فهرست مطالب

Cell Journal - Volume:22 Issue:1, 2019
  • Volume:22 Issue:1, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/07/22
  • تعداد عناوین: 18
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  • Fariba Azimipour, Saeed Zavareh*, Taghi Lashkarbolouki Pages 1-8
    Objective

    The unfavorable effects of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) emitted by the cell phone on reproduction health are controversial. Metalloproteinases play a vital role in ovarian follicle development. This study was designed to investigate the effects of exposure to the cell phone on the gelatinolytic activity of in vitro cultured mouse pre-antral follicle.

    Materials and Methods

    In this experimental study, pre-antral follicles were isolated from ovaries of immature mice (n=16) and cultured with or without exposure to the cell phone in talking mode for 60 minutes. The gelatinolytic activity was evaluated through the zymography method, as well as the gene expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) namely MMP-2 and -9 and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) namely, TIMP-1 and -2 by the real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. Also, in parallel, the development of pre-antral follicles was assessed.

    Results

    The maturation parameters of the cell phone-exposed pre-antral follicles were significantly lower compared with the control group (P<0.05). The gelatinolytic activity was significantly decreased in the cell phone-exposed preantral follicles compared with the control group (P<0.05). The relative mRNA expression of the MMP-2 gene was significantly (P<0.05) increased in the cell phone-exposed pre-antral follicles whereas the expression rate of the MMP-9 gene was considerably (P<0.05) reduced when compared with the control group. Conversely, the relative expression of the TIMP-1 was markedly (P<0.05) increased in the cell phone-exposed pre-antral follicles while the expression of the TIMP-2 was (P<0.05) significantly diminished in comparison with the control group.

    Conclusion

    Exposure to the cell phone alters the growth and maturation rate of murine ovarian follicle through the changing in the expression of the MMP-2 and -9 genes, as well as the gelatinolytic activity.

    Keywords: Cell Phone, Gelatinase, Ovarian Follicles, Radiation
  • Zahraa Nasheed Hamad Almohammed, Fatemeh Moghani Ghoroghi, Iraj Ragerdi Kashani, Rouhollah Fathi, Leila Sadat Tahaei, Mohamad Naji, Parichehr Pasbakhsh* Pages 9-16
    Objective

    This study examined the in vitro effect of melatonin on the protein synthesis of mitochondria, as well as autophagy in matured oocytes of aged mice.

    Materials and Methods

    In this experimental study, germinal vesicles (GV) oocytes were collected from aged (with the age of six-months-old) and young mice (with age range of 6-8 weeks old) and then cultured in the in vitro culture medium (IVM) for 24 hours to each metaphase II (MII) oocytes and then supplemented with melatonin at a concentration of 10 μM. The culture medium of MII oocytes was devoid of melatonin. Afterward, the expression of the SIRT-1 and LC3 was assessed by immunocytochemistry. ATP-dependent luciferin-luciferase bioluminescence assay was employed for the measurement of the ATP contents. Intracellular reactive oxygen specious (ROS) was detected by DCFH-DA, and the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) level was determined by TAC assay.

    Results

    The expression of SIRT-1 and LC3, as well as the measurement of the ATP content, was significantly increased in oocytes treated with melatonin compared with the oocytes receiving no treatment. Moreover, TAC was considerably higher in melatonin-treated oocytes than oocytes receiving no treatment. On the other hand, the level of ROS was significantly decreased in oocytes treated with melatonin in comparison with the untreated oocytes. The results indicated that melatonin considerably improved the development of oocytes as well.

    Conclusion

    According to the data, melatonin increased mitochondrial function and autophagy via an increase in the expression of SIRT1 and LC3, as well as the ATP contents while it decreased the levels of ROS and increased TAC in oocytes derived from aged mice.

    Keywords: Aged Mice, Autophagy, Melatonin, Mitochondria
  • Maryam Ranjpour, Saima Wajid, Swatantra Kumar Jain* Pages 17-22
    Objective

    Liver cancer is the third rank amongst the common malignancies, causing maximum death in the patients diagnosed with cancers. Currently available biomarkers are not enough sensitive for early diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This makes difficult management of HCC. With the aim of finding new generation of proteomic-based biomarkers, the represented study was designed to characterize the differentially expressed proteins at different stages of HCC initiation and at progression. This could lead to find potential biomarkers for early detection of HCC.

    Materials and Methods

    In this experimental study, we report induction of HCC by administrating chemical carcinogens in male Wistar rats. Disease progression was monitored by histological evaluation. Serum proteomic analyses such as 2 dimensional (2D)-electrophoresis, MALDI-TOF-MS/MS and Western blot have been used to analyze and characterize the differentially expressed proteins during HCC development.

    Results

    HCC initiation and tumorigenesis were observed at one and four months post carcinogen treatment, respectively. One of the differentially-expressed proteins, namely, cytosolic phospholipase A2 delta was significantly up-regulated at very early stage of HCC development. Its expression continued to increase during cancer progression and hepatotumorigenesis stages. Its elevated expression has been confirmed by Western blot analysis. Consistent to this, analyses of the sera in the clinically confirmed liver cancer patients showed elevated expression of this protein, further validating our experimental results.

    Conclusion

    This study suggests that elevation in the expression of cytosolic phospholipase A2 delta is associated with progression of HCC.

    Keywords: Chemical Carcinogens, Cytosolic Phospholipase A2 Delta, Hepatocellular Carcinoma, MALDI-TOF-MS, MS, Western Blot Analysis
  • Javid Sabour Takanlu, Arad Aghaie Fard, Saeed Mohammdi, Seyed Mohammad AliHosseini Rad, Saeid Abroun, Mohsen Nikbakht* Pages 23-29
    Objective

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable plasma cell malignancy. Several genetic and epigenetic changes affect numerous critical genes expression status in this disorder. CDKN2A gene is expressed at low level in almost all cases with MM disease. The mechanism of this gene down-regulation has remained controversial. In the present study, we targeted EZH2 by microRNA-124 (miR-124) in L-363 cells and assessed following possible impact on CDKN2A gene expression and phenotypic changes.

    Materials and Methods

    In this experimental study, growth inhibitory effects of miR-124 were measured by MTT assay in L-363 cell line. Likewise, cell cycle assay was measured by flowcytometery. The expression levels of EZH2 and CDKN2A were evaluated by real-time quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR).

    Results

    qRT-PCR results showed induction of EZH2 gene expression after transduction of cells with lentivector expressing miR-124. The expression of CDKN2A was also upregulated as the result of EZH2 supression. Coincide with gene expression changes, cell cycle analysis by flow-cytometry indicated slightly increased G1-arrest in miRtransduced cells (P<0.05). MTT assay results also showed a significant decrease in viability and proliferation of miRtransduced cells (P<0.05).

    Conclusion

    It seems that assembling of H3K27me3 mark mediated by EZH2 is one of the key mechanisms of suppressing CDKN2A gene expression in MM disease. However, this suppressive function is applied by a multi-factor mechanism. In other words, targeting EZH2, as the core functional subunit of PRC2 complex, can increase expression of the downstream suppressive genes. Consequently, by increasing expression of tumor suppressor genes, myeloma cells are stopped from aberrant expansions and they become susceptible to regulated cellular death.

    Keywords: Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 2A, Enhancer of Zeste Homolog 2, Multiple Myeloma, MicroRNA
  • Ommolbanin Asadpour, Fatemeh Rahbarizadeh* Pages 30-39
    Objective

    The purpose of this study was to develop multivalent antibody constructs via grafting anti-HER2 antibodies, including Herceptin and oligoclonal-variable domain of heavy chain antibodies (VHHs), onto liposome membranes to enhance antibody activity and compare their effect on phospholipase C (PLC) signaling pathway with control.

    Materials and Methods

    In this experimental study, SKBR3 and BT-474 cell lines as HER2 positive and MCF10A cell line as normal cell were screened with anti-HER2 antibodies, including constructs of multivalent liposomal antibody developed with Herceptin and anti-HER2 oligoclonal-VHHs. To confirm the accuracy of the study, immunofluorescent assay, migration assay and immuno-liposome binding ability to HER2 were evaluated. Finally, the antibodies effect on PLCγ1 protein level was measured by an immunoassay method (ELISA).

    Results

    In the present study, by using multivalent form of antibodies, we were able to significantly inhibit the PLCγ1 protein level. Interestingly, the results of migration assay, used for study the motility of different types of cell, shows correspondingly decreased number of immigrated cells in SKBR3 and BT-474 cell lines. Since MCF10A cells show no overexpression of HER2, as expected, the result did not show any change in PLCγ1 level. Moreover, immunofluorescent assay has confirmed high expression of HER2 in SKBR3 and BT-474 cell lines and low HER2 expression on MCF10A cell line. High binding of immuno-liposome to SKBR3 and BT-474 cells and low binding to MCF10A confirmed that in this study anti-HER2 antibodies have conserved binding ability to HER2 even after conjugation with liposome.

    Conclusion

    PLCγ1 protein levels did indeed decrease after treatment with immuno-liposome form of compounds in both two tested cell lines, verifying the inhibition ability of them. Moreover, an elevated antibody activity is associated with liposomes conjugation suggesting that immuno-liposome may be a potential target for enhancing the antibody activity.

    Keywords: HER2, Liposome, Oligoclonal, Phospholipase Cγ1, VHHs
  • Nasrin Zare, Shaghayegh Haghjooy Javanmard, Valiollah Mehrzad, Nahid Eskandari*, Alireza Andalib Pages 40-54
    Objective

    The purpose of this study was to investigate effect of plasma-derived exosomes of refractory/relapsed or responsive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients on natural killer (NK) cell functions.

    Materials and Methods

    In this cross-sectional and experimental study, NK cells were purified from responsive patients (n=10) or refractory/relapsed patients (n=12) and healthy donors (n=12). NK cells were treated with plasma-derived exosomes of responsive or refractory/relapsed patients. We examined the expression levels of hsa-miR-155-5p, hsalet- 7g-5p, INPP5D (SHIP-1) and SOCS-1 in NK cells quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Percentages of NK cells expressing CD69, NKG2D and CD16, NK cell cytotoxicity and NK cell proliferation (using flow-cytometry) as well as interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) level in the supernatant of NK cells using ELISA were also investigated.

    Results

    We observed an increased level of hsa-miR-155-5p and a decreased level of SOCS-1 in NK cells treated with exosomes compared to untreated NK cell in healthy donors and DLBCL patients. An increase in hsa-miR-155-5p level was associated with an increased level of IFN-γ in healthy donors. The decreased levels of hsa-let-7g-5p were observed in NK cells treated with exosomes in comparison with untreated NK cells in DLBCL patients (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in the percentage of CD69+ NK cells and NKG2D+ NK cells in the absence or presence of exosomes of DLBCL patients in each group. Furthermore, we observed significant reduction of NK cell proliferation in DLBCL patients and healthy donors in the presence of exosomes of refractory/relapsed patients (P<0.05). A significant decrease was observed in cytotoxicity of NK cell in patients with DLBCL treated with exosomes of responsive patients.

    Conclusion

    Our findings demonstrated adverse effect of plasma-derived exosomes of DLBCL patients on some functions of NK cell. It was also determined that low NK cell count might be associated with impaired response to R-CHOP and an increased recurrence risk of cancer.

    Keywords: Cytotoxicity, Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma, hsa-miR-155-5p, Interferon-Gamma, Proliferation
  • Nazanin Karimi, Homa Mohseni Kouchesfahani*, Mohammad Hossein Nasr Esfahani, Marziyeh Tavalaee, Abdolhossein Shahverdi, Hamid Choobineh Pages 55-59
    Objective

    The aim of this blind randomised clinical trial study was to assess the clinical efficiency of combined density gradient centrifugation/Zeta (DGC/Zeta) sperm selection procedure compared to conventional DGC in infertile men candidates for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). The literature shows that DGC/Zeta is more effective compared to DGC alone in selection of sperms with normal chromatin and improves the clinical outcome of the ICSI procedure. Therefore, this study re-evaluates the efficiency of DGC/Zeta in improving the clinical outcomes of ICSI in an independent clinical setting.

    Materials and Methods

    In this randomized, single-blind, clinical trial, a total of 240 couples with male factor infertility and at least one abnormal sperm parameter were informed regarding the study and 220 participated. Based on inclusion and exclusion criteria, 103 and 102 couples were randomly allocated into the DGC/Zeta and DGC groups, respectively. ICSI outcomes were followed and compared between the two groups.

    Results

    Although there was no significant difference in fertilization rate (P=0.67) between the DGC/Zeta and DGC groups, mean percentage of good embryo quality (P=0.04), good blastocysts quality (P=0.049), expanded blastocysts (P=0.007), chemical pregnancies (P=0.005) and clinical pregnancies (P=0.007) were significantly higher in the DGC/ Zeta group compared to DGC. In addition, implantation rate was insignificantly higher in DGC/Zeta compared to DGC (P=0.17).

    Conclusion

    This is the second independent study showing combined DGC/Zeta procedure improves ICSI outcomes, especially the pregnancy rate, compared to the classical DGC procedure and this is likely related to the improved quality of sperm selected by the DGC/Zeta procedure (Registration number: IRCT20180628040270N1).

    Keywords: DGC, Zeta, Embryo Quality, Fertilization, Pregnancy
  • Hossein Azizi*, Morteza Koruji, Thomas Skutella Pages 60-65
    Objective

    Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), as unipotent stem cells, are responsible for the production of sperm throughout the male’s life. Zinc finger and BTB domain containing 16 (ZBTB16/PLZF) genes provide various functions in the cell development, signaling pathway, growth regulatory and differentiation. Here, we aimed to investigate expression of the PLZF germ cell gene marker in testis, SSCs, pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ES cells) and ES-like cells of mouse testis.

    Materials and Methods

    In this experimental study, we examined the expression of the PLZF germ cell marker in the testis section and testicular cell culture of neonate and adult mice by immunohistochemistry (IMH), immunocytochemistry (ICC) and Fluidigm Real-Time polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

    Results

    IMH data indicated that the PLZF protein was localized in the neonate testis cells of the tubules center as well as the basal compartment of adult testis seminiferous tubules. Counting PLZF IMH-positive cells in the sections of seminiferous tubules of adult and neonate testis revealed significant expression of positive cells in adult testis compared to the neonate (P<0.05). Under in vitro conditions, isolated SSC colonies were strongly ICC-positive for the PLZF germ cell marker, while ES cells and ES-like cells were negative for PLZF. Fluidigm Real-Time-PCR analysis demonstrated a significant expression of the PLZF germ cell gene in the neonate and adult SSCs, compared to ES cells and ES-like cells (P<0.05).

    Conclusion

    These results indicate that PLZF is a specific transcription factor of testicular germ cell proliferation, but it is downregulated in pluripotent germ cells. This can be supportive for the analysis of germ cells development both in vitro and in vivo.

    Keywords: Embryonic Stem Cells, Germ Cells, PLZF Gene, Spermatogonial Stem Cells
  • Afsaneh Goudarzi*, Amir Amiri Yekta Pages 66-70
    Objective

    Acyl-CoA synthetase short-chain family member 2 (ACSS2) activity provides a major source of acetyl-CoA to drive histone acetylation. This study aimed to unravel the ACSS2 expression during mouse spermatogenesis, where a dynamic and stage-specific genome-wide histone hyperacetylation occurs before histone eviction.

    Materials and Methods

    In this experimental study, ACSS2 expression levels during spermatogenesis were verified by Immunodetection. Testis paraffin-embedded sections were used for IHC staining with anti-H4 pan ac and anti-ACSS2. Co-detection of ACSS2 and H4K5ac was performed on testis tubular sections by immunofluorescence. Proteins extracts from fractionated male germ cells were subjected to western-blotting and immunoblot was probed with anti- ACSS2 and anti-actin.

    Results

    The resulting data showed that the commitment of progenitor cells into meiotic divisions leads to a robust accumulation of ACSS2 in the cell nucleus, especially in pachytene spermatocytes (P). However, ACSS2 protein drastically declines during post-meiotic stages, when a genome-wide histone hyperacetylation is known to occur.

    Conclusion

    The results of this study are in agreement with the idea that the major function of ACSS2 is to recycle acetate generated after histone deacetylation to regenerate acetyl-CoA which is required to maintain the steady state of histone acetylation. Thus, it is suggested that in spermatogenic cells, nuclear activity of ACSS2 maintains the acetate recycling until histone hyperacetylation, but disappears before the acetylation-dependent histone degradation.

    Keywords: Acyl-CoA Synthetase Short-Chain Family Member 2, Epigenetics, Histone Modifications, Spermatogenesis
  • Maryam Zangi, Mohammad Bagher Bagherieh Najjar, Masoud Golalipour*, Mahnaz Aghdasi Pages 71-74
    Objective

    DNA methylation systems are essential for proper embryo development. Methylation defects lead to developmental abnormalities. Furthermore, changes in telomerase gene expression can affect stability of chromosomes and produces abnormal growth. Therefore, defects in both methylation and telomerase gene expression can lead to developmental abnormalities. We hypothesized that mutation in the methylation systems may induce developmental abnormalities through changing telomerase gene expression.

    Materials and Methods

    In this experimental study, we used Arabidopsis thaliana (At) as a developmental model. DNA was extracted from seedlings leaves. The grown plants were screened using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) reactions. Total RNA was isolated from the mature leaves, stems and flowers of wild type and met1 mutants. For gene expression analysis, cDNA was synthesized and then quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) was performed.

    Results

    Telomerase gene expression level in homozygous met1 mutant plants showed ~14 fold increase compared to normal plants. Furthermore, TERT expression in met1 heterozygous was~ 2 fold higher than the wild type plants.

    Conclusion

    Our results suggested that TERT is a methyltransferase-regulated gene which may be involved in developmental abnormities causing by mutation in met1 methyltransferase system.

    Keywords: Developmental Abnormalities, met1, Telomerase
  • Amir Bajouri, Zahra Orouji, Ehsan Taghiabadi, Abdoreza Nazari, Atefeh Shahbazi, Nasrin Fallah, Parvaneh Mohammadi, Mohammad Rezvani, Zahra Jouyandeh, Fatemeh Vaezirad, Zahra Khalajasadi, Mahshid Ghasemi, Aslan Fanni, Sara HajiHosseinali, Ahad Alizadeh, Hossein Baharvand, Saeed Shafieyan, Nasser Aghdami* Pages 75-84
    Objective

    Recently, the promising potential of fibroblast transplantation has become a novel modality for skin rejuvenation. We investigated the long-term safety and efficacy of autologous fibroblast transplantation for participants with mild to severe facial contour deformities.

    Materials and Methods

    In this open-label, single-arm phase IIa clinical trial, a total of 57 participants with wrinkles (n=37, 132 treatment sites) or acne scars (n=20, 36 treatment sites) who had an evaluator’s assessment score of at least 2 out 7 (based on a standard photo-guide scoring) received 3 injections of autologous cultured fibroblasts administered at 4-6 week intervals. Efficacy evaluations were performed at 2, 6, 12, and 24 months after the final injection based on evaluator and patient’s assessment scores.

    Results

    Our study showed a mean improvement of 2 scores in the wrinkle and acne scar treatment sites. At sixth months after transplantation, 90.1% of the wrinkle sites and 86.1% of the acne scar sites showed at least a one grade improvement on evaluator assessments. We also observed at least a 2-grade improvement in 56.1% of the wrinkle sites and 63.9% of the acne scar sites. A total of 70.5% of wrinkle sites and 72.2% of acne scar sites were scored as good or excellent on patient assessments. The efficacy outcomes remained stable up to 24-month. We did not observe any serious adverse events during the study.

    Conclusion

    These results have shown that autologous fibroblast transplantation could be a promising remodeling modality with long-term corrective ability and minimal adverse events (Registration Number: NCT01115634).

    Keywords: Cell Therapy, Skin Rejuvenation, Wrinkle
  • Zahra Salehi, Masoomeh Shams Ghahfarokhi*, Mehdi Razzaghi Abyaneh Pages 85-91
    Objective

    Precise identification of dermatophyte species significantly improves treatment and controls measures of dermatophytosis in human and animals. This study was designed to evaluate molecular tools effectiveness of the gene sequencing and DNA-based fragment polymorphism analysis for accurate identification and differentiation of closelyrelated dermatophyte species isolated from clinical cases of dermatophytosis and their antifungal susceptibility to the current antifungal agents.

    Materials and Methods

    In this experimental study, a total of 95 skin samples were inoculated into mycobiotic agar for two weeks at 28˚C. Morphological characteristics of the isolated dermatophytes were evaluated. DNA was extracted from the fungal culture for amplification of topoisomerase II gene fragments and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products were digested by Hinf I enzyme. Internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA and TEF-1α regions of the all isolates were amplified using the primers of ITS1/4 and EF-DermF/EF-DermR, respectively.

    Results

    Based on the morphological criteria, 24, 24, 24 and 23 isolates were identified as T. rubrum, T. interdigitale, T. tonsurans and E. floccosum, respectively. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) results provided identification pattern of the isolates for T. rubrum (19 isolates), T. tonsurans (28 isolates), T. interdigitale (26 isolates) and E. floccosum (22 isolates). Concatenated dataset results were similar in PCR-RFLP, except six T. interdigitale isolates belonging to T. mentagrophytes.

    Conclusion

    Our results clearly indicated that conventional morphology and PCR-RFLP were not able to precisely identify all dermatophyte species and differentiation of closely related species like T. interdigitale and T. mentagrophytes, while ITS rDNA and TEF-1α gene sequence analyses provided accurate identification of all isolates at the genus and species level.

    Keywords: Dermatophytes, Gene Sequencing, Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment LengthPolymorphism, Topoisomerase II
  • Mahtab Fattahi, Nahid Eskandari*, Fattah Sotoodehnejadnematalahi, Vahid Shaygannejad, Mohammad Kazemi Pages 92-95
    Objective

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory disease resulting in demyelination of the central nervous system (CNS). T helper 17 (Th17) subset protects the human body against pathogens and induces neuroinflammation, which leads to neurodegeneration. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a specific class of small (~22 nt) non-coding RNAs that act as post-transcriptional regulators. The expression of the miR-326 is highly associated with the pathogenesis of MS disease in patients through the promotion of Th17 development. Recently, studies showed that disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) could balance the dysregulation of miRNAs in the immune cells of patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS). Interferon-beta (IFN-β) has emerged as one of the most common drugs for the treatment of RR-MS patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the expression of the miR-326 in RRMS patients who were responders and nonresponders to IFN-β treatment.

    Materials and Methods

    In this cross-sectional study, a total of 70 patients (35 responders and 35 non-responders) were enrolled. We analyzed the expression of the miR-326 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of RRMS patients at least one year after the initiation of IFN-β therapy. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was applied to measure the expression of the miR-326.

    Results

    The results showed no substantial change in the expression of the miR-326 between responders and nonresponders concerning the treatment with IFN-β. Although the expression of the miR-326 was slightly reduced in IFN-β-responders compared with IFN-β-non-responders; however, the reduction of the miR-326 was not statistically significant.

    Conclusion

    Overall, since IFN-β doesn’t normalize abnormal expression of miR-326, this might suggest that IFN-β affects Th17 development through epigenetic mechanisms other than miR-326 regulation.

    Keywords: Interferon-Beta, Lymphocyte, MicroRNA, Multiple Sclerosis
  • Maryam Salimi, Abolfazl Shirazi, Mohsen Norouzian*, Mohammad Mehdi Mehrazar, Mohammad Mehdi Naderi, Mohammad Ali Shokrgozar, Mirdavood Omrani, Seyed Mahmoud Hashemi Pages 96-105
    Objective

    Chimeric animal exhibits less viability and more fetal and placental abnormalities than normal animal. This study was aimed to determine the impact of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) injection into the mouse embryos on H3K9me3 and H3K4me3 and cell lineage gene expressions in chimeric blastocysts.

    Materials and Methods

    In our experiment, at the first step, incorporation of the GFP positive mESCs (GFP-mESCs) 129/Sv into the inner cell mass (ICM) of pre-compacted and compacted morula stage embryos was compared. At the second and third steps, H3K4me3 and H3K9me3 status as well as the expression of Oct4, Nanog, Tead4, and Cdx2 genes were determined in the following groups: i. In vitro blastocyst derived from in vivo morula subjected to mESCs injection (blast/chimeric), ii. In vivo derived blastocyst (blast/in vivo), iii. In vitro blastocyst derived from culture of morula in vivo (blast/morula), and iv. In vitro blastocyst derived from morula in vivo subjected to sham injection (blast/sham).

    Results

    Subzonal injection of GFP-mESCs at the pre-compacted embryos produced more chimeric blastocysts than compacted embryos (P<0.05). The number of trophectoderm (TE), ICM, ICM/TE and total cells in chimeric blastocysts were less than the corresponding numbers in blastocysts derived from other groups (P<0.05). In ICM and TE of chimeric blastocysts, the levels of H3K4me3 and H3K9me3 were respectively decreased and increased compared to the blastocysts of the other groups (P<0.05). Expressions of Oct4, Nanog and Tead4 were decreased in chimeric blastocysts compared to the blastocysts of the other groups (P<0.05), while this was not observed for Cdx2.

    Conclusion

    In the present study, embryo compaction significantly reduced the rate of incorporation of injected mESCs into the ICM. Moreover, in chimeric blastocysts, the levels of H3K9me3 and H3K4me3 were altered. In addition, the expressions of pluripotency and cell fate genes were decreased compared to blastocysts of the other groups.

    Keywords: Cell Lineage Genes, Chimera, H3Methylation
  • Florian Strube, Manfred Infanger, Markus Wehland, Xenia Delvinioti, Alexander Romswinkel, Armin Kraus* Pages 106-114
    Objective

    Weightlessness simulation due to the simulated microgravity has been shown to considerably affect behavior of tumor cells. It is aim of this study to evaluate characteristics of human breast cancer cells in this scaffoldfree 3D culture model.

    Materials and Methods

    In this experimental study, the cells were exposed to simulated microgravity in a randompositioning machine (RPM) for five days. Morphology was observed under phase-contrast and confocal microscopy. Cytofilament staining was performed and changes in expression level of cytofilament genes, proliferation/differentiation genes, oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes were detected by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), followed by western blot confirmation.

    Results

    After five days, distinct spheroid formation was observed. Rearrangement of the cytoskeleton into spherical shape was visible. VIM gene expression was significantly up-regulated for adherent cells and spheroids (3.3x and 3.6x respectively, P<0.05 each). RHOA also showed significant gene up-regulation for adherent cells and spheroids (3.2x and 3.9x respectively, P<0.05 each). BRCA showed significant gene up-regulation in adherent cells and spheroids (2.1x and 4.1x respectively, P<0.05 each). ERBB2 showed significant gene up-regulation (2.4x, P<0.05) in the spheroids, but not in the adherent cells. RAB27A showed no significant alteration in gene expression. MAPK) showed significant gene up-regulation in adherent cells and spheroids (3.2x, 3.0x, P<0.05 each). VEGF gene expression was down-regulated under simulated microgravity, without significance. Alterations of gene expressions could be confirmed on protein level for vimentin and MAPK1. Protein production was not increased for BRCA1, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and VEGF. Contradictory changes were determined for RHOA and its related protein.

    Conclusion

    Microgravity provides an easy-to handle, scaffold-free 3D-culture model for human breast cancer cells. There were considerable changes in morphology, cytoskeleton shape and gene expressions. Identification of the underlying mechanisms could provide new therapeutic options.

    Keywords: Breast Neoplasms, Cytoskeleton, Proto-Oncogenes, Tumor Suppressor Genes, Weightlessness Simulation
  • Keivan Mobini, Elham Banakar, Pharm.D, Gholamhossein Tamaddon, AfshinMohammadi Bardbori* Pages 115-120
    Objective

    microRNAs (miRNAs) play bifunctional roles in the initiation and progression of cancer, and recent evidence has confirmed that unusual expression of miRNAs is required for the progress of breast cancer. The regulatory role of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and its endogenous ligand, 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ) on the expression of tumor suppressor miRNAs, miR-22, miR-515-5p and miR-124-3p, as well as their association with the estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) were the aims of this study.

    Materials and Methods

    In this experimental study, the expression levels of miR-22, miR-515-5p, miR-124-3p and miR-382-5p in MCF-7 cells were determined using the quantificational real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay.

    Results

    Our results revealed that miR-22, miR-515-5p, and miR-124-3p expressions were significantly increased in cells transfected with ERα siRNA. Our data also showed that miR-22, miR 515-5p, and miR-124-3p expression levels were significantly increased following FICZ treatment. Here, we found that AhR/ERα cross-talk plays a critical role in the expression of miR-22, miR-515-5p and miR-124-3p in MCF-7 cells.

    Conclusion

    Overall, our data demonstrated that FICZ, as an AhR agonist could induce the expression of tumor suppressor miRNAs, miR-22, miR-515-5p, and miR-124-3p; thus, FICZ might be regarded as a potential therapeutic agent for breast cancer treatment. 

    Keywords: Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor, Estrogen Receptor Alpha, 6-formylindolo[3, 2-b]carbazole, Tumor Suppressor
  • Ahmad Pourebrahim, Iraj Goldouzian*, Ahmad Ramezani Pages 121-127
    Objective

    The aim of this study is investigation of Stem cells Technology in The Light of Jurisprudential Documents.

    Materials and Methods

    In this analytical-descriptive research, we collected the relevant data through a literature search. We have used PubMed, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, Iranian databases like SID, Iran doc, Iranian law and also Islamic resources for this study.

    Results

    There are so many controversies about safety of these cells and possible dangers for human body. As in Iran, laws of stem cells are not clear. Elimination of barriers requires drafting laws compatible with regional and cultural beliefs of Iranian people. Unfortunately, available laws could not keep up with the advances.

    Conclusion

    Iran juridical system should conduct and restrict actions in the area of stem cells technology by gathering experts of different political, science, medicine, social and mindful who are familiar with law, according to notions of intellectual jurists and legislators, Islam and Shia religious.

    Keywords: Embryo, Jurisprudential, Law, Stem Cell
  • Evren Gumus* Pages 128-132

    Intellectual disability (ID) is defined as an intelligence quotient (IQ) level below than 70. In the present paper, a 1.16 megabases (Mb) homozygous deletion in the 8p22 region was identified in a three years old girl with ID, speech and developmental delays. This is the first report from Turkey with this form of ID. The present paper demonstrates that application of microarray technique to help clinicians, especially when clinical diagnosis includes a complex group of disorders (such as ID) and differential diagnostic list is broad.

    Keywords: Deletion, Intellectual Disability, Microarray, TUSC3