فهرست مطالب

  • سال هفدهم شماره 1 (پیاپی 32، بهار و تابستان 1398)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/12/04
  • تعداد عناوین: 12
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  • سید علی حسینی*، رضا ویسی، محمد کشاورز مافی، مریم محمدی صفحات 1-22
    اهداف

    با گسترش و توسعه شهرنشینی و افزایش روزافزون جمعیت، نیاز به استفاده از خودرو و به تبع آن ایجاد جایگاه های سوخت متعدد، نسبت به گذشته، بیشتر احساس می شود. طی سال های اخیر، بر اساس سیاست های دولت مرکزی، مبنی بر کاهش مصرف بنزین و صرفه جویی در این بخش، رویکرد و توجه ویژه ای نسبت به تولید خودروهای گازسوز صورت گرفته است. مهمترین مشکل در مسیر خدمات رسانی این بخش، عدم توزیع مناسب جایگاه ها از لحاظ کمی و محدود بودن شعاع عملکردی جایگاه های مذکور است.

    روش

    این تحقیق با روش توصیفی - تحلیلی و با هدف تجزیه و تحلیل وضع موجود استقرار جایگاه های سوخت (CNG و بنزین) و مکان یابی درست این جایگاه ها با توجه به استانداردها و مشخصات فنی انجام گرفته است. برای تجزیه و تحلیل اطلاعات از مدل فرایند تحلیل سلسه مراتبی (AHP) استفاده شده است.

    یافته ها

    بر اساس یافته های تحقیق و تجزیه و تحلیل اطلاعات، جایگاه های سوخت بنزین و ایستگاه های CNG در شهر قزوین هم از لحاظ شاخص های نظیر الزامات سازه ای، ایمنی تجهیزات و بازرسی آزمون های دوره ای در وضعیت مناسبی قرار ندارند و هم دسترسی شهروندان به این جایگاه در کلیه نقاط شهر در حد متعارف نیست. همچنین، با تطبیق  نقشه نهایی حاصل از مدل مکان یابی با نقشه وضع موجود جایگاه های سوخت بنزین و CNG در سطح شهر قزوین مشخص شد که از تعداد 20 جایگاه سوخت بنزین و CNG، تعداد 2 جایگاه در اراضی با ارزش خوب، تعداد 9 جایگاه در اراضی با ارزش متوسط و تعداد 9 جایگاه در اراضی ضعیف قرار گرفته اند و هیچ یک از 20 جایگاه های موجود در سطح شهر در اراضی با امتیاز خیلی خوب قرار نگرفته اند.

    نتیجه گیری

     پس از مشخص کردن پهنه های مناسب جهت استقرار جایگاه سوخت و نیز در جهت ایجاد تعادل و توازن در توزیع فضایی جایگاه ها، پیشنهاد شد 7 جایگاه جدید در مناطق مساعد و دارای اولویت ایجاد شود.

    کلیدواژگان: جایگاه های سوخت بنزین، ایستگاه های CNG، مکانیابی، مدل AHP، شهر قزوین
  • علی باقری کشکولی، اصغر ضرابی*، میرنجف موسوی صفحات 23-51
    اهداف

    هدف این پژوهش بررسی و اولویت بندی شاخص های توسعه پایدار شهری و شهر خلاق در شهرهای استان یزد است. در این راستا از مولفه های شهر خلاق، یعنی سرمایه انسانی خلاق، کیفیت زندگی، زمینه های نوآوری و سرمایه اجتماعی به منظور ایجاد بستری برای تحقق شهر خلاق استفاده شده است.

    روش

    نوع پژوهش کاربردی - توسعه ای و روش تحقیق  "توصیفی-  تحلیلی" است. شاخص های تحقیق 70 شاخص توسعه پایدار و 30 شاخص شهر خلاق است. جهت تجزیه و تحلیل داده ها از مدل تحلیل شبکه (ANP)، مدل تاپسیس، ضریب پراکندگی استفاده شده است.

    یافته ها

    شهر یزد با 529673 نفر جمعیت و 5/54 درصد جمعیت شهرنشین استان 5/6  برابر دومین شهر استان (میبد) و 990 برابر آخر شهر استان (خضرآباد) جمعیت داشته که این رقم نمایانگر عدم تعادل و ناهنجاری در توزیع خدمات و امکانات شهری و تاکید بر تمرکزگرایی در سطح سکونت گاه های شهری استان است.

    نتیجه گیری

    می توان نتیجه گرفت هر چند شاخص های توسعه پایدار به منظور رشد و توسعه شهرها دارای اهمیت زیادی هستند و توسعه یافتگی شهرها بر مبنای آن ها بررسی می شود، اما این شاخص ها زمانی می توانند به توسعه مطلوب شهر و تحقق مواردی چون شهر سبز، شهر سالم منجر شوند که مولفه های شهر خلاق نیز به کار گرفته شوند؛ چرا که شاخص های شهرهای خلاق انعطاف پذیری بیشتری نسبت به شاخص های توسعه پایدار دارند و مسائل موجود در منطقه را با رویکرد توسعه کیفی مدنظر قرار می دهند و صرفا به رشد توجه نمی کنند.

    کلیدواژگان: شهر خلاق، توسعه پایدار، ارزیابی، اولویت بندی، تحقق پذیری، شهرهای استان یزد
  • مریم قاسمی* صفحات 53-89
    اهداف

    گسترش گردشگری در نواحی روستایی همواره با شکل گیری الگوهای مختلف گردشگری همراه بوده است. با توجه به تعدد بقاع منسوب به امامزادگان در نواحی روستایی کشور، گردشگری مذهبی یکی از الگوهای مهم گردشگری این نواحی محسوب شده و سالانه حجم بالایی از گردشگران را به نواحی روستایی جذب می   کند. بر این اساس هدف تحقیق حاضر، بررسی نقش گردشگری مذهبی بر کیفیت زندگی خانوارهای روستایی است.

    روش

    نوع تحقیق کاربردی، روش تحقیق توصیفی - تحلیلی و گردآوری اطلاعات و داده های مورد نیاز به شیوه اسنادی و میدانی با استفاده از ابزار پرسش نامه بوده است. تجزیه و تحلیل به کمک آمار توصیفی و استنباطی (آزمون تی تک نمونه ای، همبستگی پیرسون، آنالیز تجزیه واریانس، فریدمن) صورت گرفته است. در این مطالعه کلیه روستاهای دارای امامزاده در سطح شهرستان مشهد (14 روستا با 22 بقعه منسوب به امامزادگان) مورد بررسی قرارگرفت. واحد تحلیل خانوارهای روستایی(جامعه میزبان) به تعداد 194 خانوار بوده که به صورت تصادفی وارد نمونه شد. متغیر مستقل و وابسته به صورت همبسته مورد بررسی قرار گرفت و اثر گردشگری مذهبی بر کیفیت زندگی روستاییان در سه بعد محیطی- کالبدی با 13، اقتصادی با 16 و اجتماعی با 11 متغیر مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار گرفت.

    یافته ها

    نتایج آزمون تی تک نمونه ای نشان داد با توجه به Sig.≤ 0.05 از دیدگاه جامعه میزبان گردشگری مذهبی به ترتیب بر کیفیت زندگی در بعد محیطی-کالبدی با میانگین 2.93، در بعد اجتماعی با 2.71 و در بعد اقتصادی کیفیت زندگی با میانگین 2.09 و در کل بر کیفیت زندگی با میانگین 2.50، کمتر از متوسط (میانه نظری) اثرگذار بوده است نتایج حاصل از آزمون فریدمن نیز این یافته را تایید می کند. همچنین، تفاوت معناداری بین میانگین کیفیت زندگی در روستاهای مورد بررسی مشاهده می شود (F= 10.6, Sig =0)، نیز رابطه مثبت و معناداری با شدت متوسط (r= 0.59, Sig =0.026) بین کیفیت زندگی و تعداد گردشگران مذهبی دیده می شود.

    نتیجه گیری

    جاذبه های مذهبی پراکنده در نواحی روستایی اغلب از ظرفیت بالایی در زمینه جذب گردشگر برخوردار بوده، اما فاقد برنامه مشخص در زمینه توسعه گردشگری بوده و با نشت اقتصادی بالا مواجه هستند. بنابراین، اغلب موفقیت چندانی در سطح محلی برای بهبود کیفیت زندگی ساکنان همراه نداشته است. بی شک توسعه گردشگری باید براساس فرایند برنامه ریزی جامع و بر اساس کاهش نشت اقتصادی از این نواحی صورت گیرد تا بتواند بر بهبود کیفیت زندگی ساکنین تاثیرگذار باشد.

    کلیدواژگان: سکونت گاه های روستایی، گردشگری مذهبی، شهرستان مشهد، کیفیت زندگی، جامعه میزبان
  • مصطفی امیرفخریان*، علیرضا معینی صفحات 91-124
    هدف

    مطالعه پیش رو بدنبال بررسی نقش الگوهای فضایی گردشگری با تاکید برگردشگری طبیعی و مذهبی بر میزان تغییرات جمعیتی (افزایش یا کاهش) در نواحی روستایی استان خراسان رضوی است. با توجه به تنوع محیط های روستایی و میزان بهره مندی متفاوت این نقاط از امکانات و خدمات، به منظور دستیابی به نتایج واقعی، ضروت انجام این ارزیابی، به تفکیک محیط های همگن احساس شد.

    روش تحقیق

     در ابتدا با بهره گیری از مدل های پشتیبانی فضایی چندمعیاره، اقدام به شناسایی خوشه های همگن روستایی شد که ماحصل آن شناسایی 3 خوشه همگن روستایی بود. در ادامه با بهره‏‏‏‏گیری از مدل های رگرسیونی لجستیک اقدام به معادله‏سازی در خصوص میزان اثرگذاری الگوهای فضایی گردشگری بر تغییرات جمعیتی (افزایش یا کاهش) در نقاط روستایی طی بازه زمانی 1390-1375 شد.
    یافته ها و

    نتیجه گیری

    نتایج این بررسی نشان داد که در شرایط کنونی الگوهای فضایی فوق بین 07/0 تا 3/2% در تغییرات (افزایش یا کاهش) جمعیت روستایی استان اثر گذارند که بیانگر اثرپذیری کم آن ها در این خصوص است. از سوی دیگر این اثرگذاری در بین خوشه های همگن روستایی متفاوت است. به گونه ای که در روستاهای با امکانات کم، گردشگری مذهبی به تنهایی و گردشگری مذهبی و طبیعی با یکدیگر و در روستاهای با امکانات بالا، گردشگری مذهبی به تنهایی توانسته است نقش موثری در تغییرات جمعیتی (افزایش یا کاهش) نقاط روستایی استان داشته باشند.

    کلیدواژگان: الگوهای فضایی گردشگری، استان خراسان رضوی، رگرسیون لجستیک ترتیبی
  • مسعود تقوایی، حسین حسینی خواه*، کیان شاکرمی صفحات 125-154
    اهداف

    هدف پژوهش حاضر، بررسی عوامل موثر بر تحقق شهر الکترونیک و تحلیل فضایی شکاف دیجیتال در نواحی شهر یاسوج می باشد. جامعه آماری پژوهش، کل شهروندان شهر یاسوج می باشند که از این مقدار حجم جامعه، 320 نفر به عنوان نمونه انتخاب شد.

    روش

    روش پژوهش از نوع توصیفی- تحلیلی و میدانی است و برای تجزیه و تحلیل آمار و اطلاعات از نرم افزار AMOS، SPSS و مدل GRA استفاده شده است.

    یافته ها

    نتایج حاصل از پژوهش نشان می دهد که در بین نواحی شهر یاسوج، ناحیه 2 با ضریب 962/0 ازنظر شاخص های ICT نسبت به دیگر نواحی دارای وضعیت مطلوب تری است و ناحیه 4، بالاترین میزان شکاف دیجیتال در بین دیگر نواحی را به خود اختصاص داده است. همچنین، نواحی 3 و 2 به ترتیب با وزن های 490/0 و 460/0 از نظر دسترسی به شاخص های ICT در رتبه های بعدی قرار دارند. نتایج حاصل از تحلیل یافته ها نشان می دهد که میانگین شاخص های موثر در تحقق شهر الکترونیک در شهر یاسوج با میانگین کلی کمتر از 3، نشان دهنده وضعیت ضعیف خدمات و امکانات ICT شهر الکترونیک در سطح شهر یاسوج می باشد.

    نتیجه گیری

     نتایج مدل نهایی برازش شده معادلات ساختاری نشان داد که در مجموع سه متغیر فاوا در محل کار، فاوا در محل سکونت و زیرساخت های شهرداری الکترونیک به ترتیب با میزان بتای 23/0، 46/0 و 29/0 درصد، به صورت مستقیم باعث افزایش رضایتمندی شهروندان از زیرساخت های ICT شهر الکترونیک خواهد شد، در حالی که متغیر رضایتمندی با میزان 32/0 و سواد الکترونیکی با میزان 67/0 در پذیرش مظاهر ICT شهر الکترونیک تاثیرگذاری مثبت داشته اند.

    کلیدواژگان: شهر الکترونیک، شهر یاسوج، فناوری اطلاعات و ارتباطات، معادلات ساختاری
  • محمدعلی فیروزی*، جعفر جوان، معصومه توانگر صفحات 155-191
    هدف

    این مقاله با هدف تحلیل نقش زیارتی و گردشگری شهر مشهد، از طریق شناسایی گسست ها، گفتمان های مسلط و آثار فضایی گفتمان ها بر شهر مشهد با تمرکز بر روش تبارشناسی فوکو، تدوین شده است.

    روش تحقیق

    روش تحقیق حاضر تبارشناسی فوکویی است. رهیافت تبارشناسی به مثابه چارچوب نظری و روشی است که پدیده شهر را با نگاهی تاریخی می نگرد. تحلیل تبارشناسانه نقش شهر و تحولات آن در طول زمان، نمایانگر فرایند گذار شهرها از وضعی به وضع دیگر، آرایش های گفتمانی و روابط میان گفتمان ها در یک جامعه و شناسایی احکام و گزاره های گفتمانی در خلق شهر با نقش خاص است.

    یافته ها

    بررسی ساختار قدرت در پیوند با دانش که به تولید فضای شهری منجر شده است، تحلیل مناسبی از تحولات نقش شهری ارائه می دهد. بدیهی است تحولات و توسعه شهر مشهد در پیوند با نقش زیارتی آن معنا می یابد. در این مقاله ساختار قدرت/دانش پدید آورنده و جهت دهنده به نقش زیارتی و گردشگری مشهد، در درون دو کلان گفتمان دوران تسلط مدرنیسم و دوره پیشامدرن، تحلیل و واکاوی شده است.

    نتیجه گیری

    نتایج تحلیلی پژوهش نشان می دهد، گفتمان پیشامدرن تحت تاثیر دو گسست مهم؛ نخست شهادت امام رضا (ع) و پیدایش مشهد الرضا و دوم، استقرار حکومت صفویان و نضج و گسترش مذهب تشیع در ایران، عرصه نقش آفرینی روابط قدرت/دانش به سمت و سوی تقویت نقش مذهبی و زیارتی مشهد پیش رفت و در هنگامه ورود مدرنیسم به کشور و تسلط گفتمان مبتنی بر آن و در پاسخ به تحولات فضای اجتماعی شهر، در تعامل با فضای جهانی و ملی و در قالب سه خرد گفتمان مشروطیت، ملی گرایی عصر پهلوی و اصول گرایی پس از پیروزی انقلاب اسلامی، به سوی نقش تلفیقی زیارتی- گردشگری سوق یافته است.

    کلیدواژگان: تبارشناسی، گفتمان، نقش زیارتی، نقش گردشگری، شهر مشهد
  • امید علی خوارزمی*، فروزان طاهری صفحات 193-222
    اهداف

    امروزه فناوری اطلاعات و ارتباطات یکی از اصلی ترین ابزارهای تحول و توسعه جوامع محسوب می شود. خدمات شهر الکترونیک، نقش فراوانی در ارتقای کمی و کیفی، تسریع و همچنین تسهیل کردن خدمات شهری به عهده دارند. لزوم وجود زیرساخت های لازم برای ایجاد شهر الکترونیک در شهرهای در حال توسعه و عدم اطمینان ناشی از پیچیدگی محیطی، پیش بینی آینده را در این شهرها با مشکل مواجه کرده است، به گونه ای که برنامه ریزی سنتی دیگر قادر به پاسخ گویی نیست و می توان از روش سناریونویسی در جهت پیش بینی آینده و تبیین جایگزین های ممکن در شرایط متفاوت استفاده کرد. هدف از این پژوهش، توسعه سناریوهای محتمل در شکل گیری شهر الکترونیک در مشهد و ارائه راهبردهایی در جهت رسیدن به شهر الکترونیک پویا در افق 1404 است.

    روش

    برای رسیدن به این هدف 6 گام اصلی سناریونویسی دنبال شد که در این راستا مطالعات کمی و کیفی صورت گرفت. در ابتدا در قالب پرسش نامه (در دو بعد درجه تاثیرگذاری و عدم قطعیت) از 60 نفر از متخصصان در حوزه شهر الکترونیک در مشهد نظرخواهی شد و به وسیله آزمون های آماری توصیفی و استنباطی نظیر فریدمن عوامل موثر اولویت بندی شد و سپس پیشران های بحرانی شکل دهنده سناریوها تعیین شد و در جهت تعیین منطق سناریوها، توسعه سناریوها، بررسی پیامدها و همچنین تعیین راهبردها با ابزار مصاحبه نیمه ساختار یافته با 7 نفر از متخصصان که به روش اشباع نظری انتخاب شدند مصاحبه شد.

    یافته ها و نتایج

    نتایج تحقیق نشان می دهد که 3 سناریو برای آینده کلان شهر مشهد در رابطه با شهر الکترونیک قابل تصور است که با عناوین وضعیت طلایی، وضعیت عدم پیوستگی و وضعیت راکد معرفی شده است و در نهایت نیز راهبردهایی جهت رسیدن کلان شهر مشهد به سناریوی مطلوب ارائه شده است.
     

    کلیدواژگان: سناریونویسی، شهر الکترونیک، راهبردها، شهر مشهد
  • ابوالفضل مشکینی، رباب ملکی، ابراهیم معمری* صفحات 223-248
    اهداف

    امروزه فضاهای شهری دچار مسائلی چون کیفیت پایین محیط، زوال و فرسودگی محلات، محرومیت و نابرابری های اجتماعی- اقتصادی و نابرابری در دسترسی به خدمات و امکانات شهری می باشند. از اواخر قرن بیستم این شرایط محققان و برنامه ریزان شهری را بر آن داشت تا بر مفهوم زیست پذیری به عنوان یکی از مهم ترین رویکرد های دستیابی به محیط شهری قابل زیست و با کیفیت تاکید کنند. در این راستا هدف پژوهش حاضر، سنجش و اولویت بندی میزان زیست پذیری در نواحی شهری گرگان بر اساس شاخص های موثر در تعیین زیست پذیری می باشد.

    روش

    نوع تحقیق کاربردی بوده و روش بررسی آن توصیفی تحلیلی است. با توجه به جدید بودن موضوع، ابعاد و شاخص ها بر اساس ادبیات جهانی و
    بومی سازی آن ها با شرایط شهر گرگان تهیه شد. برای رسیدن به این هدف، محاسبات مربوط به 16 شاخص موثر در زیست پذیری بر اساس فرایند تکنیک آنتروپی شانون و مدل ELECTR و با استفاده از نرم افزار صفحه گسترده Excel استخراج شده است.

    یافته ها و نتایج

    نتایج حاصل از به کارگیری مدل الکتر به منظور سنجش میزان زیست پذیری در نواحی هشت گانه شهر گرگان بیانگر آن است که 20/404 هکتار از مساحت نواحی شهر گرگان شامل14/11 درصد در پهنه زیست پذیری خیلی کم، 41/1577 هکتار شامل 02/42 درصد زیست پذیری کم، 2/675 هکتار شامل 62/18 درصد زیست پذیری متوسط و  5/1022  هکتار شامل 20/28 درصد در پهنه بندی زیست پذیری زیاد قرار دارند.

    نتیجه گیری

    یافته های بدست آمده حاکی از آن است که با توجه به اینکه نواحی 3 ، 1و2 از کمترین میزان سطح زیست پذیری برخوردار است و در این نواحی شاخص های زیست پذیری در حد پایین قرار دارد. بنابراین، ارائه بهتر شاخص هایی از قبیل فضای سبز، خدمات بهداشتی، آموزشی و مذهبی می تواند باعث ارتقای سطح زیست پذیری شود.

    کلیدواژگان: زیست پذیری شهری، پایداری، کیفیت زندگی، الکتر، شهرگرگان
  • صدیقه لطفی*، مجتبی شهابی شهمیری، ساسان روشناس صفحات 249-281
    اهداف

    از دهه 1990، اصطلاح چندمرکزی به عنوان یک مفهوم راهبردی توجه برنامه ریزان و سیاست گذاران شهری و منطقه ای را به سوی خود جلب کرد. مدافعان این راهبرد ادعا می کنند، مناطق چندمرکزی قادرند تعادلی میان رقابت پذیری اقتصادی، انسجام اجتماعی و پایداری محیطی برقرار کنند. بر این اساس، پژوهش حاضر سعی دارد با بررسی تطبیقی میان راهبردهای رقابت و همکاری راه سومی را برای درهم آمیختن مزایای هریک در برنامه ریزی مناطق شهری چندمرکزی بیابد.

    روش پژوهش

     مطالعه حاضر با توجه ماهیت و هدف پژوهش، از استدلال منطقی و تطبیقی به عنوان راهبرد و روش شناسی پژوهش بهره گرفته است.

    یافته های پژوهش

     یافته های پژوهش سه منطق فضایی را برای توجیه راهبردهای رقابت، همکاری و هم رقابتی معرفی می کند. در حالی که راهبردهای رقابتی بر منطق قلمرویی-رقابتی، مزایای رقابتی هر مرکز و تخصص گرایی تکیه دارند، راهبردهای همکارانه در مقابل آن ها با پیوندهای هم افزا و نوآورانه بر مزایای بیرونی شبکه و شبکه های شهری تاکید می کنند. در نهایت، هم رقابتی مبتنی بر نظریات رفتاری و بازی های غیرهمکارانه و شبکه های رقابتی تاکید می کند تا بتوانند با مزایای راهبردهای رقابتی و همکارانه نظیر افزایش اندازه بازار و غیره به بهبود موقعیت رقابتی دست یابند.

    نتیجه گیری

    پژوهش حاضر، راهبرد هم رقابتی را گزینه ای مناسب تر و اجرایی تر برای محیطی پرتنش، رقابتی و نامطمئن در میان شهرهای مناطق چندمرکزی می داند. در این راستا، راهبردهای متنوع هم رقابتی می تواند به دو صورت در مناطق شهری چندمرکزی رخ دهد،  هم رقابتی افقی و هم رقابتی عمودی. در هم رقابتی افقی شهرها در یک عملکرد خاص یا در یک پروژه اجرایی مشترک با یکدیگر همکاری می کنند، در حالی که در بخش دیگر با یکدیگر به رقابت می پردازند.

    کلیدواژگان: رقابت، همکاری، هم رقابتی، مناطق شهری چندمرکزی
  • تهمینه چهره آرا ضیابری*، طاهر صفرراد صفحات 283-306
    اهداف

    پژوهش پیش رو سعی دارد با ارائه شاخصی جدید، بارش های سنگین و فراگیر سواحل جنوبی خزر طی فصل پاییز را واکاوی کرده و آن را پیش بینی کند.

    روش

    در این راستا، داده های روزانه بارش مربوط به 8 ایستگاه سینوپتیک سواحل جنوبی خزر طی سال های 1986تا2010 گردآوری شدند. بارش سنگین در هر ایستگاه به عنوان رخدادی که مقدار بارش روزانه آن بیش از میانگین بلند مدت آن ایستگاه بوده باشد، تعریف شد و در گام بعدی اگر 6 ایستگاه به صورت همزمان بارش سنگین داشته باشند به عنوان بارش سنگین و فراگیر مورد مطالعه قرار گرفتند. طی دوره مورد مطالعه 104 رخداد بارش سنگین و فراگیر شناسایی شد. برای بررسی شرایط همدید نیز با مراجعه به مرکز ملی پیش بینی محیطی/علوم جو(NCEP/NCAR) داده های مولفه های مختلف جو اخذ شد. به منظور شناسایی و واکاوی الگوهای همدیدی این بارش ها با رویکرد محیطی به گردشی از طریق تحلیل خوشه ای به روش ادغام وارد انجام شد.

    یافته ها

    نتایج نشان داد که در همه الگوها، حضور یک پرفشار در نیمه شمالی خزر سبب ایجاد جریانات شمالی می شود که با حرکت به سمت جنوب، ضمن جذب رطوبت از منبع رطوبتی واقع در منطقه، ناپایدار شده و نهایتا منجر به بارش های سنگین و فراگیر در سواحل جنوبی خزر می شود. وقوع بارش های سنگین در منطقه همراه با گرادیان فشار در راستای شمال به جنوب بوده، این درحالی است که مقدار گردایان فشار مثبت باشد. بر همین اساس شاخصی جدید تحت عنوان گرادیان فشار دریای خزر (GCP) ارائه شد.

    نتیجه گیری

    وجود ارتباط قوی و معنادار این شاخص با شاخص های دور پیوندیAo, NAO, NCPI700, CACO و SHI و همچنین بارش های سنگین و فراگیر در تمامی ایستگاه های مورد مطالعه حاکی از توانایی این شاخص جهت مطالعه بارش های سنگین و فراگیر در سواحل جنوبی خزر طی فصل پاییز است. طی ارزیابی های صورت گرفته و تحلیل روز به روز بارش های سنگین شرایط ذکر شده تایید شد.

    کلیدواژگان: بارش های سنگین و فراگیر، تحلیل همدیدی، شاخص GCP، سواحل جنوبی خزر
  • حسن مینایی، علی اکبر تقیلو* صفحات 307-332
    اهداف

    مدیریت آب شامل عملیات برنامه ریزی، توسعه، توزیع و مصرف بهینه منابع آب تحت مقررات و سیاست معین است که می تواند نقش موثری در استفاده بهینه از آن داشته باشد. تحقیق حاضر بر آن است که مسائل و مشکلات مدیریت آب در بخش کشاورزی را شناسایی کند و راهکارهای لازم را برای حل آن ها ارائه دهد.

    روش

    روش تحقیق براساس هدف توصیفی و تحلیل می باشد. روش جمع آوری اطلاعات اسنادی و میدانی بوده و برای جمع آوری اطلاعات از ابزار پرسش نامه با طیف پنج گزینه ای لیکرت (خیلی کم، کم ، متوسط، زیاد و خیلی زیاد) استفاده شد. جامعه آماری تحقیق کارکنان جهاد کشاورزی شهرستان بوکان می باشد. متغیرهای تحقیق در چهار بخش طبقه بندی گردید؛ عوامل بحران آب، تهدیدات و فرصت های بحران آب، عوامل با اهمیت در مدیریت آب و راهکارهای مدیریت آب.

    یافته ها

    نتایج نشان داد در بخش عوامل بحران آب، بهره برداری نامناسب از منابع با میانگین 33/4 مهمترین عامل، در بخش تهدیدات بیابان زایی با میانگین4/4 مهمترین تهدید، در بخش فرصت های بحران آب انگیزه تغییر الگوی کشت محصولات کشاورزی با میانگین 35/4 و با ضریب تغییرات 74/17 مهمترین فرصت، در بخش مهمترین مولفه مدیریت، الگوی کشت با میانگین 53/4 و در بخش راهکارها گسترش روش های آبیاری تحت فشار با میانگین تاثیرگذاری 46/4 مهمترین راهکار بدست آمد.

    کلیدواژگان: مدیریت منابع آب، بخش سمینه، اتلاف آب، بهره برداری نامناسب
  • سعید کاردار، حامد قادرمرزی، افشین بهمنی* صفحات 333-356
    اهداف

    تحقیق حاضر با هدف شناسایی مهم ترین اولویت های زیست پذیری از دیدگاه ساکنان، تاثیر ارتقای روستا به شهر را در بهبود شاخص های زیست پذیری مورد ارزیابی قرار می دهد.

    روش

    روش تحقیق توصیفی- تحلیلی با رویکرد کیفی بوده و نحوه گردآوری داده ها به دو شیوه اسنادی و میدانی است. جامعه آماری تحقیق، تعداد 1075 سرپرست خانوار شهر بلبان آباد و نمونه مورد مطالعه بر اساس فرمول کوکران 120 نفر می باشد. تحلیل داده ها به این صورت است که در ابتدا با بهره گیری از روش تحلیل محتوا (نظریه بنیانی) در نرم افزار MAXQDA، مفاهیم محوری و عناصر کلیدی زیست پذیری از دیدگاه ساکنان شناسایی شد، سپس با استفاده از تکنیک اهمیت- عملکرد (IPA) و ماتریس دو وجهی آن، اولویت های زیست پذیری، کیفیت درک شده توسط ساکنان و شکاف میانگین اهمیت- عملکرد شاخص های زیست پذیری ارزیابی می شود.

    یافته ها

    نتایج نشان می دهد که مهم ترین شاخص های زیست پذیری، مشتمل بر 17 مفهوم محوری است که در چارچوب چهار مقوله هسته ای زیرساخت ها، دسترسی، زیباسازی و امنیت جای می گیرند. ارزیابی سطح اهمیت- عملکرد شاخص های زیست پذیری شهری نشان می دهد که بعد دسترسی با میانگین اختلاف 81/1- دارای پایین ترین سطح کیفیت زیستی بوده و بعد از آن، بعد امنیت با میانگین 70/1- قرار دارد. همچنین، میانگین کل شکاف زیست پذیری شهری 67/1- می باشد که موقعیت فاقد مطلوبیت را بر روی ماتریس نشان می دهد.

    نتیجه گیری

    اگر چه توزیع فضایی امکانات و برقراری شبکه به هم پیوسته سکونت گاه های انسانی به واسطه سیاست هایی از جمله تبدیل روستا به شهر به لحاظ ماهیتی، مطلوب و پسندیده است، اما با ضعف در اجرا و عملیاتی نشدن اهداف و چشم اندازهای ترسیم شده، نه تنها این سیاست به ارتقای شاخص های زیست پذیری منتهی نشده بلکه در برخی زمینه ها به ویژه از بعد جمعیتی، پیامدهای منفی در پی داشته است.

    کلیدواژگان: زیست پذیری، تبدیل روستا به شهر، کیفیت زندگی، بلبان آباد، تکنیک IPA
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  • Seyed Ali Hosseini*, Reza Vaicy, Mohammad Keshavarz Mafi, Maryam Mohammadi Pages 1-22
    Introduction

    Given the expansion of urban population resulting in increased use of vehicles, fuel provision has been at the center of government activities’ attention. CNG is an environment-friendly and reasonably priced fuel which is intended to substitute liquid fossil fuels. To this end, the establishment of CNG stations alongside gas stations has been taken into account in the urban services sectors and it requires strategic planning and thinking. Undoubtedly, such a vital industry which provides the fuel for transportation and mobility plays a role of utmost importance; experts and planners of the industry must consider suitable locations for CNG and gas stations in line with fast, secure, and proper service provision. One of the most considerable issues faced by drivers involves the lack of accessible CNG and gas stations relative to the number of vehicles throughout the city. Subsequently, the identification of suitable locations for these stations can be a significant contribution to service provision.

     Review of Literature

    There are a number different views and theories with respect to the location of public services across cities along with planning for urban land use. Yet during the recent decades and under the influence of systemic perspectives, the major approach in the area of physical-spatial organization of cities has been based upon policies and strategies that are largely focused on retaining planning coordination, urban dynamics, application diversity, integration between the city and nature, ecological balance, adjacency among houses, work places and recreation centers, traffic relaxation, social bonds, etc. With regards to the location and organization of urban services, it is recommended to adopt suitable strategies in line with increasing environmental awareness and supervision, modifying flexible criteria and regulations for various applications, strengthening urban designs, physical-spatial organization of activities, technical provisions, preventing pollution, and developing cooperation in urban management; it is also recommended to refrain from separating activities and enforcing strict rules.The idea of a GIS was first introduced in Canada by Tom Linson in 1960.. A lot of research has been done in Iran in the field of GIS utilization. The first of them was Akbar Parhizkar's dissertation in1997 in the PhD thesis "Case Study of Locating Fire Centers in Tabriz" and Face and Nasiri Studies in 2010 entitled Spatial Distribution of Gas Industry Infrastructures and in particular CNG stations across Qom province and Khodro Gas Company in 2008 locate CNG stations along the country's highways. In this research, it is anticipated to provide the number and location of traffic distribution in different cities and roads of the country in order to determine the level of service utilization of the stations and the necessary coverage in urban and road networks for vehicles. These recommendations can provide the necessary means for introducing more harmony between physical and social environments, that is, equilibrium in human-environment relations. Consequently, the main perspective adopted in this study is the systemic view; It is attempted to analyze the status quo of CNG and gas stations throughout Qazvin city using the principles of said view as well as location criteria of land use (compatibility, utility, capacity, and dependency matrices).

    Method

    The present applied study is conducted using the quantitative method. To evaluate the location status of urban equipment such as CNG and gas stations in Qazvin using location criteria, first the suitable lands for the establishment of these stations should be identified using location indices. Then, the positioning location and spatial distribution status should be compared with location results. To this aim, the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) should be employed and suitable principles must be taken into account among different indices so as to identify proper locations for the establishment of CNG and gas stations.

    Results and Discussion

    Given the presence of high-pressure equipment such as compressor storage tanks and their connecting pipes, refueling stations have a significant potential for unexpected incidents. Therefore, compliance with safety regulations is essential. Accordingly, the entire initial design stages including construction, installation, operation, and maintenance should follow an acceptable, standard procedure. Standard guidelines on the construction of CNG and gas stations may be different in various countries. In Iran, the national standards adopted for these stations are a combination of standards in Argentina and New Zealand.CNG station standards in Iran are divided into 4 parts: Structural necessities of CNG stations;Piping;Equipment safety;Periodic investigations and testing.

    Conclusion

    Given the results of analyses conducted on the results, CNG and gas stations throughout Qazvin city are currently at an undesirable state in terms of indices including structural necessities, equipment safety, and periodic investigations; moreover, citizens’ access to these stations are inadequate as well. Ultimately, after carrying out the location model and conducting comparisons between the final plot obtained from the location model and the current plot of CNG and gas stations across Qazvin city, it was shown that out of 20 CNG and gas stations, 2, 9, and 9 stations are located in areas with good, medium, and weak values, respectively. The results of comparisons with zoning maps also demonstrated that none of these 20 stations in Qazvin are located at very good lands.

    Keywords: Gas Stations, CNG Stations, Location, AHP Model, Qazvin City
  • Ali Bagheri Kashkouli*, Asghar Zarabi, Mirnajaf Mousavi Pages 23-51
    Introduction

    Such concepts as invention and innovation, creativity in all scientific fields amongst citizens, creative industries, sustainable economic elements, and green environment are criteria that supplement social welfare and increase the quality of life and urban livability. These concepts would lead to the development of a creative city through a fourfold scenario involving creative human capital, quality of life, innovation platforms, and social capital. As a result, urban creativity can be considered as a strategic approach which can influence said criteria, given the fact that cities and the quality of lives within them are affected by the ways urban affairs are viewed. In this regard, one of the most important purposes of realizing creative cities and organizing sustainable development indices are attracting and retaining the creative, skilled class of people in cities which are the main requirement of qualitative development, and the success of competing cities in the area of basic economic knowledge. Considering this perspective and the urbanization growth, the large cities of Yazd province such as Yazd city are faced with a number of issues including air pollution due to irregular urban development, population growth, the increased use of fuels, the increased industrial and mineral activities, and environmental problems. These issues highlight the need for the organization of sustainable development indices using the indices of a creative city in line with its realization. The purpose of this study is examining and prioritizing sustainable urban development and the creative city indices in the cities located in Yazd province. To this end, the components of creative city including creative human capital, quality of life, innovation contexts, and social capitals were taken into account so that a platform can be provided for the realization of creative city.

    Review of Literature

    Creativity fortifies the skills and talents of individuals that are influenced by creativity principles such as flexibility, innovation, and leadership in line with achieving a high quality of life and sustainable development (Berridge, 2006). When these principles are utilized, creativity transforms into one of the most important factors in the organization of sustainable development indices (Zarabi, Mousavi, & Bagheri Kashkouli, 2014). Accordingly connections can be made between creativity and the level of urban development, the shift towards creative urban management, the recognition of the role and significance of territorial development, and increasing the competitive power through the acquisition of the creative class (Costa & Roldão, 2009). Florida believes that the key indices of technology, talent, and tolerance capacity have led to the emergence of centers that are qualified for attracting the creative class (Florida, 2002). This class assert the quality of a facility as an effective factor in attracting talented people (Darchen & Tremblay, 2010). Subsequently, employing the creative class as human and social capital, would result in innovation and invention within urban environments, the consequence of which would be an enhanced quality of life for the residents. Additionally, if these components of creative city are utilized in the entire urban sustainability indices, the context for realization of the creative city would be provided; in this regard, the competition and agreement between the factors of realization, conflicts and solidarity are regarded as the barriers against achieving sustainable urban development and creative city. Glosser (2005) believes that creative class have a major influence on the study of factors that affect competition across urban regions.

    Method

    The present applied-developmental study was conducted using the descriptive-analytical approach. The indices of the study were 70 sustainable development indices and 30 creative city indices. Data were analyzed using the Analytic Network Process (ANP) model and TOPSIS model.

    Results and Discussion

    The population of Yazd city with 529,673 people and 54.5% urban residents is 6.5 and 990 times larger than those of the second and the last city of the province, i.e. Meibod and Khezr Abad, respectively. This figure demonstrates the lack of balance and abnormality in the distribution of urban services and facilities, as well as the emphasis on centralization at the level of urban settlements.The ranking of cities of Yazd province in terms of sustainable development indices shows that the highest levels of development belong to cities of Meibod, Taft, and Ardakan. Accordingly, a large percentage of the cities are at a highly deprived level. The examination and ranking of urban creativity criteria across these cities also demonstrate that Yazd and Meibod are at the highest levels of development. In these cities, there are several higher education institutes located at a single special research center. Moreover, there is ample space for creativity, innovation, and deep relationship growth among universities, research centers, factories, and governmental decision-making bodies which are operating in line with the development of technology, applied sciences, and a science priented society. According to the prioritization of the effective factors on the realizability of Yazd province cities’ shift towards becoming creative cities, carried out using the ANP model, the innovation criterion was identified as the most effective one. Meanwhile, indices including the number of knowledge-based companies and the number of industry clusters play the most important role in the realizability of the creative city having values of 0.203 and 0.224, respectively. Furthermore, the creative human resource index, particularly the number of scientific elites across cities of Yazd province also play a significant role in the realization of creative cities and the improvement of urban affairs, particularly in smaller towns.

    Conclusion

    Sustainable development indices are highly important for urban growth and development; yet, despite such a fact and how cities’ level of development are measured based on the above-mentioned indices, they would result in proper development and realization of goals such as healthy and green cities only when the components of the creative city are taken in account as well. As the indices of the creative city are more flexible compared to those of the sustainable development, in these indices, the present affairs within the region are considered through a qualitative development approach in addition to growth.

    Keywords: Creative City, Sustainable Development, Assessment, Prioritization, Realizability, Cities of Yazd Province
  • Maryam Ghasemi* Pages 53-89
    Introduction

    A common pattern of rural tourism is religious tourism; it is one of the oldest and most thriving types of tourism both in the past and present all over the world. Given all the components and various types of this tourism, it has been placed at the core of world tourism due to its particular structural and functional features, occupying 26% of the whole global tourism flow. Currently, there exist 5800 registered tombs attributed to Imamzadehs (descendants of Imams). In this regard, there are 22 monuments located in 14 rural settlements surrounding Mashhad. Mashhad as the center of pilgrimage of Iran attracts millions of tourists every year (almost 28 million people in 2016, for instance). Since the goal of 84% of tourists in Mashhad is pilgrimage, the spreading of these tourists across the city would enforce the tourism structures at the region. Studies show that rural regions with religious tourist attractions have somewhat been placed at the religious tourism flow of Mashhad in the recent decade. In 2016, nearly 14.5% of tourists in Mashhad also traveled to religious rural tourist destinations of Mashhad. Experts in the field of tourism believe that the profit generated from the tourism industry in rural regions is not exclusively limited to economic benefits which can be assessed from different angles such as improved quality of rural residents’ lives. Studies show that the growth of tourism in rural areas leads to a number of social, economic, and environmental changes and reforms within the host society. Consequently, tourism development has the potential to influence the improvement of quality of life. Accordingly, the present study seeks to provide answers to the following question: What is the effect of religious tourism on the quality of rural residents’ lives?

     Review of Literature

    In many studies, the construct of the quality of life has been considered in economic, social, and environmental aspects while others have taken objective band subjective dimensions of the quality of life into account; certain studies have also examined the quality of life components such as housing, income, participation, etc. As a platform to introduce social and economic changes in rural regions, many studies show that religious tourism plays an effective role in the rural residents’ quality of life; such consequences can be examined through sociocultural, environmental, and economic aspects. By offering subsistence diversity and providing new opportunities, income generation, creating new markets, and the development of other economic sectors, religious tourism can affect the economic aspect of the quality of life. Furthermore, tourism may also result in shortcomings in the economic area of rural regions and negatively affect the quality of life such as increased prices of lands, income gaps, seasonal occupations, increased prices of commodities and services, etc. Through a social perspective, the reception of religious tourists in rural regions could affect viability and interactions between humans. Moreover, religious tourism can also lead to a number of changes in value systems, individual behaviors, family relations, collective lifestyle, traditional ceremonies, and social institutions. It can also be effective in improving the quality of life through the development of infrastructural investments including transportation and increased environmental sensitivity of the natives. In addition, the presence of religious tourists may also increase environmental pollutions, traffic, and litter.

    Method

    This study was conducted using a descriptive-analytical method. Data were collected using field studies and documents. Using the data extracted from the endowments office, fourteen villages were identified as religious tourism destinations among 480 rural settlements of Mashhad as a result of the presence of monuments attributed to Imamzadehs. The independent and dependent variables were quantified as correlated.  The effect of religious tourism on rural residents’ quality of life was analyzed in three environmental-physical, economic, and social aspects with 13, 16, and 11 variables, respectively. The Cronbach’s alpha for the quality of life construct with 39 items was obtained 0.91, suggesting the suitable reliability of the research instrument. Among the total population of 3674 families, the sample was randomly chosen 194 families using Cochran’s formula, with 0.068 error. Questionnaires were distributed among the sample population.

    Results and Discussion

    As pointed out in background and theoretical framework sections, tourism development can play an important role in improving the natives’ quality of life. However, the study showed that religious tourism has not significantly improved rural residents’ quality of life in Mashhad. Among the examined variables in the economic aspect, “creation of job opportunities in the service sector” variable with a mean value of 2.75 was higher than other variables. Moreover, religious tourism has not considerably improved the quality of life in the social aspect as well; among the examined variables, the “increased interaction and participation of rural residents due to the presence of Imamzadeh in the village” was assessed as the highest with a mean value of 3.55. Additionally, religious tourism has also failed to offer significant improvement in the physical-environmental aspect of the quality of life; the “increased awareness and sensitivity of residents toward the problem of environment” was assessed as the highest with a mean value of 3.52. The mean values of religious tourism in economic, social, and physical-environmental aspects of quality of life were shown to be below average with values of 2.09, 2.71, and 2.93, respectively. With a mean value of 2.50, religious tourism had an insignificant effect on rural residents’ quality of life. The highest mean values of quality of life were found in Miami, Aman Abad, and Tabadkan, respectively.

    Conclusion

    The results of the study show the fragile role of religious tourism in improving rural residents’ quality of life. This can be justified by considering the insignificant volume of religious tourists in certain villages (Rezavan, Gounjouk Aliah, and Ziarat with an average of 3000, 3500, and 3500 annual tourists, respectively) along with the negative impacts resulted from the presence of a multitude of tourists (Miami) in the host society. The higher the number of tourist entering a destination, the more effective their presence can be. Though the results of the study did not deny the influence of religious tourism on the quality of life, the intensity of such an influence was assessed as insignificant. Contrary to the results of studies conducted by Rezvani, Akbarian Rounizi, Badri and Sepahvand (2012), Akbarian Rounizi and Khorasani (2013), Ghadami, Aligolizadeh Firozjaye and Ramazanzadeh Lasboyei (2009) which demonstrate the considerable impact of tourism on the quality of life in general, this study was focused on religious tourism which was found to be insignificantly effective. Regardless of the relatively high income generated from vows (nadhr) to monuments (more than 25 billion Tomans in 2015), a large portion of the income is taken out of the village while a small percentage is spent on the constructions related to the monument itself. Taking the subjects mentioned in the theoretical framework section and the results of the study into account, it appears that in addition to the reception of the “religious tourism” concept instead of “pilgrimage destination”, there are three necessary actions to be taken in the short term in religious tourism destinations within rural regions: 1. Creation and improvement of secondary attractions; 2. Qualitative and quantitative development of facilities and services required by tourists; and 3. Preventing the egression of the income generated from the presence of tourists (such as vows) from religious tourism destinations. Clearly, these actions can increase tourist retention along with creating diverse non-agricultural job opportunities, generating more income directly and indirectly for the village; subsequently, improvement in the economic status of families would result in an improved quality of life in different aspects.

    Keywords: Imamzadeh, Mashhad, Religious Tourism, Quality of Life, Tourism Destinations
  • Mostafa Amirfakhriyan*, Alireza Moeini Pages 91-124
    Introduction

    In a general classification, tourism patterns can be divided into two classes in terms of attractions including natural and unnatural environments. Initial assessments of tourism spatial patterns at rural regions of the province undoubtedly requires the identification of the mentioned pattern in these areas. Given the existing data, these spatial patterns can be classified into natural and religious historical tourisms in order to illustrate a more accurate image of these villages which, overall, occupy 37% of the total villages in Khorasan Razavi province (1300 villages). Considering the decline in the rural population of Khorasan Razavi and the increase in migration rates at rural regions on one hand, and the presence of tourism spatial patterns in 37% of rural spots on the other hand, a fundamental question can be posed: to what extent do the spatial patterns at rural areas play a role in rural population changes at the moment? In other words, have these two spatial patterns been able to directly influence the rural population changes of the province? Overall, to what extent have they been able to affect the growth or decline in the rural population? Subsequently, the following hypothesis can be formulated: It appears that rural tourism spatial patterns influence the growth or decline of rural population of the province.  

    Review of Literature

    The use of the word “ecotourism” dates back to the late 1970s. While some would associate the use of this word to the late 1980s, this concept has been developed following the emergence of the sustainability paradigm within the development discourse along with the negative impacts of tourism on natural and social environments since 1980. This form of tourism provides the means for humans’ leisure activities in the nature; it is based on purposeful trips, which involve cultural and spiritual perceptions, visiting and studying natural attractions as well as utilizing and enjoying diverse natural phenomena. Moreover, there is a significant focus on protecting natural attractions and values. Religious tourism is also considered as one of important tourism patterns at rural regions. Given its roots in religious beliefs, this type of tourism ventures beyond leisure time and significant human geography factors in the formation of travels, and cultural focus and perspective in technical terms. Overall, religious tourism can be regarded as a type of tourism in which tourists exclusively follow religious motives which may also be integrated with alternative motivations to visit sacred places such as churches, mosques, tombs, Imamzadeh monuments, etc.

    Method

    The study was conducted using a combination of a descriptive and an analytical method. To this end, it was conducted in three stages in addition to drawing a framework intended for the conceptual model of the research. In the first stage, with regards to the mixed index of deprivation, two categories of the related indices including the location features of villages (3 variables) and the existing facilities and services in villages (7 variables) were identified so as to indicate homogeneous rural clusters. Consequently, the Geographical Information System was employed and a location database was created for the entire rural regions of the province with respect to mentioned indices. Then, villages were ranked based on multi-criteria decision-making models. In the second stage, villages were clustered and homogenous clusters were identified using the two-stage cluster analysis model.

    Results and Discussion

    In terms of the population average index, villages with both natural and religious tourism patterns had the highest growths. In this regard, the average population of these villages was increased from 925 to 1010 in 2006-2011 period. With a growth rate of 0.19, these villages are at a better position compared to others. In contrast, villages with spatial patterns of either natural or religious tourisms show negative population growths. This is especially the case in villages with religious attractions. Overall, despite the higher population averages of villages with tourism patterns compared to other villages at level one rural areas, data on population growth rate demonstrate the undesirable situation of the population decline rate in the former.

    Conclusion

    The study uncovered an important part of the hidden reality regarding population changes (growth or decline) in rural settlements of Khorasan Razavi, which in fact, is the extent to which such changes are affected by the existing tourism spatial patterns at rural regions. In general, given the overall consequences of population changes in villages of Khorasan Razavi, the presence or absence of tourism spatial patterns do not significantly impact the changes in rural populations. Currently, the rural population change trend is affected by other factors. For instance, increased income and unemployment are effective factors in migration from rural areas. However, despite the presence of numerous tourism patterns at these rural spots, there has yet to be an efficient context for their utilization. As a result, tourism spatial patterns do not play a significant role in changing rural populations, and thus the first hypothesis of the study is rejected.Given the second hypothesis, results show the different impacts of tourism patterns with respect to the extent to which rural areas benefit from services and facilities. In this regard, distinct effects can be observed in each pattern. Consequently, the second hypothesis of the study is confirmed.

    Keywords: Spatial patterns of tourism, Khorasan Razavi Province, Ordinal logistic regression
  • Masoud Taghvaei, Hossein Hosseinekhah*, Kiyan Shahkarami Pages 125-154
    Introduction

    The city of Yasuj is one of the middle cities in the country which due to the lack of appropriate urban infrastructure has suffered problems such as traffic, noise, air pollution, lack of transparency, administrative bureaucracy, lack of parking, narrow streets, the location of passenger terminals inside and outside of the city, and so on. Moreover, it seems that ICT facilities and services in the city of Yasuj are not equally distributed among the districts, as some districts, in this case, seem to be more appropriate than others. Therefore, the present study seeks to evaluate and measure the level of electronic infrastructure in Yasuj, the impact and improvement of the quality of citizens' life, and the improvement of the performance of Yasuj municipality in the use of information communication technology infrastructure in Yasuj.

    Review of Literature

    Now, the implementation of e-city's infrastructures and its realization at the cities’ level is one of the essential and significant aspects of sustainable urban development in contemporary urbanization. So, the consequences such as information and communication technology can play a more effective role in managing problems such as traffic, air pollution, and the increasing urban sustainable development. Also, decreasing the digital division between regional and urban areas, is one of the main goals of e-city, as the existence of a digital divide, is one of the important factors creating inequality in the present age.

    Method

    Regarding the nature of the study, the descriptive-analytic method has been applied. The required data were obtained through a survey which were distributed among the citizens and experts. The data and information were analyzed through AMOS and SPSS as well as using GRA model. The statistical population of the research is the total population of Yasuj (114100 people) (Iranian Center of Statistics, 2011) among which the sample size of 320 people was estimated using Cochran's formula. The basis of the theoretical model is derived from the three variables of ICT at work, ICT at home, and the electronic municipality. These variables affect the satisfaction of ICT services and will lead to the adoption of ICT manifestations in the city of Yasuj.

    Results and Discussion

    The results of the analysis show that the mean of effective indicators in implementing the electronic city in Yasuj is less than 3. This amount indicates the poor status of ICT services and facilities in the electronic city of Yasuj. In this regard, using structural equation modeling the effectiveness of ICT indicators and the infrastructures of the e-city was investigated based on the six dimensions of approaching ICT services at the e-city at work and residential, having e-literacy, having the acceptance of ICT manifestations, optimizing the satisfaction of ICT services, the infrastructure of the e-city and the e-municipality. Besides, the measurement model shows that the factor loadings of all the obvious variables of the study were at an acceptable level. Therefore, the validity of the variables of the research has been verified. The variables related to the six variables have well been measured by the questionnaire items. Also, the questionnaire items have well been established and evaluated based on the dimensions of research. The structural analysis of the final model shows that the three variables of ICT at the residency, ICT in the workplace, and ICT technologies of e-city exacerbate the satisfaction of the ICT status very well. In other words, there is a significant relationship between the three variables with the satisfaction variable of communication and information technologies of e-city.

    Conclusion

    Finally, after analyzing the obtained data and information, it can be concluded that among the four areas of Yasuj, district 2 (with a coefficient of 0.962) has a better status than other areas in terms of ICT indicators due to the extreme concentration of the administrative centers, the economic centers, the banks, the financial and the credit institutions, the offices and the other internet services, including Internet cafes, etc. District 4 of the city has the highest digital division among other areas due to the residence of people with the low income and economic status, the distance to the city , and so on (with a coefficient of 0.410). Generally, district 2 with a coefficient of 0.962, district 1 with a coefficient of 0.490, district 3 with a coefficient of 0.460,  and the fourth district with a coefficient of 0.410 have the highest and lowest access and possession to the ICT indicators of the e-city. The investigation of the fitting status of the final model shows the factors affecting the realization of the e-city with the proposed criteria. The fitted model has been valid and accurate and has been able to explain the factors affecting the realization of the city. Eventually, the structural analysis of the final model shows that the three main indicators including ICT in residence, ICT at work, and ICT technologies in e-city have a directly positive impact on increasing the satisfaction of citizens from ICT indicators with 0.23, 0.46, and 0.29 betas, respectively. In other words, there is a significant relationship between these three variables and the satisfaction variable of communication and information technologies of the e-city.

    Keywords: Electronic City, Yasuj City, ICT, Structural equations
  • Mohammad Ali Firoozi*, Jafar Javan, Masoomeh Tavangar Pages 155-191
    Introduction

    City is one of the elements of geographic space that has been evolved over time and influenced by various natural and human factors. Urban space is part of a larger geographic space. In religious cities, urban development is largely intrinsic, and this determines its role. Mashhad is a religious city and the reason for its existence is the tomb of Imam Reza. Over time, this identity has made the function and role of the city. Spatial diversity of Mashhad is also shaped based on its identity and function. The dominance of Islamic ideology and the need to preserve and promote the position of this ideological thinking by planners, decision-makers, and urban rulers have been proposed for the development of Mashhad. The status of Mashhad as one of the main metropolises of the Iranian urban system has led to the formation and development of this city and its evolution. Identifying the forces that influence the change of geographic space and their social content is essential to discovering and analyzing the discourses that constitute these changes.The present research aimed at identifying the evolution of the role of pilgrimage and tourism in Mashhad, the points of discontinuity and the discourses that have made these developments over time, with a genealogical approach. Therefore, the main purpose of the research is to analyze the role of pilgrimage-tourism of Mashhad and its more detailed

    objectives

    Identification of historical breakpoints affecting the creation and strengthening of tourism-pilgrimage role in Mashhad Identification of the discourses that make the pilgrimage-tourism role of Mashhad, and finally, the effects of dominant discourse on the urban space of Mashhad.

     Review of Literature

     The theoretical framework of the research is based on the explanation of the concept of genealogy, its discourse and its components, the concept of the role of the city and the concept of the role of tourism and pilgrimage of the city. Analytical genealogy is a historical reflection of the past. It discourages the illusions of ideologies, practices, and all types of cultural, social and political institutions. The great rationalization of genealogy analysis is a critical historical presentation that reveals the breakdown between past and present. This historical break with the occurrence of the present (as an event) creates a field for critique. The transformation and presentation of cities from one state to another and the change in the role and function of it within the discourses can be analyzed and studied according to Foucault's theory. In the meaning of discourse there are two important concepts: "exclusion" and "judgment".The turning point of Foucault's debates on power and knowledge relations lies in the concept of "exclusion". Ruling processes, the result of the dominance of dominant discourse, are shaped and defined by the power relations. A multitude of judgments form a discursive formulation. Discourse arrangements and discourse relationships in a community are Episteme. It seems that in order to determine the role of the city, in addition to economic indicators, political, social and ideological factors and their power in the social environment should be considered. Genealogy does not consider discourse change from one period to another based solely on self-discourse logic. This approach emphasizes the role of metadiscourse. In this transformation, "power" is considered as the main theme of the metadiscourse that affects their discourses and their transformations of this city.

    Method

    "Genealogy" is a theoretical approach or framework for studying a phenomenon. The unique feature of this theoretical framework is the historical view of the phenomenon. There is no validity and reliability in the "genealogy" method, as in quantitative and survey research. The study method was developed in three consecutive stages. Identifying the important historical breakthrough points on creating and strengthening the role of tourism-pilgrimage in Mashhad; Identifying the authoritative discourses on the role of tourism-pilgrimage in Mashhad; Analyzing of the effects of dominant discourses on the urban space of Mashhad.The required data of the research was gathered by documentary method. To analyze the discourses and its effects on the changes in the role of tourism-pilgrimage in Mashhad, the documents of urban development and tourism were used.

    Results and Discussion

    The genealogy of the role of tourism-pilgrimage of Mashhad is based on the identification of historical discontinuities, discourses and the analysis of the effects of discourses in different historical periods. The impacts of the pilgrimage-tourism discourse on the city and the strengthening of this role are evident in planning and managing tourism and pilgrimage infrastructure in Mashhad. It also affects the type of tourists entering Mashhad. These effects are visible in the economic, social, cultural, and physical dimensions. The role and function of tourism in cities, in addition to its effects on the structure and texture of the city, will also provide the infrastructure needed for this role in land use planning and land allocation and financial resources. The domination of pilgrimage-tourism discourse has been shown on the role of Mashhad in reviewing the organizational and executive structure of tourism and pilgrimage, and the orientations of regional and local development plans and documents.

    Conclusion

    The genealogical analysis of the role of Mashhad shows that pilgrimage has been the starting point for the emergence and development of Mashhad. So far, it has continued, but political-social developments and the advent of modern-day and postmodernist capitalist-based thinking have pushed the city into a tourist’s physical, social, and economic environment. The interconnected structures of knowledge and power, in an active and informed partnership, have led urban development to combine the role of pilgrimage with tourism. Since genealogy has a critical approach to the issues, the research methodology can respond to the theoretical conflicts of planners and actors in the field of pilgrimage and tourism management in Iran and Mashhad.

    Keywords: Genealogy, Discourse, Pilgrimage Role, Tourism Role, Mashhad
  • Omid Ali Kharazmi*, Foruzan Taheri Pages 193-222
    Introduction

    The formation of electronic city depends on technology development. The invention of telegraph paves the way for developing actual communications and reduces time and distances. Requirements to build related infrastructures for an electronic city in developing countries and the existence of uncertainty in the environment create a barrier for forecasting future; therefore applying the traditional planning method cannot respond to the needs of society anymore. Thus, it was necessary to use future study methods such as a scenario planning in order to forecast the future. Planning includes an inclination of human to the future in order to solve related problems and create an ability to see the future clearly. One of the approaches of future study is scenario planning. Scenarios do not claim to forecast the exact future but they use the descriptive technique to anticipate events.

    Review of Literature

    Driving forces behind cities and the ever increasing role of the cities in international economic context, need for transferring information, marketing and mobility leads to the commodity and the service exchange between cities. Based on this, IT is a new characteristics of planning and management of cities. The emergence of an electronic city makes urban institutions in the world aware of the importance of increasing the efficiency and accessibility of the service delivery which focuses on the opportunities provided with ICT in order to increase the investment. Researchers presented different factors which have an impact on implementing electronic cities. These factors can be categorized as political, social, technological, institutional, and individual.

    Method

    The aim of this research is to develop probable scenarios for the formation of electronic city in Mashhad and presenting strategies in order to achieve dynamic electronic city concept in 1404. The first stage is to identify focal issues that have an impact on decision making which can be considered as the research objective. In the second stage, key factors are identified which are categorized in five dimensions including political, social, technological, institutional, and individual. The third stage is identifying environmental key issues which are presented as a conceptual model showing the important factors for the implementation of an electronic city. Also, in the third stage, a questionnaire was designed (based on two dimensions of degree of impact and uncertainty) in order to collect idea of experts in this field. Results were analyzed based on descriptive and inferential statistics such as the use of Friedman test to rank the driving forces. In the fourth stage, the scenario logic was shaped based on the result of semi-structured interviews with experts. In order to develop scenarios, a sixth stage was considered for developing and interpreting scenarios. In order to develop and evaluate the consequences of scenarios and to design the related strategies, seven semi-structured interviews were conducted.

    Results and Discussion

    In order to reach the six stages of scenario planning, firstly, 60 people were selected from experts in the area of electronic city of Mashhad. Using descriptive and inferential statistics, influential factors were ranked and the driving forces were identified. In order to define the scenario logic, developing scenarios, predicting its consequences and also defining strategies, interviews were conducted with experts in this field. Results show that three scenarios can be considered for Mashhad as an electronic city including the golden status, non-integrated status, and also the static status. In the later stage, strategies were also identified for reaching the favorable scenario in the future.

    Conclusion

    Based on the research results and the six stages of scenario planning for the electronic city of Mashhad, three scenarios were described among which the best case was introduced. In the following, the summary of results and also strategies to reach the golden scenario is described. It should be noted that the current evaluation of Mashhad  shows a gap between the current status and the desired one using interview results as well as SWOT analysis. Based on the research objective and interviews, the golden scenario is the best for implementing the electronic city of Mashhad where all organizations interact with each other which can result in a formation of an electronic city with all infrastructures, services, and standard facilities in order to deliver services to citizens. In order to transit to the “Golden status”, it is necessary to provide strategies. These strategies should be considered at national, regional, and urban level consequently. Strategies include having accessibility to information at local, national, and international level 24 hours a day, disseminating the innovation culture, studying future to identify and utilize opportunities over time, promoting the status of innovation, integrating the urban management, utilizing the best processes and activities, providing transparency in operation and decision, allocating autonomy and budget for innovative planning and growing IT.

    Keywords: Scenario Planning, Electronic City, Strategies, Mashhad
  • Abolfazl Meshkini, Robab Maleki, Ebrahim Moammeri* Pages 223-248
    Introduction

    The idea of livable cities is a new approach in which a comfortable urban environment is defined as a place for living, physical activities (urban facilities, infrastructure, spatial planning, etc.), and non-physical aspects (social relationships, economic activities, etc.). Whether living in urban or rural areas, every human being seeks to achieve desirable, satisfactory, and meaningful livelihoods which naturally requires a set of contexts and factors to enable humans make a living for themselves and their society founded on long-term welfare and comfort. Certain authors view such conditions as synonymous to livability or proper conditions for living. In general, the concept points to a set of objective features that transform a place into an environment where people would be willing to live in, both in present and future. Urban livability is concerned with aspects that play a role in increasing quality of life. Increased quality of live would, in turn, influence lifestyle and healthcare conditions, enhancing the sustainability of the built environment. One of the main causes of cities’ failure with regards to livability are their lack of identity which may be the result of the absence of many essential activities for urban vitality and enthusiasm as well as the poor quality of urban design and architecture. Gorgan is also facing issues. The expansion of the city of Gorgan has caused many changes and on the other hand, due to the rapid growth and development of the migration and the inefficiency of urban plans, has caused many problems in the economic, social, and environmental aspects that have made the city's viability decline. Gorgan has not resolved these issues. It is then necessary to examine its viability. The main purpose of this research is to investigate the biodiversity of Gorgan.

    Theoretical Framework

    Since livability is a general concept, it deals with other notions such as sustainability, quality of life, spatial quality and healthy communities. Given the latest theories in urbanism, it can be said that the principles present in many of these theories such as sustainable development, smart growth, new urbanism, and compact cities are close to those with livability and quality of life enhancement. Subsequently, the criteria and indices under the focus of these theories can be applied to increase the livability of cities and urban regions. In other words, livability is multifold, hierarchical concept that may form in different levels as a set of criteria or sub criteria.

    Method

    The present applied research was conducted using a descriptive-analytical method. The total population of the study included the residents of Gorgan city regions. Data were collected using library and document studies while raw data were extracted from Grogan city land use. The Shannon Entropy technique was employed to assign weights to livability indices used in the study. The ELECTRE model was also used to evaluate the extent of livability in Gorgan city regions.

    Results and Discussion

    Results obtained from applying ELECTRE model to six regions of Gorgan city show that 404.20 hectares of the regions’ total area, that is, 11.14% involves very low livability, while 1577.41 (42.02%), 675.2 (18.62%), and 1022.5 (28.20%) hectares involve low, medium and high livability, respectively. The results indicated that the majority of Gorgan city regions are located in low livability areas.

    Conclusion

    In recent years, urban livability has been considered as one of the most important criteria indicating the level of comfort and welfare of societies at various levels; it has also been the focus of urban affair planners and managers. Subsequently, prioritizing and determining the extent of entitlement and deprivation in terms of livability aspects in urban regions are of major importance. In the present study conducted with the purpose of uncovering the status quo of Gorgan city regions, 16 indices were indicated for assessment. The ELECTRE model results showed a drastic difference between various regions of Gorgan city. Regions 7 and 8 involve the highest level of livability compared to other regions. Conversely, certain regions such as 1, 2, and 3 involve fewer facilities compared to regions 7 and 8 despite the fact they accommodate fewer population; these regions have failed to meet the needs of their residents efficiently in terms of livability conditions, being at very poor levels. Consequently, a set of recommendations were posed to enhance the level of livability in Gorgan such as increasing the area of green space per capita and construction of new, large and suitable parks with respect to the presence of unused lands as proper areas to be transformed into green spaces as well as providing necessary facilities, providing financial services and credits for deprived regions, particularly region 3 of Gorgan.

    Keywords: Urban Biodiversity, Sustainability, Quality of Life, Electric, Gorgan
  • Sedigheh Lotfi*, Mojtaba Shahabi Shamiri, Sasan Rooshenas Pages 249-281
    Introduction

    While polycentric development policies are applied to a variety of spatial scales, they are also having special interprepertation on a regional scale. Polycentric development on regional scale refers to the development of regional cluster functionality relationships of cities. Issues such as regional competitiveness, regional spatial-functional structure, and cooperation among the cities have been addresed in polycentric urban areas. Polycentic urban regions are composed of clusters of neighboring cities that are separated politically and historically, and do not illustrate a clear hierarchy of economic, political, and demographic order but they are well connected by infrastructures. In all Europe, spatial planners are deploying policies that promote the spatial, economic, and social development of such polycentric urban regions. Since the 1990s, the term of "polycentric" has attracted the attention of planners and policymakers to urban planning once again, not as an urban structure in the region, but rather as a strategic concept. Nevertheless, the planners' perspective on these areas was different. Some believed that cooperation among cities in a polycentric urban region in the form of network logic would place them along the greater monocentric city-regions. In contrast, others emphasized the strengthening of the competitiveness of each city in achieving the functional, economic, and cultural diversity of the polycentric urban region. While cooperative strategies have a stronger theoretical basis, strengthening the competitive position of each city has higher potential as excutive strategy.

     Review of Literature

    Planners and decision-makers believe polycentric areas have high potential. However, the literature considers two approaches to confronting and improving the competitive position of these regions: The first assumption is that sets of small and medium-sized cities together can create opportunities for regional economic growth. While each city is ignored alone, they can work together to achieve a better position in the list of cities in the international competition. However, the fact is that the polycentric region is not necessarily competitive. It needs to form an integrated urban network, to compete in this region. In fact, the term "network" emphasizes the strong and complex relationships between cities and the cohesion and integrity of the region. In addition, networks have a strong link with economies of scale, efficient size for economic critical mass and synergistic activities. Therefore, it has become part of the standard vocabulary of managers, planners, and decision makers for dealing with polycentric urban regions. In particular, synergy is one of the central goals in many polycentric urban policies. The second approach, although accepting these areas as a coherent urban network takes a different method. This group of policy makers believe that the best way to enhance the competitive strengths of a region as a whole is to concentrate each of the smaller functional cities and towns on their comparative advantages and thereby turn their spatial, economic, and cultural diversity into capital. This means that central economic zones are considered as the main places to create the economy of agglomeration, and the diversity of the region as a key point of international competition.

    Method

    The research is qualitative. Polycentric urban regions have been reviewed and analyzed regarding the various documents and secondary informations.

    Results and Discussion

    The research sought to introduce the concept of "co-competition" as the third way by using the literature of marketing networks and marketing, which can combine the benefits of each strategy of cooperation and competition. In this regard, In this regard, a variety of co-competitive strategies can occur in two forms in polycentric urban areas: horizontal and vertical co-competition. In Horizontal co-competition, cities collaborate in a particular performance or in a collaborative project, while competing in other sections. Vertical coopetition in a polycentric urban region means that a city in the region serves as a provider of some of the other city resources in a particular activity, while continuing to compete in their geography of demand.

    Conclusion

    Polycentric urban regions are products of a historical process that has caused conflicting interests among multiple actors due to overlapping of different layers of space. In some cases, levels of local, regional, national, and sometimes international levels are involved. Therefore, co-comptition strategies can be an executive option that also has the theoretical underpinnings of cooperation.But for the implementation of these strategies, two schools of thought were introduced. Pasquinelli (2013) and Guess, De Jong and Mijers (2016), both focusing on the activity-based approach, expanded coopetition in city branding and polycentric urban regions, but they didn’t show the logic of the interaction of actors or cities in each of the games and in different circumstances. Utilizing two schools of thought through game theory can extend our understanding of the contradictions and complexities of the polycentric urban regions of the country on particular topics, especially in the absence of upper level layers of information such as Amol-Babol-Ghaemshahr-Sari (Central part of Mazandaran). So, it is suggested that future studies focus on the decisions of each actors and city and its implementing mechanisms in a particular activity.

    Keywords: Competition, Co-Operation, Co-Competitive, Polycentric Urban Areas
  • Tahmine Chehreara Ziyabari*, Taher Safarrad Pages 283-306
    Introduction

    The southern coast of Caspian Sea, located between Alborz Mountain range and the Caspian Sea, is considered as the smallest climatic zone in Iran (Alijani, 2007). Factors such as the constant passage of troughs and ridges of the western waves, adjacency to the strongest high pressure center of northern hemisphere, and having been located between the largest internal body of water on the earth and the north, and the Alborz high mountains to the south have led to the formation of one of the most diverse, yet prominent climactic zones of Iran at the southern coast of the Caspian Sea. Accordingly, the highest extents of annual, seasonal, daily and even hourly precipitation of the country has been recorded in this region. Meanwhile, with its clear regional diversities and temporal precipitation changes, this zone has witnessed the most intense and durable rainfalls across the country (Mofidi, Zarin, & Karkhaneh, 2014).  The majority of studies conducted on precipitation at the southern coast of the Caspian Sea have been focused on heavy rainfalls; subsequently, the following question can be posed: Can there be an index to study these precipitations so that there would be a significant relation with widespread precipitations at the southern coast of Caspian Sea whilst demonstrating a significant behavior relative to other teleconnection indices of precipitations at this region? By analyzing and summarizing the synoptic features causing heavy and widespread precipitations during the fall season at the southern coast of the Caspian Sea, the present study seeks to offer a new index using their intersection in line with the study of these precipitations.

    Review of Literature

    The literature shows that the involvement of convective, orographic, and dynamic factors result in rainfalls at this region. In one of the earliest investigations, Ganji (1975) considered the orographic ascension of humidity of the Caspian Sea from the northern slopes of Alborz mountain range as the cause of precipitations at the Caspian region. Khoshhal Dastjerdi (1997) identified 115 synoptic systems from ground surface to the level of 200 hectopascals during a 20-year period (1970-89), resulting in precipitations if over 100 mm at the southern coast of the Caspian Sea. He concluded that precipitations of over 100 mm occur at coasts due to the entrance of strengthened fronts of the sea breeze through synoptic systems; moreover, the increase in the precipitation is the result of elevation at northern slopes of Alborz caused by the reinforcement of anabatic winds through said system and the ascension of warm and humid weather through sea breeze fronts to the valleys atop the slopes.

    Method

    To conduct a synoptic examination of heavy precipitations at the Caspian region and to present an index for analyzing these precipitations, daily rainfall data at 8 synoptic stations, located in Iranian Northern provinces including Guilan, Mazandaran, and Golestan were used. To this end, daily precipitation data from 1986 to 2010 were collected from the Iran Meteorological Organization. In this study, the variable thresholoding method was used for each station to indicate heavy and widespread precipitation. Days on which the precipitation at the station was more than the long-term average were considered heavy precipitation; if heavy rain was recorded in more than 70% of stations on that day, then it was considered as heavy widespread precipitation. Next, the synoptic state and the dominant structure of climate flow were studied. Consequently, data including mean sea level pressure, geo-potential height, and orbital and meridional wind components for 17 climate levels during the aforementioned days were collected from the National Center for Atmospheric Research/ National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP/NCAR). The data was employed to produce and analyze mixed sea level pressure maps, wind vector field, relative vorticity, and geo-potential height changes for different periods. Finally, the main synoptic patterns were indicated. Given the need for the classification of the maps as well as the clustering’s ability to reduce the data and find the real groups, the compact hierarchical clustering method was employed using Ward’s agglomerative method.

    Results and Discussion

    Considering the presented definition of heavy and widespread precipitation, 104 events of these precipitations from 1986 to 2010 in the region were identified. Based on the results of sea level pressure clustering for the precipitations, three distinct, significantly different synoptic patterns were identified. Accordingly, three high pressure Siberian and migrating patterns are the causes behind heavy and widespread precipitation at the region during fall. The results of the synoptic analysis of heavy and widespread precipitation days at the southern coast of the Caspian Sea showed that one of the main causes of the occurrence of such rainfalls is the formation of pressure gradient over the Caspian Sea in which the Northern streams are led towards the southern coast. However, this factor required quantification in order to confirm this claim. Therefore, the mean linear pressure in the north of the Caspian Sea was reduced from the mean linear pressure near the southern coast so as to obtain the pressure gradient value which demonstrated wind conditions over the Caspian Sea.

    Conclusion

    The results showed that heavy and widespread precipitations occur at the same time as the high pressure pattern settles on the northern half of the Caspian Sea in such a way that a high pressure present over the sea results in the formation of northern streams above warm waters of the Caspian Sea which in turn leads to humidity absorption from the bottom and unsustainability at the end of the path.Synoptic examinations on this type of precipitation showed that in case all factors result in the formation of northern wind and the synoptic conditions of the upper level enables unsustainability, heavy and widespread precipitations will occur. Exploring the CGP index with other active teleconnection and Siberian high patterns and precipitations at the stations suggest a stronger relation between these indices and all the aforementioned factors compared to the former indices.

    Keywords: Heavy, Widespread Precipitation, Synoptic Analysis, GCP Index, Sothern Coast of Caspian Sea (SCCS)
  • Hasan Minaie, Ali Akbar Taghilou* Pages 307-332
    Introduction

    During the last two decades, macro climatic changes in Simineh region, reductions in celestial precipitation, abundance of evapotranspiration and transpiration caused by an increase in the average temperature, and the interference of human constructive factors such as damming, agricultural activities, and unplanned and unprocessed harvesting of surface water have resulted in an environmental hazard. Therefore, numerous and acute environmental and environmental hazards are among the urgent necessities of production in Simineh region. Therefore, it seems necessary to provide solutions and appropriate strategies to prevent the decline of underground aquifers in the region, reform the model, and provide proper water management. Thus, the present study aims to identify the causes of water crisis, the threats and challenges of water scarcity, water management strategies, and the strengths and weaknesses of agricultural water management in Simineh section. We also intend to examine the strategies for improving agricultural water management in Simineh.In this research, first, the factors of water crisis are investigated. To our knowledge, there is no solution in water management for natural factors, and if there is, it cannot be solved at a regional level within a short time. Therefore, strategies are mainly provided in case of human factors. Then, the threats and opportunities of the water crisis in the region are evaluated. Finally, a water management system is developed and water strategies are presented.

    Review of Literature

    The concept of water resources management has long been discussed in the world but integrated studies of surface and groundwater resources usually began in the 1960s. Numerous studies have been conducted in the field of water management. Cherini (2007) believes that the problem of integrated water management is lack of coordination related to water bodies in Zimbabwe. Ortega et al. (2016) in their study "use of a smart irrigation system to study the effects of irrigation management on the agronomic and physiological responses of tomato plants grown under different temperatures regimes" propound the use of the smart irrigation system as one of the most important scientific achievements for water management.

    Method

    The sample in this study includes the villages of Simineh region, agricultural experts of Jihad’s Agriculture Organization, Simineh Agricultural Jihad Department, and Agricultural Jihad Service Centers. This section has 80 villages, 77of which are inhabited.The variables were extracted from the research and theoretical foundations of the study. These variables include water crisis, water resource management, water scarcity threats, water shortage opportunities, and water resource management strategies.The data collection was carried out in two sections. In the first stage, we collected information on the theoretical foundations of the subject and research records using the documentation methodology, library studies, Internet databases, and interview methods. Next, the required data were gathered and the statistics from the members of technical and engineering companies and consulted services and experts in the relevant organizations of the study area were analyzed. The questionnaire was administered in the form of field studies

    Results and Discussion

    According to the results, among water crisis factors, inappropriate utilization of resources with an average of 4.33 was the most important factor. Among the threats, the desertification with an average of 4.4 was found to be the most important threat. Among the water crisis opportunities, it was found that the motivation to change the pattern of agricultural crops with an average of 4.35, and a coefficient of variation of 17.47 was the most important opportunity. In case of the components, the pattern of cultivating management with a mean of 4.53 was identified as the most important component. Finally, in the strategy section, the development of pressurized irrigation methods with an average impact of 4.46 was the most important strategy.

    Conclusion

    The results show that the cropping pattern with a mean of 5.53 and a coefficient of variation of 17.95 acts as an important factor in creating water crisis. Consequently, it is possible to emphasize the change in water management as a part of the misuse caused by the non-conformance of the product type to the capacity and the potential of the region, which is exacerbated through loss of water in the transmission path. Pressure irrigation is another important component of water management. The results show that this criterion with an average of 4.35 and a coefficient of variation of 16.34 is of great importance in solving the crisis and proper use of water. The above-mentioned factors indicate that water management in the region involves technical weaknesses in water utilization system. Producers' training (with a mean of 4.17 and with a coefficient of variation of 16.45), the assessment of agricultural consumption (with a mean of 4.17 and a coefficient of variation of 17.5), and the conservation and maintenance of water resources such as Qantas and springs (with a mean of 4.0 and a coefficient of variation of 19.37) are considered significant factors in water management. These issues in water management revealed that in addition to the weaknesses in the technical dimension in the area, there is a social weakness that needs to be solved. The socio-economic partnership along with capacity building can provide useful specific strategies in this respect.

    Keywords: Water resources management, Simineh district, Wasting water, Inappropriate utilization
  • Saeed Kardar, Hamed Ghadermarzi, Afshin Bahmani* Pages 333-356
    Introduction

    The policy to transform villages into cities is a strategy to improve the quality of life in small urban settlements. Yet despite such policy making, the progress of developing services and facilities has been slow in many of these newfound cities. Moreover, demographic trends in certain areas are on the decline even prior to becoming a city. Located in Kordestan province, Bolbanabad transformed into a city in 2009. However, the degree of livability and quality of life in different physical, economic, social, and environmental dimensions are at a low level in this city. The present study seeks to provide answers to the following question: What role has the policy of transforming villages into cities played in Bolbanabad with respect to the improvement of urban livability indices?

    Review of Literature

    Newly established cities are small cities. These cities are, in fact, suitable areas for administrative, economic, social, and welfare decentralization from the cities within the region, driving rural development, balancing the population settlement system, and providing the means for sustainable development. They are also suitable areas for biological sites that somehow cater for livability in former villages. Livability refers to the degree to which the necessities of a society are provided with respect to the extent of needs and capacities of individuals and reflects the welfare of the local community. This concept involves a set of relative criteria and indices. While livability in an area for certain people is to have a dynamic economy and sufficient employment and income, socioeconomic security is of priority for others. In general, the purpose of the policy to transform villages into cities is the comprehensive development of livability dimensions in small cities.

    Method

    The present applied research was conducted using a mixed method (qualitative and quantitative) and can be considered a descriptive-analytical study. Data were collected using library studies and survey. The total population of the study included Bolbanabad residents. Since collecting data from the entire population was impossible, Cochran’s modified method was used and 120 individuals were selected randomly as sample population. In the qualitative section of the study, content analysis technique (the grounded theory) was employed through MAXQDA software. To prioritize urban livability indices, the importance-performance analysis (IPA) matrix was used to indicate the gaps between priorities and the perceived quality of livability in Bolbanabad. In addition, the questionnaires were validated using Cronbach’s alpha in the SPSS software.

    Results and Discussion

    According to the content analysis method, four core concepts including infrastructures, facilities and equipment, beautification, and accessibility and security were identified in MAXQDA software as the most important livability factors from the perspective of Bolbanabad residents. The objectified quality caused by transformation from village into a city and the expectation of infrastructural index improvement demonstrate that the largest importance-performance average gap lies within the transportation sector with regards to the restoration of streets and asphalt quality in the city with a mean difference of -1.65. In the accessibility dimension, the lowest performances were related to weakness in creating green spaces, absence of certain government offices and lack of constant access to drinking water with average gaps of -2.36, -2.27,  and -2.04, respectively. This has resulted in a decline in the livability level of the settlement. According to the residents, the importance priority of security sub-indices from high to low, include financial security, spiritual-mental security, and social security. According to the IPA method, the importance (priority)-performance gap present in dimensions including infrastructures, accessibility, and security are negative; therefore, the status of sub-indices in all aspects are undesirable.

    Conclusion

    The use of the IPA technique on the urban livability importance-performance showed the significant importance of livability indices and low objective performance in line with improving said indices, the results of which have been a -1.68 average gap and reduced quality of life. Given these conditions, the livability status of the village is below the desirable level. This means that despite its transformation into a city almost a decade ago, expectations are still at a level beyond the perceived quality of residents, and the policy has failed to bring about considerable developments to the improvement of residents’ quality of life in different urban livability aspects. Considering the results of the study, it can be concluded that not every policy that changes the title of a settlement into a “city” is capable of improving the livability of that settlement. Accordingly, more people have emigrated from this city during said period and the population of Bolbanabad is fewer than the time it was politically and administratively considered as a rural area.

    Keywords: Livability, Life Quality, Bolbanabad, IPA Technique, Villages Transforming into Cities