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علوم باغبانی - سال سی و سوم شماره 2 (تابستان 1398)
  • سال سی و سوم شماره 2 (تابستان 1398)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/06/19
  • تعداد عناوین: 14
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  • حسن فرهادی، مجید عزیزی*، سیدحسین نعمتی صفحات 169-180

    تنش های محیطی به ویژه خشکی، از مهمترین عوامل کاهش رشد در مراحل رشد و نمو گیاه مخصوصا مرحله جوانه زنی گیاه می باشد. بدین منظور در این آزمایش عکس العمل هشت توده بومی شنبلیله از اصفهان، تبریز، همدان، ساری، چالوس، آمل، مشهد و یاسوج به تنش خشکی در طی مراحل جوانه زنی در سطوح خشکی صفر، 3-، 6- و 9- بار که با استفاده محلول پلی اتیلن گلایکول 6000 (PEG 6000) اعمال شده بود، در آزمایشی به صورت فاکتوریل بر پایه طرح کاملا تصادفی با سه تکرار در شرایط کنترل شده در آزمایشگاه تحصیلات تکمیلی گروه علوم باغبانی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد در سال 1393 بررسی شد. صفات مورد بررسی شامل: درصد جوانه زنی، سرعت جوانه زنی، طول ریشه چه، طول ساقه چه، وزن خشک ریشه چه، وزن خشک ساقه چه، وزن خشک گیاهچه و نسبت طول ریشه چه به ساقه چه بودند. بین کلیه توده ها و سطوح مختلف تنش برای کلیه صفات تفاوت معنی دار (01/0p≤) مشاهده گردید و اثر متقابل برای تمامی صفات به جز طول ریشه چه و طول ساقه چه معنی دار بود. توده های مختلف پاسخ های متفاوتی به خشکی نشان دادند به طوری که متحمل ترین آن‌ها توده های اصفهان، مشهد و چالوس بودند که در اکثر صفات اندازه گیری شده برتر بودند و توده های آمل و ساری در رده های بعد و توده های تبریز، همدان و یاسوج نسبت به شش توده دیگر حساسیت بیشتری به تنش خشکی نشان دادند. بر اساس نتایج پژوهش حاضر، به نظر می رسد بتوان از این سه توده برای اصلاح توده هایی با پتانسیل عملکرد زیاد در مناطق خشک استفاده کرد.

    کلیدواژگان: توده بذر، درصد جوانه زنی، سرعت جوانه زنی، کمبود آب
  • بهرام عابدی*، محمد حلیم کاظمی، محمود شور، یحیی سلاح ورزی صفحات 181-193

    کاهش ‌وزن، خسارت سرمازدگی و پوسیدگی‌های انباری همیشه به عنوان مهم‌ترین موانع بر سر راه انبارمانی و صادرات میوه‌های انار مطرح بوده‌ است. این عوامل عمدتا به علت فعالیت متابولیکی، حساسیت میوه به سرما، نفوذ و گسترش قارچ‌های ساپروفیتی یا پارازیتی به داخل میوه انار در زمان قبل از برداشت، برداشت میوه و یا پس از برداشت آن شکل می‌گیرند. در تحقیق حاضر تاثیر آب گرم با دو دمای متفاوت (25 و 50 درجه سانتی‌گراد)، همچنین استفاده و یا عدم استفاده از پوشش پلی اتیلن (LDPE) با ضخامت 20 میکرون برکیفیت انبارمانی، درصد پوسیدگی، شاخص سرمازدگی، کاهش وزن و خصوصیات بیوشیمیایی میوه انار رقم پوست نازک قندهاری مورد بررسی قرار گرفتند. بدین منظور میوه‌های انار تیمار شده به مدت 4 ماه تحت شرایط دمایی1±5 درجه سانتی گراد و رطوبت نسبی 90- 85 درصد نگهداری شدند. نتایج نشان داد که پس از 120 روز انبارمانی، اثر پوشش پلی اتیلن و تیمار آب گرم (50 درجه سانتی گراد) بر شاخص سرمازدگی، کاهش وزن، پوسیدگی و حفظ کیفیت معنی‌دار (01/0>p) بود. بیشترین درصد‌کاهش وزن، شاخص سرمازدگی و شاخص پوسیدگی به ترتیب با میانگین 37، 7/24  و 12/3 درصد در تیمار بدون پوشش و آب 25 درجه سانتی‌گراد و کمترین میزان درصد کاهش وزن و شاخص سرمازدگی در پوشش پلی اتیلن و آب 50 درجه سانتی‌گراد به ترتیب 6/1 و 2/2 مشاهده شد. تیمار با آب گرم 50 درجه سانتی‌گراد موجب کاهش میزان پوسیدگی قارچی حاصل از کاربرد پوشش پلی‌اتیلن در پایان دوره انبارمانی (4 ماه) شد. به طور کلی پوشش پلی‌اتیلن باعث حفظ رطوبت در اطراف میوه‌ها،  تیمار آب گرم باعث سفتی بافت پوست و ضدعفونی میوه‌ها گردید، در نتیجه باعث حفظ کیفیت و ماندگاری بیشتر میوه‌ها می‌گردد.

    کلیدواژگان: اسیدیته، فنل کل، کاهش وزن، میزان پوسیدگی، مواد جامد محلول
  • نادر یعقوبی اکرم، علی ایمانی، داود صادق زاده اهری* صفحات 195-205

    تولید سیب، در اقتصاد باغبانی ایران از اهمیت ویژه‌ای برخوردار است. این پژوهش با استفاده از یک آزمایش فاکتوریل بر پایه طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار به منظور بررسی اثرات پایه و محلول‌پاشی مخلوط کلرید کلسیم، نیترات کلسیم و بور بر برخی صفات کمی و کیفی سیب رقم’ استارکینگ‘ طی‌ سال زراعی 94-1393 در منطقه خرم‌دره انجام شد. عامل پایه در دو سطح (EM 9 و MM 106) و عامل غلظت محلول‌پاشی در سه سطح (صفر، 3000 و 5000 پی.پی.ام) مخلوط کلرید کلسیم، نیترات کلسیم و بور بود و درختان آزمایشی در سن 9 سالگی قرار داشتند. عملیات محلول‌پاشی در طول دوران رشد و نمو رویشی درختان و در سه نوبت به فاصله 22 روز انجام شد. نتایج نشان داد که عامل غلظت محلول‌پاشی بر عملکرد تک‌درخت، عملکرد در واحد سطح، طول و قطر شاخه‌های جدید، ارتفاع و قطر درخت، میزان افزایش سالانه قطر درخت، میزان مواد جامد محلول، اسیدیته و سفتی بافت میوه اثر معنی‌دار و بر میزان اسیدیته کل قابل تیتراسیون میوه‌ها اثر غیر معنی‌داری داشت. اثر پایه بر صفات طول رشد شاخه‌های جدید، قطر تنه درخت و میزان افزایش سالانه آن و همچنین میزان اسیدیته میوه معنی‌دار بود. اثر متقابل غلظت محلول‌پاشی× نوع پایه فقط در مورد صفت طول رشد شاخه‌های جدید معنی‌دار بود. جمع‌بندی نتایج نشان داد که محلول‌پاشی مخلوط کلرید کلسیم، نیترات کلسیم و بور با غلظت 5000 پی.پی.ام موجب بهبود خواص کمی و کیفی سیب رقم ’استارکینگ‘ بر روی پایه‌های M9 و MM106 می‌گردد.

    کلیدواژگان: اسیدیته میوه، سفتی میوه، طول رشد شاخه جدید، عملکرد تک درخت، مواد جامد محلول میوه
  • سکینه فلاح معافی، یاور شرفی*، آیت الله رضایی، محمدحسین فتوکیان صفحات 207-218

    در گیاه سیب برای میوه‌نشینی مطلوب باید دانه گرده‌ی کافی رقم سازگار به سطح کلاله منتقل و لوله‌های گرده در مادگی رشد کرده و تخمک‌ها را تلقیح نماید. بور از جمله فاکتورهای مهم رشد و نمو لوله‌های گرده می‌باشد. در این تحقیق اثر محلول‌پاشی بور در سه سطح شاهد (صفر)، 1000 و 2000 میلی‌گرم بر لیتر روی روند رشد لوله گرده در دگرگرده افشانی چهار رقم سیب شامل Fuji، Golden delicious، Red delicious و Gala در دو زمان 72 و 120 ساعت پس از تلاقی، با میکروسکوپ فلورسنت مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفت. بر اساس نتایج بدست آمده مشاهده شد که اثر هریک از فاکتورهای بور، زمان و ترکیب تلاقی بر درصد جوانه‌زنی در سطح کلاله و نفوذ لوله گرده در ابتدا، میانه‌ی خامه و ابتدای تخمدان در سطح احتمال 1% معنی‌دار بود. بیشترین درصد جوانه‌زنی (33درصد) در ترکیب تلاقی (♀Golden delicious × Gala ♂)  با تیمار 1000 میلی‌گرم بر لیتر بور در زمان 120 ساعت در سطح کلاله مشاهده شد و بیشترین نفوذ لوله گرده به قسمت ابتدایی تخمدان با 06/32درصد در ترکیب تلاقی ((♀Red delicious × Golden delicious ♂ با تیمار 1000 میلی‌گرم بر لیتر مشاهده شد. بیشترین نفوذ لوله گرده به قسمت ابتدایی تخمدان در ترکیب تلاقی (♀Red delicious × Golden delicious ♂) با 27/19درصد مشاهده شد که نشانه اثر بیشتر بور روی نفوذ لوله گرده آن‌ها همچنین، سازگاری بهتر آنها بود. گذشت زمان بیشتر در همه ترکیب تلاقی‌های تیمار شده با بور موجب افزایش درصد جوانه‌زنی و افزایش میزان نفوذ لوله‌های گرده به ابتدای تخمدان شد.  

    کلیدواژگان: اسید بوریک، تخمدان، تلاقی، درخت سیب، نفوذ لوله گرده
  • مژده اسدی، جواد هادیان*، صمد نژاد ابراهیمی، قاسم کریم زاده صفحات 219-232

    آرنیکای چامیسو با نام علمی Arnica chamissonis Less. ssp. foliosa گیاهی چندساله، ریزوم‌دار، با مصارف دارویی از خانواده آفتابگردان و بومی آمریکای شمالی و کانادا است. با توجه به نیاز این گیاه به مناطق خنک و خاک‌های با pH اسیدی و با هدف بررسی سازگاری این گیاه در ایران، تاثیر سطوح مختلف کود گوگرد بر کاهشpH  خاک و عملکرد آرنیکای چامیسو مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. آزمایش در قالب طرح بلوک کامل تصادفی با 4 تیمار شامل سطوح مختلف کود گوگرد بنتونیتی (صفر، 250، 500 و 750 کیلوگرم در هکتار) به همراه باکتری thiooxidans  Thiobacillusدر سه تکرار انجام شد. صفاتی از جمله ارتفاع، سطح مقطع بوته، تعداد گل در بوته، قطر گل‌آذین، عملکرد وزن ‌تر و خشک گل در بوته و در مترمربع، هم‌چنین محتوای فنل و فلاونوئید کل، روتین، لوتئولین و آپی جنین عصاره گل ها اندازه‌گیری شدند. نتایج این بررسی نشان داد که آرنیکای چامیسو با منطقه مورد پژوهش سازگاری داشته و می‌توان آن را در اقلیم‌های مشابه، در مقیاس وسیع کشت کرد. در گیاهان تغذیه شده با تیمار 250 کیلوگرم گوگرد در هکتار بیش‌ترین ارتفاع بوته (6/25 سانتی متر)، سطح مقطع بوته (48/25 سانتی متر)، قطر ساقه (49/3 میلی متر)، قطر گل (61/29 میلی متر)، تعداد کل گل در بوته (66/58) و عملکرد گل (67/20 گرم در بوته) نسبت به شاهد مشاهده شد. مصرف سطوح بالای گوگرد سبب کاهش صفات رشدی و عملکردی و افزایش فنل کل، فلاونوئید کل، روتین، لوتئولین و آپی جنین عصاره گل ها شد که این امر با افزایش قابل ملاحظه هدایت الکتریکی خاک همراه بود.

    کلیدواژگان: اصلاح خاک، تغذیه گیاه، سازگاری، کود گوگرد
  • نسرین قرایی مسجدی، محمدحسین ششمیری*، محمدرضا دهقانی صفحات 233-245

    این تحقیق به‌منظور بررسی تاثیر دفعات کاربرد برگی کود اوره بر پارامترهای فتوسنتزی درختان پسته رقم کله‌قوچی انجام گرفت. در این آزمایش محلول‌پاشی کود اوره به غلظت 5/0 درصد در سه مرحله مختلف رشد میوه انجام شد و اندازه‌گیری پارامتر‌های فتوسنتزی، فلورسانس کلروفیل و همچنین رنگیزه‌های کلروفیل و مجموع کارتنوئید‌ها در دو نوبت، یک روز پس از آخرین محلول‌پاشی و 10 روز پس از مرحله اول اندازه‌گیری، انجام شد. نتایج نشان داد با افزایش دفعات محلول‌پاشی اوره، شدت فتوسنتز، تعرق و هدایت روزنه ای نسبت به شاهد در هر دو زمان نمونه گیری افزایش یافت، درحالی‌که غلظت دی‌اکسید کربن زیر روزنه‌ای کاهش پیدا کرد. کاربرد سه بار محلول‌پاشی اوره سبب افزایش 20 درصدی شدت فتوسنتز نسبت به درختان شاهد گردید. با افزایش دفعات محلول‌پاشی اوره مقدار نیتروژن برگ در هر دو زمان اندازه‌گیری افزایش پیدا کرد، به طوری‌که کاربرد سه بار محلول‌پاشی اوره سبب افزایش 65 درصدی غلظت نیتروژن برگ نسبت به درختان شاهد گردید، ولی کارایی استفاده از نیتروژن فتوسنتزی کاهش یافت. شاخص های Fv/Fm و PI نیز با افزایش دفعات محلول‌پاشی اوره در هر دو زمان اندازه گیری افزایش یافت. رنگیزه های کلروفیل نیز تحت تاثیر محلول پاشی اوره قرار گرفت، به‌طوری که محلول پاشی اوره در سه مرحله به ترتیب سبب افزایش 11، 14 و 30 درصدی کلروفیل a، b و کل نسبت به تیمار شاهد گردید. به‌طور کلی نتایج نشان داد بیش‌ترین میزان فتوسنتز و پارامتر‌های مرتبط به آن در زمان دوم نمونه‌برداری و در تیمار سه بار محلول‌پاشی اوره دیده شد.

    کلیدواژگان: رنگدانه های فتوسنتزی، فتوسنتز، فلورسانس کلروفیل، نیتروژن
  • علی اکبر شکوهیان*، علی اصغری، هادی محمودی صفحات 247-256

    بررسی کاربرد اسید هیومیک بر جذب عناصر غذایی و شاخص های کمی و کیفی کیوی فروت در طی سال های 94-95 در شهرستان تالش استان گیلان در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی با 7 سطح کاربرد برگی و خاکی هیومیک اسید در غلظت های شاهد، 2، 4، 6 کیلوگرم در هکتار در چهار تکرار انجام شد. در این پژوهش شاخص های جذب عناصر غدایی (ازت، پتاسیم، فسفر، کلسیم، روی، منیزیم، منگنز، مس و آهن) و صفات کمی و کیفی میوه (عملکرد، سفتی، ویتامین ث، مواد جامد محلول میوه و سطح برگ و میزان کلروفیل برگ) مورد اندازه گیری قرار گرفتند. نتایج حاصل از تجزیه واریانس داده ها نشان داد که غلظت های مختلف اسیدهیومیک بر روی شاخص های مورد اندازه گیری به جز سفتی میوه در سطح احتمال 1 درصد از نظر آماری تاثیر معنی داری داشتند. بر اساس نتایج به دست آمده از این تحقیق، کاربرد اسیدهیومیک باعث افزایش جذب عناصر غذایی و بهبود کمی و کیفی میوه در کیوی شد. مقایسه میانگین داده ها نشان داد که بیشترین مقدار در شاخص های جذب عناصر غدایی ازت، فسفر و کلسیم از تیمار 4 کیلوگرم و عناصر پتاسیم، منگنز و آهن از تیمار 6 کیلوگرم و عنصر منیزیم در تیمار 2 کیلوگرم در هکتار اسیدهیومیک بصورت مصرف خاکی حاصل شد. بررسی داده‌ها نشان داد که عناصر روی و مس در تیمار محلول‌پاشی با اسیدهیومیک به مقدار 2 و 4 کیلوگرم جذب بیشتری داشته اند. بر اساس نتایج به دست آمده غلظت چهار کیلوگرم در هکتار اسیدهیومیک با روش کاربرد خاکی و برگی بیش ترین اثر را برروی شاخص های کمی و کیفی میوه کیوی داشتند.

    کلیدواژگان: آهن، ازت، پتاسیم، عملکرد، مواد جامد محلول
  • فرشته کامیاب*، حمید محمدی صفحات 257-272

    گل نرگس یکی از مهمترین گیاهان زینتی در دنیا می باشد. یکی از مهمترین مشکلات در تولید گیاهان زینتی، کمبود عناصر کم مصرف می باشد که در بیشتر خاک‌های قلیایی مناطق ایران وجود دارد. مس و آهن به عنوان عناصر کم مصرف ضروری برای رشد و نمو طبیعی گیاه در بسیاری از واکنش‌های فیزیولوژیکی دخالت دارند. جهت بررسی اثر نانوکلات های آهن و مس بر برخی صفات مرفولوژیکی و فیزیولوژیکی گل نرگس رقم جونکی، آزمایشی به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب بلوک های کامل تصادفی با دو فاکتور نانو کلات آهن در 4 سطح (صفر، 1، 2 و 3) گرم در لیتر و نانو کلات مس در 3 سطح (صفر، 1 و 2) گرم در لیتر در 3 تکرار اجرا شد. پیاز های کشت شده درمحدوده وزنی 8-10 گرم در تاریخ 25 شهریور کشت شدند. کودها از شرکت نانو پژوهش تهیه شدند و محلولپاشی هر یک از این کودها به صورت جداگانه در سه مرحله انجام گرفت. مرحله اول آبان ماه زمانی که پیازها دارای سه برگ بودند و مرحله دوم دی ماه حدود یک هفته قبل از گلدهی و مرحله سوم بعد ازگلدهی به فواصل 45 روز یکبار صورت گرفت. صفات مختلف ارتفاع بوته، تعداد، طول و عرض برگ، وزن و قطر پیاز، تعداد، قطر و وزن پیازچه ها، ارتفاع و قطر ساقه گل، تعداد، قطر و وزن تر و خشک گلچه، عمر گلجای و میزان غلظت مس، آهن، کلروفیل، مواد جامد محلول و پروتئین در برگ اندازه گیری شدند. نتایج آزمایش نشان داد که میزان غلظت آهن و مس با افزایش غلظت کاربرد این میکروالمنت ها در برگ افزایش یافت که نشان دهنده جذب بالای این کود نانو از طریق برگ می باشد. مصرف آهن 2 گرم درلیتر و مس 5/0 گرم در لیتر بیشترین میزان رشد رویشی از جمله افزایش اندازه بوته، برگ، پیاز و پیازچه شد و دلیل اصلی این افزایش رشد جبران کمبود جذب عناصر کم مصرف در خاک قلیایی می باشد که با محلولپاشی از طریق برگ جبران شده است و مکانیسم ها و فرایند هایی که آهن و مس در انجام آنها دخالت داشته بهتر صورت گرفته اند. رشد زایشی مثل ارتفاع و قطر ساقه گل، تعداد، قطر و وزن تر و خشک گلچه و عمر گلجای نیز با کاربرد این نانو کود بهبود یافت که تاثیر مس بر کاهش اثرات مضر استرس در مطالعات متعدد ذکر شده است. همچنین این تیمار باعث بیشترین میزان پروتئین، کلرو وفیل و مواد جامد محلول در برگ‌های گل نرگس شد که افزایش کلروفیل و پروتئین می تواند به علت نقش اصلی آهن در ساخت کلروفیل و فعال کردن آنزیم نیترات ردوکتاز باشد. مس نیز نقش موثری در تولید تعداد زیادی آنزیم ها دارد که عملکردهای متابولیکی متفاوت را به عهده دارند. بنابراین نتایج این آزمایش جذب موثر این نانوکلات از طریق برگ را نشان داده و این نکته قابل توجه است که غلظت بالای مصرف این کود می تواند اثر منفی بر رشد داشته و باید در میزان مصرف دقت شود و محلولپاشی نانو کلات های آهن 2 در هزار توام با مس 5/0 در هزار برای بهبود رشد رویشی و زایشی گیاه نرگس مخصوصا در خاک‌های قلیایی توصیه می شود.

    کلیدواژگان: پیاز، پیازچه، خاک قلیایی، عمر پس ازبرداشت، عناصر کم مصرف
  • زهرا حسن زاده، حمید حسن پور* صفحات 273-285

    سنجد (Elaeagnus angustifolia L.) یکی از میوه های با ارزشی است که به صورت خودرو در مناطق مختلف ایران رشد می یابد. ارزیابی خصوصیات میوه و بذر می تواند در انتخاب ژنوتیپ برتر جهت کشت در سطح تجاری مفید واقع شود. در این پژوهش خصوصیات فیزیکی میوه و بذر از قبیل وزن، طول و عرض میوه و بذر، پارامترهای رنگ میوه 38 ژنوتیپ سنجد در استان های آذربایجان‌شرقی و غربی مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. نتایج حاصله نشان داد که تنوع بالایی در برخی از صفات مانند عرض برگ، نسبت طول به عرض برگ و وزن گوشت وجود دارد. صفت طول برگ همبستگی مثبت با صفاتی از قبیل عرض برگ، نسبت طول به عرض میوه، طول بذر و نسبت طول به عرض بذر دارد ولی با درصد کرویت همبستگی منفی دارد. براساس نتایج تجزیه به عامل‌ها، هشت عامل اصلی بیش از 92/85 درصد از واریانس کل را توجیه نمودند. همچنین بنا بر نتایج تجزیه‌ای خوشه‌ای، ژنوتیپ ها در دو گروه اصلی قرار گرفتند. ژنوتیپ های موجود در گروه اول بیشترین میانگین صفات وزن، طول و عرض میوه و بذر را داشتند و در تفکیک ژنوتیپ های گروه دوم نیز صفات مرتبط به رنگ از قبیل L*،a*،b*، Hue و Chroma بیشترین نقش را داشتند. از میان ژنوتیپ های بررسی شده، ژنوتیپ U11 را می توان بر اساس داشتن بزرگترین میوه به عنوان ذخایر توارثی ارزشمند در برنامه های اصلاحی آینده سنجد، معرفی رقم و کشت آن در نظر گرفت.

    کلیدواژگان: تنوع، تجزیه خوشه ای، سنجد، وزن میوه، همبستگی صفات
  • عیسی کرامتلو، سعید نواب پور*، خلیل زینلی نژاد، الهه توکل، سید مهدی حسینی مزینانی صفحات 287-299

    دمای پایین از تنش‌های عمده غیر زیستی است که سبب آسیب فراوان به درختان میوه می شود. آسیب سرما به درختان همیشه سبز مانند زیتون، بیشتر از بقیه گیاهان است. به علت همیشه سبز بودن زیتون، تنش سرما اغلب در اواخر پاییز، زمستان و اوایل فصل بهار علاوه بر خسارت به محصول زیتون، در رقم های روغنی دیررس، باعث خشکیدگی شاخساره سال جاری و شاخه های چند ساله می شود. این مطالعه در سال 1395 و 1396 با هدف ارزیابی خسارت یخ زدگی از دیدگاه باغبانی و شناسایی تک درختان متحمل به تنش یخ زدگی زودرس پاییزه پس از وقوع یخبندان آذر ماه 1395در باغات زیتون شرق استان گلستان انجام شد. علائم تنش یخ زدگی در درختان زیتون با توجه به نوع رقم و ژنوتیپ، شامل خشکیدگی و ریزش برگ، ترکیدگی شاخه های یک تا چند ساله، تیرگی رنگ پوست و چوب، خروج محتویات میوه و تغییر رنگ میوه بلافاصله بعد از تنش یخ زدگی تا هفت ماه بعد از تنش مطالعه شد. در ابتدا 218 تک درخت زیتون که نسبت به سرما از خود تحمل نشان داده بودند شناسایی و مجددا یک ماه، چهار ماه و هفت ماه بعد از تنش مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفتند. در نهایت، تعداد 58 اصله درخت زیتون متحمل به سرما در باغات مختلف شناسایی و از نظر صفات مکانی، عملکردی و مورفولوژیک بررسی شدند. برخی از این درختان در مناطق مختلف، الگوهای رفتاری مشابهی نسبت به تنش یخ زدگی نشان دادند و با تحقیقات تکمیلی می توان امیدوار بود از بین درختان شناسایی شده، ارقام متحمل به سرما با عملکرد قابل قبول معرفی گردد.

    کلیدواژگان: تنش غیر زیستی، تراکم کانوپی، سرمای زودرس، عادت رشد
  • بهرام بهزادی*، علی راحمی کاریزکی صفحات 301-310

    به‎منظور تعیین مناسب‎ترین تاریخ انتقال نشاء و رقم گوجه‎فرنگی، آزمایشی به مدت دو سال در ایستگاه تحقیقات برازجان در سال‎های زراعی 89-1388 و 90-1389 به‎صورت اسپلیت پلات در قالب طرح بلوک‎های کامل تصادفی با تیمارهای تاریخ انتقال نشاء در چهار سطح (15 شهریور، 5 مهر، 25 مهر و 15 آبان) در کرت اصلی و تیمار رقم در چهار سطح شامل ارقام پتوپراید‎2، پتوارلی سی اچ، کالجی‎N3 و کیمیا در کرت فرعی درچهار تکرار اجرا شد. صفات مورد بررسی شامل عملکرد کل، تعداد میوه در بوته، وزن میوه، عملکرد تک بوته، طول و قطر میوه، اسیدیته و درصد مواد جامد محلول بودند. پس از برداشت میوه در هر چین، صفات عملکرد میوه، تعداد میوه در بوته، وزن میوه، عملکرد تک بوته اندازه‌گیری شد. برای تعیین طول و قطر میوه، اسیدیته و مواد جامد محلول از هر کرت آزمایش، 10 میوه به‌طور تصادفی انتخاب شد. نتایج حاصل از آزمایش نشان داد که اثر متقابل تاریخ انتقال نشاء با رقم بر صفات عملکرد میوه، عملکرد تک بوته، تعداد میوه در بوته، وزن میوه و قطر میوه در سطح یک درصد معنی دار بود. اثر سال بر عملکرد و اجزاء عملکرد معنی‎دار بود. در سال اول بیشترین مقدار عملکرد کل و عملکرد تک بوته ازتاریخ کاشت 15 شهریور و رقم پتوپراید 2 و کمترین عملکرد از تاریخ کاشت آخر (15 آبان) و رقم کیمیا به دست آمد. در سال دوم بیشترین مقدار عملکرد کل و تک بوته از تاریخ کاشت دوم (5 مهر) و رقم کیمیا و کمترین مقدار از تاریخ کاشت 15 آبان و رقم پتو ارلی سی اچ به‎دست آمد.

    کلیدواژگان: طول میوه، قطر میوه، کرتهای یک بار خرد شده، مواد جامد محلول
  • مهدی قسمتی*، فرید مرادی نژاد صفحات 311-322

    آلبالو یکی از محصولات مهم و استراتژیک در منطقه خراسان رضوی است که تغذیه مناسب این گیاه می تواند سبب بهبود عملکرد گردد. در این پژوهش تاثیر محلول پاشی سه سطح کلات آهن و سولفات روی (صفر، 2 و 4 گرم در لیتر) به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی بر برخی از ویژگی های کمی و کیفی میوه آلبالو شامل وزن تازه میوه، درصد ماده خشک، عملکرد، مواد جامد محلول، اسیدیته، آنتی اکسیدان کل میوه و کلروفیل a، b و کل، و غلظت آهن و روی در برگ مورد مطالعه قرار گرفت. نتایج نشان داد سطوح مختلف کلات آهن، سولفات روی و اثر متقابل آن ها سبب افزایش وزن تازه میوه، درصد ماده خشک، عملکرد میوه و صفات کلروفیل گردید بطوریکه سطوح 4 گرم در لیتر از کلات آهن موجب افزایش معنی‌دار در میزان وزن تر، عملکرد و کلروفیل ، 4 گرم در لیتر از سولفات روی موجب افزایش معنی‌دار در میزان وزن تر و ماده خشک ، همچنین اثر متقابل این دو تیمار باعث افزایش میزان عملکرد شد. علاوه بر آن مقدار مواد جامد محلول، آنتی اکسیدان کل و غلظت آهن برگ نیز فقط تحت تاثیر سطوح مختلف کلات آهن قرار گرفت که با افزایش سطوح محلول پاشی صفات مورد مطالعه بهبود یافتند. محلول پاشی با سولفات روی توانست غلظت روی در برگ را افزایش دهد اما اسیدیته آب میوه تحت تاثیر هیچ یک از تیمارها قرار نگرفت. نتایج نشان داد که سطوح مختلف سولفات روی در تمامی صفات کمی میوه آلبالو، نسبت به کلات آهن اثر بهتری داشته است هرچند این مقدار تفاوت چشمگیری نسبت به تیمار کلات آهن نداشت. محلول پاشی با کلات آهن تاثیر معنی داری بر صفات کیفی میوه از جمله مواد جامد محلول و آنتی اکسیدان کل داشت علاوه بر این مصرف همزمان کلات آهن و سولفات روی نسبت به مصرف جداگانه آن ها اثر بهتری بر صفات کمی و کلروفیل برگ درخت آلبالو داشت بطوری‌که بهترین نتیجه از تیمار 4 گرم در لیتر کلات آهن به همراه 4 گرم در لیتر سولفات روی حاصل شد.

    کلیدواژگان: آنتی اکسیدان، درصد ماده خشک، عملکرد، کلروفیل، مواد جامد محلول
  • حمیدرضا ذبیحی*، سعید رضائیان صفحات 323-333

    انار از محصولات مهم باغبانی است که در نواحی نیمه گرمسیری و حواشی کویر ایران کشت می‌شود. به منظور بررسی اثر محلولپاشی سولفات آهن و سولفات روی بر کاهش عارضه دانه سفیدی رنگ دانه انار رقم ’شیشه کپ‘ آزمایشی به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار اجرا گردید. تیمارهای طرح شامل: عامل اول محلولپاشی سولفات آهن (صفر، 3، 6 درهزار) و عامل دوم محلولپاشی سولفات روی (صفر، 3، 6 درهزار) بود. نتایج نشان داد که محلول پاشی، غلظت عناصر را به طور معنی داری (در سطح 1 درصد) در برگ انار افزایش داد. بیشترین غلظت هر دو عنصر در برگ از سطوح محلول‌پاشی شش در هزار به دست آمد. اثر متقابل تیمارهای آهن و روی بر غلظت آهن در برگ انار نیز در سطح 1 درصد معنی دار بود و بیشترین غلظت آهن در برگ از تیمار توام محلول پاشی سولفات روی و سولفات آهن در غلظت 6 در هزار (7/257 میلی گرم بر کیلوگرم) بدست آمد. اثر خالص محلولپاشی سولفات آهن بر غلظت آهن در آب انار معنی‌دار نبود، اما اثر خالص محلول‌پاشی با سولفات روی باعث افزایش غلظت روی در آب انار (78/0 میلی گرم بر کیلوگرم) شد. رنگ دانه انار در تیمارهای شش درهزار سولفات روی تنها و تیمار توام سه در هزار سولفات روی بعلاوه سه در هزار سولفات آهن قرمزتر بود. لذا محلولپاشی سولفات روی و سولفات آهن با غلظت سه در هزار برای کاهش عارضه سفیدی دانه توصیه می‌شود.

    کلیدواژگان: کیفیت میوه، عناصر ریز مغذی، تغذیه
  • زهرا کریمیان*، نسیم زرین صفحات 335-348

    در سال‌های اخیر کاشت گیاهان پیازی گل‌دار مانند لاله در ایام نوروز در بسیاری از شهرهای ایران متداول شده است. انتخاب و سفارش این پیازها غالبا بر اساس اولویت‌های زیباشناختی و عوامل مربوط به گلدهی صورت می‌گیرد. به منظور تخمین مهمترین صفات زینتی و همچنین مطالعه گلدهی چند رقم گل لاله کشت شده در فضای سبز شهر مشهد دو مطالعه صورت گرفت. در مطالعه اول اثر ابعاد پیاز در 6 رقم لاله وارداتی بر ویژگی‌های زینتی این گل و در آزمایش دوم زمان و طول دوره گلدهی 23 رقم لاله وارداتی در ایام نوروز سال 1397 مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. در مطالعه مربوط به پیش‌بینی صفات زینتی 6 کرت به ابعاد 5 مترمربع در محوطه باغ گل‌ها و در مطالعه گلدهی، 15 کرت با مساحت 20 مترمربع در نقاط مختلف شهر مشهد جهت داده‌برداری انتخاب شدند. در مطالعه پیش‌بینی صفات زینتی، صفات وزن و قطر پیازها قبل از کشت اندازه‌گیری شدند و سپس این ابعاد با صفات طول ساقه گلدهنده و طول و عرض گل از نظر میزان هبستگی مورد بررسی قرار گرفتند. در مطالعه مربوط به گلدهی، صفات زمان گلدهی و طول مدت گلدهی داده برداری شدند. نتایج این مطالعه نشان داد که میزان همبستگی بالایی بین وزن پیاز و طول ساقه گلدهنده در اکثر ارقام وجود داشت (R2=0.88) اما این همبستگی بین وزن و قطر پیازها و طول و عرض گل پایین بود. با توجه به زمان آغاز و طول دوره گلدهی در 23 رقم مورد مطالعه، مناسب‌ترین و قابل توصیه‌ترین ارقام جهت کشت طی تعطیلات نوروز شامل Appricot fox, Pretty lady, Happy generation و Yokohama می‌باشند.

    کلیدواژگان: ارقام لاله، فضای سبز، مدت گلدهی، همبستگی صفات
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  • H. Farhadi, M. Azizi*, S. H. Nemati Pages 169-180
    Introduction

    Drought is an event that happens due to lack of rainfall in a period of time. The occurrence of drought, reduces available soil water, but water losses through evaporation and transpiration is constantly increasing. The first stage of the plant, which may be faced with drought, is germinating. Since Germination begins with water uptake, lack of water at this stage in terms of duration and intensity of the stress causes or reduce germination percentage and germination rate. Because of the heterogeneity of soils in the field and lack of control of the environmental factors such as drought, laboratory research on the stress is considered. Some of these methods can be used to study the reaction of the landraces to the solutions from materials polyethylene glycol. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics of the native population of fenugreek germinating rate under drought stress conditions and identify landrace was incurred.

    Materials and Methods

    To investigate the effect of drought stress on germination and seedling growth characteristics of native landrace fenugreek, an experiment was conducted in a Completely Randomized Design with three replications in Seed Laboratory of University of Mashhad in 2014. The experiment treatments consisted of eight landraces of fenugreek of Esfahan, Tabriz, Hamedan, Sari, Challous, Amol, Mashhad and Yassooj on polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG 6000) at four levels: (0, 3, 6 and 9 Bar) were replicated three times. The stress test for the simulation of polyethylene glycol 6000 was used and the amount of material needed to create each of the stress levels using the formula Michel and Kaufmann respectively. For control treatment distilled water was used. Landraces seed of fenugreek of Esfahan, Tabriz, Hamedan, Sari, Challous, Amol, Mashhad and Yassooj purchased. Before the start of the experiment, the seeds disinfest with a three percent solution of hypochlorite for two minutes to disinfect and then were washed three times with distilled water on the twelfth day, seeds and traits such as root length and root out the Petri measure.

    Results and Discussion

    In the study the interactions between landrace and drought, the rate of decline in most of the traits was related to native populations of fenugreek, Tabriz, Hamadan, Sari, Challous, Amol, Yasuj and Mashhad, respectively (-9 Bar) compared to control (0 Bar). As can be seen, the Isfahan landrace was more stable in most of the traits due to changes in drought levels. On the other hand, as the drought stress increased, the percentage and rate of germination of fenugreek seeds decreased. Fenugreek seed germination rate and percentage with increased drought stress the germination rate under drought stress signifcantly was higher than the percentage of germinating. The plants grow in different stages react differently to drought show seed germination and seedling production and a dry condition indicates that the plant is a potential for drought tolerance but that does not mean that the seedlings start to grow in dry conditions, can continue to grow in the same conditions.

    Keywords: Seed landrace, Germination percentage, Germination rate, Water limitation
  • B. Abedy*, M.H. Kazem, M. Shoor, Y. Selahvarzi Pages 181-193
    Introduction

    Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is an important fruit crop of the world which native to Iran and Afghanistan. Pomegranate is produced throughout the Afghanistan. However, the most pomegranate orchard is in the south-west and the west region of Afghanistan, in the provinces of Kandahar, Helmand, Nimroz, Farah, Kapisa, Nangarhar and Herat. The major storage problems are desiccation of the fruit resulting in a brownish colored tough peel and arils, weight loss, chilling injury and fungi decay. Further, the storage temperature recommended for pomegranates has varied from 0 to 10°C from two weeks to seven months depending on the cultivar. Storing pomegranate at low temperature with packaging minimized chilling injury and maintained fruit quality. Heat treatment causes changes in fruit ripening, such as the inhibition of ethylene synthesis and action of cell wall degrading enzymes, due to changes in gene expression and protein synthesis. Pre-storage hot water treatment increases fruit quality and reduce fruit weight loss and chilling injury in pomegranate.

    Method and Materials

    Fully mature, pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruits cv. ‘PoostNazuk Kandahar’ was harvested form Kandahar province in 2014. They were immediately transported by plane to the laboratory of Horticultural Science, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad Iran. After washing and initial measurements, half of fruits were immersed in a hot water (50 and 25°C) bath for three minutes. Hot water treatment fruits were packaged in plastic zippers and the others half were without packaging. All the treated fruits were transferred to cold storage at 5±1°C and a relative humidity of 85 to 90% for four months. Every 30 days each the physicochemical characteristics of pomegranate were evaluated. Experimental design was split factorial by completely randomized design with four replications. All analyses were performed with statistical software (JMP. 8.0, 2009).

    Result and Discussion

    The results demonstrated that the combination of hot water (HW) and polyethylene packaging was more effective in extending shelf life and reducing pomegranate fruit decay than the application of each treatment alone during long-term cold storage. The HW (50°C) treatment in combination with polyethylene packaging had significant effect (p< 0.01) on fruit weight loss and chilling injury index (CI) compared with the water (25°C) and without packaging during storage time. Most of fruit weight loss and CI were 37% and 24.7% that related to water (25°C) treatment and non-packaging, and the lowest were in order 1.6% and 2.2 % related to polyethylene packaging and HW (50 C°) treatments. Reduction in weight loss and CI by polyethylene packaging have been reported by other researchers [3, 4, 5, 9, 25 and 31]. HW (50°C) treatments reduced the expanding of fungi decay significant (p< 0.01) caused by use of polyethylene packaging after four months storage. This is agreement with Talaie et al [4], Artés et al [5] and Moradinezhad and Khayyat [31]. The effect of packaging on total phenolic compounds was also significant (p< 0.01). The total phenolic compounds of pomegranates showed an increase during the 120 days storage. Fruit without packaging had higher (443.25 mg/Lit) total phenolic compounds than the fruit stored in polyethylene package (332 mg/Lit), reaching a maximum accumulation, which is in agreement with the findings of other researchers [15, 24, and 38]. The HW treatment alone or in combination with packaging had no significant effect on TSS, TA and pH as compared to the water (25°C) and without packaging. At the end of storage, there was a significant increase in TSS and pH, and significant decreased in TA fruit juice after 4-month storage. Our finding is in agreement with previous reports [4, 5, 25 and 34], however was in contrast with the results of Nanda et al [33] who reported higher retention of TA in shrink film wrapped pomegranates, when compared to control fruit. One of the reasons for increase in TSS probably is decrease of fruit juice and its increase in concentration, during the storage time [1]. Rastegari et al [2] reported the increase in pH of fruit juice during storage, which is probably due to the breakdown of organic acids during the respiratory process.

    Conclusions

    Combined pre-storage treatments of HW and polyethylene package have more benefits than their individual application on maintaining quality and extending pomegranate fruit shelf life in prolonged cold storage. The pomegranate fruit cv. ‘PoostNazuk Kandahar’ could be stored for at least 20 weak under this combined treatment, effectively extending their marketing period with less decay. However, the unpackaged fruit, spoiled totally by 13 weak. Therefore, it is concluded that a combination of HW and polyethylene package treatment is a simple and low-cost method that has the ability to improve quality and postharvest life of pomegranate fruit cv. ‘PoostNazuk Kandahar’ during cold storage. However, more research is needed in this regard.

    Keywords: Acidity, Decay rate, Soluble solids, Total phenol, Weight loss
  • N.Yaghubi Akram, A. Imani, D. Saedghzadeh Ahari* Pages 195-205
    Introduction

    Apple tree is one of the widely grown fruit crops in Iran. Apple is not only consumed as fresh fruit in Iran but also it is one of the most important export products in country. Iran has a good ranking among the first world ten apple producing countries and it annual production is about three million tons. Although Iran has acceptable ranking in the case of apple production in the world, but its mean yield is about 13 tons per hectare. Unsuited nourishing and unbalancing of the nutrients in the soils is one of the reasons for reducing of apple yields in most parts of Iran. Calcium (Ca) is one of the plant nutrients that most closely related to improvement of fruit quality and increasing of fruits shelf life. Calcium mobilization from leaf to fruit is controlling by transpiration of plant. With growing of fruits, calcium deficiency will be increase especially in high temperature and drought condition because of dilution effect. Calcium ions bind tightly to the pectins in the cell walls and produce cationic bridges between pectic acids, or between pectic acids and other acidic polysaccharides. These bridges make the cell walls less accessible to the action of pectolytic enzymes. It is suggested that addition of calcium to fruit can either enhance resistance of fruit to postharvest pathogens or reduce susceptibility to postharvest diseases and disorders. Calcium chloride (Ca Cl2) and calcium nitrate [Ca (NO3)2] are commonly used for foliar sprays. Application of calcium chloride has been reported to control fruit disorders and improve fruit quality of apples and pears. Calcium chloride solution by immersion did not significantly differ from the untreated control in pH, total soluble solids (TSS), total titratable acidity (TA). Boron is an essential micronutrient required for optimal yield and quality of apple fruit. Its availability to plants decreases with increasing of soil pH and under drought condition. Boron deficiencies may reduce Ca movement in a tree. Boron plays a significant role in pollination success and it plays a role in the trees ability to translocation of Ca from the roots to other parts of the tree. Foliar application of boron is preferred over soil application because of the very narrow range from deficient to toxic levels. Efficiency of calcium and boron increases plant height by increasing mitotic activity in the terminal meristems. Dwarfing rootstocks have been used in most parts of the world. They have more differences in adaptability with different soils and agro-climatologically conditions. Recently using from East Maling 9 (M9) and Maling Merton 106 (MM106) has been extended in Iranian apple gardens. Regarding to the difficulties of apple growing gardens in Iran that due to appearing serious difficulties in nutrients absorption by plants and importance of improvement of qualitative and quantitative apple production on the other hand, this study carried out.

    Materials and Methods

    The research study was conducted at the Khorramdarreh region located in 36○ .13' eastern longitude and 49○ .12' northern altitude and 1560 meter above the free seas levels, during spring and summer 2014 to determine the influence of foliar calcium chloride + calcium nitrate and boron mixture application on growth and yield performance of Star King apple cultivar grafted on M 9 and MM 106 rootstocks. Trees were nine years old. The experiment was laid out in factorial based on randomized complete blocks design with 3 replications. Factor A was rootstock in two level(M 9 and MM 106) and factor B was foliar spraying of calcium chloride + calcium nitrate and boron mixture with three levels(0, 3000 and 5000 ppm). Mixture of calcium chloride, calcium nitrate and borax (3000 and 5000 ppm), were applied as foliar spray in four times with 22 days interval started from 28 of June (after June drop). A back-held spray pump was used for foliar application of the chemicals. After spraying two branches were selected at two eastern and western directions with 80-100 centimeter length and 1-1.5 centimeter diameter for noting the growing related traits such as length and diameter of new branches also the tress height and diameter were noted. After ripening of the fruits, ten randomly selected fruit were picked around the tree canopy from each treatment and in laboratory some qualitative characteristics such as pH, titrable acid and total soluble solids of them were tested. The data were analyzed using MSTAT-C software and treatment means were separated by the Duncans Multiple Range Test (DMRT) at a 0.05% level of significance.

    Results and Discussion

    Results showed that effect of rootstock factor was significant on length of new branches, tree diameter, annual increasing of tree diameter and fruit pH. The highest length of new branches (30.56 cm) belonged to MM 106 rootstock that 47% increased comparing with M9 new branches length. The lowest tree diameter was 11.50 cm and belonged to M 9 rootstock that decreased about 51% comparing with MM 106 rootstock. The highest annual increasing of tree diameter (6.8 mm) belonged to MM 106. The maximum fruit pH (4.7) belonged to M9 rootstock that had significantly differences with fruit pH in MM 106(4.5).Concentration factor had significantly effect on individual tree fruit yield, yields per hectare, length and diameter of new branches, trees height and diameter, annual increasing of tree diameter, fruit total soluble solid, fruit juice and fruits texture hardiness. Interaction effect of rootstock × concentration was significant only on length of new branches. With increasing of solution mixture (calcium chloride + calcium nitrate and boron) concentration, growing of new branches (in length and diameter), trees height and diameter were increased.

    Conclusion

    It can be concluded from these results that three time foliar application of calcium chloride + calcium nitrate and boron mixture on Star King apple cultivar grafted on M 9 and MM 106, results in a significant increase in tree and fruit qualitative and quantitative production. According to the results of study spraying of Star King apple cultivar with 5000 ppm concentration of calcium chloride + calcium nitrate and boron mixture, recommended in Khorramdarreh region.

    Keywords: Fruit pH, Fruit texture hardiness, Individual tree yield, New branches growth, Total solublesolids
  • S. Fallah Moafi, Y. Sharafi*, A. Rezaei, M. H. Fotokian Pages 207-218
    Introduction

    Favorable pollen transition on the stigma and pollen tube penetration is the most important for fruit setting in the apple. Boron is the main factor for pollen tube growth. A probable responsibility for boron in pollen tube growth may include vesicle making, transportation, fusion or the successive formation of the pollen cell wall. Pollen tube cell walls are rich in polypeptides, glycoprotein, polysaccharides and arabino furanosyl which are known to form physically potent complexes with boron. Maximum cell boron content is located in the cell wall where it is associated with pectin compounds. However, under definite field conditions, foliar applications of boron have been resulted to raise fruit set by as much as 100% in many researches.

    Materials and Methods

    In this study effects of acid boric by 0 (as a control), 1000 and 2000 ppm concentrations was studied on the pollen tube penetration percentage to style and ovary in six crosses among four apple cultivars including "Fuji", "Gala", "Goldn delicious" and "Red delicious' by florescence microscopy method, 72 and 120 hours after pollination. All of the trees were 12 year old on EM126 rootstocks and foliar sprayed by H3BO3 as the boron source (0, 1000 and 2000 mg.L) in the October. Crosses among the cultivars were programmed as ♀Red delicious × Golden delicious ♂, ♂ ♀Gala× Fuji, ♀Red delicious × Fuji♂, ♀Red delicious × Gala ♂, ♂ ♀Golden delicious × Fuji and ♀Golden delicious × Gala ♂. For each cross four repeats in all direction of the tree were regarded and in each repeat at least two branches with 60 – 100 were labeled in winter. Selected female cultivar's flower buds at ‘D’ stage were bagged to prevent the entrance of foreign pollens on the closed pistils. Pollens collected from the male cultivar flower buds and maintained in freezer until using in the field pollination time. Pollen germination was tested in an in vitro medium before field application on the pistils. Selected female cultivar's flowers were pollinated with selected male parent pollen when the pistils were acceptable for pollens and repeated after 24 hours. Determination of pollen germination percentage and tube growth on the pistil and different parts of the styles was studied by the florescence microscopy method 72 and 120 hours after pollination healthy pistils were separated from the branches and fixed in FAA solution and prepared for fluorescence microscopy observation as indicated in Ortega and Dicenta (2006). In each pistil the number of germinated pollen grains on the stigma, the number of pollen tubes in the first, second and third section and so, in the ovary were determined by a fluorescent microscope. Because of the five partitions of the apple flower stigma and style; the mean of the five parts was evaluated for each of them. The experiment was carried out as a factorial based on completely randomized design with three factors including B in three levels (0, 1000 and 2000 mg.L), time (0, 72 and 120 hr after pollination) andsix crosses in five replications (at least 10 style per cross). Data was analyzed following SAS (26) software. Mean values were analyzed by Duncan’s multiple range test.

    Results and Discussion

    Results showed that all of the boron concentrations, time after pollination and crosses were significantly affected pollen germination percentage on the stigma and tube penetration to different parts of the style and ovary at P<.01 level. Maximum pollen germination percentage on the stigma (33%) was observed in ♀Goldn delicious × Gala ♂ cross which treated by 1000 ppm boron 120 hr after pollination. Also, maximum pollen tube penetration to ovary was observed in ♀Red delicious × Golden delicious ♂ cross (32.06%). However, best compatibility between them and boron effects on the pollen germination percentage and tube growth in the style. It was revealed that in all of the crosses pollen germination percentage and tube growth in the style was increased by boron treatments.

    Conclusion

    However, boron is one of the main growth elements by its role in the cytokinin biosynthesis which is the most important hormone affects pollen tube growth and penetration. In this research the foliar application of boron increased pollen germination and pollen tube growth in all of the studied four apple cultivars crosses. However, increasing the boron concentration led to increased pollen germination and pollen tube growth linearly.

    Keywords: : Boric acid, Crosses, Florescence microscopy, Pollen tube, Ovary
  • M. Asadi, J. Hadian*, S. Ebrahimi, G. Karimzadeh Pages 219-232
    Introduction

    The genus Arnica L. comprises of 32 species predominantly confined to the boreal and montane region of the northern hemisphere. Arnica species are rhizomatous perennial herbs belonging to the daisy family, with simple or branched stems bearing opposite leaves, and large, single or cymose heads of yellow flowers. A. chamissonis is distributed over North America from Alaska to New Mexico, and due to its low ecological demand it is easier to cultivate than A. montana. Arnica is a source of sesquiterpene lactones, flavonoids, essential oils, terpenoids, and phenolic acids and exhibits antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, antiradical, antibacterial, anti-sclerotic, antifungal, and antioxidant activities. The flower heads and other parts of the plant of two of the species have been used therapeutically: A. montana and A. chamissonis, both of them containing sesquiterpene lactones as pharmacologically active compounds. Arnica species are used in as many as 300 drug preparations in Europe and about 20 products in Canada. Moreover, A. chamissonisis a good source of bioactive compounds a valuable source of herbal raw material and a pharmaceutical substitute for the endangered mountain arnica. A. chamissonis extracts exhibit potent anti-inflammatory and anti-radical activity and possesses high antioxidant abilities that might be helpful in preventing or slowing the progress of free radicaldependent diseases. Low pH soil is one of the principal ecological requirements of Arnica. Good plant growth and flower yield was achieved on acid soils with a pH of 6.8 and below. After nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, sulfur is considered as fourth major element in most crops. Rate of sulfur oxidation in soils vary and depend on population Thiobacillus bacteria in soil, particle size and environmental conditions.

    Materials and Methods

    This study was conducted as a complete randomized block design with three replications and four treatments including different levels of bentonite sulfur (0, 250, 500 and 750 kg/ha) combined with the bacterium Thibacillus thiooxidans. Traits such as height and width of plants, number of flowers on each plant, inflorescence diameter, fresh and dry yield of flowers in each plant per square meter and total phenols, total flavonoids, rutin, luteolin and apigenin content in flowers were measured. High-Performance Liquid Chromatography method (HPLC) was used to separate rutin, luteolin and apigenin. HPLC grade methanol and distilled water, each with 0.02% added TFT were used as solvents.

    Results and Discussion

    The results showed that A. chamissonis is compatible with Tehran’s climate and it can be cultivated in regions with a similar climate. The use of elemental sulfur has a significant role in reducing soil pH and soil pH decreased more rapidly with increasing sulfur. Thiobacillus bacteria by oxidation of sulfur produced some to sulfuric acid and at low buffered properties can considerably reduce pH. Different levels of sulfur fertilizer had a significant effect (P ≤0.01) on soil acidity (pH), electrical conductivity, and sulfur, iron, zinc and manganese levels. The use of 750 kg sulfur bentonite with Thiobacillus caused to reduce soil acidity by about 0.9 units, and it increased the electrical conductivity of the soil to 7.33 dS/m. The amount of soil sulfate as a result of oxidation of sulfur fertilizers increased linearly. The highest amounts of iron, zinc and manganese were measured in the treatment of 750 kg sulfur as 3.38, 3.84 and 27.94 mg /kg, respectively. In this study, supplying 250 kg of sulfur plus bio-sulfur caused to improve the morphological traits and the highest flower yield (20.67 g / plant) compared to control (3.66 g / plant). Also, it increased the amount of sulfur and microelements in the soil, but in the treatment of 500 and 750 kg sulfur per hectare due to increased electrical conductivity and soil salinity, the growth of Chamisso Arnica decreased. Therefore, these levels of sulfur are not suitable for this plant. Sulfur Bentonite is oxidized by Thiobacillus bacteria and other microorganisms and sulfuric acid is produced. Reducing acidity and, as a result, the release of stabilized and insoluble nutrients can increase their uptake capacity and improve plant growth and development. Due to the increased salinity and osmotic imbalance in the soil by the treatments of 500 and 750 g /kg sulfur, vegetation growth will be incomplete and plants quickly enter to the reproductive phase and produce fewer and smaller flowers. The highest content of rutin was measured in plants grown in soil treated with 750 Kg/ha sulfur while soil treatment with 500 Kg/ha sulfur resulted in highest content of luteolin and apigenin, both showing significant difference to the control.

    Conclusion

    Results of this study indicated that the Chamisso Arnica showed adaptability to the planting location and it can be mass-cultivated under similar conditions.

    Keywords: Adaptability, Plant nutrition, Soil amendment, Sulfur fertilizer
  • N. Gharaie, M. H. Shamshiri*, M. H. Dehghani Pages 233-245
    Introduction

    Pistachio (Pistacia vera), as one of the most important horticultural products of Iran, has been embraced as one of the main commercial products. Rafsanjan is an important area of pistachio production in the world. High production is primarily dependent on the ability of the trees to produce large amounts of photoassimilates during the growing season. Nitrogen is the primary nutrient element needed in the greatest quantities for plant growth and physiology. The greatest impact of nitrogen is in relation to photosynthesis. Therefore, the rate of CO2 assimilation has been closely related to leaf nitrogen status. Nitrogen deficiency leads to the reduction in the activities of enzymes involved in photosynthesis and consequently a decrease in the rate of CO2 assimilation. Regarding the key role of nitrogen in metabolic activities, especially photosynthesis, this research was conducted to investigate the effects of repeated foliar applications of urea on photosynthesis parameters of “Kalleh-ghuchi” pistachio cultivar.

    Materials and Methods

    This research was conducted to assess the effect of repeated foliar applications of urea on photosynthetic parameters of pistachio trees in different stages of fruit growth, as a factorial experiment based on a randomized complete block design with five replications. In this experiment, urea was applied at the rate of 0.5% at three different stages of fruit growth including initiation of embryo growth, rapid growth of embryo and during flower bud abscission with two weeks interval. Measurement of photosynthesis parameters (including photosynthesis (A), transpiration rate (E) and stomatal conductance (gs) and intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci)) were done by used a portable photosynthesis system, after measuring photosynthesis parameters, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters (Fv/Fm and PII) were recorded by using a Chlorophyll Fluorometer. Leaf nitrogen content was determined by the kjeldahl method. Leaf chlorophyll and carotenoids content were measured according to porra (2002). Photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency (PNUE) was calculated as the ratio of photosynthesis to foliar nitrogen content. All above parameters was performed in two times, one day after the last spraying and 10 days after the first stage of measurement. The experimental data was analyzed by SAS software and the significant differences among the treatment were tested by Duncan test.

    Results

    The results showed that photosynthesis and transpiration rate and stomatal conductance were increased in urea treated trees compared to control in both sampling dates, while intercellular CO2 concentration was decreased by urea application. Three times applications of urea caused a 20% increase in photosynthesis rate compared to control trees. Leaf nitrogen content was also increased by repeated urea application in two sampling dates, as three times application of urea resulted in a 65% increase in leaf nitrogen concentration compared to the control , while photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency decreased by urea application. Fv/Fm and PII were improved by repeated urea applications in two sampling dates. The results also indicated that chlorophyll pigments were increased by urea application. Generally, results showed that the maximum of photosynthesis and related parameters were obtained with three applications of urea at second date of sampling.

    Discussion

    Any increase in photosynthesis with urea application indicates that more nitrogen maybe allocated to the enzymes of the carbon assimilation. Thus, more CO2 could be used by the plant, therefore increases in CO2 assimilation was accompanied by a decrease in the Ci due to nitrogen application. In the present study, nitrogen application increased stomatal conductance of pistachio trees. Application of nitrogen can influence stomatal opening, and thus transpiration rate. Increased chlorophyll content with applied nitrogen indicates paramount role of nitrogen in determining of chlorophyll synthesis. Increasing photosynthesis rate is always accompany with chlorophyll fluorescence reduction that is in agree with our results. Differences in PNUE are mainly brought about by differences in photosynthetic capacity or foliar nitrogen allocation either within the photosynthetic apparatus or to non-photosynthetic pools (e.g. cell walls, nitrate).

    Conclusion

    The results of this study showed that urea application can improve photosynthesis capacity by increasing nitrogen content of pistachio leaves. In this experiment, repeated foliar applications of urea in different stages of fruit growth had positive effects on photosynthesis and other dependent parameters which may be effective in reduction of alternate bearing in pistachio trees. On the other hand, the effect of nitrogen application on photosynthesis was continued for more than a month after application, compared to control.

    Keywords: : Chlorophyll fluorescence, Nitrogen. Photosynthetic pigments, Photosynthesis rate
  • A. A. Shokouhian*, A. Asghari, H. Mahmoodi Pages 247-256
    Introduction

    Kiwifruit (Actinidia Sp) is one of the fruits that it is considered as an appropriate food source, because it is rich in vitamins, especially vitamins C, E, A, B1 and also in the form of potassium. Humic substances are contained nutrients that improve the soil nutrients and are increases the availability of food and therefore plant growth and yield. Studies have shown that adding certain amount of humic acid fertilizer can improve the growth of root, stem and leaves of plants and enhances yield and quality of products and increases the efficiency of nitrogen fertilizer consumption. According to pervious findings, recent research was performed aimed to achieving the best combination of humic acid and its application method for improving yield and organic fruits production in Kiwifruit cv. Hyvard.

    Materials and methods

    In order to investigate the effects of humic acid concentration and application method on nutrient uptake and quality and quantity of fruit indices, of Kiwifruit CV Hyvard an experiment based on complete block design with four replications was conducted during 2015-2016 in Talesh city, Gilan province. Experimental treatments included soil drenching method and foliar spraying of different levels (control, 2, 4 and 6 kg. ha-1 ) of humic acid. In this study traits such as absorption indexes of nutrient elements consisting nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus, calcium, zinc, magnesium, manganese, copper and iron content of leaves and quantitative and qualitative traits of fruit (yield, Tissue firmness, vitamin C, total soluble solids of fruits and leaf area and leaf chlorophyll content) were measured. Phosphorus was measured by spectrophotometer at 430 nm and potassium was measured by flame photometer. Atomic absorption was used to determine the amount of calcium (at wavelength of 422.7 nm) and magnesium (at wavelength of 285.2 nm). Nitrogen was also measured by Kjeldahl method. Micro elements were determined by flame atomic absorption method. Standard samples and treatments were cloudy with a blue acetylene flame and the adsorption of iron, manganese, zinc and copper were read at wavelengths of 243/3, 288.5, 213.9, 327.7 nm, respectively. This study was carried out in a randomized complete block design with seven treatments (0%) and application of humic acid at concentrations of 2, 4, 6 kg.ha-1 as spraying on leaves and soil application on Hayward cultivar with four replications. Data from this study were analyzed by using Jmp statistical software and graphs were drawn using Excel 2013 software.

    Results and Discussion

    Results of analysis of variance showed that different concentration of humic acid had significant effect on nutrient uptake and quality and quantity of fruit indices at 1% probability level. Results of this research indicated that using of humic acid caused increasing in nutrient elements uptake and improving the quality and quantity of fruit in Hyvard cv. of Kiwifruit. Comparison of means showed that the highest value of nitrogen (1.8%) of foliar application of 2 kg.ha-1 and 4 kg.ha-1 to soil of humic acid, phosphorus (0.3%) obtained by foliar application of 2 and 4 kg.ha-1 , calcium (3.5%) by foliar and soil application of 4 kg.ha-1 . The highest value of potassium (1.92) with soil application of 6 kg.ha-1 , manganese (0.33%) and copper (12.8 Mg.Kg Dw-1 ) of foliar application of 4 kg.ha-1,iron (226 Mg.Kg Dw-1 ) of soil application 6 kg.ha-1 humic acid and the highest value of magnesium (34.7 Mg.Kg Dw-1 ) uptake index obtained from adding 6 kg.ha-1 humic acid to soil. The results indicated that foliar spraying of 2 kg.ha-1 humic acid had higher efficiency for zinc uptake (21.7 Mg.Kg Dw-1 ). Comparison of means showed that the lowest value of measured elements obtained in control treatment. Based on the results, the concentration of four kilograms per hectare of humic acid with soil and leaf application methods had the highest effect on quantitative and qualitative indices of kiwifruit.

    Conclusion

    Results showed that application of humic acid caused increasing in absorption of nutrients and improving the quality and quantity of fruit in Hyvard CV of Kiwifruit. Comparison of meanings showed that the application, soil application of 4 kg.ha-1 of humic acid, was more effective in absorption indices of nitrogen elements, phosphorus, calcium and quantitative and qualitative indices of kiwifruit. Treatment of 6 kg.ha-1 soil increased the adsorption of manganese and iron elements and soil treatment of 2 kg ha-1 humic acid had the highest absorption of magnesium. Data analysis showed that zinc and copper elements were more adsorbed in humic acid by 2 and 4 kg.ha-1 in spray application. In this study the lowest value of measured elements obtained in control trait.

    Keywords: : Iron, Nitrogen, Potassium, Total soluble solids, Yield
  • F. Kamiab*, H. Mohamadi Pages 257-272
    Introduction

    Narcissus is one of the most important ornamental plants in the world. The deficiency of microelements is a major problem limiting the production of ornamental plants under high-pH soils in most regions of Iran. Cu and Mn are essential microelements for the growth and development of plants as they are involved in many physiological reactions. Fe is involved in the synthesis of chlorophyll and many enzymes, respiration, and nucleic acid metabolism. Cu is a cofactor for numerous enzymes and is also involved in ethylene biosynthesis and activity, respiration, photosynthesis, regulatory proteins, cell membrane metabolism, and hormone signals. The deficiency of microelements, especially Fe, influences productive and reproductive growth of ornamental plants. Thus, this experiment aimed to evaluate the uptake rate of Cu and Mn nano-chelates and their effects on some morphological and physiological Characteristics of ‘jonquil’ narcissus.

    Materials and Methods

    This study was carried out in the research garden of Agriculture Faculty of Rafsanjan University in 2015 in factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with two factors of Fe at four levels of 0, 1, 2 and 3 (g/l) and Cu at three levels of 0, 1 and 2 (g/l) in three replications. The weight of the cultivated bulbs were about 8-10 g. They were planted in eight rows spaced 20 cm with on-row spacing of five cm at the depth of 15 cm in each plot in August. According to soil analysis, 40 tons of manure and 100 tons of urea per ha were applied. The nano fertilizer was purchased from Nano-research Biozar Company. Foliar application was done three times: 1- when the plants had three leaves, 2- before flowering and 3- after flowering at 45-day intervals. Different parameters were recorded including plant height, number of leaves, width and length of leaves , number of main bulb, main bulb weight and diameter, , bulblet diameter and weight, flowering stem height and diameter, number of florets, florets diameter, fresh and dry weight of florets, flower vase life, Cu and Fe concentration, protein, chlorophyll and total soluble solids. Foliar spraying was done three times at the intervals of 45 days.

    Results and Discussion

    The results showed that the concentration of Cu and Fe in the leaves were enhanced with increase in the rate of each nano-chelate, implying high uptake rate of these nano-chelate by leaves in this plant. The application of Fe (2g/l) and Cu (0.5 g/l) resulted in the highest vegetative growth such as plant height, number of leaves, leaf width and length, number of main bulb, main bulb weight and diameter , and bulblet diameter and weight. High pH in experimental soil caused low absorption of micro elements in this condition. This deficiency was compensated with foliar application of nano-chelates and as a result, the Fe and Cu involved processes were improved in them. On the other hand, enhanced Fe and Cu concentrations in leaves could cause more photosynthesis and higher level of assimilation in plants. Likewise, these elements influence some enzymatic activity such as peroxidase, catalase and cytochrome oxidase; consequently, more vegetative growth was observed. Reproductive growth such as flowering stem height and diameter, number of florets, floret diameter and fresh and dry weight and flower vase life were improved in this experiment. The control of abiotic stress is one of the most important roles of Cu and also it is cofactor of superoxide dismutase that has been known as a free radical scavenger in plants that could increase quantitative and qualitative traits of flower. This treatment resulted in the highest amount of protein, chlorophyll and total soluble solids in the leaves of narcissus. Fe is one of the essential elements for chlorophyll synthesis. It also has an important role in activating nitrate reducates enzyme that uses ammonium to synthesize proteins. Cu is involved in the synthesis of proteins and enzymes that have major roles in such processes as respiration, photosynthesis, phenol metabolism, lignifications and ouxin regulation in plants. Thus, the results of this experiment showed that these nano-chelates were absorbed considerably by leaves of narcissus and they are suitable for foliar application. It should be noted that higher concentration of this fertilizer in this experiment has toxic effects. It is suggested that 2g/l Fe plus 0.5 g/l Cu were used to improve vegetative and reproductive growth of ‘jonquil’ narcissus, especially in high-pH soils.

    Keywords: Alkaline soil, Bulb, Bulblet, Micro element, Vase life
  • Z. Hassanzadeh, H. Hassanpour* Pages 273-285
    Introduction

    Oleaster (Elaeagnus angustifolia L.), belonging to the Elaeagnaceae family, is usually a shrub or small spiny tree with a height of 2– 5 m. Branches of oleaster are silvery green and the leaves are egg-shaped or bayonet and the flowers are bell -shaped, very fragrant, cream color, and single or clustered. The fruits are oval-shaped with a length of 1.5 –2 cm and their colors are reddish-brown. Oleaster (Elaeagnus angustifolia L.) is one of the most valuable fruit tree is grown wildly in northwestern of Iran. The oleaster was distributed in East Asia, Southeast Asia, and Queensland in northeastern Australia. This tree was extended along the rivers in many arid and semi-arid regions. It also plays a very important role in maintaining the ecosystem of dry areas, due to high drought tolerance and high salinity and alkalinity tolerance in soil. The evaluation of fruit and seed properties can be useful in selection of superior genotypes for commercially culture. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the physical properties of seed and fruit of some Elaeagnus angustifolia genotypes in east and west Azerbaijan provinces.

    Materials and Methods

    In this study, thirty-eight genotypes of Elaeagnus angustifolia L., according to free of pest and disease characteristics were selected and labeled from east and west Azerbaijan provinces, Iran. The fully matured fruits were collected from studied genotypes and then transferred to the lab and different parameters such as physicochemical characterizations of fruit and seed such as weight, length and width of fruit and seed and fruit color parameter were measured. Fruit color was determined by Chroma meter CR-400 (Konica Minolta, Japan). After collected data, to calculate descriptive statistics, correlation and cluster analysis based on Ward’s method was used SPSS Software (Version 22). The factor analysis was also performed using varimax rotation method.

    Results and Discussion

    The results showed that there was high diversity in some of the attributes such as leaf width, leaf length/leaf width ratio and flesh weight. The highest diversity was observed in leaf width (37.56 %) and the fruit surface area had lowest diversity (2.09 %). The mean of fruit length, fruit width and fruit width, fruit geometric mean diameter and sphericity were 22.99, 16.09 cm, 1.69 g, 18.09 mm and 79.22 %, respectively. Ersoy et al. (2013) revealed that length, width, thickness and weight of fruit were 2.86 cm, 1.88 cm, 1.87 cm and 2.90 g respectively. The mean of seed length, width, thickness and weight were 2.42 cm, 0.508 cm, 0.503 cm and 0.38 g, respectively. Leaf length was positively correlated with leaf width, fruit length/fruit width ratio, and seed length and seed length/seed width ratio and negatively with fruit sphericity. In the present study, the mean of traits related to fruit color including L*, a*, b*, hue and chroma were 48.09, 13.99, 18.51, 52.18, and 28.23, respectively. In the study of Zare et al. (2012), the mean of L*, a*, b* were 12.42, 2.73 and 2.39, respectively. In the present study, the mean of traits related to fruit color was higher than the mean mentioned in Zare et al. (2012) study, and this discrepancy can be due to different environmental conditions and studied genotypes. In this study, based on factor analysis, the eight main factors were explained a total of 85.92 % of the variance, which 20.59% were related to the first factor and 18.69% to the second factor. The two-dimensional scatter plot was constructed for graphical overview of the relationships among genotypes. According to scatter plot created by two first factors, all studied genotypes were located in two groups. The scatter plot revealed geometrical distances among genotypes reflecting phenotypic and in this regard presumably genetic dissimilarity among them. According to the cluster analysis, genotypes were divided into two main groups. Genotypes in group first had the highest average fruit and seed length, width and weight. The traits related to color such as L* , a* , b* , hue, chroma had a significant role in separation of second group. Therefore, the presence of genotypes in different clusters represented high diversity in terms of evaluated traits among the all genotypes.

    Conclusions

    This research is a preliminary study that can be based to select the desired genotypes. The study also provides important information on the physical characteristics and fruit color of some Elaeagnus angustifolia genotypes in the east and west Azerbaijan provinces. In general, the results of this study showed that there is high diversity among the studied genotypes.The results obtained might be helpful for breeding programs and introducing of cultivar in Elaeagnus angustifolia.

    Keywords: Cluster analysis, Correlation, Diversity, Fruit weight, Oleaster
  • I. Karamatlou, S. Navabpour*, Kh. Zainilnejad, E. Tavakol, M. Hosseini Mazinani Pages 287-299
    Introduction

    Low temperature is one of the major abiotic stresses which can cause a significant reduction in olive growth and productivity mainly at late autumn, winter and early spring. Although olive is moderately freezing tolerant, temperatures below a certain threshold -7°C can damage the plant, while at -12°C damage may be serious enough to threaten the life of the tree. Different cultivars of olives have diverse reactions to cold stress and so, the selection of cold resistant cultivars is the most effective method to avoid frost damages. First step to achieve this goal, is identifying tolerant cultivar and genotypes in olive area growing. Due to extensive and high freezing damage in November 2016, the objective of the present study was to evaluate morphological characteristics and selection of individual cold tolerant trees.

    Materials and Methods

    The present study was carried out in some cold tolerant olives after freezing event in December 2016 in eastern region of Golestan province of Iran. After freezing stress, healthy olive trees were identified in two major olive cultivation regions and then were evaluated in four stages. Thus, this study included: 1- meteorological data analysis, 2- evaluation of freezing stress symptoms in olive orchards and identification of single tolerant trees, 3-stugy of single tolerant cold trees in four stages. For each genotype, studies on morphological traits (tree age, location altitude, dip direction and its percentage, previous yield, tree height, canopy height, average of canopy diameter, canopy volume, canopy surface area, trunk perimeter, trunk diameter, trunk cross section area, length of internodes, growth habit, canopy density, canopy defoliation, bark split ranging, flowering and fruit set) based on CFC/IOOC/03 and Lodolini et al. (2016) results.

    Results and Discussion

    History of cold climate in the last two decades showed freezing event several times caused damage to olive orchards. The last freezing stress occurred with the entrance of the cold air to the Golestan province and a sudden drop in temperature to less than 0 degrees Celsius and stability of these conditions for 5-days in the late of November, 2016. The temperature dropped below 0°C began on November 23 and lasts for 4-days. However, the main damage to the olive orchards is on November 25, when temperature is -7°C. The minimum temperature recorded in the studied regions in November 25, Maravehtapeh, Gonbad, Kalaleh and Minoudasht are -14.2, -12.7, -12.3 and -8.5°C, respectively. Symptoms of freezing damage on olive tree can range from shoot tip burns and defoliation up to bark split on branches or trunk. After four stages visiting olive orchards, finally, from 118 primary individual trees, 38 trees were introduced for further evaluation. Location altitude (meters above sea level) of the individual trees were 107-387 in the CTO-39 and CTO-35 genotypes, respectively. Generally, 95% of all trees identified in sloping land orchards, and the percentage variation for this trait was 48. 52. Fruit production of selected olives before freezing event in 2016 showed except of six trees, 32 of olives was of 2-60 kg/tree. The height of tree were 2-6.05 in CTO-37 and CTO49 genotypes, respectively. However, average of canopy diameter in all genotypes was 2.73. Also, trunk diameter (TD) and trunk cross section area (TCSA) were maximum in CTO-55 and minimum in CTO-9. However, the average of this trait was 16.60 cm. Variation between genotype in internode length changed between 1.05 in CTO-20 and 2.16 in the CTO-49. Reduction of internode spaces and shoot growth, even though the total node number is normal resistance of the olive tree to cold is reduced. Leaf defoliation is one of the most important symptoms of freezing event. The study of selected trees showed that 33 trees (86%) did not showed symptoms of leaf loss, and only five tree showed less than 50% leaf loss. Except for the CTO-54 genotype, which showed symptoms of bark splitting on one-year shoots, no evidence of bark splitting observed in other selected olives.

    Conclusions

    Although olive is the most cold-hardy of the subtropical fruit trees, some varieties can withstand low temperatures better than the other. Although temperatures at which olive trees can be damaged vary, depending on climatic conditions, temperatures at or below -7°C are often critical. The most important symptoms were leaf defoliation, bark split, and limb dieback. Finally, because of different influence of environmental factor in different regions, evaluation of location, yield and morphological traits showed some of cold tolerant olive in different region had a similar behavior, thus by supplementary molecular studies, it can be hoped that among recognized trees, cold resistant cultivars with acceptable yields were introduced.

    Keywords: Abiotic stress, Canopy density, Early cold, Growth habit
  • B. Behzadi*, A. Rahemi Karizaki Pages 301-310
    Introduction

    Tomato is a major source of the antioxidant, lycopene, which has been linked to many health benefits, including reduced risk of heart disease and cancer. It is also a great source of vitamin C, potassium, folate and vitamin K. Optimal planting dates and appropriate cultivars are farm management cases that are effective in increasing yield. The purpose of the planting date is to find the planting time of a cultivar or a group of similar varieties of a plant so that the set of environmental factors at that time would be appropriate for the emergence, establishment and survival of the seedlings. Because of off-season production, tomato has a high economic status in Bushehr Province. Some researchers reported that cultivars with larger fruits had the lowest number of fruits per plant. By investigating the response of tomatoes to time of transplantation, fruit yield and crop characteristics of the cultivars, a number of researchers reported that the date of transplantation had a significant effect on the number of days to flowering, the number of branches per plant, the diameter of the fruit, the number of fruits per Plant and fruit yield, early transfer of seedlings increased the harvest period, while late planting date was significantly effective on flowering, and the plants sooner went to flower.

    Materials and Methods

    The study was conducted in order to determine the best transplanting date and tomato cultivars. An experiment was carried out in Randomized Completely Block Design with four levels of transplanting dates (6 Sep, 27 Sep, 17 Oct and 6 Nov) in main plots and four cultivars (Petopride 2, Peto Early CH, Cal J-N3 and Kimia) in sub plots with four replications in Bushehr Agricultural and Natural research resource center during 2009-2011.The spacing between rows of planting was 140 cm and plant spacing was 50 cm. Each plot included 4 planting lines of 4 meters long. Before planting in the summer, land preparation was done between June and August. The amount of fertilizer was determined based on soil test results. Phosphorus fertilizers, potassium, micronutrient and one third of nitrogen fertilizers and iron sequestrons, along with decayed animal manure, were mixed prior to deployment of type tubes and mixed with soil. One third of nitrogen fertilizers and iron sequestrons were given during flowering and one-third remained at the time of fruit start. Irrigation was carried out on a regular basis, taking into account the weather conditions and plant requirements. After each harvest, fruit yield, fruit number per plant, fruit weight, yield per plant were measured. To determine the length and diameter of fruit, acidity and soluble solids from each plot, 10 fruits were selected randomly.

    Results and Discussion

    Interaction effect among the tomato cultivars and transplanting dates on fruit yield, yield per plant, number of fruits per plant, fruit weight and fruit diameter were significant at 1% probability level. In the first year, the highest total yield and fruit yield per plant were obtained from the transplanting date of 6 September and Potoperide 2 cultivar, and the lowest yield was produced with November 15 transplanting date and Kimia cultivar. In the second year, the highest total yield and fruit yield per plant were obtained from the transplanting date of 27 September and kimia cultivar, and the lowest amount was obtained from the transplanting date of 6 November and Peto Early CH cultivar. Planting date is one of the most important management practices which affects the crop growth through the effect on photoperiod, day and night temperature, light intensity and soil moisture. In most cases, earlier planting dates due to the longer vegetative and reproductive growth period of the plant may improve the allocation of photosynthetic materials to the plants.

    Conclusions

    This study showed that fruit yield and yield components were significantly affected by planting date and cultivars. Generally, delay in planting reduces fruit yield, plant yield, fruit weight and number of fruits per plant. Environmental factors such as light, temperature, CO2, moisture content can be changed from year to year. These factors affect the number of flowers formed in the plant, their pollination, the percentage of fruit formation. Also, the potential of cultivars had a significant effect on yield and its components and the cultivars producing the shorter fruit had the least number of fruits per plant.

    Keywords: Fruit lenght, Fruit diameter, Split plot, Brix
  • M.Ghesmati*, F. Moradinezhad Pages 311-322
    Introduction

    Sour cherry is one of the most strategically important horticultural products in the Khorasan Razavi province that proper nutrition can improve the performance of the plant. This fruit is rich in vitamins, antioxidants, and soluble fiber, which is very useful for lowering blood pressure. Proper nutrition is one of the important factors in determining the quantity and quality of the fruit. In arid and semi-arid regions, micronutrient elements availability is one of the factors that limits growth, yield, and quality of fruit trees , because absorption of nutrients being limited due to the alkalinity of the soil. So, the use of an appropriate method to provide the required nutrients by plants is necessary. Foliar application of nutrient is one of the important ways in the food supply for plants. Hence, spraying is an effective way to reduce nutritional disorders in plants. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of foliar application of iron and zinc micronutrients on the yield and physicochemical properties of sour cherry fruit

    Materials and Methods

    In order to investigate the effect of spraying of iron chelate and zinc sulfate on yield and qualitative characteristics of the sour cherry fruit, a factorial experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with 4 replications in the commercial orchard of Astan Quds Razavi, Mashhad, Iran. The first factor was spraying iron 6% Fe-EDDHA at 3 levels (0, 2 and 4 g l-1) and the second factor was spraying zinc sulfate at 3 levels (0, 2 and 4 g l-1). The treatments were applied in two stages, 20 days after the whole flowering stage and 20 days after the first spraying. Spraying chemicals was done in the morning when temperature and humidity were not high.. Fruit and leaves samples were collected, at the commercial maturity stage of fruit, from each tree include one kilogram of fruit and half kilogram leaves. Thereafter, healthy fruits and leaves of the same shape, size, and color were selected to determine the biochemical properties of fruit and chlorophyll leaves. In this experiment, 36 grilled cherry trees of 10 years old with a spacing of 3×4 m were used. The general conditions of the selected trees were similar to other garden trees, and irrigation (dripping), pest and disease control were applied uniformly to all treated trees. The studied traits included the fresh weight of fruit, dry matter percentage, fruit yield, fruit juice acidity, soluble solids, total antioxidant, trace related to chlorophyll content, iron and zinc concentration in leaves

    Results and Discussion

    The results showed that different levels of iron chelate, zinc sulfate, and their interaction increased fruit fresh weight, dry matter percentage, fruit yield and chlorophyll traits. An individual application of 4 g l-1 of iron or zinc, and also their combination application showed the greatest values on evaluated traits In addition, the soluble solids, total antioxidant, and iron leaf values were only affected by different levels of chelate iron, which improved with increasing spraying levels of the studied traits. Sprayed with zinc sulfate could increase the concentration of zinc in the leaves but the acidity of juice was not affected by the treatments. The results showed that different levels of zinc significantly affected all quantitative traits of sour cherry fruit than iron chelate. However, spraying with iron chelate had a significant effect on the quality traits of fruit, including total soluble solids and total antioxidants. Moreover, the combination effect of chelate iron and zinc sulfate in comparison to their individual application had a better effect on the quantitative and chlorophyll traits of the cherry leaf. The highest increase in both zinc and iron content of leaf samples were obtained in trees that were treated with 4 g l-1 of zinc or iron solutions, respectively. The results show that foliar application of high concentrations of both chemicals increased zinc or iron content of leaf samples about 30% compared to the control. Thus, not only higher yield but also quality improvement of sourcherry fruit occurred in treated trees. Our results was in accordance with the findings of previous studies on different fruit tress like grapes, pistachio and orange. According to the results, it can be concluded that spraying with zinc sulfate and iron chelate during plant growth season can increase yield and improve the physical and chemical properties of the sour cherry fruit

    Keywords: Antioxidant, Chlorophyll, Dry Matter, TSS, Yield
  • H. R. Zabihi*, S. Rezaeian Pages 323-333
    Introduction

    Pomegranate is one of the most important horticultural products cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions of Iran. It plays a major role in the economic situation of the peoples of these areas. In recent years, due to the good quality of Iranian pomegranate, this product is considered to be of great interest to many different countries of the world. There are about 2,100 hectares of pomegranate in the Ferdows region, which is the dominant and major part of Ferdows pomegranate, and is called Shish Kap variety. Zinc and iron are two of the essential elements for the growth of all plants and over a century, the necessity of iron and zinc for plant nutrition have been identified. White seed disorders were reported in Ferdows region in 2001 for the first time. The results of pomegranate juice analysis of ferdows pomegranate samples showed the iron and zinc deficiency, compared to the normal pomegranate in that year. Based on this, considering the general condition of soils in the proposed area, the effect of iron and zinc on the removal of seed whitening of pomegranate was investigated.

    Materials and Methods

    In order to investigate the effect of spraying different concentrations of iron and zinc sulfate on the reduction of seed whitening, a factorial experiment based on a randomized complete block design with three replications was conducted in the pomegranate field of Ferdows region. The first factor included: spraying three concentrations of iron sulfate (0, 0.3 and 0. 6 %) and the second factor included the concentration of zinc sulfate (0, 0.3 and 0. 6 %). The distance gap between the trees was (2.5 * 3) meters and the garden age was about 12 years old. The soil and water were sampled from the garden. Each experimental plot was consisted of three trees, in which leaves and fruits were sampled for analysis from the middle tree. Samples were taken from the leaves before spraying. Spraying with the desired concentrations was carried out twice. Leaf and fruit samples were sent to the soil and water Laboratory. Each of the samples due to the peculiar color of the pomegranate juice was also sent to the laboratory for analysis. Pomegranate juice samples were then assigned to the quality control system of the seed and seedlings research department. Finally the brix and pH of the samples were determined.

    Results and Discussion

    The amount of nutrients in soil, and the mount of zinc and iron in the leaves were below the critical value. The deficiency of other elements in the soil and leaves were quite evident. The results showed that the concentration of iron and zinc elements increased significantly in pomegranate leaves (α = 1% level). Qinglong and Brown (1995) showed the same results. Spraying of Fe and Zn increased the concentration of these elements in the leaves, without any negative effects on the tree yield. The mean concentration of zinc and iron were lower in control treatments, which was more common in white seeds. The interaction effect of iron and zinc treatments on iron concentration in pomegranate leaves was significant (α = 1% level), and the highest iron concentration in leaf was obtained from zinc and iron sulfate solutions at the concentration level of 6,000.Pomegranate samples were analyzed in soil and water laboratory, and nutrient concentrations of the pomegranate juice were determined. The results showed that the pure effect of iron sulfate spraying on the concentration of pomegranate juice was not significant, but the pure effect of zinc sulfate solution increased zinc concentration of the pomegranate juice. The pure effect of zinc sulfate treatment, and the interaction effect of iron and zinc sulfate spraying treatments on pH of pomegranate juice were significant (α = 5% level). The pomegranate juice quality was evaluated in terms of color in a panel method. The results showed that all treatments increased the redness of pomegranate juice color. The best treatment in this study, was spraying at 0.6% zinc sulfate alone.

    Conclusion

    By spraying 0.6% zinc and iron sulfates, spray treatments increased the concentrations of iron and zinc in the leaves. However, due to the specific behavior of iron in the plant, the high pH of irrigation water and soil and the presence of carbonate and bicarbonate in irrigation water, the effect of iron absorbed in the leaves were not evident in the fruit. Spraying with iron and zinc sulfate improved pomegranate seed color. According to the results of the project implementation, and due to the high soil pH and organic matter deficiency, spraying with 0.6% zinc and iron sulfates is recommended.

    Keywords: Whitening of seed color, Zinc, Iron, Nutrition
  • Z. Karimian*, N. Zarrin Pages 335-348
    Background and Objectives

    Tulip flower is one of the most popular flowers in the world. This bulbous flower has about 150 species with more than 6000 recorded cultivars. In the recent years, planting of ornamental bulbous plants such as tulip has been common in many cities of Iran during Nowruz. Selection and order of the bulbs often is done based on aesthetic and flowering factors. Feasibility of estimation of some aesthetic traits in tulip cultivars can be a management approach in the cities, so that if urban managers in the landscape field know the time and duration of flowering, they can have an exact plan for the tulip planting in the Nowruz. The study of ornamental traits, flowering date and duration of tulip flower have been studied in the different climatic and edaphic conditions. Tulip cultivars have prolong flowering periods that their flowering duration can match with Nowruz are an apocopate option to use in the urban landscape of Mashhad. One of the methods to estimate the vegetative and ornamental traits in the ornamental plants is prediction models using bulbous dimensions with other plant part dimensions or combinations of them. In the current paper the study of the date of flowering and its duration in the several cultivars was investigated. On the other hand an attempt has been made to establish a best method for estimation of some ornamental traits in the tulip flower.

    Materials and Methods

    In the first part of the examination, six plots including six cultivated cultivars of tulip with area of 5 m2 were prepared. Weight and diameter of bulbs were measured before planting and ornamental traits include height of flower stem, length and width of flower. Data from nearly 100 plants for each cultivar were recorded. Regression analyses of WB, DB, WB×DB, WB/DB, WB2×DB2 and WB2 /DB2 versus height of flower stem, length and width of flower were done. . Among tested models (linear, polynomial, power, logarithmic and exponential) the models with highest R2 values can be used for estimating of the mentioned ornamental traits. The correlation coefficients and also constants (a, b and c) were reported. In the other part of the examination, 23 cultivars of tulip in 15 plots with area of 20 m2 were planted in the various parts of Mashhad. Flowering date and also the duration of flowering from nearly 50 plants for each cultivar were recorded.

    Results

    Results showed that the highest correlation between dimensions of bulbs (weight and diameter) with height of flower stem (R2=0.88) was observed in weight of bulbs. Among of the tested models , the highest coefficient of correlation was obtained in polynomial equation. The calculated correlation between weight and diameter of bulbs with length and width of flower were low. In the Royal virgin cultivar, flower length with the bulb weight and also multiple of the bulb weight and diameter significantly showed a positive correlation (R2=0.88 and R2=0.81). In the other part of the current study, results indicated that the most of studied cultivars showed different flowering dates and durations. According to the results, the most early-flowering cultivars obtained from Copex, Yokohama, Happy generation and Apricot beauty. The most lately-flowering cultivar of tulip in the present study was observed in Spring green.

    Discussion

    In the first part of the study, the developed models including WB, WB×DB and WB2×DB2 that have the highest R2 levels in comparison with other models can be applied to estimate height of flower stem in most of tulip cultivars. In the second part of the study, among of the 23 cultivars, only Apricot fox, Pretty lady, Happy generation and Yokohama are advisable to plant in the urban landscape in Mashhad in order to have flower during the Nowruz.

    Keywords: Correlation of traits, Flowering duration, Landscape, Tulip cultivars