فهرست مطالب

اقتصاد پنهان - سال یکم شماره 26 (بهار 1398)
  • سال یکم شماره 26 (بهار 1398)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/07/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
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  • Hamed Aramesh, Ramadan Hosseinzadeh, Nour Mohammad Yaghoubi Page 7

    smuggling has a variety of economic and non-economic effects. The economic effects of this phenomenon include the reduction in consumption of domestic goods, the decline in production, the reduction of value added and employment. Accordingly, this study investigates the effects of smuggling on the reduction of production in various sectors of Iranian economy as well as the economy of Sistan and Baluchestan province using input-output analysis. for this purpose, It is assumed it exists only in the sector of agriculture and agricultural products. The results of the Model estimation show that because of smuggling of agricultural products into the country, the total production of the country is reduced by 70482٫28 billion Rials. The amount of decline in production in Sistan and Baluchestan province is 2582 billion Rials as a result of smuggling of agricultural products.

    Keywords: smuggling, production, Sistan, Baluchestan province
  • Abed Aslani Aslmars, Saifullah Saadi Page 23

    The present study seeks to investigate whether the expansion of provincial diplomacy could lead to a decrease in commodity trafficking in Kurdistan province. The research method used in this study is a survey and data gathering tool with a questionnaire with interview. The research method used in this study is purpose-oriented, applied-based, and descriptive-analytical in nature and the method and library, internet and field interpretation tools have been used to collect research data. The findings of the study indicate that underdevelopment of the province and development disparity as well as other geographical, political and cultural variables of the region are major factors in the growth and expansion of trafficking in goods and other security crimes and threats. It has been concluded that the present study has concluded that Kurdistan due to its border and ethnic and religious affiliation with the Kurdish region on one hand and the widespread need of the climate for the development of relations with Iran on the other hand have great importance. potential for development. And consequently, it has the benefit of enhancing border security that has the potential to become drunk Provincial land uses active diplomacy, deliberate and targeted experts and diplomats familiar with the indigenous issues and needs of the province, but the provincial, national and international diplomacy can be effective in the development of Kurdistan.

    Keywords: Provincial Diplomacy, Kurdistan, Border Security, Border Crime, Kurdistan Region
  • Mohammad Zamani Rostami, Elham Momeni Page 75

    Smuggling is a part of the informal economy that is not recorded in official statistics and damages countries' economic information systems. This paper having approach of resistance economy, first presents the causes and consequences of of smuggling based on a conceptual model and then deals with its most important issues based on qualitative method of Grounded Theory. The purpose of this study is to identify the factors caused and exacerbated the smuggling of commodity and to study their effects and offer suggestions for fighting against smuggling in line with the realization of a resilience economy and pay much attention to its three major areas,i.e: economic policies, national production and unemplyment.This paper is a descriptive exploratory study with its population consisting of university professors and experts working in the Headquarters for Figting against Commodity&Foreign Exchange Smuggling. For qualitative reviews, 10 persons were fully interviewed and 5 questions were asked from each one. The results shows that theTen-years horizon of the Headquater is moving in line with the resilience economy, but the Headquater must modify its approach and move towards knowledge and technology management; therefore, more attention must be paid to qualitative studies, especially in the social and cultural contexts of this phenomenon.

    Keywords: commodity, foreign exchange smuggling, resistanceeconomy, national production, unemployment, technology management
  • The effect of suburb-dwelling on the smuggling of goods and foreign exchange / Case Study: Kurdistan, Sistan and Baluchestan Provinces
    Mohsen Shaterian, Mahmoud Ganjipour, Amir Ashnoyi Page 107

    Smugglers are lively barometers of societies that are in a stressful state. Their status results from some of today's social phenomena of which accelerated urbanization and suburb-dwelling conisdered as the most important ones. In this study we examine the relationship between suburbdwelling and smuggling of commodities and foreign exchanges. The research method is documentary and survey using self-made questionnaire. The statistical population of this study consists of officials of governmental organizations in Kurdistan province and Sistan and Baluchestan province in 2010. Based on the Cochran sampling formula, 330 persons were selected as sample size, of which 165 persons for each province. The questionnaires were distributed randomly among them. Data were analyzed using descriptive and analytical statistics in SPSS. The results show that there is a direct and significant relationship between suburb-dwelling and smuggling.

    Keywords: commodity smuggling, suburb-dwelling, Kurdistan, Sistanand Baluchistan
  • Jaafar Karimi Page 124

    This research is based on a descriptive-analytical method and utilization of available resources in the field of smuggling and its damages and how to combat it in the country as well as a comprehensive study using SWOT analysis. The results indicated that the most important strength of Iran's fight against trafficking in society is the existence of a large number of experienced knifes in the country enjoying a 0,62 weight rating. First is the lack of basic cultural work in the field with a weight rating of 0,42 in the first place of weaknesses, paying attention to issues of trafficking especially in public affairs and extracting them and thinking of a tactic in this field with a weighting of 0,6 highest. It has the weight and, first of all, the opportunities available and the lack of strategic, attractive and competitive planning against the enemy's hostile actions. Trafficking of goods with a score of 52/0 weight in the first place threatened. The most important strategies that can be mapped in this area are: Establishing the basic planning and structure to optimally exploit the multiplicity of qualified personnel in order to clarify and inform on the issues of trafficking in goods and its damages, the basic local and national efforts in explaining the issues. The essentials of trafficking in goods and its harm and its presentation to the community and the development of a local and national perspective document and the use of modern media to counter enemy propaganda in the field of trafficking in goods and to carry out cultural, social and economic measures to prevent it. Trafficking.

    Keywords: Trafficking, Injury, Culture, Invasion, Strategy, SWOT
  • Amir Hossein Mazini, Niloufar Murad Page 149

    A review of the country's three decades of monetary and foreign exchange policies suggests that the financial and budgetary structure of the government has been managed in recent decades so that the Iranian economy increases each year with significant liquidity and subsequently with rising prices and Inflation has been associated. In the first two decades after the triumph of the Islamic Revolution, due to severe currency restrictions, the free-market exchange rate increased in line with the price index, not much in terms of smuggling. But since the early 1980s, tightening exchange rate policy, increasing liquidity and inflation on the one hand, and relative exchange rate stability on the other, have made the relative price of commodities exchangeable to non-exchangeable commodities profitable. Import exchange and change at the expense of domestically produced goods. This, while affecting the domestic industry, led to an increase in the profit margins of smugglers (formal and informal importers). Thus, the recent policy in practice exacerbated the phenomenon of trafficking as one of the problems of the country and pushed a significant portion of the country's capabilities to that end. The results of the present study indicate that although during this period the government has committed itself to combating the phenomenon of trafficking, macroeconomic policies, especially in the area of monetary and foreign exchange, have exacerbated the phenomenon. The smuggling system has been in place and has effectively counteracted deterrence measures in the area. Therefore, these two sectors (monetary and foreign exchange) can be mentioned as missing links in the policies of combating and managing trafficking in goods and currencies.

    Keywords: Monetary, Currency Policy, Currency, Trade, ExchangeRate, Import, Export, Price
  • Mohsen Motiei, Alireza Salimi Page 169

    The paradigm of Resistance economics versus conventional economics requires distinct patterns and methods. To resist and confront economic powers, in addition to utilizing domestic economic capacities, special attention must be paid to its advantages, but the gap that has developed over many years between developed and developing countries, and also the cultural aspects and the rejection of the patterns of developed countries have made developing countries unable to take advantage of existing developments or have lost their culture and beliefs after welcoming foreign developments which shows the importance of studying the role of special economic zones in resistance economy, economic innovation and fighting against smuggling of commodity and foreign exchange and answers the question of this study ,i.e, by considering the supreme leader’s statements what is a knowledgebased model by using the capacity of free trade zones in a Resistance economy model which fights against smuggling of commodities and currencies.In this paper, using an empirical sample and a descriptive-analytical approach, we present a model for utilizing international knowledge, technology and developments to strengthen the national economy with Resistance economics approach. By localization of a Chinesebased knowledge economy model, we present the role of free and special trade zones in bringing science and technology, goods and services to Iran. Free and special trade zones in the economic epic play a strong role as a filtering and from another view as a catalyst for the exchange of knowledge, commodities and currencies. Accordingly, the capacity of these areas shows the importance of fighting against smuggling of commodities and foreign exchange.

    Keywords: Resistance Economics, Knowledge-Based Economy, Special Economic Zones, fighting against smuggling ofcommodities, currencies