فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:9 Issue:5, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/09/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 13
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  • Washington Aspilicueta Pinto Filho , *, Lara de Holanda Juca Silveira , Mariana Lima Vale , ClaudiaRegina Fernandes , Josenilia Alves Gomes Page 1
    Background

    Preoperative anxiety and distress can produce significant psychological impacts on children undergoing oncologic care or investigation. Adjuvant therapy is used for pain management in children; however, pre-analgesia options are restricted because they can cause undesirable outcomes.

    Objectives

    Our study aimed to investigate the use of gabapentin in procedural sedation as adjuvant therapy in children undergoing oncologic treatment.

    Methods

    We performed a double-blinded, randomized, clinical trial at Albert Sabin Infant’s Hospital in Fortaleza, Brazil. Children aged 1 - 6 years who had myelogram or lumbar puncture (associated or not with intrathecal chemotherapy) received placebo or gabapentin syrups (15 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg) one to two hours before the procedure. Preoperative anxiety was evaluated by the Yale preoperative anxiety scale modified (m-YPAS scale). The pediatric anesthesia emergence delirium (PAED) and children and infants postoperative pain scale (CHIPP) scales were used for emergence delirium and pain intensity measurement, respectively.

    Results

    We evaluated 135 patients.We observed that the gabapentin groups presented lower m-YPAS scores than the placebo group at separationandinduction times. Postoperatively, the gabapentin groupshadlowerPAEDandCHIPP scores than the placebo group; however, only had PAED scores clinical relevance. No significant differences were found between the gabapentin groups. Furthermore, children with less than three prior similar procedures were more likely to benefit from gabapentin. Postoperative vomiting was prevented by 30 mg/kg gabapentin.

    Conclusions

    Although gabapentin has little preoperative effects, it ameliorates anxiety before induction, improves anesthetic induction, and reduces the occurrence of emergence delirium and postoperative vomiting up to eight hours after the procedure. Thus, we indicate gabapentin as adjuvant therapy for procedural sedation.

    Keywords: Gabapentin, Stress, Children, Lumbar Puncture, Oncology
  • Farnad Imani , *, Poupak Rahimzadeh , Seyed, Hossein Khademi, Mahnaz NarimaniZamanabadi, Kambiz Sadegi , Abouzar Abolfazli, Karizi Page 2
    Background

    Administration of steroids in the lumbar transforaminal block for lumbar radicular pain is considered one of the preferred treatment methods though it is associated with some complications.

    Objectives

    The effects and side effects of triamcinolone and dexmedetomidine in the lumbar transforaminal block were investigated in the present study.

    Methods

    In this study, 30 patients, aged 40 - 70 years, suffering from lumbar radicular pain arising from the lumbar disc protrusion were equally divided into two groups of triamcinolone (T) and dexmedetomidine (D). They all underwent lumbar transforaminal blocks. An injection solution of triamcinolone (20 mg) plus ropivacaine (0.2%) and another one containing dexmedetomidine (50 g) plus ropivacaine (0.2%) were administered in the triamcinolone and dexmedetomidine groups, respectively. Visual Analog Scale (VAS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Straight Leg Raise (SLR or lasègue’s test), and Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS) were measured at 0, 2 weeks, 1, 3, and 6 months post-procedure. The levels of calcium, magnesium, and vitamin D, as well as potential complications, were also evaluated.

    Results

    Significant differences were found in the VAS and ODI during the measurement times within each group. The VAS and ODI were remarkably different between the dexmedetomidine group and the triamcinolone group. In addition, there were considerable differences in the increased FBS and reduced calcium and vitamin D levels in the triamcinolone group from changes in the dexmedetomidine group.

    Conclusions

    The lumbar transforaminal block with triamcinolone or dexmedetomidine attenuates the lumbar radicular pain. Further, dexmedetomidine exerts a more potent pain relief effect than triamcinolone.

    Keywords: Transforaminal Block, Lumbar Radicular Pain, Triamcinolone, Dexmedetomidine
  • Junko Nakahira, *, Toshiyuki Sawai, Junichi Ishio, Shoko Nakano, Toshiaki Minami Page 3
    Background

    As most studies investigating patient satisfaction with anesthesia have some bias, previous results may underrepresent the true level of dissatisfaction with anesthesia.

    Objectives

    This study aimed to identify factors associated with patient satisfaction with anesthesia.

    Methods

    Data from patients aged 20 years who had previous surgery and were scheduled for additional surgery were obtained retrospectively through preoperative interviews conducted. Informed consent for anesthesia was obtained by an anesthesiologist prior to the additional surgery. The patients were assigned to one of four anesthesia satisfaction levels, then were categorized into two groups; a high satisfaction group and a low satisfaction group. After comparing parameters between the two groups, logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors  that were negatively associated with satisfaction with anesthesia.

    Results

    Of 478 patients interviewed subjects, 469 patients were analyzed. Five individuals were excluded because they were unable to provide informed consent, and four subjects were excluded because they were aged < 10 years at the time of their previous surgery. Age < 65 years, previous surgery for malignancy, female sex, estimated operation duration < 3 hours, and American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status score 1 or 2 were included in a logistic regression analysis. Age < 65 years, previous surgery for malignancy, and female sex were predictive of poor patient satisfaction with anesthesia. Reasons for poor satisfaction with anesthesia included postoperative shivering and chills, fear of surgery, ineffective spinal anesthesia, and postoperative surgery-related pain. Of the patients awaiting surgery for malignancy, 57.3% had previous surgery for malignancy.

    Conclusions

    Age < 65 years, previous surgery for malignancy, and female sex were negatively associated with patient satisfaction with anesthesia. These factors should be considered when preparing patients for future procedures to improve postoperative patient satisfaction.

    Keywords: Anesthesia, Patient Satisfaction, Preoperative Interview
  • Ahmad Salehi Derakhtanjani, Ali Ansari Jaberi, Shahin Haydari, Tayebeh Negahban Bonabi Page 4
    Background

    There are limited reports available on preferred chest physiotherapy methods in patients with coronary artery graft (CABG) surgery.

    Objectives

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of active cyclic breathing technique (ACBT) and routine chest physiotherapy on pain and respiratory parameters in patients undergoing CABG surgery.

    Methods

    This randomized clinical trial was carried out from July to November 2018. Seventy patients were selected randomly after CABG according to inclusion criteria and then assigned in two groups (35 in ACBT and 35 in routine physiotherapy) by random minimization method. The arterial blood gas levels, pain, heart rate, and respiratory rate were measured for both groups before and after the intervention on two consecutive days after surgery. Data were analyzed by SPSS software V.22, at a significance level of 0.05.

    Results

    The two groups were similar in terms of demographic variables. In within group comparison in the physiotherapy group, the level of PaO2,HR,RR, and pain increased significantlyonboth days (P = 0.001), SaO2 onthe first day (P = 0.005) and second day (P = 0.001), and PaCO2 on the first day (P = 0.02). In ACBT group, the level of SaO2, HR, RR, and pain increased significantly on both days (P = 0.001),HCO3 on the first day (P = 0.021), and PaO2 on the second day (P = 0.001) post intervention. In between group comparison, on the first day, the level of PH (P = 0.034), and on the second day HCO3 (P = 0.032) decreased, while RR (P = 0.011) increased significantly in the physiotherapy group, at post-intervention phase.

    Conclusions

    ACBT and routine physiotherapy had similar effects on arterial oxygenation, HR, and pain perception following CABG surgery. The physiotherapy on the second day increased the RR to an abnormal range.

    Keywords: Coronary Artery Bypasses Surgery, Respiratory Physiotherapy, Active Cyclic Breathing Technique, RespiratoryParameters, Pain
  • Daniela Chalo, *, Sara Pedrosa, Pedro Amorim, Aura Silva, Paula Guedes de Pinho, RuiCorreia, Sonia Gouveia, Consuelo Sancho Page 5
    Background

    Anesthesia inductionandmaintenance with propofol can be guided by target-controlled infusion (TCI) systems using pharmacokinetic (Pk) models. Physiological variables, such as changes in cardiac output (CO), can influence propofol pharmacokinetics.
    Knee-chest (KC) surgical positioning can result in CO changes.

    Objectives

    This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between propofol plasma concentration prediction and CO changes after induction and KC positioning.

    Methods

    This two-phase prospective cohort study included 20 patients scheduled for spinal surgery. Two different TCI anesthesia protocols were administered after induction. In phase I (n = 9), the loss of consciousness (LOC) concentration was set as the propofol target concentration and CO changes following induction and KC positioning were quantified. In phase II (n = 11), based on data from phase I, two reductions in the propofol target concentration on the pump were applied after LOC and before KC positioning. Propofol plasma concentrations were measured at different moments in both phases: after induction and after KC positioning.

    Results

    Schnider Pk model showed a good performance in predicting propofol concentration after induction; however, after KC positioning, when a significant drop in CO occurred, the measured propofol concentrations were markedly underestimated. Intended reductions in the propofol target concentration did not attenuate HD changes. In the KC position, there was no correlation between the propofol concentration estimated by the Pk model and the measured concentration in plasma, as the latter was much higher (P = 0.013) while CO and BIS decreased  significantly (P < 0.001 and P = 0.004, respectively).

    Conclusions

    Our study showed that the measured propofol plasma concentrations during the KC position were significantly underestimated by the Schnider Pk model and were associated with significant CO decrease. When placing patients in the KC position, anesthesiologists must be aware of pharmacokinetic changes and, in addition to standard monitoring, the use of depth of anesthesia and cardiac output monitors may be considered in high-risk patients.

    Keywords: Hemodynamics, Knee-Chest Position, Propofol Pharmacokinetics, Anesthesia, Infusion Pumps
  • Seyed Hamid Reza Faiz , Nasim Nikoubakht, Farnad Imani , Mohsen Ziyaeifard , Hossein Sadeghand Poupak Rahimzadeh Page 6
    Background

    Acupuncture has been used for more than two thousand years as part of traditional Chinese medicine.

    Objectives

    This randomized prospective clinical trial aimed to compare the effect of acupuncture on K1 (Yongquan) and DU26
    (Renghong) with acupuncture on K1 (Yongquan) and DU25 (Suliao), with sham acupuncture on the recovery time of general anesthesia.

    Methods

    The patients (51) were randomly assigned to three groups: (A) acupuncture on K1 and DU26, (B) acupuncture on K1 and
    DU25, and (C) sham acupuncture. In each group, at the end of surgery acupuncture was performed accordingly for twenty minutes
    and the Bispectral Index (BIS) values at end of surgery, 5th minute, 10th minute, 15th minute and 20th minute as well as time of
    extubation and time of eye opening after the end of surgery were evaluated.

    Results

    BIS study at 5th minute, 10th minute and 15th minute after the end of surgery in the groups revealed a significant difference
    between sham acupuncture group and both A and B acupuncture groups, which was higher in groups A and B in comparison
    with sham acupuncture group. Time of opening eyes and time of extubation after the end of surgery between group A and sham
    acupuncture group differed significantly, which was earlier in group A. There was no significant difference between group B and
    sham acupuncture group in terms of eye opening and extubation time.

    Conclusions

    Acupuncture on K1 andDU26accelerates restoring of consciousness and shortens of eye opening and extubation after
    general anesthesia, but on K1 and DU25 only speeds up retrieving of consciousness without significant effect on time of eye opening
    or extubation after general anesthesia.

  • Akifumi Kanai , *, Yuriko Niki , Norihito Hayashi , Shinji Maeda, Kazunobu Horie , HirotsuguOkamoto Page 7
    Background

    Predicting the spread of anesthesia after intrathecal injection of plain local anesthetics is challenging owing to both patient and anesthesiologist-related factors.

    Objectives

    This study aimed to examine the initial patient-reported sensory changes during intrathecal injections and used multilevel analyses to examine the relationships between these changes and other major factors affecting the spread of anesthesia.

    Methods

    The participants were 120 consecutive patients with the American Society of Anesthesiologists status I and II, who were scheduled for open repair of inguinal hernias under spinal anesthesia. Lumbar puncture was performed at the midline of the L3 - L4 vertebrae and 3 mL of 0.5% isobaric bupivacaine was administered at 0.25 mL/s. The onset, dermatome, and side of the initial subjective sensory changes (ISSCs) were assessed by patient report. The extent of sensory loss to ice and pinprick stimuli, the degree of motor block in lower extremities, blood  pressure, and heart rate were examined at 5-minutes intervals for 20 minutes after intrathecal injection.

    Results

    All patients reported ISSCs after 9 (4, 18) seconds [median (minimum, maximum)] of the intrathecal injection onset. In 66.7% of the patients, ISSCs occurred in the L1 - L5 dermatomes. Three patients experienced pain during the early intraoperative period, and described ISSCs in the sacral dermatome. Height, mean blood pressure, and ISSCs were significantly correlated with sensory loss. Faster onset, lower dermatome, and floor-side of ISSCs predicted a narrower area of sensory loss, with dermatome as the most important indicator.

    Conclusions

    Our findings demonstrate that ISSC, primarily based on dermatome, is a significant predictor for spinal anesthesia spread.

    Keywords: Plain Local Anesthetic, Sensory Change, Spinal Anesthesia
  • Shahnam Sedigh Maroufi, Parisa Moradimajd, *, Seyed Ali Akbar Moosavi, Farnad Imani, Hamidreza Samaee, Mehmet Oguz Page 8
    Background

    Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is considered a common complication of anesthesia, which, particularly in eye surgery, may exert pressure on stitches and open or leak the surgical wound, leading to bleeding.

    Objectives

    We aimed to study the effect of ginger on PONV and changes in vital signs after eye surgery.

    Methods

    In this triple-blind randomized controlled trial, 120 candidate patients for eye surgery were divided into group A (n = 40) and group B (n = 40). Patients in group A received the capsules of ginger 1 g while patients in group B received a placebo one hour before the procedure with 30 mL water. The incidence of nausea and the frequency of vomiting were evaluated at 0, 15, 30 minutes, and 2 hours after the operation. Also, the vital signs of the participants were recorded at certain times.

    Results

    The results demonstrated a statistically significant difference in the frequency of nausea between group A and group B (P < 0.05). The severity of nausea was lower in group A than in group B immediately and 2 hours after recovery (P < 0.05). The incidence of vomiting was significantly lower in group A than in group B (P < 0.05). The vital signs were not significantly different between group A and group B (P > 0.05).

    Conclusions

    Ginger was effective in the prevention of PONV after eye surgery but had no impact on vital signs. Hence, ginger is proposed to use as a low-cost, prophylactic measure for PONV reduction.

    Keywords: Ginger, Nausea, Vomiting, Eye Surgery, PONV
  • Bridget Bishop , Brett Pearce , Luke Willshire , Matthew Kilpin , William Howard, LaurenceWeinberg , Chong Tan Page 9
    Background

    Thoracic surgery often results in severe postoperative pain. Regional analgesia via surgically placed extrapleural local anaesthetic (LA) and continuous infusion (CI) is an effective technique, however usually requires supplemental opioid to achieve satisfactory patient analgesia. We hypothesized that high frequency, low background rate extrapleural programmed intermittent boluses (PIB) of LA by could achieve superior patient analgesia and reduced oral morphine equivalent daily dosage (OMEDD) requirements for up to 3 days after thoracic surgery vs. CI.

    Methods

    We retrospectively analysed data from 84 adult patients receiving extrapleural analgesia after thoracic surgery in a single tertiary teaching hospital. The primary outcome measure was the effect of PIB vs. CI on maximum daily 11-point numerical rating scale (NRS-11) ratings as determined by multivariate linear regression analysis, corrected for OMEDD use, total daily LA dose, surgery type, age, opioid type, and use of ketamine analgesia. Secondary outcome measures were the effect onOMEDDuse, the effect of total ‘rescue’ LA boluses, and univariate analyses of the above outcomes and variables.

    Results

    PIB on day 0, and a higher proportion of LA given as rescue boluses on day 1 were associated with reduced maximum NRS-11 ratings [standardized/ [unstandardized] beta coefficient -0.34/ [-0.92 NRS-11 if PIB] (P = 0.007); and -0.26/ [-0.029 NRS-11 per mg/kg extrapleural ropivacaine] (P = 0.03)], respectively. Only patient age was associated with reduced OMEDD use [day 0: -0.58/ [-4.4 OMEDDs per year of age] (P0.005); day 1: -0.49/ [-3.56 OMEDDs per year of age] (P0.005); day 2: -0.32/ [-1.9 OMEDDs per year of age] (P = 0.04)]. OMEDD use on day 2, however, was associated with slightly higher maximum NRS-11 ratings [+0.28/ +0.006 NRS-11 per mg OMEDD (P = 0.036)]. On univariate analysis, PIB patients achieved the largest difference in OMEDD use [-98 mg (95% CI -73 to -123 mg)] and NRS-11 ratings [-1.1 (-0.4 to -1.8)] against CI patients on day 3.

    Conclusions

    Use of high frequency, low background rate PIB extrapleural LA after thoracic surgery appears to have a modest beneficial effect on acute pain, but not OMEDD use, over CI when adjusted for patient, surgical and other analgesic factors after thoracic surgery. Further work is required to elucidate the potential magnitude of effect that extrapleural LA given by PIB over CI can achieve.

    Keywords: Pain, Acute Pain, Regional Anaesthesia, Extrapleural, Paravertebral, Local Anaesthetic, Thoracic Surgery
  • Sarah Namjoo, *, Ahmad Borjali , Mohammadreza Seirafi , Farhad Assarzadegan Page 10
    Background

    Mindfulness-based interventionshaveshowntobeefficient inmanagingchronic pain. Cognitive factors play a prominent role in chronic pain complications and negative cognitive contents about pain are often the first issues targeted in cognitivebased therapies, which are known as first-line treatment of chronic pain over the past decades. Little, however, is known about the manner of thinking about pain or pain-related cognitive processing.

    Objectives

    Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) on pain-related cognitive processing and control of chronic pain in patients with primary headache.

    Methods

    A clinical trial was conducted in 2017 - 2018 on 85 Persian language patients with one type of primary headache selected through purposive sampling inEmamHossein Hospital in Tehran province. To measure the variables of the study, we used the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) and  Pain-related Cognitive Processing Questionnaire (PCPQ). All data were analyzed by independent t-test and chi-square and longitudinal data were analyzed using linear mixed model analysis.

    Results

    Statistically significant timegroup interactions were found in pain intensity (P < 0.001), pain interference (P < 0.001), as well as in three cognitive processing subscales including pain focus, pain distancing, and pain openness (P < 0.001). However, the results of pain diversion were not meaningful.

    Conclusions

    MBCTis a potentially efficacious approach for individuals with headache pain. Regulation and correction of cognitive processing are considered as effective cognitive coping strategies in MBCT treatment.

    Keywords: Mindfulness-based Cognitive Therapy, Primary Headache, Pain-Related Cognitive Processing, Attention Placebo ControlGroup
  • Koorosh Ghorbaninezhad, Fozieh Bakhsha, *, Zahra Yousefi, Solmaz Halakou, ZahraMehrbakhsh Page 11
    Background

    Tranexamic acid and vitamin C are potent antifibrinolytic and oxidative stress agents that reduce blood loss and transfusion blood in cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB).

    Objectives

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of tranexamic acid (TA) and tranexamic acid combined with vitamin C (TXC) on drainage volume (blood loss) and atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients undergoing cardiac bypass surgery in Gorgan, Shafa hospital, Iran.

    Methods

    This study is a double-blind randomized clinical trial. A sample size of 120 candidates of cardiac bypass surgery were included in this prospective study. Patients were randomly assigned to treatments in two groups. In both groups, 50 mg/kg tranexamic acid was administered intravenously directly before sternotomy: group A (N = 58) patients received tranexamic acid (TA) only and group B (N = 62) tranexamic acid with vitamin C (TXC) half an hour before surgery and 2 g vitamin C with 100 mL 0.9% saline were injected. Subsequently, during 4 days after surgery, 1000mgof vitamin C and 100 cc 0.9% saline was infused every day. Intraoperative and postoperative blood loss (volume of blood in the drain) and atrial fibrillation complications were recorded for 24 hours after the operation.

    Results

    The patients who received vitamin C had less bleeding during operation and in the early hours post-operation. Patients in (TA) group had mean drainage of 34.41 milliliter more than patients in (TXC) group (P < 0.001). Chi-square test showed that arrhythmia (AF) condition was the same in the two groups during 14 times of study (four times during operation and ten times up to 24 hours after the operation), and AF arrhythmia in the two groups was less than 5%.

    Conclusions

    In this study tranexamic acid with vitamin C have a positive effect on the amount of drainage (blood loss) and there was no significant difference in the incidence of AF between two groups.

    Keywords: Vitamin C, Tranexamic Acid, Blood Loss, Atrial Fibrillation, Hemodynamic Changes
  • Anna Rupniewska, Ladyko , *, Malgorzata Malec, Milewska Page 12

    Fentanyl is a popular intraoperative analgesic linked with the development of opioid tolerance (OT) or opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH). The development of OIHorOTmaylead to several issues such as delayed healing after surgery and timely discharge. Moreover, it causes discomfort in patients with higher pain scores, greater use of analgesics, andother associated side effects. The current study aimed at determining whether the amount of intraoperatively administered fentanyl affects the onset of acute postoperative pain. The current retrospective study was conducted on 56 patients undergoing laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy. In patients receiving relatively large doses of fentanyl intraoperatively (over 3 g/kg body weight), the onset of acute postoperative pain accelerated significantly, in comparison with the ones receiving lower doses.

    Keywords: Fentanyl, Opioid Tolerance, Opioid-Induced Hyperalgesia, Postoperative Pain, Perioperative Period, General Anesthesia
  • Farhad Tavakoli , , Fardin Yousefshahi , Arman Dabir , Hossein Majedi Page 13
    Introduction

    Patients with severe visceral abdominal or pelvic pain are sometimes candidates for celiac or superior hypogastric block. These blocks are performedin the prone position that is usually very painful for these patients.We introduce another position for these blocks that can be better tolerated.

    Case Presentation

    We performed the superior hypogastric plexus block in the lateral position in a patient who was suffering from severe abdominal and pelvic pain. The procedure was done under the guide of C-Arm fluoroscopy. After the procedure, the pain score reduced to 2 out of 10 on the 11-point Numeric Rating Scale and the patient was discharged without any complication.

    Conclusions

    Superior hypogastric plexus block in the lateral position was safe and effective for a patient with severe abdominal and pelvic pain.

    Keywords: Pain, Cancer, Pelvic Pain, Hypogastric Plexus, Block, Lateral Position, Intra-Abdominal