فهرست مطالب

  • سال شانزدهم شماره 2 (پیاپی 31، پاییز و زمستان 1397)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/12/14
  • تعداد عناوین: 12
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  • حمیده محمودی، مریم رجبی*، احمد رومیانی صفحات 1-26
    اهداف
    هدف پژوهش، بررسی نقش گردشگری در توسعه و بازسازی مناطق روستایی در ناحیه خرقان شهرستان اوج می باشد و به دنبال پاسخ گویی به این سوال کلیدی می باشد که آیا توسعه گردشگری و فعالیت های مرتبط با آن توانسته است منجر به بهبود توسعه و بازسازی مناطق روستایی در محدوده مورد مطالعه شود.
    روش
    نوع تحقیق کاربردی و روش مورد استفاده توصیفی- علی می باشد. برای گردآوری داده ها از روش های کتابخانه ای و میدانی (پرسش نامه، مشاهده) استفاده شده است. جامعه آماری تحقیق ناحیه خرقان از توابع شهرستان اوج است که تعداد خانوار ساکن در آن بالغ بر 2177 مورد می باشد که با استفاده از فرمول اصلاح شده کوکران تعداد 249 مورد به عنوان نمونه انتخاب شده است. جهت ارزیابی پایایی داده ها از آزمون آلفای کرونباخ استفاده شد که با توجه به ضریب 76/0 و 78/0 نشان دهنده مناسب بودن داده ها و روابط آن ها می باشد. برای تجزیه و تحلیل داده ها از آزمون های آماری از قبیل آزمون رتبه ای فریدمن، رگرسیون چندمتغیره و تحلیل مسیر و نرم ابزار EQS بهره گرفته شده است.

    نتایج
    یافته های آزمون های استفاده شده نشان می دهد که تفاوت میانگین ها از دیدگاه پاسخگویان در نقاط روستایی نمونه با توجه به سطح آلفای 0/01کاملا معنادار گزارش شده است. برازش مدل رگرسیونی نشان دهنده تاثیر مثبت گردشگری در توسعه و بازسازی روستایی محل سکونت به میزان 0/64 می‌باشد. آزمون تحلیل مسیر نشان می دهد که بیشترین اثر کلی مربوط به بعد ابعاد اقتصادی با میزان (0/448) است و بعد زیست محیطی با میزان (0/301) کمترین اثر کلی در توسعه و بازسازی روستایی در منطقه مورد مطالعه را داشته است. همچنین، برازش مدل تحلیل مسیر هم بر اساس خروجی که از نرم افزار EQS گرفته شده است، برازش مناسبی را نشان داد.
    نتیجه گیری
    نتایج این تحقیق نشان داد که گردشگری روستایی در توسعه و بازسازی مناطق روستایی با توجه به اثراتی که در ابعاد (اقتصادی، اجتماعی-فرهنگی، زیست محیطی و کالبدی) ، در روستاهای محدوده مورد مطالعه به دنبال داشته است به عنوان راهبردی برای توسعه و بازسازی روستاهای همجوار که توجه کمتری به آن ها شده است قلمداد می شود.
    کلیدواژگان: گردشگری، بازسازی مناطق، توسعه روستایی، ناحیه خرقان، شهرستان اوج
  • فرخ مشیری، آسیه نیک بین* صفحات 27-49
    اهداف
    افزایش جمعیت از یک ‌سو و بروز الگوهای توسعه‌ای ناپایداری چون پراکنده‌رویی شهری از دیگر سوی سبب‌ساز پیدایش معضلات مختلفی به‌ویژه تخریب‌های زیست‌محیطی شده ‌است. یکی از نمونه های پراکنده رو کشورمان، شهر قزوین است که با گسترش پراکنده خود موجب تخریب زیست‌محیطی عناصر ارزشمندی چون باغات هزار ساله قزوین با قابلیت ثبت جهانی و همچنین زمین‌های کشاورزی مرغوب اطراف شهر شده است. پژوهش حاضر در پی مقابله با پدیده پراکنده‌رویی و تخریب‌های زیست‌محیطی ناشی از آن است.
    روش
    کد هوشمند به عنوان رویکردی نوین جهت مقابله با پراکنده‌رویی مطرح شده است. پژوهش حاضر بر مبنای دستورالعمل کد هوشمند مدلی ارائه می‌دهد و بر اساس آن به کدبندی شهر قزوین و محیط پیراشهری آن می‌پردازد. این نقشه کدبندی مانع تخریب‌های زیست‌محیطی شده و راهکارهایی را در این زمینه ارائه می‌دهد.
    یافته‌ها
     مدل پیشنهادی این پژوهش دارای سه سطح منطقه‌ای، محلی و بلوک است. از آنجا که راهکارهای سطح منطقه‌ای بر حفاظت زیست‌محیطی متمرکز است به برنامه‌ریزی در این سطح اکتفا می‌کنیم. طبق مدل پیشنهادی حوزه مرکزی مجموعه شهری قزوین را به عنوان محدودههمگن برنامه‌ریزی انتخاب می‌کنیم. با استفاده از مدل هلدرن مشخص می‌شود 56% از رشد شهر مربوط به رشد افقی و اسپرال قزوین است. در نهایت شش سطح بر مبنای ویژگی های محیط زیستی و قابلیت های توسعه ای در محدوده مورد نظر مشخص می‌شود.
    نتیجه‌گیری
     راهکاری که کد هوشمند برای جلوگیری از تخریب باغات ارزشمند قزوین ارائه می‌دهد انتقال حق توسعه است، بر مبنای نقشه منطقه‌ای روستای چوبیندر در جنوب قزوین گزینه مناسبی بدین منظور است.
    کلیدواژگان: پراکنده رویی شهری، تخریب زیست محیطی، کد هوشمند، قزوین
  • امیر صفاری*، هادی کریمی، محمد علی زاده، سعید رحیمی صفحات 51-71
    اهداف
    رویکرد اصلی دانش ژئوتوریسم و ژئومورفوتوریسم رویکردی‌ است توسعه گرا، حفاظتی و علمی در ارزیابی توانمندی میراث‌های ژئومورفیک که امروزه با گسترش مطالعات خود زیرشاخه‌های متعددی از قبیل ژئودایورسیتی (تنوع)، ژئوکانسرویشن (حفاظت‌)، ژئواینترپرتیشن(تفسیر) و غیره را در این شاخه از علوم زمین و همسوگری آن با سیستم‌های گردشگری پدیدار ساخته است که هدف تمامی آن‌ها پایداری و توسعه ناحیه‌ای در عرصه‌های زیست محیطی، اقتصادی- اجتماعی جامعه انسانی به ویژه جامعه بومی است. بر این اساس، هدف نوشتار حاضر را ارزیابی توانمندی‌های میراث زمین و در نهایت دستیابی به ارتقای علمی، توسعه ناحیه‌ای و حفاظت از میراث‌های ژئومورفیک در منطقه مورد مطالعه تشکیل می‌دهد.
    روش
    از نظر روش شناسی نوشتار حاضر می‌کوشد به کمک مدلی تلفیقی از مدل‌های رایج ارزیابی توانمندی‌های ژئومورفوسایت‌ها و پیمایش های میدانی به بررسی جامعی از ادراک میراث زمین بپردازد. ساختار این مدل مبتنی بر معیارها و مولفه‌های تاثیرگذار (با امتیاز 10- 0) متناسب با رفتارشناسی چشمه‌های باداب‌سورت، قابلیت‌های این سایت را مبتنی بر سه موضوع کلان 1- دانش‌افزایی ژئومورفولوژی؛ 2- زیرساخت‌‎های گردشگری و 3- حفاظت میراث زمین مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفت تا بر اساس الگوی پیشنهادی بتوان به طور سازماندهی شده، در بهره برداری از این نوع میراث قدم برداشت.

    نتایج
    یافته‌های حاصل از ارزیابی‎های میدانی، مطالعات دفتری، تحلیل نقشه وغیره از منطقه بیانگر استعداد بالای ابعاد علمی و دانش ژئومورفولوژی با کسب مجموع امتیاز51/5(از حداکثر60) است. در مقابل زیرساخت‌های گردشگری با کسب مجموع امتیاز 25/5(از حداکثر70) و موضوع حفاظت با کسب مجموع امتیاز 27/5نمره (از حداکثر70) در حال حاضر مراحل ابتدایی خود را می‎گذراند. قابل ذکر است مجموع امتیازات از جمع بندی نمره‌های اخذشده در بازدید میدانی و دفتری از معیارهای طراحی شده بدست آمد.
    نتیجه گیری
    نتایج نهایی از ارزیابی صورت گرفته نمایان گر توانمندی های بالای علمی در کنار ضعف زیرساختی از نوع بهره برداری و حفاظتی است که عدم برنامه ریزی در منطقه مورد مطالعه در این عرصه را به نمایش می گذارد. این در حالی است که جامعه بومی به ویژه روستاها (از جمله روستای اروست مجاور باداب سورت) قادر است با بهره برداری سازمان یافته به کمک رویکردهای علمی، آگاهانه و احداث زیرساخت‌های گردشگری نه چندان پرهزینه (سرویس بهداشتی عمومی، خانه‌های دوم روستایی، تابلوهای راهنما، بروشور و غیره) توسعه پایدار روستاها و نواحی را به ویژه در زمینه اشتغال زایی و تثبیت جمعیت روستایی به ارمغان آورد.
    کلیدواژگان: ژئومورفوتوریسم، ژئومورفوسایت، توسعه اقتصادی، حفاظت میراث زمین، باداب سورت
  • سیمین فروغ زاده*، فرزانه رزاقیان صفحات 73-101
    هدف
    هدف این مقاله بررسی و تبیین میزان مشارکت شهروندان منطقه 3 شهرداری مشهد در نگهداری فضای سبز است.
    روش
    نوع تحقیق توصیفی- تحلیلی و روش مطالعه پیمایشی می‏ باشد. جامعه آماری شهروندان مشهدی ساکن در منطقه 3 با جمعیت 387862 نفر هستند که طبق تقسیمات شهرداری مشهد از نواحی کم ‏برخوردار درآمدی بوده و پایین ‏ترین سرانه فضای سبز را در بین مناطق سیزده گانه شهرداری داراست. حجم نمونه با استفاده از روش کوکران و نمونه ‏برداری تصادفی 380 نفر است. برای تجزیه و تحلیل داده‏ها از نرم افزارSPSS و روش‏های آماری آزمون کروسکال والیس، آزمون اسپیرمن و آزمون کندال استفاده شده است. پنج متغیر وضعیت اقتصادی، احساس تعلق و مالکیت، مهاجرت، سطح رضایت از فضای سبز و تحصیلات شهروندان منطقه 3 به عنوان متغیرهای مستقل و میزان مشارکت آن ها در نگهداری فضای سبز به عنوان متغیر وابسته بررسی شده است.
    نتایج
    نتایج نشان می دهد بین پایگاه اقتصادی افراد و میزان مشارکت آن ها رابطه معناداری وجود ندارد؛ اما بین متغیرهای احساس تعلق مکانی ساکنان و سطح رضایت از فضای سبز با میزان مشارکت آن ها رابطه معناداری وجود دارد. حاشیه نشینی و مهاجرت از میزان مشارکت می کاهد و تحصیلات افراد بر مشارکت آن ها اثرگذار نیست.
    نتیجه گیری
    یافته های به دست آمده حاکی از آن است که بیشتر شهروندان معتقدند با مشارکت خود می توانند در نگهداری فضای سبز تاثیرگذار باشند و هرچه میزان رضایتمندی از خدمات‏رسانی در فضای سبز شهری بیشتر باشد، شهروندان تمایل بیشتری به مشارکت دارند. بنابراین، از آنجایی که اکثر پاسخ ‏دهندگان تمایل دارند در این امر با مدیریت شهری همکاری کنند، شایسته است مدیریت شهری برنامه‏ های ویژه ‏ای را از طریق مردم برای نگهداری فضای سبز اجرا کند.
    کلیدواژگان: فضای سبز شهری، مشارکت اجتماعی، منطقه 3، مشهد، ایران
  • زهرا شیرزاد، مسعود مینایی*، فواد مینایی صفحات 103-124
    اهداف
    بهره گیری از انرژی های خورشیدی گام بسیار موثری در زمینه رسیدن به شهرهای پایدار و قابل سکونت تر است. از این رو، در پژوهش حاضر، پتانسیل سنجی سطوح پشت بام ساختمان ها جهت نصب صفحات خورشیدی در بخشی از ناحیه 2 منطقه 8 شهر مشهد بررسی شد.
    روش
    روش تحقیق از نظر ماهیت، توصیفی- تحلیلی و از لحاظ هدف، کاربردی است. به منظور تجزیه و تحلیل داده ها شامل (کاربری قطعات، ارتفاع ساختمان ها، میزان جمعیت، درآمد بیست ساله، شیب و جهت شیب، توان پتانسیل، سایه اندازها، مساحت پشت بام و میزان کیلووات تولیدی) از مدل های تصمیم گیری چندمعیاره شامل مدل تحلیل سلسله مراتبی (AHP) و مدل میانگین گیری وزنی (OWA) استفاده شده است.

    یافته ها
    نتایج حاصل از پژوهش نشان می دهد که از مجموع مساحت 923 قطعه ارزیابی شده در محدوده مورد مطالعه، نزدیک به 19 هزارمتر مربع از فضای پشت بام ها در بهترین شرایط جهت نصب صفحات خورشیدی قرار گرفته اند. این پتانسیل ارزشمند با توجه به سابقه تجاری-مسکونی منطقه مورد نظر و میزان مصرف بالای انرژی برق می تواند در تامین و پایداری تولید انرژی مورد نیاز محدوده و حتی بیشتر از آن بسیار موثر باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: سیستم اطلاعات جغرافیایی (GIS)، انرژی خورشیدی، مدل میانگین گیری وزنی، AHP، منطقه 8، مشهد
  • علی حاجی نژاد، واحد آقایی*، نازنین حاجی پور صفحات 125-151
    هدف
    هدف اصلی پژوهش موردنظر ارزیابی تاثیرگذاری آگاهی کارشناسان و گردشگران استان اردبیل از جاذبه‌های گردشگری در توسعه اکوتوریسم استان می‌باشد.
    روش
    پژوهش پیش رو ازنظر هدف، از نوع کاربردی و از نظر ماهیت و روش، از نوع تحقیقات توصیفی - تحلیلی می‌باشد. جامعه آماری پژوهش موردنظر شامل گردشگران و کارشناسان ذی ربط می‌باشد که از میان گردشگران تعداد 360 نمونه و از بین کارشناسان به دلیل کمی تعداد، کل جامعه به‌عنوان نمونه مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. جهت سنجش متغیرهای وابسته پژوهش (توسعه اکوتوریسم) از طریق متغیرهای مستقل (میزان آگاهی گردشگران، کارشناسان و بهبود نقاط قوت اکوتوریسم استان) از آزمون پیرسون تک متغیره و دومتغیره، تحلیل رگرسیون خطی ساده و قدم ‌به ‌قدم، ضریب تعیین رگرسیون، تحلیل واریانس (ANOVA) استفاده شد.
    یافته ها
    نتایج آزمون‌ها نشان‌دهنده معناداری بین میزان آگاهی گردشگران، کارشناسان در توسعه اکوتوریسم (همبستگی 0/45 و Sig کمتر از 5 درصد) و بهبود نقاط قوت اکوتوریسم در ایجاد و توسعه فرصت‌های اکوتوریسم (0/46 و Sig کمتر از فاصله اطمینان) می‌باشد.
    نتیجه گیری
    بررسی نهایی داده‌ها نشان می‌دهد که افزایش استفاده مطلوب از قوت‌ها و به عبارتی بهبود و افزایش کارایی نقاط قوت باعث توسعه استفاده از فرصت‌ها به نحو مطلوب می‌شود.
    کلیدواژگان: اکوتوریسم، جاذبه های گردشگری، کارشناسان و گردشگران، استان اردبیل
  • احمد خادم الحسینی، صفر قائد رحمتی، فرشاد طهماسبی زاده* صفحات 153-178
    اهداف
    انجام مطالعات عدالت محور فضایی و جغرافیایی برای شناخت نابرایری فضایی در شهرها برای ایجاد جامعه در خور تعالی انسان یک ضرورت است. محله، کوچکترین سطح تقسیم کالبدی شهر که به طور مستقیم با اساسی ترین نیاز های زندگی انسان در ارتباط است، مهمترین بخش تاثیر پذیر از نابرابری های فضایی می باشد. محله های شهر اصفهان از این قاعده جدا نیستند. هدف این پژوهش تحلیل سطح برخوداری از خدمات عمومی در مقیاس محله ای در محله های شهر اصفهان است.
    روش
    از نظر روش شناسی براساس ماهیت از نوع توصیفی _موردی و تحلیلی است. براساس هدف از نوع کاربردی می باشد. به منظور گرد آوری اطلاعات از روش های اسنادی، کتابخانه ای و میدانی و ابزار های مشاهده، پرسش نامه، آرشیوهای اطلاعاتی شهرداری اصفهان استفاده شده است. به منظور تجزیه و تحلیل داده ها از مدل های شاخص توسعه انسانی (HDI)، آزمون های آمار فضایی، همبستگی فضایی شاخص موران و میانگین نزدیکترین همسایه و تحلیل های ZONAL در محیط سیستم اطلاعات جغرافیایی (GIS) به صورت ترکیبی بر اساس مدل مفهومی استفاده شده است.

    نتایج
    نتیجه نشان می دهد که نابرابری در توزیع شاخص های عدالت فضایی با عملکرد محله ای در بین محله های شهر اصفهان وجود دارد و این نقش مهمی در ایجاد دوگانگی فضایی در شهر اصفهان داشته است. این نابرابری فضایی در درون هر محله شهر نیز وجود دارد. در پهنه شهر اصفهان جزیره هایی با سطح برخورداری بالا در مقابل سطح وسیع با برخورداری کم شکل گرفته است.
    کلیدواژگان: اصفهان، محله، عدالت اجتماعی، عدالت فضایی
  • هاشم داداش پور*، صابر زاهدپور صفحات 179-212
    اهداف
    هدف این پژوهش بررسی نحوه توزیع و تمرکز فعالیت‌های بیست و هشت گانه صنعتی منطقه کلان‌شهری تهران بوده که در ارتباط با الگوهای فضایی نظری متفاوت، تحلیل می شود.
    روش
    روش شناسی پژوهش حاضر از نظر هدف، کاربردی و از نظر ماهیت و روش کار کمی-تحلیلی است. برای رسیدن به این مهم از روش‌های مختلف کمی اقتصادی همچون شاخص جینی، هرفیندال و شاخص فضایی موران استفاده شده است که در نهایت با الگوهای فضایی تحلیل می‌شوند. داده‌های مورد نیاز این مدل‌ها شامل تعداد اشتغال و همچنین مساحت نواحی مورد بررسی می باشد.

    نتایج
    نتایج نشان می‌دهد که الگوی فضایی-فعالیتی منطقه کلان‌شهری تهران از الگوی تک‌مرکزی پیروی کرده در صورتی که توزیع فعالیت‌ها در زیربخش‌های صنعت به صورت الگوی اتفاقی بیشتر مشاهده می‌شود. این الگوهای اتفاقی و یا بدون الگو بودن توزیع زیربخش های صنعتی از سراسیمه بودن برنامه‌ها و سیاست‌ها در زمینه مکان یابی فعالیت‌های صنعتی حکایت دارد.
    نتیجه گیری
    می توان اقدامات مختلفی جهت بهبود کانون های فعالیتی در منطقه، برای تقویت الگوی چندمرکزی و شبکه‌ای صورت داد که لازمه آن شناسایی زیرمراکز دارای قابلیت و ظرفیت فعالیت‌های صنعتی در بخش صنعت است. ز این رو، توصیه می شود نگرش خوشه ایبه شکل گیری فعالیت های صنعتی برای استفاده از مزیت های مکانی منطقه کلان شهری تهران از یک طرف و تقویت چندمرکزگرایی از طرف دیگر در دستور کار مقامات و
    برنامه ریزان منطقه قرار بگیرد.
    کلیدواژگان: ساختار فضایی، الگوی فضایی، فعالیت های صنعتی، توزیع و تمرکز، منطقه کلان شهری تهران
  • مهرشاد طولابی نژاد*، سیروس قنبری، جواد بذرافشان صفحات 213-241
    اهداف
    از بین رفتن منابع طبیعی از جمله مشکلات مهمی می باشد که به طور قابل توجهی معیشت جامعه روستایی را متاثر ساخته است؛ زیرا ناپایداری در محیط نهایتا موجب ناپایداری جوامع انسانی خواهد شد. با توجه به اهمیت این موضوع، تحقیق حاضر با هدف بررسی وضعیت پایداری محیطی در نواحی روستایی شهرستان پلدختر صورت پذیرفت.
    روش
    پژوهش حاضر از نظر هدف، کاربردی و روش انجام آن توصیفی- تحلیلی است. ابزار گردآوری داده ها پرسش نامه بوده است. جامعه آماری خانوارهای روستایی شهرستان پل‌دختر است. (N=11289). به روش نمونه گیری سهمیه ای، 400 نمونه (136 روستا) انتخاب شد. برای بررسی وضعیت پایداری از آزمون t تک نمونه ای، برای بررسی تفاوت مناطق روستایی از نظر وضعیت پایداری از آزمون های تعقیبی (Post Hoc) و برای ارائه مدل پژوهش از مدل سازی معادلات ساختاری (SEM) استفاده شد.

    نتایج
    یافته ها نشان داد که منابع آب با میانگین (2/82)، جنگل ها و درختان (2/74) و مرتع و چراگاه ها (2/56) در وضعیت ناپایداری به سر می برند. تنها عاملی که در وضعیت تاحدودی پایدار قرار دارد عامل خاک (3/03) است. مدل پایداری محیطی نشان داد که عامل مراتع و چراگاه ها (Y1) با بار عاملی 82/0 بیشترین اثر را در ناپایداری محیطی داشته است. همچنین، تفاوت مکانی قابل‌توجهی بین مناطق روستایی از نظر عوامل ناپایداری وجود دارد.
    نتیجه گیری
    نتایج نشان داد که روستاهای شهرستان از نظر عوامل پایداری در شرایط ناپایداری قرار دارند. مهمترین عامل ناپایداری در این شهرستان عامل مراتع و چراگاه ها می باشند. دو دهستان میانکوه غربی و جایدر به ترتیب ناپایدارترین و پایدارترین دهستان های مورد بررسی هستند.
    کلیدواژگان: عوامل محیطی، توسعه پایدار، محیط زیست، معادلات ساختاری، شهرستان پلدختر
  • سیدعلی موسوی نور، جمال محمدی، حمیدرضا وارثی* صفحات 243-269
    اهداف
    رشد شهرنشینی و تمایل جمعیت های انسانی به محیط های شهری، بستر با اهمیت شدن مفهوم زیست پذیری شهری را بیش از پیش فراهم ساخته است. زیست پذیری شهری یکی از مبانی اساسی توسعه پایدار شهری و همچون سکه دارای دو رو می باشدکه یک روی آن معیشت است و روی دومش پایداری بوم شناختی است. پژوهش حاضر با هدف سنجش زیست پذیری مناطق بیست ودوگانه کلان شهر تهران با استفاده از مدل های تصمیم گیری چندمعیاره می باشد.
    روش
    پژوهش حاضر از نظر روش شناختی با توجه به اهداف موضوع از نوع کاربردی و به لحاظ روش توصیفی- تحلیلی است. برای گردآوری اطلاعات از روش اسنادی کتابخانه ای و میدانی استفاده شده است. با توجه به ابعاد و شاخص های مد نظر در موضوع و مبانی نظری پرسش نامه طراحی شده برای محققان و متخصصان، برخی از شاخص ها و ابعاد پس از عبور از صافی پرسش نامه اولیه مرحله پیش آزمون در پرسش نامه نهایی به کار رفتند.

    نتایج
    نتایج این پژوهش نشان داد در تمامی مناطق مناطق بیست و دو گانه کلان شهر تهران؛ شرایط زیست پذیری یکسان نیست و بین مناطق از نظر تفاوت شاخص زیست پذیری تفاوت معناداری دیده می شود. به طوری که که رتبه بندی مناطق بیست و دو گانه کلان شهر تهران با تکیه بر مدل ویکور نشان داد که منطقه 1 با بیشترین میزان زیست پذیری با اتخاذ کمترین میزان ویکور(0) در جایگاه نخست و منطقه 3 با میزان ویکور(0/62) و منطقه 2 با میزان ویکور(0/71) به ترتیب در جایگاه های اول تا سوم قرار گرفتند. در مقابل مناطق 20، 19، 17، 15، 18،16 با اتخاذ بیشترین میزان ویکور محاسبه شده در جایگاه های آخر قرار گرفتند.
    نتیجه گیری
    شهرنشینی مهار نشده، امروزه یکی از مهم ترین عوامل تشدید کننده مخاطرات و کاهش دهنده زیست پذیری در کلان شهر تهران می باشد و رشد جمعیت و به تبع آن تمرکز، ترافیک، رشد کالبدی و دست اندازی شهر بر اراضی پیرامونی و حریم شهری خود بستر تحریک و تشدید مخاطراتی چون شکل گیری جزایر گرمایی، گازهای گلخانه ای و غیره را فراهم آورده است.
    کلیدواژگان: توسعه پایدار شهری، تحلیل مسیر، زیست پذیری، مدل های تصمیم گیری چندمعیاره، مناطق 22 کلان شهر تهران
  • وکیل حیدری ساربان صفحات 271-300
    هدف
    فرآیند گسترش فن‌آوری اطلاعات و ارتباطات به واسطه جهانی شدن از طریق بازسازی فضا و زمان، نفوذپذیر ساختن مرزها و گسترش چشم‌گیر فضای اجتماعی، منابع و شرایط لازم برای هویت‌سازی و معنایابی سنتی را تا حدود بسیار زیادی از بین می‌برد. هدف این مقاله، مطالعه و تحلیل اثرات فن‌آوری اطلاعات و ارتباطات بر هویت اجتماعی جوانان روستایی شهرستان مشگین‌شهر می‌باشد.
    روش
    این تحقیق از لحاظ هدف، توسعه‌ای و از لحاظ ماهیت، توصیفی و پیمایشی و نیز از نوع تحلیلی است. جامعه آماری این پژوهش، شامل تمام جوانان روستایی ساکن در روستاهای دارای دفاتر ICT روستایی شهرستان مشگین‌شهر است. برای برآورد حجم نمونه از روش نمونه‌گیری تصادفی ساده و فرمول کوکران با سطح اطمینان 95 درصد و احتمال خطای 5 درصد استفاده شده است. در این تحقیق روش گردآوری داده‌ها برای پاسخ‌گویی به سوالات تحقیق، به دو صورت اسنادی (داده‌های ثانویه) و پیمایشی (داده‌های اولیه) است و ابزار مورد استفاده در روش پیمایشی پرسش‌نامه و مصاحبه بوده است. روایی صوری پرسش‌نامه توسط پانل متخصصان مورد تایید قرار گرفت. مطالعه راهنما در منطقه مشابه جامعه آماری با تعداد30 پرسش نامه صورت گرفت و با داده‌های کسب شده و استفاده از فرمول ویژه کرونباخ آلفا در نرم افزار SPSS، پایایی بخش‌های مختلف پرسش‌نامه تحقیق 0/79 الی 0/87 بدست آمد.

    یافته ها
    نتایج میانگین‌های بدست آمده از دو گروه چنین نشان داد که به جز هویت خانوادگی و هویت فردی در تمام موارد ذکرشده هویت‌های مذهبی، ملی، گروهی و جنسیتی روستاییان برخوردار بیش‌تر از روستاییان غیر برخوردار بوده است. در خاتمه، با توجه به نتایج پژوهش چند پیشنهاد کاربردی ارائه شده است.
    نتیجه‌گیری
     نتایج تحقیق نشان داد که به جز هویت خانوادگی و هویت فردی در تمام موارد ذکرشده هویت‌های مذهبی، ملی، گروهی و جنسیتی روستاییان برخوردار بیش‌تر از روستاییان نابرخوردار بوده است
    کلیدواژگان: فن آوری اطلاعات و ارتباطات، هویت اجتماعی، جوانان روستایی، توسعه روستایی، شهرستان مشگین شهر
  • میثم میرزایی تبار*، وحید صادقی، سید محمدحسین حسینی صفحات 301-336
    اهداف
    گروه‌های ذی‌نفوذ و نیروهای اجتماعی در عرصه سیاسی نقش مهمی ایفا می کنند و می‌توانند مسیر آینده تحولات را به نفع خود سامان دهند. در حوزه انتخابیه ممسنی تاثیر گذاری گروه های ذی‌نفوذ و نیروهای اجتماعی در طیفی از جهت گیری های متغیر در کوتاه مدت و ثابت در بلندمدت در نوسان است. برخی از آن ها در روندهای سیاسی شهرستان ممسنی به طور مستمر حضور دارند و در ایام انتخابات مجلس شورای اسلامی بر حجم اثرگذاری خود می افزایند و می‌توانند روند تحولات را در راستای اهداف خود هدایت کنند. بزرگان و موی سپیدان طوایف، گروه‌های خویشاوندی و متنفذان محلی از جمله گروه های ذی‌نفوذ و بازاریان، کشاورزان، اقشار مذهبی، زنان، روشنفکران و نخبگان از جمله نیروهای اجتماعی در حوزه انتخابیه ممسنی هستند. هدف از پژوهش حاضر، بررسی و تحلیل چگونگی و ارزیابی میزان نقش آفرینی این بازیگران سیاسی در انتخابات مجلس شورای اسلامی در فضای جغرافیایی ممسنی است.
    روش
    پژوهش حاضر از نوع توصیفی تحلیلی است و با بهره‌گیری از اطلاعات کتابخانه ای و تحلیل آماری داده های میدانی (پرسش نامه و مصاحبه) به انجام رسیده است. سوال اصلی این است که گروه های ذی‌نفوذ و نیروهای اجتماعی چه نقشی در انتخابات مجلس شورای اسلامی در حوزه انتخابیه ممسنی دارند؟

    نتایج
    یافته ها و نتایج پژوهش نشان داد که گروه های ذی‌نفوذ به صورت ثابت و پایدار و نیروهای اجتماعی به صورت فعال و منفعل از طریق هویت و تعلق مکانی و ساخت طایفه ای و تماس با کارگزاران در فرایند انتخابات مجلس و جهت‌دهی به آرای مردم در حوزه انتخابیه ممسنی ایفای نقش می‌کنند که در این میان نقش گروه‌های ذی‌نفوذ پر رنگ‌تر است (چگونگی). از طرفی میزان نقش آفرینی بازیگران سیاسی متفاوت است. در بین گروه های ذی نفوذ در مناطق شهری و روستایی به ترتیب متنفذان محلی و ریش سفیدان از بیشترین و ریش سفیدان و متنفذان محلی از کمترین میزان تاثیرگذاری برخوردار هستند. در میان نیرو های اجتماعی در مناطق شهری و روستایی به ترتیب بیشترین اثرگذاری مربوط به معلمان و کمترین میزان تاثیرگذاری مربوط به اقشار مذهبی است.
    کلیدواژگان: جغرافیای انتخابات، گروه ذی نفوذ، نیروی اجتماعی، طایفه گرایی و حوزه انتخابیه ممسنی
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  • Hamide Mahmoodi, Maryam Rajabi*, Ahmad Roumiani Pages 1-26
    Introduction
    Rural tourism is one of the most important subcategories of tourism. In a developing country such as Iran, a large portion of its total population, i.e. 28%, reside in rural areas. Subsequently, rural tourism can play a significant role in reducing the socioeconomic challenges in rural areas including migration to the cities, the low income, the low occupation rate and the low productivity in agriculture, lack of proper developmental, welfare, and service infrastructures, etc.
    2 Theoretical Framework

    Tourism involves a set of activities which are related to the short-term, temporary movement of people to destinations outside their living and working environments (Burkart et al., 1974). The primary feature of such activities is that they take place in a short time with no overnight stops at the destination (Vanhove, 2005). The associated activities are valuable sources to diversify various opportunities for the income generation, occupation, and the promotion of new economic activities alongside agriculture; thus, it is a substantial opportunity for the development of rural regions. There are a number of different insights and strategies posed with respect to the importance of tourism including (a) rural tourism as a development strategy, and (b) rural tourism as a policy to reconstruct rural settlements. In the former, it is believed that tourism could be of significant economic impact and can slowly diminish the process of rural evacuation and migration to the cities. In the latter, tourism is regarded as the main part of a rural reconstruction, even in regions where no considerable boom is observed in tourist activities since past. The advocates of this theory believe that they are capable of reducing rural producers’ overreliance on agriculture by exploiting them in newer economic opportunities so as to compete against globalized marketing (Ghaderi, 2003).
    Method
    The present applied study is conducted using the descriptive-analytical approach. Data collection was done using questionnaires and observation. The total population of the study includes more than 2177 households living in Vali’asr Hesar village. 249 cases were selected using Cochran’s formula where p = 70, q = 30, and D = 0.05 being calculated with 95% confidence level. Households at each village were selected through simple random sampling to comply with the equal opportunity principle. The reliability of the data was assessed using Cronbach’s alpha. According to Table 3, the data are satisfactory. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics such as Friedman’s test, multivariable regression, and path analysis in SPSS. EQS software was also used to provide fitness for the path analysis model.
    Results and Discussion
    Tourism and its related activities have currently occupy a significant position in the economy of various countries. It is considered as the third most profitable section in regional and national economies in terms of income generation and job opportunities following important sectors such as petroleum, petrochemical industries, and auto manufacturing. Hence, the present study was conducted to examine the role of tourism in the development and reconstruction of rural regions. It was shown that the highest average ratings, i.e. 3.78 and 2.59, belonged to the physical and economic dimensions of the examined rural area, respectively. On the other hand, the examination of the regression fitness model showed the positive impact of tourists in rural development and reconstruction as 0.64. Among the four indices of tourism examined in sample villages, economic and environmental index components with values of 0.374 and 0.247 respectively have the highest and lowest impacts on rural development and reconstruction according to the tourists.
    Conclusion
    According to the results of Friedman’s test, the mean differences through the perspective of respondents were reported to be completely significant at the alpha level of 0.01. Meanwhile, the highest rating average with values of 3.78 and 2.59 belonged to the physical and economic dimensions of the examined total regions, respectively. Furthermore, the regression fitness model showed the positive impact of tourists on rural development and reconstruction with the value of 0.64. Among the four indices of tourism examined in sample villages, economic and environmental index components with values of 0.374 and 0.247 have the highest and lowest impacts on the rural development and reconstruction, respectively. Based on the findings of the path analysis, the highest and lowest total impacts on rural development and reconstruction belong to economic and environmental dimensions with values of 0.448 and 0.301, respectively. In addition, the path analysis was found to be of proper fitness considering the output obtained from EQS. Subsequently, given its impacts on various economic, sociocultural, environmental, and physical dimensions of rural areas, it is recommended to employ rural tourism in the villages under examination as a strategy to develop and reconstruct adjacent villages where there is a lack of attention.
    Keywords: Tourism, Reconstruction, Rural development, Kharghan Area, Owj City
  • Farrokh Moshiri, Asieh Nikbin* Pages 27-49
    Introduction
    Over a period of 26 years, the population of Qazvin has increased by 1.6 times, while its size has become 2.9 times greater. This imbalance between population and urban area growth is called urban sprawl. Sprawl pattern causes many problems, especially in the environmental field. For example, thousand-years-old gardens in the south area of Qazvin is destroying due to urban sprawl pattern. Green belt gardens around Qazvin city purifies south industries pollution and improves air pollutant indexes Thus, finding a solution to dealing with these consequences seems to be necessary. In this study, in order to in front Qazvin sprawl pattern and environmental issues arising from it, based on the smart code instructions, a model is suggested. According to this model, the proposed strategies are listed.

    Review of Literature

    Most critics agree that the major problem of general urban growth is urban sprawl. There is a broad agreement on how to tackle the current patterns and smart growth option, as anti-sprawl has been accepted. In spite of this convergence and high advertising, urban growth shift in the United States has slow speed due to traditional zoning. Smart code is proposed as an alternative for traditional zoning and solving problems related to urban sprawl. Smart code is a model which combines the special development code with urban design and land use planning. This special development code has been proposed by Duany, Plater-Zyberk and Co (2003) headed by Anders Duany. The smart code principle supports communities with urban centers, transport, Pedestrian-oriented and mixed residential complex which encourages natural and environmental protection.

    Method
    According to the proposed model, regional sector codes based on smart code instructions will be prepared after determining the study area. Since these codes are flexible and the definition of each sectors may change with regard to the status quo . Regional maps can be praperad by using software such as the GIS. Subsequently, at the local level transect map can be determined according to the definitions of smart code instruction. Finally, at the smallest level the criteria for each of the blocks, streets, and buildings can be determined through the transect map.

    Results and Discussion
    As urban sprawl affects the region which it deals with, it must be planned beyond the city. Hence, in this study the central city region of Qazvin as a homogeneous area was chosen. Using Holdren model also proved that Qazvin has urban sprawl patterns. In this model, the sum of population Ln (proportion of the end to the beginning of the period) with gross per capita Ln equals to area Ln: Ln (402748/248591) +Ln (163.1/88.76) =Ln (6580/2206.7) 0.48+0.61=1.09 0.44+0.56=1 That is to say, 44 % of the growth is related to population growth, while 56 % of the growth is related to sprawl and horizontal growth, which suggests that Qazvin has urban sprawl patterns. In the next step, to determine the regional sectors, this study focuses on Qazvin gardens. Although in the original version of the smart code, gardens has preserved open code due to the importance of the gardens and the flexibility of smart code, a reserved open code has been proposed for this area. Qazvin gardens have an important environmental performance to deal with industries pollution which is in line with the prevailing wind direction. In this regard, smart code proposes the transfer of the development rights to protect such valuable elements. According to the surveys, considering the ecological power of land for urban and industrial development, there is a capable area in the south of Qazvin which can be used for the transfer of the development rights. Choobindar village can be an appropriate choice in this regard. After determining other sectors, regional map can be finally prepared.
    Conclusion
    After determining regional sectors, regional map can be produced. This plan would be seen as an upper plan for comprehensive plans. In addition, it cleverly provides developers a tool for determining lands that must be protected or developed. In preparing regional map, some strategies has been considered, and the most important of them are listed below: Determining the areas in which development is strictly prohibited in order to protect the green and open spaces.
    Controlling the physical growth of villages around the city to prevent the destruction of agricultural land.
    Applying the transfer of development rights in order to protect valuable elements such as traditional Qazvin gardens.
    Encouraging the creation of high density residential areas in suitable fabrics.
    Keywords: Urban sprawl, Environmental degradation, Smart code, Qazvin
  • Amir Saffari*, Saeed Rahimi, Hadi Karimi, Mohammad Alizadeh Pages 51-71
    Introduction
    The main approaches of geotourism and geomorphotourism are development-oriented, protective and scientific to assess the capability of geoheritages. Today through the development of studies in this subcategory of geomorphology, several subfields such as geodiversity, geoconservation, geointerpretation, and so forth have been released which their aim is sustainability and regional development in environmental, economic, and social aspects of human society, especially native societies. Thus, the aim of this paper is to assess the geoheritages potential for scientific promotion, regional development, and the protection of geoheritages in the study area.
    Review of Literature

    The values given to a geomorphosite have two important elements: scientific and complementary values, including historical and cultural, environmental, economic, and aesthetic values. Grandeurard (2003) highlights the importance of geomorphosites in the important role of identifying history and rebuilding the Earth's history. Others scholars, such as Paisente and Paniza (2001), also emphasize cultural, historical, ecological and economic values. In general, a relevant fact in this field is a hybrid vision which not only provides the areas of economic development but also protects the rules. Some landforms, such as karstic forms in caves, fossils, springs, etc. will be damaged very soon. The degradation of geomorphic cultures is associated with false tourism activities and their lack of awareness. These issues reveal the necessity and status of the protection of the legacy of the Earth. Geological heritage conservation can take many forms, including the creation of physical barriers in geomorphic space, the establishment of protective laws and regulations, and the establishment of protected areas such as geoparks. The ultimate goal of these methods and policies is to protect, enhance and promote geomorphic processes and samples. In this paper, we attempt to have a comprehensive assessment of geoheritage conservation using a combined model from the current models of geomorphosites potential assessment and field works. We also offer a comprehensive and indigenous model as an organization and a platform for the development and sustainability of the environment.
    Method
    In this paper, we attempt to have a comprehensive assessment of geoheritage conservation using a combined model from current models of geomorphosites potential assessment and field works. The structure of this model is based on effective criteria and components (with a score of 0-10) according to Badab-e Surt springs characteristics following three main topics: geomorphic personal knowledge, tourism infrastructures, and geoheritage protection. They suggest organized actions for using this geoheritage based on the proposed method.
    Results and Discussion
    Results of field and library studies, map analysis, etc. in the study area show the high potentials of Badab-e Surt springs in geomorphological science and personal knowledge with a score of 51.5 (out of maximum 60). In contrast, tourism infrastructures with a score of 25.5 (out of maximum 70) and protection issue with a total score of 27.5 (out of maximum 70) are at a low level. It is notable that the sum of scores is gained from the results of scores obtained from filed and library studies.
    5.Conclusion
    According to this model assessment, Badab-e Surt geomorphosite has very high value in geomorphological knowledge criteria due to scarcity, geodiversity, educational and beauty values and suitable potentials for tourism planning and investing, but current infrastructures (unsuitable roads and services,…) and protection condition factors (despite the drafting of protective laws) are in very low and far from the optimum condition to protect and even to introduce this phenomenon and there are no effective and organized facilities such as brochure and fence near this sensitive geomorphosite. Therefore, the crowds of tourists on the surface of the springs will lead to destroy Badab-e Surt springs in short time. In addition, a natural hazard such as drought is an extra threatening factor. So it is clear that geoconservation factor, that is, an approach with protective efforts such as physical fences, warning signs, and so on are highly necessary to protect this geomorphosite. The lack of attention to sustainability and conservation issue in the economic and tourism development program in this area will not lead to much stability to achieve geoconservational golas, and if this geoheritage site has the sustainable development, it will provide the economic development for the local community.
    According to the results of this paper and similar research regarding the pathology of tourism policy in the country, we can conclude that economic planning and development in tourism are not along with the protection of land heritage (sustainability perception) and entrepreneurship infrastruture, especially for native societies, and the process of comprehensive attitudes has not been considered in this process. One of the ways to tackle this issue is to design native models appropriate for the conditions of each region, which will be one of the first steps in economic and environmental sustainability. On the other hand, the implementation of such management patterns requires the attention and utilization of interdisciplinary knowledge, especially the geographic sciences. In other words, tourism climate, regional planning, rural planning, and so on are some ways to complement those goals.
    Keywords: Geomorphotourism, Geomorphosite, Economic development, Geoconservation, Badab -e Surt springs
  • Farzaneh Razzaghian, Simin Foroghzadeh Pages 73-101
    Introduction
    There is a two-way relationship between the city and the citizens as human beings make cities and cities can have an impact on their life conditions. Such a relationship is required for the optimization of the urban reform which can be organized through urban management. Citizen’s participation in decision-making, planning, and all other activities related to social development are considered by the managers, planners, and experts. It can be said that public participation in municipal affairs is one of the key elements of democratic governance which can bring balance to the city as well. It can be said that green space is a goal which cannot be accomplished without public participation. Having annually millions of pilgrims and tourists, green space is more required in Mashhad than other cities. The main objective of this paper is to examine the relationship between social factors and the participation of citizens in the maintenance of green spaces in the city of Mashhad (3rd District) based on the findings and results of the field study. It aims at investigating the factors that influence the level of citizen’s participation in the maintenance of green spaces.
    Review of Literature

    The citizen’s participation has been the extensive issue in urban planning since 1950. Urban planners tried to consider the comments of citizens in municipal decision making and implement their programs with their cooperation. In this study, the main emphasis is on the social participation as one of the requirements of urban life. Participation is referred to as a process through which people influence the structure, organization, and the authorities to provide adequate municipal services. Therefore, participation can increase the capacity of people to participate and empower the local governance. Reviewing opinions and theories, it can be concluded that social participation is a multidimensional phenomenon as it requires special requirements.
    Method
    This research has applied the descriptive-analytical method. The statistical society is the district three population of Mashhad who are among the low income citizens and have the lowest per capita green space compared to the other municipality's 13 regions. The sample size is 380 people chosen through Cochran random sampling method. To analyze the data, employing SPSS, statistical methods of Kruskal-Wallis test, Spearman, and Kendall were performed. Also, five indicators of economic conditions, a sense of belonging and ownership, immigration, level of citizens' satisfaction with green spaces, and education are investigated.
    Results and Discussion
    The indicators of the participants show that
    68% of them are self-employed, 15.5% have government jobs, and 16.5 % are unemployed.
    11% of them are owners, 44.6 % are tenants, and 1.27% live in social housing.
    18% of residents are under 5 years old. The rate of residents who live in the region between 5 to 10 years is 6.33%. 19.3% of the residents are between 10 to 15 years, 9.49% are between 15 to 20 years, and only 5.7% of residents who live in the region are above 20 years.
    Regarding satisfaction, 63.29% of them have expressed to have too low satisfaction, 13.61% have too high, 11.71% have the average, 6.96 % have low, and 4.43% have high satisfaction from the green spaces.
    The largest number of respondents (74.3%) have diploma or lower. Approximately 2% of them have undergraduate education while 23.7% are illiterate.
    Checking the status of citizen participation in the maintenance of green spaces in the 3rd district of Mashhad shows that 59.49% of their participation is too high, 18.35% is the average, 9.18% is low, 7.59% is high, and 4.75% is too low.
    Conclusion
    This study expresses the rate of participation of the residents of district 3 of Mashhad as it follows,
    The evaluation of the impact of participation was positive and most citizens believed that they could take part in the urban management and the maintenance of green spaces.
    There was no significant relationship between economic status of individuals and their participation.
    There is a significant relationship between indicators of sense of belonging to the location and the extent of their participation in the green spaces.
    There is a negative relationship between citizen migration and their participation in the maintenance of green spaces.
    The more satisfactory the services are in parks and urban green spaces, the more willing the citizens are to contribute to the maintenance of green spaces.
    The level of the education is not effective on the extent of their participation.
    According to the results, the following strategies are recommended: Since the majority of respondents expressed willingness to cooperate with the civil administration in the field of maintenance of green spaces, it is appreciated that the municipal administration runs special programs by the people who are the target users for the maintenance of green spaces.
    The development of social capital, increased levels of social trust, decrease levels of inequality, increasing green spaces per capita, increasing media cooperation, gain the trust of citizens and design web poll.
    Keywords: Urban green space, Social participation, District 3, Mashhad, Iran
  • Zahra Shirzad, Masoud Minaei*, Foad Minaei Pages 103-124
    Introduction
    Nowadays, energy is considered as one of the basic needs of humans. Given the limited resources of fossil fuels and increased level of energy consumption in today’s world, the remaining sources of energy can no longer be relied upon. Exhaustibility, environmental pollutions, and fluctuations in fossil fuel prices are the major driving forces behind the effective efforts in using various sources of renewable energy. Accordingly, solar energy is a free and one of the most important and cleanest types of renewable energy. Given to the presence of air pollution, numerous vehicles, high population of tourists and pilgrims, and a different urban context with diverse buildings in Mashhad, urban managers are seeking more sustainable development for this metropolitan city; consequently, conducting studies to identify suitable locations for the solar panel installation throughout the city is necessitated. In this regard, the present study seeks to assess the potential of building rooftops for the solar panel installation at a section of zone 2 in district 8 of Mashhad. To this end, first, the effective factors in the production of solar energy were identified; then, the operation and installation conditions were specified according to the present standards. Finally, the locations with the highest potentials were identified.
    Review of Literature

    Photovoltaic systems (PV) are one of the most common applications of new energies. There are a variety of systems with different capacities installed and operated across the world. The significance of using photovoltaic technology is due to the direct conversion of sunlight into electricity with no need for the dynamic and chemical mechanisms. Rooftops are very ideal for PVs since the power supply for photovoltaic cells is the direct sunlight. Moreover, there are considerably fewer factors producing shadow on rooftops where a vast, unused surface is available. In this regard, selecting a proper location as well as incorporating effective criteria and indices for finding a location to install and operate this technology is of considerable importance.
    Method
    The present inquiry is a descriptive-analytical study with applied purposes. Data collection was carried out through library and field studies. Multi-criteria decision-making models including Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Ordered Weighted Averaging model (OWA) were employed using the ArcGIS 10.3 software for data analysis.
    Results and Discussion
    The potential for the solar panel installation on building rooftops at a section of zone 2 in district 8 of Mashhad was assessed in the present study. The investigated region had an area of 40 hectares with 923 blocks and a population of 1870 according to 2010 census. Multi-criteria decision-making models including AHP and OWA model were used to analyze the data of building use, building height, population, income over 20 years, tilts and their direction, potential power, shadow producing factors, rooftop area, and the extent of produced electricity in kilowatts. Given the initial cost for the installation of solar panels which should be economically viable, four factors including use, produced kilowatts, potential power, and income over 20 years were assessed. To prioritize and assign weights to criteria, 25 questionnaires were distributed among the experts. Ultimately, AHP was used to specify the final weights of criteria. The obtained weights for indices including use, produced kilowatts, potential power, and income over 20 years were 0.141, 0.483, 0.101, and 0.276, respectively. The Consistency Rate (CR) in this study is 0.8 which demonstrates the consistency of employed judgments for comparison. Then, OWA technique was used to assess each building’s potential for the solar panel installation. To perform OWA, spatial information on use, produced kilowatts, potential power, and income over 20 years were entered in MCDM4ArcMAP tool in ArcGIS software followed by the application of OWA. The results obtained from the OWA model were classified into 5 groups in terms of priority using Jenks’ method (1967) which is based on statistics in map production. Values 1 and 5 were assigned to the unsuitable and most suitable blocks for the solar panel installation, respectively.
    Conclusion
    The results of the study show that of the available area in 923 blocks assessed within the region of study, almost 19000 m3 of the rooftop spaces have the best conditions for the solar panel installation. Given the residential-commercial background and the high electricity consumption of the region, such a worthwhile potential could be considerably effective in the provision and sustainability of producing the required energy of the region. The presented method in this study can be employed by investors and urban planners to assess and evaluate the potential of utilizing solar energy with the beneficial results for active organizations and offices as well as the public. Additionally, the method can also be implemented for all districts within the urban region.
    Keywords: Geographical Information System (GIS), Solar energy, Ordered weighted model, AHP, District 8, Mashhad
  • Ali Hajinejhad, Vahed Aghaei*, Nazanin Hajipour Pages 125-151
    Introduction
    Tourism is an economic engine for the developing and developed nations. The tourism industry accounts for 0.11 of the world's gross domestic product. In this regard, the media and awareness services as a major means of communication and marketing play a very important role in the development of this industry. In other words, the tourists' awareness of tourism attractions is one of the most effective means by which tourists can be attracted. Thus, tourism organizations should allocate 3 to 5 percent of their budget to the tourism advertising. Therefore, the use of tourism and its effects should benefit from various tools including advertising and awareness.
    Review of Literature

    Today, tourism in the world is one of the important sources of income and is an important factor in the cultural exchanges between countries; thus, it is of particular importance as the most comprehensive service industry in the world. The diversity of the dimensions and the complexities of the tourism industry according to the geographical areas have created special bases for planners and tourism management, which in susceptible development areas to this industry, should look for stimulating the flow of tourism. In this regard, Ardabil province is one of the provinces of Iran that has a comparative advantage of having ecotourism with unique attractions. It has 62 well-known mines known as paradise of mineral springs. It also has many natural and ecotourism potentials such as many natural and spectacular landscapes, numerous high altitudes with suitable tourist conditions, high vegetation and animal species and so on, as the inner strengths and proximity to tourism poles such as the north of the country and adjacent provinces, proximity to Azerbaijan country as tourists destination and so on are posed External opportunities. However, despite the potentials, the community has not led to the ever-increasing development of ecotourism in the province of Ardabil at the national and local levels due to the lack of knowledge, information, and awareness of tourists which entails further attention.
    Method
    It is an applied research using descriptive-analytical method. The method of collecting data and information in this research is based on library and field research. The questionnaire was prepared based on the Likert scale and the reliability of the questionnaire was measured by Cronbach's alpha method while the test was content validated as well. To analyze the hypotheses of the research, Pearson test, linear regression analysis, regression coefficient, and ANOVA were used. Statistical analyses were performed using Excel and SPSS.
    Results and Discussion
    According to the research findings, most respondents (35%) are between 20-30 years old. According to the extracted data, 63.3% of the respondents are men and 36.7% of them are women. Most of the respondents (41.1%) have diploma and postgraduate education. In other words, 58.9% of them had university education, which reflects the credibility of the responses. Also, according to the results of the surveys, only 25.3% of the people, planning and investing in the ecotourism sector is good and very good, 37.2% is medium and 37.5% of respondents mentioned it is unsuitable and very unsuitable, which represents problem and instability in ecotourism of the province.
    Conclusion
    Ecotourism is one of the most popular branches of tourism and is a tool for sustainable development. The results of the surveys indicated the following for each of the hypotheses: The survey showed that the tourists' awareness about the climate and therapeutic properties of the mineral waters of the province has a significant effect (0.43) on the ecotourism development.
    There is a significant relationship between ecotourism attractions of Ardebil province and the development of ecotourism (0.33). In other words, the attractions cognition factor for tourists is increased ecotourism development.
    There is a direct relationship between the development of the ecotourism of the province and the local people's behavior (0.38) as the behavior of its people is considered as a factor of ecotourism.
    Local people's interest in guest reception has little impact (0.25) on the development of ecotourism. Otherwise, this will be mutual no Harassment if no disturbance from ecotourists to the local people.
    The interest of tourists to visit the natural attractions of the province has the lowest impact (0.22) on the development of ecotourism, because other things such as communication, recreational facilities, etc. are also necessary.
    There is a direct relationship between the awareness of tourism managers with the Ecotourism development planning in Ardebil ecotourism development (0.65). In other words, the managers cognition from ecotourism can be facilitate the other ecotourism of the province.
    There is a significant (0.63) relationship between local managers' interest in economic development and job creation through ecotourism with the development of ecotourism in Ardabil province. This has given more attention to ecotourism and in turn contributes to the development of ecotourism in the province.
    There is a strong relationship (0.65) between the development of ecotourism and the possibility of familiarizing indigenous people with the way other people live through ecotourism.
    The final analysis of the data showed that increasing the optimal use of strengths, i.e. improving and increasing the efficiency of the strengths, makes the use of opportunities desirable. Regarding the independent variable hypothesis regression, only 21% predict the changes made in the opportunity variable, however, with regard to the correlation coefficient and the standardized coefficient, for each unit of change in the independent variable (improvement of strengths), 46 percent in the dependent variable (opportunity development and Creating) changes will occur.
    Keywords: Ecotourism, Tourism attractions, Experts, tourists, Ardabil Province
  • Farshad Tahmasbizadeh*, Safar Ghaedrahmati, Ahmad Khademolhosseini Pages 153-178
    Introduction
    Urban man has a direct relationship with the space and environment of his neighborhood which, in turn, provides the most basic requirements of humans in a daily manner. Lack of equal distribution of such basic needs across the entire neighborhoods within a city is considered as the main factor on spatial inequity, dissimilarity of urban space quality, and contexts for numerous other consequences. As a result, investigating these needs at a neighborhood scale would demonstrate a correct understanding of a balanced urban space.
    Review of Literature

    The subject of spatial equity has been expanded significantly during the past two decades, however, planners and scholars have failed to offer a comprehensive and all-inclusive assessment of the topic since equity cannot easily be put into action. Through the outlook of geographers, the notion of social equity involves contributing to the benefit of all, income distribution in areas, equal allocation of resources, and meeting people’s basic needs. Equality in space is the same as the environmental/geographical equality which seeks to equally meet the humans’ complex set of needs within the social environments by identifying spatial inequities as well as their causes. Achieving sustainability, balance, and equity within the urban atmosphere requires an analytical understanding of the status quo by analyzing the balance or spatial equality in cities.
    Method
    The present inquiry is an applied descriptive-analytical study. Data collection was carried out using library studies and questionnaires. The required data were collected according to the literature; then, the field investigations were done so as to update the information on the status qu o. A set of questionnaires were also distributed among the experts in order to extract the relative weights of the indices. The Human Development Index (HDI) model integrated with GIS spatial analytics tools were employed to analyze the data. Furthermore, the spatial statistical tests including the average neighbor and the spatial autocorrelation were used in order to apply the scientific results for the interpretation of the results obtained from the HDI model.
    What distinguishes the method in the present study from the similar research is the combined use of models with the spatial analysis tools in GIS software along with a step-by-step use of various spatial analyses while integrating them with the spatial statistics models that can consequently increase the precision of analyses and conclusion.
    4 .Results and Discussion
    Since 1960s, Isfahan has been witnessing a rapid surge in population. The growth rate of urban population and the service provision as well as the changes in need during the past fifty years have not been coordinated. In this regard, certain parts of the city have received higher shares of public services opposed to others. Consequently, it appears that a duality and a spatial polarization has occurred in Isfahan. Public services at the neighborhood scale accounts for a portion of individuals’ daily needs the unequal distribution of which during the development process of Isfahan has led to the imbalance.
    According to the accessible spatial, regional, and descriptive information as well as the present statistics, there are 169 neighborhoods in Isfahan municipality. Taking into account the basic needs and the public services in this study, spatial equity was investigated in Isfahan. The results show the absence of equity with regards to the indices of neighborhood-related functions. Indices and activities at the neighborhood scale which are supposed to meet the citizens’ basic and daily needs are distributed unequally across the neighborhoods of Isfahan. Throughout this city, only 2.14% of the entire neighborhoods are at an advantaged level while 24.19, 47.97, and 25.69% are at semi-advantaged, disadvantaged, and completely disadvantaged levels, respectively. What is of importance in this analysis is that overall, 73% of neighborhoods in Isfahan are at disadvantaged and completely disadvantaged levels according to the neighborhood indices
    Conclusion and Recommendations

    The equity indices are distributed across Isfahan neighborhoods in a clustered, heterogeneous, and unbalanced manner. The actions taken by Isfahan urban management in providing public services have also been clustered. In order to enhance the status of equity across various neighborhoods in Isfahan, those at a disadvantaged or completely disadvantaged level require special planning so as to have a fair competition in line with the progress and development. Public services and equality in their distribution should be prioritized in both short and long-term strategic planning of Isfahan. Furthermore, a committee should be formed to monitor changes and developments regarding the level of access to public services in Isfahan municipality.
    A number of 30 questionnaires were distributed among experts and instructors in the area of urban management and urbanism based on an investigation of literature, in line with evaluating the value and importance of neighborhood equity indices.
    Keywords: Isfahan, Neighborhood, Social Justice, Spatial Justice
  • Hashem Dadashpoor*, Saber Zahedpour Pages 179-212
    Introduction
    Various studies have been conducted to analyze the spatial structure of metropolitan regions over the past few decades. These studies can be classified mainly into two population and activity domains. The former explains the settlement system, and the latter explains the activity system. Majority of the studies on the spatial structure were activity-oriented. Spatial structure of activity, in fact, indicates employment and firm’s distribution in the spatial domain of metropolitan regions. In other words, it is the degree of spatial concentration of activity. To explain the spatial distribution of economic activities and understanding spatial-activity structure of the regions, employment density or a kind of economic agglomeration in the geographic domain is seen as an important and indispensable part of the activities distribution in the region. Thus, we can analyze the pattern of activity structure and also understand the influenced and independent points in the spatial-activity structure of the metropolitan regions. The main aim of this research is to examine industrial activities in Tehran metropolitan region and analyze the quality of these changes in relation to geographic characteristics of the principal city, which can be studied using influential variables and indexes. Based on previous studies, the way of dispersion of firms and industrial activities in the metropolitan region and the degree of units’ interrelations are influential variables on the activity-spatial structure through which the understanding of the activity-spatial structure of Tehran metropolitan region and its appropriate arrangement can be achieved.
    Review of literature

    The results of studies carried out in recent decades indicate that the spatial structure of the metropolitan areas is moving from a monocentric to a polycentric structure. In general, from the nineteenth century, the classic monocentric city model gradually became evolving. During this period, cities were expanded by the processes of industrialization. Hence, the suburbanization of the population accelerated with increasing levels of income combined with the invention and increase of ownership of cars and other transport systems and the construction of an extensive road infrastructure, making it possible for sites with lower densities, higher housing affordability, lack of disadvantages such as congestion, crime, and so on. During the twentieth century, these processes were more accelerated.
    Suburban centers were developed over central business districts, while suburban areas developed over the city. Hence, in line with the growth of metropolises populations, their peripheral lands are developed, and the problem of sprawl and polycentric structures emerged. These dimensions represent the concentration of activity in the main city or the extent of the distribution of activity in one or more suburbs of the metropolitan area. In this situation, the spatial structure of the metropolitan area is largely defined in terms of features such as monocentric, polycentric, and dispersed patterns.
    Method
    The methodology adopted for the present study is quantitative and practical, and the approach is descriptive-analytical. The required data, including distribution and concentration of activities, number, and density of employment, are obtained from the Ministry of Industry and Trade (data of 2014). GIS layers, including the administrative-political divisions and the area and distance of each to rural districts and counties, are obtained from SCI in 2011. The most important tool for software analysis is ArcGIS, GEODA, and SPSS. To understand the spatial-activity pattern with regard to the distribution variable and the concentration of industrial activities, there are indicators and methods that show the distribution and concentration of industrial activities in the region and also in different districts. In this research, the method of distribution of industrial activities in the metropolitan area of ​​Tehran is used by the Herfindahl index, the Gini coefficient, and the global Moron, whereas the recognition of the industrial activity concentration patterns is achieved by the local Moran method.
    Results and Discussion
    The main objective of this paper is to analyze the spatial distribution of industrial activities in the Tehran metropolitan region and to analyze the quality of these changes in relation to the geographic features of the Tehran metropolitan region. The findings obtained based on the Gini coefficient show that the distribution of industrial activities in the eight industrial subdivisions has been randomly distributed, and the distribution in different parts of the metropolitan region have been dispersed. Furthermore, the results for the 28 subdivisions of the industry indicate that most of the sectors are still unbalanced. In contrast, the sub-sectors of basic metals, non-metallic mineral products, fabricated metal products, chemicals, and chemical production, and machine manufacturing Machinery and equipment have a more balanced distribution than other sectors.
    Calculating the Hierpindal Index also shows that among the 8 sub-sections, the manufacturing sub-sections and materials have a more dispersed distribution than other sub-sections. Moreover, the service and financial sector with the highest index of Hierpindal indicates the accumulation and density of this sector in the Tehran metropolitan region. Based on the 28 industrial subdivisions, the Harpindal Index in the computer, energy generation, and tobacco products is at its maximum. This suggests that there is a complete concentration in these three sub-sections. But the production of metal and non-metallic products, wood products, machinery and food products, and the most balanced distribution are seen in other parts, indicating the distribution and agglomeration in the Tehran metropolitan region.
    The results of the Moran Global Index for 8 industrial subdivisions show that all industrial sub-sectors of Tehran metropolitan region have a dispersed spatial pattern. Cluster patterns are not visible in the industrial area of ​​ the suburbs in Tehran. According to this method, in the raw materials sector, the most dispersion belongs to the region, while the least degree of dispersion belongs to the service and financial sector. There is a significant dispersion of 28 sub-sectors in the sub-sectors of paper, wood, rubber and plastics and also the production of basic metals and petroleum products, which shows that the production of these products is dispersed in Tehran metropolitan region.
    Conclusion
    From the above results, it can be concluded that spatial-patterns of the Tehran metropolitan region follows a concentrated pattern if the distribution of activities in the industrial sub-sectors is randomly observed. These random patterns are indicative of the fluctuation of programs and policies in the field of locating industrial activities. In addition, the spatial distribution of industrial activities is unbalanced and tends to disperse. Nevertheless, the concentrated pattern is trickled down; therefore, signs of the decentralization of industrial activities can be seen in the suburbs of Tehran such as Quds, Chardanje, Ray, Malard, Sharifabad, and Ahmad Abad.
    In general, industrial subdivisions have different patterns that have shaped the industrial structure of the metropolitan area. However, two main eastern and western corridors can be generally seen in the region. In this context, various measures can be taken to strengthen these industrial centers and other centers in the region in order to strengthen the polycentric and network model, which requires identifying sub-centers with the capability and capacity of industrial activities in the industrial sector. For this reason, the program is considered to be necessary to form a poly-centric structure in the planning and management system.
    Keywords: Spatial structure, Spatial pattern, Industrial activity, Distribution, Density, Tehran Metropolitan Region
  • Javad Bazrafshan, Sirus Ghanbari, Mehrshad Toulabi Nejad* Pages 213-241
    Introduction
    Today, the destruction of natural resources is one of the most important environmental issues and a major problem in human life. One of the causes of environment destruction in the world includes humans’ environmental behaviors. The status of the environment during the past few decades demonstrates such a destruction caused by humans with the so-called intention of achieving a better life; however, this has been unfortunately counterproductive and humans themselves are faced with numerous issues. On the other hand, the environment also involves a set of limitations; lack of attention to these constraints during economic development processes leads to environment destruction. Subsequently, rural areas in developing countries have also become subject to limitations and their environmental sustainability are faced with serious risks. Therefore, it is vital to pay special attention to the conservation and sustainability of the environment in rural areas. In this study, the environmental sustainability of the rural areas around Pol-e Dokhtar City is examined.
    Review of Literature

    Following the industrial revolution, humans has entered the age of technology and their relation with environment as well as their perception of environmental resources have been transformed. In this regard, dominant scientific paradigms of each period specify the framework and relationship between humans and the utilization of environment and resources. Environmental attitudes can be classified into two groups: general and specific. In the former, it is believed that individuals have different attitudes toward various components of environment and such attitudes should be considered with respect to the status of the environment in general. In the latter, it is believed that the attitudes of individuals toward a specific subject are more determinant so that these attitudes could be concentrated on specific aspects. According to numerous researchers, if such attitudes are conceptualized correctly, then they can contribute to predicting individual behaviors. For instance, Ghrob (1995) states that environmental behavior is majorly influenced by personal attitudes and the values of individuals. Therefore, it is vital to examine the scientific perspective on how to use resources along with humans’ relation with the environment.
    Method
    The present, descriptive-analytical study was conducted with applied purposes. Theoretical studies were collected using documents. To collect the field data, the questionnaires including quantitative items (Likert scale) were employed. The population of the study included households living in the rural areas of Pol-e Dokhtar City (N=11289). In addition, a sample population of 400 was selected using Cochran’s formula. One sample t-test was used to examine the environmental sustainability factors. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post hoc analysis were also employed to examine the status and differences between the rural areas of each village in terms of environmental sustainability factors. A pattern of the environmental sustainability was also presented in order to offer the model of the study using structural equation modelling (SEM).
    Results and Discussion
    The examination of environmental sustainability factors using one sample t-test showed that none of the factors are in a sustainable state. According to the findings, water resources (2.82), forests and woods (2.74), and pastures (2.56) are in unsustainable conditions. The only somewhat sustainable factor is the soil (3.03). According to the environmental unsustainability model, with a coefficient of 0.82 the factor for pastures (Y1) involves the highest load factor, and it is the most significant latent factor in this area. Forests and woods (Y3), water resources (Y4) and soil (Y2) occupy subsequent positions with load factors of 0.68, 0.63, and 0.51, respectively. The findings also showed a significant difference between various regions of Pol-e Dokhtar City in terms of environmental unsustainability factors (water resources, soil, woods, and pastures). Meanwhile, despite the unsustainable status of Jayder Village, it is in a better condition compared to other regions, whereas the lowest sustainability levels belong to Western and Eastern Miankooh Villages.
    Conclusion
    The results demonstrate that the majority of examined factors are in unsustainable conditions. In this regard, the highest extent of unsustainability belongs to pastures. There is also a significant difference between rural regions in terms of rural environmental unsustainability factors. The most important recommendation in line with reducing unsustainability is that any program capable of empowering rural residents in all economic, social, cultural, and environmental dimensions could bring about a healthier, more sustainable environment in rural regions. It is essential to provide the means for a better growth of rural areas using every tool and organizations as well as the rural residents themselves. This suggests that in analyzing and assessing rural areas as sustainable or unsustainable, special attention should be paid to the problems and issues of rural residents. Employing a one-dimensional view toward these subjects similar to the one used in our country until now fails to provide the means for a sustainable development of rural areas.
    Keywords: Environmental factors, Sustainable development, Environment, Structural equations, Pol-e Dokhtar City
  • Seyyed Ali Mousavi, Hamid Reza Varesi*, Jamal Mohammadi Pages 243-269
    Introduction
    Geographers have always considered the ultimate goal of geographic studies to improve the quality of human life. In the various definitions presented from geography since very far away (i.e. Eratosthenes), the emphasis has been on the interaction between man and the environment. Geographers have always sought to optimize this relationship to deserve part of human life. Theoretical framework of bioactivity is a complex, multidimensional and general concept that is associated with a number of other concepts and terminology such as sustainability, quality of life, and quality of place, and healthy communities. People and places are two sides of the concept of livability. Biodiversity reflects the welfare of a local community and includes many features that transform a place where people tend to live there in the present and future. A habitable place to live is the right place to work and live.
    Review of Literature

    Livability is one of the greatest ideas of urban planning in contemporary times (Godschalk, 2004). Livability theory was created based on the work of Maslow, human needs, and then developed because of the importance of threats in the field of quality of life. Factors such as rapid growth, the lack of agricultural land and open spaces, housing shortages, the growth of social inequality, weakness of local identity and social life are serious threats to the livability of the communities. According to Radcliff (2001), people are happier and more satisfied in communities that meet their needs better. Livability is usually characterized by three main areas: environmental quality, local amenities and individual well-being (Lennard, 1995). Various indexes have been identified for livability in different researches, such as housing, employment, recreation, cleaning and security (Howley et al, 2009). Oberlink (2008) mentioned components of this including: housing, transportation and mobility, land use, cooperation and interaction, local social understanding and planning, and leadership, in report of opportunities for creating livable communities. This concept overlaps with some approaches such as sustainability, urban village, quality of life, smart growth and new urbanism; because all of them are critical responses to unfavorable urban policies.
    Method
    The research method used in this study is of applied and descriptive-analytic. The library and field documentation (questionnaire) has been used to collect information. The statistical population is the residents of Tehran City, which according to the census of 2016 includes 8693706 people. The sample size was calculated first in the studied areas according to the Cochran sampling formula with a 7% error rate. For 22 urban areas, 385 persons were obtained and according to the extent of the Tehran metropolitan area and the probability of the loss of the questionnaire, 485 researcher made questionnaires. Next in each of the studied areas, the proportional quota was allocated based on the population. Sampling method was also possible in this research. Cronbach's alpha method was used to measure the reliability of the instrument, namely the household questionnaire, which is equal to 0.799.
    To investigate the validity of the questionnaire, which was used as the main tool of this research for assessing the biogenesis of 22 metropolitan areas of Tehran, the views of experts in geography and urban planning, urban development and sociology were used. In order to reach the final survey indexes, a sample of the above resources was provided by 15 experts in the form of an initial questionnaire. In two phases, they used the Delphi method to scale the questionnaire. The initial questionnaire, which was provided to the experts, was 214 items, while at the end of the Delphi dual phase remained only 193 points. A total of 58 items were also extracted from the statistical yearbook of 2016 and the rest were used as questionnaires in the final questionnaire.
    Results and Discussion
    In all areas of the 22 metropolises of Tehran metropolitan area, the bioequivalence conditions are not the same, and there is a significant difference between the regions of Tehran in terms of the biodegradability index. As it is stated in the ranking of the 22 metropolitan areas of Tehran in terms of Livability based on the multi-criteria decision making model of VIKOR, region 1 with the highest livability with the lowest level of VIKOR (0) in the first place and area 3 with Wickor (0.62) and Zone 2 with Wickor (0.71) were ranked the first to the third. In contrast, regions 20, 19, 17, 15, 18, 16, and so on with the highest amount of calculated Wikers were placed in the last positions. These results indicate that the biodegradability of the regions is not the same so that most southern regions (14 regions) have poor biodegradability, and the decreasing livability after high livability to the central regions Tehran City has been drawn. A total of 14 regions located in most of these areas are in the southern and inner suburbs of Tehran metropolis. In terms of statistics, 0.18 is in optimal condition, 0.18 is in semi-desirable condition, and 0.44 is in unfavorable condition. These results are consistent with the results of Sasanupour et al. (2014), in which case the first and third places are in the first place in terms of livability.
    Conclusion
    Findings revealed that today Tehran has social, economic, physical and environmental problems. It originates from the massive re-distribution of the population due to the concentration of administrative and political facilities. On the other hand, widespread migration with regard to economic conditions and unemployment is one of the most important factors contributing to the pattern of inhumane physical development, insecurity, density, environmental issues, and ultimately reducing bio-availability which is far away from sustainable development components. Due to the fact that urbanization is not inhibited and high population growth is one of the most important factors of increasing the risks and reducing the livability of Tehran's metropolis, population growth and consequently, concentration, traffic, physical growth, and the handover of the city to its peripheral and urban areas have provided a platform for stimulating and exacerbating the risks, such as the formation of thermal islands, greenhouse gas emissions, and so on.
    According to the results of the research, the following suggestions are presented for the biodegradation of Tehran's metropolitan areas: Considering the improvement of the economic situation in the southern and central zones (20, 19, 17, 18, 15). In other words, while logic 1 grows due to the existence of commercial centers and infrastructure services, etc., it is also necessary to consider the economic growth and development of other districts and zones since the 1st and 3rd districts, 2,22, have produced significant gaps compared to other areas.
    Improving the housing situation in the southern areas of Tehran (20, 19, 18, 17, 16, 15) and the various opportunities provided in this field (i.e. diversity leading to the creation of lively and dynamic neighborhoods and the residence of different citizens) economically and socially in the neighborhoods.
    Keywords: Urban sustainable development, Path analysis, Biodegradability, Multi-criteria decision making models, 22 Tehran Metropolis
  • Vakil Heidari Sarban Pages 271-300
    Introduction
    Information and communication technology is not bound by geographical borders; it transforms and revolutionizes social constructs across human settlements such as cities and villages. This technology alters various lifestyles, and expands and deepens the effectiveness of social interactions in rural societies while replacing traditional identities with modern ones. Since a considerable number of rural residents, particularly the youth, use modern information and communication technologies for pastime, they are influenced by a set of values promoted through such technologies. In this study, the effects of information and communication technology on social identity of rural youth are discussed and examined.
    Review of Literature

    There are two perspectives employed in this study. I In the first view, information and communication technology is regarded as a process transforming mindsets and objectivity by embracing all aspects of life. By integrating the world organically and changing it to a larger, more unified collective (i.e. the bigger “us”), this technology results in various cultures to become more inclined towards being adapted to one another. Yet, according to the other perspective, there is a purpose behind the expansion of information and communication technology. Meanwhile, the West seeks to rule the information realm and dominate other countries by exploiting different technologies, especially digital and satellite communication technologies and offering them to other countries through cultural homogenization and value integration, the West is promoting its transcendental culture across countries. These two perspectives are employed in order to provide explanations for the research questions.
    Method
    The present inquiry is a descriptive-analytical survey study with development purposes. In this study, data collection was done using surveys (primary data) and library studies (secondary data). The instruments used were questionnaires and interviews. The total population of the study included the entire young residents of villages with ICT offices around Meshgin Shahr city. Of 49 villages with ICT offices, 14 were selected using random sampling. Accordingly, the total population of the study was 9942 individuals out of whom 370 were selected as the sample population using simple random sampling. On the other hand, 370 residents of rural areas with no ICT offices were also selected as the control group. Raw data were collected in order to measure the indices through interviews, observations, questionnaires, and library documents.
    Results and Discussion
    During the past decades, rural regions have been witnessing significant transformations by shifting to modernity which follows developments initiated by expanded social communications and increased interaction of rural residents with individuals outside rural societies. Therefore, it is the duty of authorities in the area of rural development to pay special attention to these social changes caused by the expansion of modern communication technologies in their planning.
    In this study, social identity was examined according to the geographical aspects of villages with and without information and communication technologies. To this end, first the findings were described and then explained. To assess the significance of variables, Mann–Whitney U test was employed. According to the results of this test, the villages with ICT offices enjoyed more religious, national, collective, and gender identities as compared to the villages without ICT, except for family and individual identities.
    Conclusion and Suggestions

    The results of the study showed a positive relation between national identity and gender identity variables at 1% error. According to this relation, the more youngsters use such technologies, the more their social identities shift towards transformation and modernization. Moreover, a significant difference at 5% error was observed between the villages with and without ICT offices in terms of religious and collective identities. In addition, no significant difference was observed between these two types of villages in terms of family and individual identities. Ultimately, given the findings of this study, it is worth pointing out the necessity to take certain steps in line with enforcing the local culture and social empowerment of the youth living in Meshgin Shahr rural areas. It is also essential to enhance their cognitive capacities and utilize various sources of knowledge on culture so as to promote and protect positive elements of the rural culture, particularly for the youth living in the region of the study. This can prevent identity and the meaning crisis and enable identity restoration. It is essential that religious conventions as well as the traditions and customs of Meshgin Shahr rural youth be protected and that sufficient information should be offered so that these conventions can be internalized.
    Keywords: Information, communication technology, Social identity, Rural youth, Rural development, Meshgin Shahr City
  • Seyed Mohammad Hossein Hosseini, Meysam Mirzaei Tabar*, Vahid Sadeghi Pages 301-336
    Introduction
    The activities of interest groups and social forces in the Mamasani constituency and their impact on different elections, especially the elections of the Islamic council can be analyzed in the context of the dominant structure. Among the influential groups and social forces in the Mamasani constituency are elders and elders of clans, tribal elders, local kinship groups, marketers, farmers, religious groups, women, intellectuals, and elites, some of whom are active and others passive. The role played by these groups in the Islamic council elections is primarily pushing minds for constructive and positive competition in a non-productive space, but the possibility of elections in the Mamasic society and the companionship of social forces with the influential groups that are influenced by the representatives and other processes is the basis of the radicalization of election space and the monolingual political-cultural and geographical competition. This study tries to analyze the role of the influential groups and social forces in the elections of the Islamic parliamentary elections in the Mamasani constituency. The dependent variable is the parliamentary elections and the independent variables are interest groups and social forces. The question is about the role interest groups and social forces will play in the elections of the Islamic council assembly in the electorate.
    Review of Literature

    The influential group refers to a range of human beings or groups that seek to influence and manage political evolutions in their own goals. Some of them, permanent and unique, are interested in affecting the public policy of government and others in passing through political decisions.
    Firstly, social forces means a series of categories and groups affecting political life including people who enjoy equalities in terms of economic interests, value, cultural, corporate, and other aspects. Secondly, the participation in political life, power, administration, participation in political institutions, participation in decisions and policies are popular. Finally, it is organized and prepared for political actions.
    The geography of election deals with the analysis of space, place, electoral process, the variety of decisions, and the results of the voters of different regions as well as the effects of spatial differences in political behavior. In other words, the geography of election is a trend of political geography that studies the spatial distribution pattern of power in the form of reciprocal relationship between geography, elections, and power.
    Tribalism is a kind of internal feeling and motivation of people living in a particular geographic location and space that is worth considering the location of living beyond the location or is associated with other places in a way that the inhabitants of a residential area that form a coherent and continuous totality, have a collective and local identity that generally vote on an individual or a current with which they feel identical based on their attributes and social, economic and cultural norms
    Method
    The present study is descriptive-analytical and the data collection method is library and field (questionnaire and interview). In the field method, with respect to the variables as well as the indices of the study, two Likert questionnaires were designed five alternatives).
    Statistical population was selected from Mamasani County. The reason for the selection of the county is the highlighting of local-clan orientation. In total, the sample was 275 in rural and urban areas among whom the questionnaires were distributed.
    Results and Discussion
    According to the research findings, influential groups in the Mamassani constituency have more power than social forces to influence the elections. These groups are formed unofficially and are based on the clan and tribal groups. They take the most role during the elections and take a social power in action for candidates in their geographical domain.
    In fact, these groups act in different forms of tribal elders, local elites, and kinship groups, which in addition to generating acceptance among the clan members can affect their interests. In relation to the role of social forces, the findings show that in the Mamassani constituency, different categories are active or passive through the brokers and members of the ruling party in the parliament elections. Among social forces, elites, and intellectuals, active groups are able to influence other social forces in the traditional context of Mamasani. Other findings of this study suggest that other social forces such as farmers, marketers, and women are present in the Mamassani community who are passive in the parliamentary elections and act in other groups; with the exception that the first and second groups tend to belong to tribalism and their presence on the political scene through the construction of the clan and the brokers. . Religious categories are also in the range of groups that oppose the existence of the negative dimensions of tribalism accentuating the principle of the brotherhood in the election environment, due to the lack of the continuity of activity in the spectrum of executers.
    Conclusion and Suggestions

    The results showed that the influential groups and social forces play their roles in a stable-fixed and active - passive form through identity, spatial belonging, and tribal structure in order to direct the people vote in the process of Mamasani assembly election, in which the role of influential groups is stronger. On the other hand, the amount of political executor’s role is different. Among the influential groups in the urban and rural regions, the local influential people and the elders have the highest and lowest effectiveness, respectively. Among the social forces in the urban and rural areas, the most effectiveness and lowest effectiveness is related to the teachers and religious categories, respectively.
    Keywords: Election geography, Interest group, Social force, Tribalism, Mamasani constituency