فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:9 Issue:3, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/06/25
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
  • Mohammad Sulaiman, Jonnie Asegbeloyin *, Janefrances Ihedioha, Ebube Oyeka, Esther Oji Pages 173-190
    The assessment of some trace metals in soils around a municipal solid waste dumpsite in Gombe, Nigeria was conducted. Pollution indices and health risk parameters were determined in order to evaluate the ecological and health risk to the local environment.  The soil samples were collected in dry and rainy seasons and analysed for (Fe, Cd, Pb, Mn, Zn, Cu, Cr, and Ni) using atomic absorption spectrometry. The content of trace metals (mg kg-1) at the dumpsite in dry season were: Pb (8.78), Zn (151.00), Ni (11.80), Cr (4.55), Cd (12.12) and Mn (92.05), while in rainy season, content of trace metals were Pb (8.80), Zn (148.00), Ni (11.63), Cr (4.20), Cd (10.03) and Mn (91.03). In both seasons, there was a significant increase (p<0.05) in levels of chromium, cadmium, zinc, nickel, lead, copper and iron in soil samples from the south (20 m) of the dumpsite and at the dumpsite compared to soil samples from the control site. Pollution indices studies showed that soil samples from south (20 m) of the dumpsite and at the dumpsite were highly polluted with cadmium, contributing 99% of the overall potential ecological risk. No potential health risk was detected, considering the fact that the hazard quotient and total hazard index of all the studied metals were less than one. However, children were found to be more vulnerable to heavy metal pollution than adults.
    Keywords: Municipal solid waste, Dumpsite, Trace metals, Pollution indices, Human health risk
  • Aldo Pacheco Ferreira * Pages 191-202
    Intake of illicit drugs should be expressed not merely for the reason of the public health aspects but also in an environmental context concerning the contamination of surface waters. Wastewater-based epidemiology consists in acquiring relevant information about the standard of living and in population health status athwart the investigation of wastewater samples collected at the influent of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). This method has been applied to the examination on samples from 4 WWTPs situated in Rio de Janeiro Municipality, Brazil, to investigate the presence of illicit drugs and their metabolites. These included cocaine (COC), benzoylecgonine (BE, cocaine metabolite), amphetamine (AMP), methamphetamine (METH), and 11-nor-9-carboxy-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH, THC metabolite). Concentrations of COC and its main metabolite BE ranged from 201.3 to 2751.5 ng/L and from 630.7 to 5849.2 ng/L, respectively. Amphetamine-like stimulants ranged from 21.7 to 110.0 ng/L for AMP, and from 55.3 ng/L to 477.4 ng/L for METH. THC-COOH ranged from 188.8 to 940.2ng/L. The concentrations found, besides being noteworthy to public health, may likely have important repercussion influence at the functioning of the environment. It is important to detach that COC and amphetamines (including metabolites as well) have potent pharmacological activities and their incidence as multifarious assortments in the ecosystem must hurt aquatic organisms and, consequently, in human health. However, unfortunately, there is no current regulation demanding the determination of the occurrence of these pollutants at the environment. In conclusion, investigates on the spreading configuration of these illicit drugs and their potentially harmful impact on our environment needs immediate attention and regulatory limits.
    Keywords: Wastewater-Based Epidemiology, Drug consumption, Occurrence, Illicit drug
  • Uchechi Onyedikachi *, Chuka Belonwu, Mattew Wegwu, Emmanuel Ejiofor, Mattew Awah Pages 203-216
    This study investigated the cancer risk exposure of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Soils from industrial areas in South Eastern States of Nigeria. PAHs concentrations in soil samples from study sites ranged from below the limits of detection (0.01±0.00) in Ishiagu to 2.67±0.02 in Akwuuru. Total PAHs (∑PAHS) concentrations in most crop samples had values 13, 9.55, 22.12 <0.01, 5.85 Mg/kg for Abia, Imo, Anambra, Ebonyi and Enugu Soils respectively. The diagnostic ratios indicated both pyrolytic and petrogenic sources of pollution suggesting that there is no point source of pollution in the industrialized areas. The secondary evaluation on carcinogenic PAHs in soil for Akwuuru and Osisioma showed significant dominance above other soils analyzed for the different states. Estimated daily intake of PAHs in soils was within the interval of 2.54819E-06mg/kg/body to 8.57844E-05 mg/kg/body (Adults) and 2.67993E-06 mg/kg/body to 9.02193E-05 mg/kg/body for children. The summation of the Incremental Life Time Cancer Risk for Oral, Inhalation and Dermal routes for Soils fell at the upper limit of the tolerable range(10-6-10-4).Values were: 4.40E-04, 2.69E-05,9.07E-4, BDL and 2.37 E04 and 4.25E-04,2.60E-05,8.70E-04, BDL, 2.29E-04 for Adults and Children in Abia, Imo, Anambra, Ebonyi and Enugu Soils respectively. These values do not indicate carcinogenic risk due to PAHs although levels of PAHs in children were higher than in Adults suggesting that children are at greater risk compared to adults since they have a longer period of exposure.
    Keywords: Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Diagnostic ratios, Incremental life time cancer risk (ILCR), South East (Nigeria)
  • Leila Mousavi *, Wan Rosli Wan Ishak, Mohammad Mousavi Pages 217-224
    Datura stramonium L. broadly performed in plant virology study has a significant seed germination difficulty due to its seed dormancy. This study was evaluated to find a simple seedling germination method intended for D. stramonium seeds as a traditional healthy detector plant. A factorial experiment organized as completely randomized design (CRD) in triplicate, determining results regarding seedling scarification, gibberellins (GA3) along with potassium nitrate (KNO3) at different concentrations from 0 to 2000 ppm. The particular germination rate along with radicle and plumule length scarified seed had been significantly affected using concentrations of GA3 as well as KNO3. After five days of treatment, radicle and plumule length and the percentage of germination were recorded, uncovering the real key function involving mechanical seed scarification method as being a requirement for germination of D. stramonium. The highest germination rate occurred at a concentration of 100 ppm GA3 and 500 ppm for KNO3 (63%).
    Keywords: Datura stramonium, scarification method, GA3, KNO3
  • Seyed Kamal Rajabi *, Shabnam Sohrabnezhad Pages 225-234
    In this work, Magnetic Fe3O4@MCM-41/CuO nanocomposite was preparation of iron oxide magnetite nanoparticles and development of MCM-41 mesoporous shells on the surface of iron oxide magnetite after Fe3O4@MCM-41 was organofunctionalized and finally formation CuO shells with thickness ~ 25-30 nm in the surface of Fe3O4@MCM-41-NH2 core-shell. The properties of prepared magnetic core-shell were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption–desorption measurement and vibration sample magnetometer (VSM). The applicability of the synthesized core-shell was tested as an antimicrobial agent against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. It was showed that the Fe3O4@MCM-41@CuO act as an ideal antimicrobial agent in compared with that of the pure copper oxide and Fe3O4@CuO.
    Keywords: Mesoporous core-shell, Post-synthesis, Magnetite, Antimicrobial agent i
  • Sara Moosazad, Peyman Ghajarbeigi, Razzagh Mahmoudi *, Saeed Shahsavari, Roghayeh Vahidi, Ali Soltani Pages 235-243
    Due to the abundance and cheapness of red onion skin scrubs and its high consumption in Iran, we decided to evaluate its antioxidant and antimicrobial properties as a natural source of anthocyanin. The onion skin was collected from the Qazvin local market. Extraction was carried out using water and glycerol. The total anthocyanin concentration was determined by pH-differential method. MICand MBC were determined using microdilution method and diameter of the bacteria inhibition zone by disc diffusion method on extracted color from Onion skin against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli strains. The antioxidant activity was determined by measuring the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH) and total phenol content by the Folin Ciocalteu.  The mean total anthocyanin concentration at 40°C was (60.67, 8.4) mg/g. The highest and the lowest mean diameter of the non-growth zones of the extracted colorant in Staphylococcus aureus was 0/83±0/14 and 0/4±0/17 and in the E. coli 0/9±0/22 and 0/5±0/20 respectively. Inhibitory concentration of 50% (IC50) in the extracted colorant was obtained at 14/718±0/20 mg / ml. The total phenolic content was obtained as an average of 114.326±2/36 mg/g of gallic acid per gram of onion powder. According to the results of the study and the high consumption of onions in various types of household foods and as a result of increasing their waste, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties, in addition to coloring, can be used as a cheap dye source in various food industries.
    Keywords: Red onion Skin, Natural Colorant, Antioxidant, Antibiotics, Antimicrobial
  • Mohammad Mehdi Marvizadeh *, Neda Akbari Pages 245-251
    The effect of rice bran (RB) on the physicochemical properties such as fat content, pH, moisture content, color evaluation (L*, a*, b* values), and cooking loss of hamburger was investigated. To this purpose, four groups were processed: a control group and three treatment groups containing 2%, 3%, and 4% RB. The addition of 4% RB to hamburgers decreased the fat content by 25%. The highest rate of cooking loss (P<0.05) was observed in the control group. Chemical tests indicated that hamburgers with RB increased moisture content of samples. Proximate test indicated that the greatest pH in a hamburgerwas achieved when 4% RB is added. The values of L* in low-fat hamburger (LFH) were decreased using RB replacer. Therefore, healthier hamburger can be manufactured by RB as fat replacer without product's quality loss.
    Keywords: Cooking loss, Fat replacer, Low-fat, Rice bran (RB)
  • Nafiseh Yaghobi, Leila Hajiaghababaei *, Alireza Badiei, Mohammad Reza Ganjali, Ghodsi Mohammadi Ziarani Pages 253-261
    In this study, Bis (2-hydroxyethyl)amine functionalized mesoporous SBA-15 was synthesized for utilization in amoxicillin drug-delivery. Amoxicillin could absorb on the prepared functionalized SBA-15.  A solution of amoxicillin in a suitable solvent was used for this purpose. Amoxicillin molecules release from the matrix into a simulated body fluid (SBF) solution, and phosphate buffers were studied. UV-Vis spectrophotometric method was chosen for amoxicillin determination. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), nitrogen adsorption–desorption, and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique were applied for characterization of the synthesized materials. The best loading of amoxicillin was done at pH 8.5 after stirring for 30 minutes. The results showed that, at lower pH, releasing of the drug was done faster than it at higher pH. Also, the average release rate of amoxicillin in the body fluid samples that were simulated was about 7 µg h-1. A highly slow release pattern was observed. The proposed material can be used for enhancing the medical impact of amoxicillin and carrying amoxicillin.
    Keywords: Bis (2- hydroxy ethyl) amine functionalized mesoporous SBA-15, Amoxicillin, Controlled release, Drug delivery