فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:12 Issue:10, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/08/13
  • تعداد عناوین: 6
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  • Narges Ghazi, Ala Ghazi *, Amir Houshang Ansari, Mohammad Solati Page 1
    Context

    Epithelial carcinogenesis is a multistep process. Transmission from normal oral epithelium to oral dysplasia and cancer is believed to result from several genetic alterations. Despite recent advances in the treatment approaches over the last decades, the mortality and morbidity rate of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has not been markedly improved. A small subset of cells, cancer stem cells (CSCs) with self-renewal properties, is a major focus of the current research. Here, we present a review of CSCs and their role in oral premalignant and malignant lesions, offering an insight into the stem cell markers, their putative role, and the means of targeting them in treatments.
    Evidence Acquisition: Using the main keywords of “cancer stem cell”, “oral squamous cell carcinoma”, and “cancer stem cell marker”, a comprehensive search was done among several research databases.

    Results

    Accumulating evidence supports the existence of CSCs as small subpopulations in OSCC, which are associated with tumor progression and therapy resistance. A number of cell surface markers have been used to identify these cells by various studies. Therefore, identifying a reliable CSC marker that is associated with OSCC seems to be necessary.

    Conclusions

    The identification of the mechanisms underlying oral cancer initiation and progression is of the utmost importance. CSC markers that could act as a therapeutic target could play an important role in the effective treatment strategies of OSCC.

    Keywords: Oral, Cancer Stem Cells, Squamous Cell Carcinoma
  • Majid Rezaei, Mostafa Rezaei, , Mona Zamanian * Page 2
    Background

    Thyroid cancer is the most malignant type of endocrine tumor. The molecular investigation of applied treatments for this type of neoplasm could provide a better understanding of their mechanisms of action.

    Objectives

    Here, the differentially expressed proteins from a 2D gel-based proteomics of thyroid cancer cells treated by retinoic acid (RA) were considered for protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analysis.

    Methods

    Eight proteins related to the thyroid cancer cell line (FTC-133) treated with RA were extracted from an investigation by Trojanowicz et al. The query proteins and 50 neighbors were interacted by Cytoscape software via the STRING database. The network was analyzed, and hub-bottlenecks were identified. GeneMANIA determined the relationship between hub-bottlenecks. Protein complex analysis was done via MCODE. ClueGO + CluePedia was used to analyze gene ontology enrichment for hub-bottlenecks, differentially expressed hub-bottlenecks and the central cluster of the constructed network.

    Results

    GAPDH, ENO1, and PKM proteins as hub-bottleneck and PDHB as the seed protein of the main protein complex were introduced as central proteins. However, the query proteins were not included oncogenic proteins, several oncogene genes such as MYC, STAT3, and AKT1among neighbor proteins were connected to the query proteins. The Glycolytic process through fructose-6- phosphate was the leading group of biological processes that were related to the central proteins.

    Conclusions

    It can be concluded that retinoic acid suppressed the activated glycolysis in thyroid cancer cells. The finding can be useful in the follow-up of patients. Additionally, RA regulates many oncogenes that act as a regulator of the determined central proteins

    Keywords: Proteomic Analysis, Protein-Protein Interaction Network, Retinoic Acid Therapy, Thyroid Cancer
  • Elham Davtalab, Khairollah Asadollahi, Ali Delpisheh, Kourosh Sayehmiri, Hosein Azizi* Page 3
    Background

    Among Middle East countries, the prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) dramatically increased in Iran. Very few evidence-based studies have been performed on the relationship between metabolic disorders and colorectal cancer (CRC) in developing countries at least in Iran.

    Objectives

    This case-control study aimed to determine the relationship between MetS and CRC risk.

    Methods

    A case-control study with 414 participants (207 cases and 207 controls) was conducted among referral hospitals (Imam Reza, Shahid Madani, and Sina) in Tabriz, Azerbaijan province, Iran. Cases with CRC confirmed by positive pathology and colonoscopy findings were selected and compared with the controls without neoplastic and chronic diseases at the same time and hospitals for the cases. Group matching was used based on sex and age variables for the case and control groups. MetS was defined by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. Multiple logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios for the association between MetS and odds of CRC.

    Results

    Out of 414 participants, 220 (53%) were men. Among the cases, 134 (64.73%) patients had MetS, while in the control group, 82 individuals (39.61) had MetS history. After adjusting for the confounders, MetS and DM history were significantly associated with elevated odds of CRC (OR: 2.79, %95 CI: 1.58 - 5.15, P = 0.001) and (OR: 2.57, %95 CI: 1.25 - 4.58, P = 0.006), respectively. We have observed also a dose-response relation and a trend between the components of MetS and CRC risk. So, the odds of CRC increased by rising numbers of MetS components.

    Conclusions

    It seems that MetS and its components are associated with an increased risk of CRC

    Keywords: Colorectal Cancer, Metabolic Syndrome, Type 2 Diabetes, Case-Control Study
  • Tahereh Ashrafganjoei, *, Atieh Bahman**, Maryam Sadat Hosseini, Maliheh Arab, Farah Farzaneh, Atefeh Moridi, Nafiseh Faghih, Somayeh Sohrabi Page 4
    Background

    Although endometrial cancer is not ranked among the ten most common cancer types in Iran, it is the 12th most prevalent in women and the third most common cancer of the female genital tract after breast and ovarian cancer. The mortality rate of endometrial cancer in Iran is 0.6 in 100,000 persons. Several studies have evaluated the correlation of preoperative CA125 in endometrial cancer with several surgicopathologic and prognostic variables, disease recurrence, and the need for lymphadenectomy. Recent data have suggested adjuvant extrafascial hysterectomy after neoadjuvant therapy instead of the initial radical hysterectomy for locally advanced disease. Therefore, it would be helpful to use a preoperative assessment, including serum CA125 measurement to predict the extent of the disease and plan a less complicated therapy.

    Objectives

    To evaluate the cut-off value of CA125 in parametrial and cervical stromal invasion of endometrioid endometrial cancer.

    Methods

    A sample of 128 endometrial cancer cases, surgically staged from 2012 to 2018 in Imam Hossein Hospital were evaluated. According to the exclusion criteria, 82 cases were finally analyzed. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to determine the cut-off value of preoperative CA125 for parametrial and cervical stromal involvement.

    Results

    A high preoperative CA125 level was significantly associated with advanced disease stage, cervical stromal invasion, pelvic lymph node metastases, and higher grade (P < 0.05); the test showed a marginally significant correlation for parametrial invasion, which may be due to sample size limitation (P = 0.058). However, the correlation between CA125 and myometrial/lymphovascular invasions were not statistically significant (P = 0.112 and P = 0.168, respectively). The optimal cut-off value for preoperative CA125 was 45.5 u/mL in parametrial invasion (100% sensitivity, 89% specificity, 33.3% positive predictive value, and 100% negative predictive value), and 41.9 u/mL for cervical stromal invasion (87.5% sensitivity, 87.8% specificity, 43.75% positive predictive value, and 98.48% negative predictive value).

    Conclusions

    Primary radical surgery may not be the first treatment approach in cervical/parametrial involvement. Neoadjuvant (chemo)radiotherapy and adjuvant extrafascial hysterectomy could be an alternative approach with fewer complications. Using preoperative CA125 along with physical examination and imaging modalities would be helpful in this regard. More investigations are needed to assess an agreed cut-off value for preoperative CA125 and endometrial cancer extension.

    Keywords: CA-125 Antigen, Preoperative Care, ROC Curve, Carcinoma Endometrioid, Hysterectomy
  • Azadeh Nasehi, Hojjat Allah Abbaszadeh, Navid Ahmady Roozbahany, Maryam Sadat Khoramgah, Foozhan Tahmasebinia Ali Asghar Payvandi *, Shahrokh Khoshsirat** Page 5
    Background

    Thyroid gland involvement and invasion during larynx and hypopharynx cancers is rare, but due to the anatomical closeness of the thyroid gland and the larynx, it could occur through local invasion. Thyroidectomy is usually performed in patients with thyroid gland involvement having larynx and hypopharyngeal cancers. A lot of controversies exist regarding the thyroid gland involvement and efficiency of a different kind of thyroidectomy intraoperatively in these types of cancers.

    Objectives

    Thus, elucidating the exact role of thyroidectomy, its efficiency, and parameters associated with thyroid gland involvement is critical in treating the patients with the larynx and hypopharyngeal cancers.

    Methods

    In this retrospective study, the medical records of 117 patients admitted to Loghman Hakim Hospital from 2001 to 2015 with laryngeal and hypopharyngeal carcinoma, who underwent laryngectomy with or without thyroidectomy as a primary treatment of cancer, were evaluated. Several parameters, including gender, prevalence, location of the thyroid gland and lymph node involvement, the exact type of malignancy, differentiation stage of the tumor cells, the exact method of thyroidectomy, thyroid function, and its post-surgical cancer recurrence were assessed.

    Results

    The prevalence of laryngeal cancers was significantly higher in males than females and most of the malignancies were squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The location of the malignancy was mostly at supraglottis, glottis, transglottis, and subglottis, respectively. The rate of thyroid gland involvement was approximately 11.96%. Lobectomy was performed in 57.14 %, total thyroidectomy was performed in 35.71 %, and in 7.14% of the patients, and thyroidectomy was not performed. After the initial surgery, out of 11.96% of all patients with thyroid gland involvement, 28.5% had a recurrence of the thyroid gland. Only 21% of the patients with thyroid gland involvement had hypothyroidism after the surgery.

    Conclusions

    The rate of thyroid gland involvement in the pathology report after surgery was approximately 3.41% of the thyroid gland involvement, which is low. We concluded that thyroidectomy is a very efficient way, but it should be limited to cases of subglottic or transglobic involvement or in cases of bilateral tumors, high staging, post-cricoid involvement, and clear radiological evidence or in the event of muscle involvement

    Keywords: Larynx, Cancer, Epidemiology, Thyroid Involvement
  • Adel Zeinalpour, Mehran Noori Barmak Gholizadeh* Page 6
    Introduction

    Choledochal cyst is a rare problem, defined as congenital dilatation of the biliary tract. There are five particular categories of choledochal cysts with some sub-types. The optimal management is removal of entire extrahepatic biliary system in addition to cholecystectomy and reconstruction by Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy.

    Case Presentation

    We reported a 25 years old patient with a giant choledochal cyst. This Choledochal cyst may belong to subtype 1a plus affecting the intrapancreatic portion of common bile duct (CBD). The cyst was successfully resected without any complications.

    Conclusions

    Intraoperative finding of choledochal cyst is very important, therefore, knowledge of potential presence of this rare disease and its management with respect to anatomical variations is very important for surgeons

    Keywords: Common Bile Duct, Choledochal Cyst, Case Reports