فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:8 Issue: 3, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/12/11
  • تعداد عناوین: 9
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  • Hossein Karbalaei Khiavi *, Davoud Hassanpanah Pages 225-235

    This study was performed in order to determine the distance of isolation for the seed potato production from ware potato in three regions of Ardabil, Namin and Nir. The experiment was carried out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with five distances (100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 meters from ware potato) and three replications with Super Elite (SE) class of Agria potato cultivar from ware potato as the source of infection studied by ELISA during 2014 and 2015. According to standard of Seed and Plant Certification and Registration Institute (SPCRI) number of 200 leaves and 200 tubers samples of each distance were collected and their virus in fection was by ELISA assay. Analysis of variance tuber yield showed that between regions, years and distances of isolation were significantly differences. In terms of tuber yield, between distances 500, 400 and 300 meters were not significantly difference and were in one group. With reducing of isolation distance from 500 meters to 100 meters from host of viral diseases vectors (edible potato of Agria cultivar) were decreased tuber yield from 44.328 ton per hectare to 39.828 ton per hectare (about 4.5 ton per hectare, or 10.15 percent). Average infection of Rhizoctonia fungal diseases of tuber in isolation distances and three regions were about 5 percent. In three regions and five isolation distances, tubers were without infection of vascular rot fungus diseases, without infection of bacterial diseases of blackleg and brown rot and without infection of potato moth pest.

    Keywords: Isolation distanc, Seed potato, Vectors, PVY
  • Abolfazl Jafari Sales *, Parisa Hosein Nezhad, Ahmadreza Shahniani Pages 236-241
    Background and Aim

    Dairy products, especially cheese, are a suitable environment for the growth of pathogenic bacteria that cause disease after being transmitted to humans. Escherichia coli is one of the microbial agents in traditional cheese that causes human disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the contamination rate of traditional cheeses with E.coli and to determine their antibiotic resistance pattern in Marand.

    Materials and Methods

    This cross-sectional study was conducted on 150 cheese samples from different centers of dairy products sales in Marand during the first six months of 2019 and after identification of E.coli strains, susceptibility and resistance to 12 antibiotics were studied using Kirby-Bauer test.

    Results

    Of the 150 samples studied, 60 (80%) were positive for E.coli infection. The results of antibiogram test showed the highest resistance to amoxicillin and amoxicillin / clavulanic acid (100%) and Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (83.3%) and the highest sensitivity to ceftriaxone (66.6%) and ciprofloxacin (36.7%), respectively.

    Conclusion

    Due to the high level of contamination of traditional cheeses in this region with E.coli, their production and distribution should be under the control of their respective experts and it is necessary to inform them about the dangers of their use.

    Keywords: Escherichia coli, Cheese, Antibiotic
  • Mohammad Ali Zarei *, Masoumeh Babaei Pages 242-252
    Background
    Melanogenesis begins with the oxidation of L-tyrosine to L-Dopa by tyrosinase. Inhibition of tyrosinase could be effective in treatment of complications such as skin lesions, eczema and melasma. Inhibition of tyrosinase could be effective in treatment of those complications. The aim of this study was to determine inhibitory activity on tyrosinase and antioxidant activity of Astragalus siliquosus Bioss. and Verbascum phoeniceum L.
    Methods
    Methanol extracts of organs of the plants were prepared by maceration. Inhibitory effects of the extracts were evaluated in 96 wells at 492 nm wavelength. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was evaluated using DPPH free radical scavenging index and iron reduction test. Results;For A.siliquosus, maximum inhibitory activity was of its flower extract (97% inhibition and IC50=1.58 mg/ml) and of its stem extract (100 % and IC50=2.1 mg/ml). For V.phoeniceum, the highest inhibitory activity was of its leaf extract (87% inhibition and IC50=3.2 mg/ml). Flower extract of A.siliquosus showed mixed Uncompetitive-Non-competitive pattern of inhibitory activity, while the extract of the V.phoeniceum leaf showed mixed Competitive-Non-competitive inhibitory pattern. All aerial parts of the A.siliquosus had 100% antioxidant activity with EC50s of 0.089, 1.78, 1.25 mg/ml for its flower, leaf and stem respectively. Leaves of the V.phoeniceum had a 100% antioxidant activity, with EC50 of 0.013 mg/ml.
    Conclusions
    Methanol extracts of flower and leaf organs of A.siliquosus, and leaf organ of V.phoeniceum, had a reasonable inhibitory effect on tyrosinase activity. Feature studies could be focused on those organs to separate potential agents with pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications.
    Keywords: A.siliquosus, Inhibitor, methanol extract, Tyrosinase, V.phoeniceum
  • Elizabeth Idowu *, Olubukola Olusola Makinde, Muftau Oladunmoye Pages 253-267

    Throat infections are common cause for visit to health care centres. This study is aimed at investigating the antibacterial efficacy of G. kola seeds against bacteria involved in throat infections. Twenty clinical and 4 typed bacterial isolates associated with throat infections were obtained. Extraction from G. kola seeds using ethanol, methanol, ethyl acetate, acetone, hot and cold water as extraction solvents was done. Phytochemical analyses of extracts, antibacterial efficacy, MIC and MBC of extracts on test isolates using ciprofloxacin as positive control and mechanisms of action of extract; were carried out. Ethyl acetate extract was most effective against Streptococcus pneumoniae with 29±0.58 mm zone of inhibition while hot water extract was the least with 6.00±0.58 mm against S. pyogenes. Ethyl acetate extract again showed the lowest MIC and MBC at 6.25 mg/ml and 12.5 mg/ml respectively against S. aureus. Time-kill kinetics of the extract also showed reduction in number of bacteria cells at 30 min intervals. The mechanism of action of ethyl acetate extract is attributed to cell wall disruption with highest leakages of Na+ and K+ in K. pneumoniae obtained at 350 Cmol/kg and 82 Cmol/kg respectively, while the highest leakage of proteins was obtained in S. aureus at 88.55±5.34 mg/ml. . These results conclude that the ethyl acetate extract of G. kola seeds is of best efficacy against the tested bacteria involved in throat infections.

    Keywords: bactericidal concentration, Inhibition, Phytochemicals, Solvent extraction
  • Masoumeh Alimohammadi *, Parviz Sharifi Daramadi, Shahnaz Noohi Pages 268-282

    One of the most common diseases in Iran and the world is metabolic syndrome. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of group logo-therapy program on existential anxiety among patients with metabolic syndrome. This study was a quasi-experimental pretest-posttest with a control group. The study population has consisted of adult women aged 25 to 60 years old with Metabolic Syndrome that referring to the health center of Semnan County in 2018. The sample consisted of 30 (15 for each group) patient with Metabolic Syndrome that was selected as an available and randomly recruits to each of the groups. Then, the participants in the experimental group participated in 10 sessions of 90 min of Group Logo-Therapy Program, while the control group did not receive any intervention. Instruments for gathering data was Existential Anxiety Questionnaire (Masoudi-Sani et al., 2016). Then, the data were analyzed using SPSS.v21 software and statistical tests such as MANCOVA and paired t-test. the results indicate that the group logo-therapy program have a statistically significant impact on components of meaning anxiety and death anxiety, but it is no difference between control and experimental group in term of loneliness anxiety and responsive anxiety. Also, the results indicate that the results were stable at the follow-up stage for death anxiety and loneliness anxiety. according to the results, it seems that the group logo-therapy program has functional features and effective role on some components of existential anxiety.

    Keywords: logo-therapy, existential anxiety, Metabolic syndrome
  • Mohammad Abootaleb *, Narjes Mohammadi Bandari Pages 283-289
    Background
    The immune antigen of Bacillus anthracis is a protein that can attach to the surface receptor of all human cells. At the surface of cancer cells, there is a receptor that activates the uPA (Urokinase plasminogen) that do not exist in normal human cells.
    Objectives
    The aim of this study was changing the location of the attachment of the PA gene by a directed mutation in order to attach only to the cancer cells.
    Methods
    PA gene was extracted from the pMNA1 plasmid. The mutation on the PA gene was made by Overlap Extension PCR. The mutated segment was transferred to DH5α; the strain of Escherichia coli. With TA coning carrier. By restriction enzymes Hind III and BamH I the mutated PA gene was extracted and transferred to pWB980 and by electroporation method, it was transferred to the WB600 strain.
    Results
    In this study, the mutation was occurred in sequences of PA gene by SOE PCR method resulting in a change in the genetic code of amino acid 194. The occurrence of mutation was confirmed by determining base sequences.
    Conclusion
    Cancer is a severe disease that has a major impact on large groups of people which the problem of cancer is a leading cause of death across the world. One of the treatment methods of cancer is bacterial toxins if only cancer cells receive them. Therefore, these mutated PA proteins can be effective as novel therapeutic agents for the treatment of cancer.
    Keywords: protective antigen, Overlap Extension PCR, immune antigen, Urokinase Plasminogen Activator, B. subtilis
  • Marjan Diyanat *, Fereidoon Ghasemkhan Ghajar Pages 290-301

    Field experiments were conducted during 2017 and 2018 to evaluate the efficacy of herbicides NICOSULFURON and EPTC alone or in combination with seed priming on weed control and corn yield. NICOSULFURON (80 g a.i. ha‒1) was applied at four- to six-leaf stage of corn as post-emergence and EPTC (4920 g a.i. ha‒1) applied as pre-plant incorporation (PPI). Among the herbicide treatments, the lowest total weed biomass was observed in plots treated with prime + EPTC PPI at ½ recommended dose followed by one hand weeding and NICOSULFURON applied at label recommended dose or 33% reduced dose integrated with seed priming, while the least performance was observed in plots treated with EPTC alone. Weed biomass reduction by seed priming alone was 32% (average of two years) compared with control. The highest grain and biological yield were observed in weed free plots and hand hoeing three times, followed by prime + EPTC followed one hand-hoeing and NICOSULFURON at recommended rate and at 33% reduced dose integrated with seed priming. The present study demonstrated that seed priming can improve the weed competitiveness of corn.

    Keywords: Density, hand weeding, weed biomass, Yield
  • Shohreh Mashayekhan *, Mahboubeh Jahanshahi, Saeed Moghadam Pages 302-313
    The role of heart disease in increasing worldwide death and the limited availability of organs for transplantation have encouraged multiple strategies to fabricate functional and implantable constructs. One of these strategies is to develop a biologically similar heart tissue scaffold, in which two types of fiber and hydrogel are commonly used. Toward this goal, taking advantage of both hydrogels properties and fibers features with excellent mechanical properties can be considered as a promising method. The purpose of this study is to develop a fiber/hydrogel composite of gelatin, poly-caprolactone (PCL), cardiac extracellular matrix (ECM), and chitosan. The fibrous scaffolds of PCL and gelatin were characterized by SEM, water drop contact angle test, FTIR, and mechanical tests. The results showed that the average diameter of nanofibers, hydrophilicity and mechanical properties of the fibrous scaffolds increased with increasing the gelatin content in the spinning solution. Furthermore, the results of mechanical tests indicated that by integrating fibers with gelatin to PCL mass ratio of 2 in the hydrogel of chitosan and ECM with a mass ratio equal to 1, we obtained a construct with similar mechanical properties to native heart tissue, which may be proposed as an appropriate scaffold for heart tissue engineering.
    Keywords: Composite scaffold, Mechanical properties, Nanofiber, Extracellular matrix, Cardiac tissue engineering
  • Seham Ismail * Pages 314-320
    One of our objectives in this investigation is to determine responses of S. littoralis through different developmental stages and generations to secondary metabolic compound presumably gossypol. Gossypol did not significantly show antifeedant except with high concentration (1.7% gossypol in the diet) that gave 10.6, 21.9, and 46.8% for three generations, respectively. Significantly longer larval life-spans were observed in S. littoralis on a high concentration of gossypol compared with those fed on low concentrations. The larval and pupal weight of the third generation was significantly lower than that of the previous two generations as latent effects on survived larvae significantly lower fecundity was found in the second and third generations. A significantly lower relative growth rate was observed in the three successive generations. Generally, the efficiency of gossypol was significantly higher in the second and third generations. Gossypol significantly affected growth and development, suggesting that diet-gossypol efficiency was different based on concentration and generation. This study will shed some light on the possibility of controlling S. littoralis by gossypol through the sequence of alternative spraying programs.
    Keywords: Gossypol, Spodoptera littoralis, development