items because, reliability is at all appropriate levels The research hypotheses was tested by Pearson correlation coefficient and multivariate regression test in version 22 of the SPSS software
    Discussion of Result and Conclusions
     After data analyzing the findings show that average of Conformity of Student with Social Norms was 82.46 percent, in other words the conformity of student with social norms is at high level. Also, descriptive analysis of the research variables show that Rate of social alienation and, Rate of students' religiosity has a above to moderate levels. Also, Inferential Findings show that the religiosity variables had a positive and direct effect.in other words, with the increase the religiosity degree of students increases their conformity with social norms, while social alienation had negative and reverse effect on the conformity of student with social norms. This means that with the increase in rate of students' social alienation, decreases their level of conformity with social norms. Also, in total, 38.1 % of student conformity with social norms can be explained by the Religiosity and Social Alienation variables. From 38.1% of the explanation, 33.7 belong to the students' religiosity variable and 4.8% is depend to the social alienation variable. Religiosity and social alienation are influential factors in the students' social harmony with social norms. in fact, religion, through the creation and preservation of unity, social integrity and social cohesion, has prevented the social alienation of individuals and their breaking the norm and It forces people into different ways to adapt to social norms of society.
    Keywords: Conformity, Social Norm, Religiosity, Social Alienation, Students of Islamic Azad University
  • Mohsen Maroofi *, Asaad Khani, Jafar Hezarjaribi Pages 17-32
    Introduction
     Urban management faces many challenges in terms of security. Among these challenges is the concept of citizenship, participation, and citizenship rights, which has become especially important today. One of the ways of securing, changing and reforming the Physical Space of cities, and of course, more important than the physical Space of any place, is the prevailing spirit of that place, which stems from the social and human relations that are interdependent. That is, the Physical Space plays an important role in behaviors, and behaviors affect how the Physical Space of the city is used. Subject of security and cooperation with police in urban communities is very important.  Today situation of meeting needs is more complex, with increasing in urban community and tangling them. Recognition and control of security in cities requires comprehensive and thorough insight so that way we can understand the various aspects of security also we can discover hidden relationships between dimensions at different levels. In this regard, this research attempts to explore effective factors on Urmia citizen participation in maintaining order and security. Urmia is one of the cities whose inhabitants have always enjoyed peaceful and non-violent living in the distant past, with ethnic and religious backgrounds, and ethnic and religious diversity has never caused insecurity, and the inhabitants of this city with each other People and languages have been collaborating with each other to promote their city. Nonetheless, radical currents that are strengthened out of the reach of some ethnic occurrences lead to ethnic conflicts and tensions, which may eventually lead to insecurity and disorder. The study special emphasis on civil rights and awareness of civil rights also consider citizen’s membership and activity in civil society organizations.
    Material & Methods
     Present research method is survey and data were collected by standard questionnaires that have been extracted from previous research. The study population is Urmia citizens who are over 18 years old and have at least intermediate education. Based on Cochran formula, the sample are 392 people.  The tool of measurement is a questionnaire, which is one of the most common and accurate tools for obtaining research data. Data analysis of this research has been done using statistical methods using SPSS software. Since the independent and dependent variables are quantitative and scale Level, the research hypotheses are evaluated using Pearson correlation coefficient test. Also, using regression analysis, the role and contribution of each of the independent variables are calculated and presented in the path analysis diagram.
    Discussion of Results & Conclusions
     Urmia city has a population of about one million people, including the populous cities of Iran, which can be considered metropolitan by urban standards. On the other hand, ethnic, religious, linguistic and ... Urmia has some special problems. It is also the provincial capital with three common border strips and is constantly threatened. Data analyze results show that these variables: gender (p<0.01), age (p<0.01), language (p<0.05), education (p<0.01) correlated with public participation in security. The correlation between independent variables and tend to participation in security as dependent variable is as follows: ethnic convergence 0.536 (p<0.01), awareness of civil rights0.572 (p<0.01), feelings of relative deprivation -0.563 (p<0.01), membership in civil society organizations 0.444 (p<0.01), social cohesion 0.570 (p<0.01). Also the regressions analysis results in this study show that independent variables explain about 46 percent of dependent variable. City expansion, its multicultural and multiethnic would be created problems such as social cohesion reduction, increasing in feelings of relative deprivation. On the other hand, the weakness of civil society in public participation procurement and ignorance of civil rights causes urban secure environment face to challenges.  The results indicate that considering these factors by security officials can help to improve security in urban space, especially security participation.
    Keywords: Order, Security, Participation, Ethnic Convergence, Feelings of Relative Deprivation, Social Cohesion, Civil Rights, Civil Society Organization
  • Ali Ghanbaribarzain *, Shahoor Salmanvandy, Narghes Sadat Fatemi Pages 33-54
    Introduction
    Relationships with the opposite sex before marriage lead to greater family vulnerability and persistence of marriage and family collapse and other social harms. It creates serious challenges to the social system and especially to girls, and raises many questions about the continued health of the Iranian family. Expansion of this phenomenon can threaten the standards of marriage and the values and norms of the family and the family of Iranians. The present paper seeks to examine the impact of premarital sexual relations before marriage on attitude, the rate of students' tendency towards marriage, and the degree of mutual trust between boys and girls, and answers the question that: what is the effect of marriage on the type of attitudes and relationships of couples and their degree of trust and the degree of students' tendency towards marriage and family planning?
    Material & Methods
     In this article, the relationship with the opposite sex includes any relationship between a girl and a boy at all levels of emotion and sexuality with the intention of marriage or without the intention of marriage, and includes relationships in the cyberspace. Sex also means any contact and physical or sexual relationship with a friend of the opposite sex who has committed any kind of bondage and marriage
    In this paper, in theoretical understanding of premarital sexuality or a fusion of ideas, there is great reliance on Inglehart's theory and fluid love and Giddens modernism. The subject of Inglehart's cultural transformation theory is capable of explaining some of the variables that are effective, and both Giddens and William Goud's theory of modernization, as well as Bowman's fluid love theory, can explain other aspects of this phenomenon. Hence, in the theoretical framework of this issue, we use Inglehart's Value Transformation Theory, Bowman Fluid Love Theory and Anthony Giddens Sexuality Theory.
    The method of this research is survey. The statistical population of this research is all male and female students of the University of Isfahan in the academic year of 2016-17 at all educational levels. Sample size, 430 individuals, was selected using Cochran's formula. The required data were collected using a questionnaire, a randomized sampling method, and simple random sampling. Also, for analyzing the data, both descriptive and inferential statistics, and for measuring the validity and reliability of the Cronbach's coefficients, formal credentials and the Bartlett test were utilized.
    Discussion of Results & Conclusions
     According to the results of this paper, 84% of the respondents stated that they were not willing to marry a person who had sex before marriage and 88% of the sample also stated that having a premarital sex destroys a real love between couples. Moreover, 87% believed that those who had sex before marriage are not reliable, and 82% said that those who had sex before marriage would not be loyal to marriage. The results showed that 12% of boys and 5% of girls stated that they had sex before marriage.
    According to research data, the close and progressive sexual intercourse with the opposite sex before marriage does not reduce the tendency of single girls and boys to marry. Premarital sexual relations, which are either intended to be married or less likely to respond to the emotional and sexual needs of individuals, are more related to the decline in marriage. Therefore, the main hypothesis of the research on the effect of premarital sexual relationships on the reduction of the tendency towards marriage was rejected by using Pearson correlation test at a significant level of 99%. Other factors, other than trust, have a positive effect on marriage tendency. Premarital sexual intercourse has only a negative impact on the level of trust in the opposite sex.
    The findings indicate that premarital sex relations reduces the desire to marry female students, and creates a negative attitude towards marriage and family formation and mistrust of gender. The result of this study shows that the decline in the desire to marry is to raise the groundwork for increasing the average age of marriage as well as celibacy, the outcome of such a long term is a threat to the natural population growth. On the other hand, the structural transformation of relations between the sexes will develop in both genders, and this is not the view of the cultural transcendence of Iranian-Islamic society. Hence, studying this social issue with regard to the youth of the Iranian population is functional.
    According to the study community, it is recommended that the university takes more serious policies and planning about young people's marriage. The research has two suggestions for the university: first, by informing young people about marital training, they should be aware of the harm and the issues without knowing it, through the organization of workshops on the training of life and sexual skills and the training of joys and pleasures. On the one hand, the teaching of communication skills with the opposite sex is felt to young people and students who want to form a family. It can be admitted that attitudinal and value changes in relation to marriage and friendship of a girl and a boy are one of the signs of the vast cultural change that is taking place in our transitional society. The phenomenon of relationship between a boy and a girl is a social reality that indicates a cultural change in the macro-social system of Iran. Although, this issue has been studied and researched as a social phenomenon, it is possible to expect that in other theoretical, social, political and economic spheres. Theoretically speaking, and due to the interaction among different social variables, we are also facing some kind of modernization, especially value-added modernization, and sometimes behavioral modernization.
    Keywords: Sex before Marriage, Sex with the Opposite Gender, the Tendency towards Marriage
  • Maryam Rahmani * Pages 55-82
    Introduction
    Defiance against police forces’ orders based on article 607 of Islamic Penal Code is crime (Article 607: Any form of attack or resistance carried out knowingly against state agents while they are performing their duties shall be regarded as defiance …). So far, the complex of law and disciplines couldn’t curb the crime of citizens’ defiance against police forces’ orders and this crime is done against police officials every day. So, the suppositions of status quo haven’t been in harmony with supposition and the result haven’t met the considered obligations. Defiance as the topic of this study is the criminal action, so the theories related to defiance and the theories related to criminal actions have been analyzed.  
    Material & Methods
    To identify the existing conditions, this study, with a social interpretivism approach, has studied the reasons of citizens’ defiance against police forces’ orders in North Khorasan province. In this research, grounded theory has been used to analyze data gathered from semi-structured interviews. To collect data, theoretical and purposive samplings have been used simultaneously. Purposive sampling was used for selecting individuals for interviewing and theoretical sampling for identifying individuals’ numbers and locating required data and finding the path of research. Ultimately, theoretical saturation achieved by 41 interviews in three groups, including police officials (17 individuals), citizenships (14 individuals), and academic elites and experts (10 individuals) and the sampling ended. The interview texts during some stages were encoded. The process of coding in grounded theory includes 3 stages of open coding, axial coding, and selective coding that are needed for touching theoretical model or paradigmatically model.  
    Discussion of Results & Conclusions
    In the of 41 interviews, the effective factors on citizens’ defiance against police forces’ orders were identified and encoded at some stages. After extracting basic conceptions (88 ones), subcategories (25 ones), and major categories (10 ones), an integrative and convergent model was extracted which enjoys a more abstract level that indicates the main question of the research and the major categories in some factors (casual, contextual, and intervening conditions). Action strategies and consequences were separated in order to achieve a theory based on induction fitted with the condition of North Khorasan province regarding citizens’ defiance against police forces’ orders. Based on the frame of grounded theory, defiance against police forces’ orders was considered as the core categories of this research including instrumental, protest, special and dramatic defiance. Casual condition of citizens’ defiance against police forces’ orders including three major categories, insufficient law and ineffective education (two subcategories: weakness in law and education ineffectiveness), facilitating society of  defiance (two subcategories: acceptance of breaking law in common culture and spreading anger), and erosion of social capital (six subcategories: cynicism for moral sphere of society, the weakness of police professional morality, weakness of citizen morality, duplicity of police, wasting citizen law, and decreasing social trust); contextual conditions  including two major categories of life limbo (tree subcategories: low level of social and economic development, minority anxiety/ authority of majority, and low patience) and insufficiency of infrastructures and equipment (two subcategories: police equipment weakness, and infrastructures inefficiency); intervening conditions including Managing poor interaction scene (two subcategories: repulsive interaction of police and citizens, and the Violations of polite norms) the interaction condition (including verbal and non-verbal defiance) and the consequences of citizens’ defiance against police forces’ orders including two major categories of decreasing law legitimacy (tree subcategory of decreasing trust to Fairness of the law, decreasing law legitimacy, self-allowance against law jurisdiction) and decreasing police authority were extracted from the interviews. Since in North Khorasan province different nations of Turk, Kormanji, Kurd, Tat, Turkmen, Persian, along with the minority of Sunni live with Shia, so the cultural context of province is complex and regulating this province needed much effort and special education and training by police and citizens. This province should be considered as a less-developed province, and in every design and planning, this complex cultural context and the condition of socioeconomic development of North Khorasan province must be considered.
    Keywords: Grounded Theory, Defiance, Police, Citizen, North Khorasan
  • Somaye Heshmati, Farzin Charehjoo * Pages 83-100
    Introduction
    Having a sense of security as one of the obvious human needs has been endorsed and accepted by many international organizations and has led their attention toward ways of promoting it, especially in the public space of cities. Urban planners are trying to restore this important quality to the urban environment through optimal design and reduce the possibility of crime and delinquency in public spaces. Due to the importance of social components of urban neighborhoods that are in line with physical components in affecting levels of security, this research focuses on both subsets of this approach. In this way, both physical and social components of the environment would be examined. The present study tries to investigate the safety of Sanandaj's worn out neighborhoods by recognizing the environmental and social components (environmental based), in order to identify their weaknesses and strengths and try to provide optimal solutions.
    Materials and Methods
     The statistical population of this research is people aged between 18 and 65 years old living in Sanandaj's worn out neighborhoods. The sample size of this study was calculated using the Cochran formula and numbered 383 people. The required data was collected in a questionnaire consisting of different dimensions of first and second generations of the CPTED index. It is applied in a descriptive-analytical method based on library information and field statistics questionnaires distribution. According to the research questions and goals, various statistical analyzes have been selected. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to assess the reliability of the research tool (questionnaire), To investigate the normality of the research variables, the Kolmogorov Smirnov test was used. After obtaining positive results, one-way ANOVA was used to examine differences between the physical security level in the studied neighborhoods and the differences between the CPTED factors among them. Then, using regression analysis, we measured the level of effectiveness of each of the independent variables and those with highest and lowest levels of effectiveness were identified. Then, using Tukey's test in SPSS software, we compared the average follow-up of the physical qualities affecting environmental security as well as the overall level of environmental security. Finally, using the results of the comparison of the averages, GIS software has been proposed to provide security zoning for the worn-out urban neighborhoods of Sanandaj.
    Discussion of Results and Conclusion
     Based on the analysis, there is a meaningful relationship between the physical factors assessed in the research and the crime and delinquency in the target areas. In this way, the qualitative weaknesses of the examined physical factors are effective on the occurrence of crimes and have made the inhabitants of the neighborhoods vulnerable to crime. Therefore, it can be concluded that organizing the environmental quality of public spaces has a clear effect on reducing crime and increasing the sense of security of citizens, and by applying a series of environmental and physical interventions, the crime rate was reduced. The results show that, although target neighborhoods are all in a homogeneous texture, the difference in environmental quality has led to different levels of perceived security. Ghatarchian neighborhood with variance of 2.82 and a significant level of 0.000 has the highest perceived security, and Ghalachovarlan neighborhood with variance of 2.82 and a significant level of 0.000 has the least perceived security among their residents. The results also show that activity support with a beta coefficient of 0.265 and significant value of 0.000, and natural monitoring with a beta coefficient of 0.167 and significant value of 0.000 of the first generation, and threshold capacity with a beta coefficient of 0.24 and significant value of 0.000, and community culture with a beta coefficient of 0.246 and significant value of 0.000 of the CPTED second generation are the most effective factors and they are quiet necessary to being paid more attention in order to ensuring the necessary security in selected neighborhood spaces.
    Keywords: Environmental Security, Environmental Quality, CPTED, Old Texture, Sanandaj city
  • Hamid Ghazizadeh *, Somayeh Ehsani Pages 101-114
    Introduction
    Examining various types of criteria and indicators in society and revealing their role on other phenomena is part of the tasks of researchers. One of the most striking examples in this regard is the economic field. Where the benchmark is closely related to the supply with another index as demand, and the downside of one increases another and vice versa. In this regard, the fields of information science, which functions in the field of culture and knowledge, can identify indicators related to the field of research and library and examine the effects of each of them on the goals and objectives of libraries. In this way, although various studies have been carried out on the role of public libraries in a large measure, such as: promoting social justice (Ebrahimi and Alipour, 2013), social capital production (Zarehsaz, 2012), and other similar studies, but clearly and mainly the goals of the majority research to examine the role of the library in building social trust, increasing social capital, meeting the needs of the audience, meeting the needs of the audience, and less on the other side, the impact of social indicators on libraries. In other words, the results of the previous research indicate that there is a one-way analysis of the role of the public library on social indicators, and there is no particular focus on the problem-solving state, the impact of social indicators on the use of libraries. Considering that the inclusion of all the components and indicators in the community is not included in this discussion, the researcher emphasized the components that have been mentioned and played a role in their contributions to numerous research papers. Therefore, the present research attempted to focus on social criteria such as social cohesion, social trust, and social beliefs, and then focused on the relationship between each of them and the rate of tendency to use public libraries among adolescents in Shoush city, Khuzestan province.
    Material & Methods
    The three partial research hypotheses are: There is a meaningful relationship between social cohesion with the rate of tendency to use public libraries among teenagers in Shoush. There is a significant relationship between social trusts with the rate of tendency to use public libraries among teenagers in Shoush. There is a meaningful relation between social beliefs and the rate of tendency to use public libraries among teenagers in Shoush.    
    And the general assumption is that there is a significant relationship between cohesion, trust and social beliefs with the rate of tendency to use public libraries among teenagers in Shoush. Validity of the questionnaire was reviewed by professors and experts in the field of information science and its validity was confirmed. The reliability of the questionnaire was calculated to be higher than 80% using Cronbach's alpha. To determine the reliability of the questionnaires, the Cronbach's alpha coefficient was considered. After calculating the SPSS software, for social trust, social solidarity, social beliefs and tendency to public libraries, coefficients of 0.877, 0.759, 0.701and 0.783, which resulted in internal correlation of questionnaires used.
    Discussion of Results & Conclusions
    In order to study the three components contained in the research hypothesis, Pearson correlation method was used and to examine the general assumption of multiple regression. In order to study the three components contained in the research hypothesis, Pearson correlation method was used and to examine the general assumption of multiple regression. According to the data analysis, the first and second hypotheses of the research were confirmed. In other words, there was a meaningful and direct relationship between social cohesion with the tendency to use public libraries as well as between social trust and the tendency to use libraries among adolescents. But the results of the third component of the research hypothesis, which examined social beliefs with the tendency to use public libraries, were not confirmed. To investigate the research hypothesis, a multiple stepwise regression method was used from the beginning.
    Data analysis showed that 52 percent of the variance in the tendency to use public libraries in adolescents was explained by two variables: social cohesion and social trust. Despite these values, the predictor variables can form a meaningful regression equation. Also, by referring to t statistics and meaningful levels, it can be concluded that only two variables of cohesion and social (directly) with the variable of tendency to use public schools, have a meaningful relationship, and the component of social beliefs, has no significant relationship with the use of public libraries. To analyze the role of the three components of the use of public libraries, data analysis showed that there is a multiplicity of relationship between cohesion, trust and social beliefs with the rate of tendency to use public libraries among teenagers in the city of Shoush. Considering the hypothesis confirmed by statistical analysis, and by referring to T statistics and significant levels, it can be concluded that two variables of cohesion and social trust (directly) with the tendency variable to use public libraries have a significant multiple relationship and the social beliefs component has no meaningful relationship with the tendency to use public libraries.
    In order to generalize the process of investigating the relationship between cohesion, trust and social beliefs, although two components can be a good predictor of the rate of tendency towards public libraries, but the lack of a meaning relation between social beliefs using libraries, more reflection. Also, the results of the research revealed that the lack of attention to the components of social capital, the social belief of which was one of them, not only does not allow libraries to be welcomed by adolescents in their own way, but also to fulfill their mission Which is to provide the general information needs of the community, also have little success.
    Keywords: Social Cohesion, Social Trust, Social Beliefs, Public Libraries, Adolescents Shoush