فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:6 Issue: 1, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/11/16
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Uosra Majidi, Monireh Amerian, Farideh Khosravi, Ali Abbasi, Mahboobeh Khajeh, Hossein Ebrahimi* Pages 1-5
    Background

    The aim of study was to determine the effect of gradual reduction in sodium dialysate on occurrence of muscular cramp, and the serum level of calcium and magnesium in patients undergoing hemodialysis.

    Methods

    This triple-blinded cross-over clinical trial was conducted on 56 hemodialysis patients. After random allocation of patients into group A by the routine method (fixed sodium dialysate) and group B with gradual reduction in sodium dialysate, they underwent a 3-session dialysis. After one week of dialysis through routine method (wash out), patients underwent 3-session dialysis in group B by routine method and in group A by gradual reduction in sodium dialysate. Occurrence of muscular cramp was recorded by using a check list. Patients, serum level of calcium and magnesium before and after intervention was measured. Descriptive statistics indices and inferential statistics tests (repeated measures Analysis of variance) were used.

    Results

    The rate of muscular cramp in routine method was 3.8% in one muscle, 1.9% in two or more muscles, and in the method of gradual reduction of sodium dialysate was 1.9% in one muscle, and 7.5% in two or more muscles. The mean difference of plasma calcium and magnesium before and after the dialysis with routine method was 0.43 and 0.26, respectively, and in the method of gradual reduction of sodium dialysate was 0.45 and 0.34. In this study no significant difference was observed for the rate of occurrence of muscular cramp and serum level of calcium and magnesium between two methods.

    Conclusions

    The results showed that gradual reduction of sodium dialysate, has no effect on occurrence of muscular cramp during dialysis, serum level of calcium and magnesium in hemodialysis patients. Further investigations are needed to better understand the exact effect of this method, and also eliminate the study limitations

    Keywords: Calcium, Hemodialysis, Magnesium, Muscle cramp, Sodium dialysate
  • Seyed Mohammad MirHosseini, Reza Mohammadpourhodki, Ali Abbasi, Mohammad Hasan Basirinezhad, Hossein Ebrahimi* Pages 6-9
    Background

    Taking care of patients with chronic diseases such as diabetes exerts great tiredness and stress on the caregivers. The aim of this study was to determine the extent of the caring burden and its relationship with the quality of life of caregivers of diabetic patients.

    Methods

    In this cross-sectional study, 154 caregivers of patients with type 2 diabetes referred to Imam Hossein hospital in Shahroud city were evaluated. The data collection tools included a demographic questionnaire, SF-36 standard quality of life questionnaire, and Novak & Guest care burden questionnaire. The accessible sampling was used and the data were collected by self-reporting. The data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics (Pearson correlation coefficient and regression analysis). Significant level was set at 0.05.

    Results

    The mean age of caregivers was 41.86 ± 12.78 years old. The mean scores of care burden and quality of life of the participants were 53.21 ± 49.61 and 61.02 ± 20.71 respectively. There was a significant inverse correlation between the mean score of care burden and caregivers’ quality of life.

    Conclusions

    According to the results of this study, providing social and informational support for caregivers is recommended to reduce the care burden and subsequently improve the quality of life.

    Keywords: Caring pressure, Quality of life, Diabetes, Caregiver
  • Seyed Abbas Mousavi, Zahra Bazrafshan, Ahmad Khosravi* Pages 10-12
    Background

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common mental disorder in adults. The objective of this study was to develop a valid Persian version of the 18-question ASRS-V1.1 according to WHO translation protocol and report its psychometric properties.

    Methods

    In the first step, we translated the original 18-question ASRS-V1.1 version into Persian under the supervision of the WMHCIDI advisory committee. The process of adaptation was consisting of forward-translation, expert panel evaluation, back translation, crosscultural adaptation, pre-testing, and final adjustment. In the second step, we conducted a cross-sectional study with 734 students were studied in Shahroud in 2013. A sub-sample of subjects consists of 99 students were clinically interviewed according to DSM-IV-TR criteria by a well-trained physician.

    Results

    The ASRS-V1.1-P had satisfactory internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.85). Sensitivity and specificity for the first six questions of ASRS-V1.1-P were 50.0% (95% CI: 30.3-69.6) and 80.5% (95%CI: 70.7-88.3), respectively. Finally, 43 subjects (5.5%) were confirmed for adult ADHD. There was not sex predominance in the prevalence of ADHD.

    Conclusions

    Totally, it may be concluded that adult ADHD is a common problem among students and prevention of this disorder is crucial to reduce the probable subsequent social, educational, and job problems in future. The 18-question ASRS-V1.1-P is a psychometrically reliable and valid measure for screening ADHD in adults.

    Keywords: Attention-deficit, hyperactivity disorder, Screening, Adult, Validity
  • Sepehr Zamani, Mostafa Enayatrad, Hossein Ebrahimi, Kimia Zarooj Hosseini, Robabeh Zarooj Hosseini* Pages 13-17
    Background

    In addition to educational conditions and facilities, the presence of a good and capable teacher is an effective factor in improving teaching and learning processes. The present study aimed to determine the characteristics of a capable teacher from students' perspective at Shahroud university of medical sciences.

    Methods

    The present cross-sectional study was conducted on 289 students at Shahroud university of medical sciences during the academic year of 2017-2018 using a multi-stage random sampling method. Data were collected by a questionnaire containing demographic characteristics and factors affecting the evaluation of capable teachers, including six domains, namely personal characteristics (10 questions), teaching method (14 questions), evaluation and personal communication skills (10 questions), teacher's scholarship (4 questions), and educational rules (5 questions). The data were then analyzed using SPSS.

    Results

    The maximum and minimum mean scores were related to teaching methods (61.9  6.5) and teacher's scholarship (16  3.1) respectively. There were significant relationships between evaluation skills and students' residences, the field of study, and six domains of teacher evaluation and academic level, and six domains of academic satisfaction, evaluation skills, and scholarship.

    Conclusions

    From the learners' perspective, the most important characteristics of a capable teacher included the teaching method, personal communication, and personal characteristics respectively. Awareness of learners' perspectives on education can help teachers to provide informed teaching planning. According to the results of the present study, the criteria of a capable teacher can be evaluated for achieving effective teaching.

    Keywords: Capable teacher, Teaching, Student, Shahroud
  • Somayeh Akbari Farmad, Nahid Davardoost *, Faride Sadeghian, Fatemeh Khodaei Pages 18-21
    Background

    Improving the quality of clinical education requires a continuous review of the existing situation to identify strengths and weaknesses. The aim of the study was to evaluate the quality of clinical education based on the perspective of medical students of Shahroud University of Medical Sciences.

    Methods

    This descriptive-analytical study was conducted at1397-98. Participants were 230 medical students and interns in Shahroud University of Medical Sciences who were enrolled in the study. The data were collected using the clinical education quality assessment questionnaire, with a range of 0-66 points and divided into three levels: weak, moderate and desirable. T-test was used for data analysis. The Significanl level was set at 0.05.

    Results

    The results showed that the mean of the standard deviation of clinical education quality in terms of goals and curriculum (12.95), teacher performance (10.23), and student treatment (4.09) was desirable from medical students' point of view. (Given that the significance level is less than 0.05, these averages are desirable) while in terms of educational environment (4.60) and supervision and evaluation (4.01), it is not desirable.

    Conclusions

    According to the findings, clinical quality status is desirable in most aspects, but it is necessary to eliminate the weaknesses to improve the quality of clinical education in this university in terms of the educational environment, monitoring and evaluation according to the students' viewpoints.

    Keywords: Quality, Clinical Education, Medical Students
  • Farhad Gholami*, Aynollah Naderi Pages 22-25
    Background

    The aim of study was to determine the acute effect of garlic supplementation on total antioxidant capacity and some markers of exercise-induced oxidative stress in sedentary individuals.

    Methods

    In a randomized and double-blinded study, 10 sedentary males (age 22.9 ± 1.9 years, weight 70.5 ± 8.7 kg, BMI 22.9 ± 2 kg/m2, and fat 14.2 ± 4.6 %) performed two sessions of aerobic exercise after either placebo (1000 lg starch) or garlic consumption (1000 mg allicin). Aerobic exercise consisted of 30 minutes running at the intensity of %75-80 of maximal heart rate. Three blood samples were taken before supplementation, 4 hours after supplementation and immediately after exercise and were analyzed for total antioxidant capacity (TAC), Malondialdehyde (MDA), and creatine kinase (CK) levels. Repeated measures of ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc test were applied to analyze the data. The significance level was set at 0.05.

    Results

    Results showed that garlic supplementation had no significant effect on resting levels of variables (Pvalue > 0.05). Aerobic exercise significantly decreased TAC and increased serum levels of MDA and CK levels (Pvalue < 0.05) but the rise of MDA level following exercise was significantly diminished at garlic condition (P < 0.05).

    Conclusions

    Based on the findings of the present study, acute garlic supplementation had no effect on exercise-induced cell damage but may ameliorate exercise-induced lipid peroxidation.

    Keywords: Garlic, Antioxidant capacity, Exercise, Oxidative stress, Lipid peroxidation, CK
  • Setareh Ghanbari, Mina Sadat Kohbodi, Pouneh Zolfaghari, Mitra Lashkari, Maryam Mahdavian, Mohammad Bagher Sohrabi * Pages 26-30
    Background

    Gestational diabetes (GDM) is a complication of pregnancy that is characterized by intolerance to carbohydrates and metabolic diseases. Gestational diabetes has many maternal and fetal complications that need to be carefully controlled. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of calcium-D supplementation on glucose control of patients with gestational diabetes.

    Methods

    This randomized clinical trial study was performed on 84 pregnant women with GDM. Some inclusion criteria were including a positive one-step test during the 24-28 weeks of pregnancy and definitive diagnosis of GDM and some exclusion criteria were including patients with a previous history of diabetes and that requiring insulin therapy during the intervention. The Intervention group was using the routine treatment and calcium supplements plus vitamin D and the control group was using routine treatment only. Fasting blood glucose was measured monthly for both groups until the end of pregnancy. All analyses were performed using SPSS software version 16 and related tests like mean± SD, chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression. Significant level was set at 0.05.

    Results

    Of the 84 patients examined, the mean age of all patients was 29.4±5.2 years that were no significant difference between the two groups (Pvalue= 0.189). The mean BMI of all patients was 25.31±2.72 kg/m2 which was no significant difference between the two groups (Pvalue= 0.312). The mean of the FBS level at the end of the study in the case group was 91.5±12.9 mg/dl and in the control group was 98.9±15.8 mg/dl, which was significantly lower in the case group (p=0.014). GDM variables were significantly associated with a positive history of diabetes mellitus (Pvalue<0.033), previous history of GDM (Pvalue<0.013) and FBS (Pvalue<0.001) and there was no significant relationship with other variables.

    Conclusions

    The results of this study showed that calcium-D supplementation has a significant effect on glucose control in patients with GDM and its use is recommended in these patients.

    Keywords: Gestational diabetes, Calcium, Vitamin D, Glucose
  • Saeed Maleki, Saeed Amanpour*, Mohammad Ali Firoozi, Mohammad Reza Rohani, Rasaf Pages 31-35
    Background

    According to many problems in contemporary cities, the emphasis is on new approaches and approaches to urban development and the creation of a favorable link between the urban environment and social life through the enhancement of the components of urban livability. The aim of the study was to identify the effective components of behavioral and functional good urban governance on promoting urban livability in the Ahvaz metropolitan area.

    Methods

    This study is a descriptive-analytical type. The statistical population of the study consisted of Ahvaz metropolitan citizens (1302591 persons) and academic professors and elites. The sample size of the citizens was 383 based on the Cochran model and the sample size of academic professors and elites was 100 people based on the Delphi method. The t-test in SPSS 23 software and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) based on partial least squares (PLS) were used for data analysis.

    Results

    The most desirable indicators of urban livability were recreation, leisure and public transport and the lowest desirable indicators were employment, income, environmental sustainability, and personal and social security. Also, among the components of behavioral and functional good urban governance, the highest impact on the promotion of the urban livability related to justice, transparency and responsibility were 0.753, 0.704 and 0.632, respectively. The Goodness of Fit (GOF) of models was found to be 0.513 which indicates the overall utility of the model.

    Conclusions

    The results show that Ahvaz metropolis is in poor condition in terms of components of good governance and urban livability. Keywords: Behavioral and Functional Components, Good Urban Governance, Livability, Ahvaz Metropolis.