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Advanced Biological and Biomedical Research - Volume:12 Issue: 1, Winter 2024

International Journal of Advanced Biological and Biomedical Research
Volume:12 Issue: 1, Winter 2024

  • تاریخ انتشار: 1402/10/11
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
  • Peter Ekwulugwo Ojike, Chikwendu Emenike Orji, Kelechukwu Bierechi Okeoma, Chinyere Ada Madu, Usman Rilwan * Pages 1-10
    The work aimed at establishing DRLs for adult CT examination of the head in Rivers State, Nigeria. The dose report and scan parameters for adult Head examination was retrospectively surveyed during the study period of four months in three CT center. Sixty-nine patient folders, comprising twenty-five subjects for center A, twenty-three subjects for center B, and twenty-one subjects for center C were included. Data on CT dose index (CTDIvol) and dose length product (DLP) displayed on CT scanner console from three (3) selected hospitals were recorded for each facility. The percentile (75th) was assessed for all centers to set up center-unique DRLs. Lastly, a summed percentile (75th) for mean of DLP and CTDIv in the entire centers was assessed to obtain DRLs in adult Head examinations across investigated area. Facts were analyzed with the aid of SPSS (version 25.0). The modern files (digital) of 24 female and 45 male patients with age bracket 16-100 years old were analyzed. Centre-unique percentile (75th) of mean DLP and CTDIv of three centers A, B, and C were 39 mGy and 820 mGy.cm, 70.9 mGy, and 1330 mGy.cm, 55 mGy, and 1158 mGy.cm, respectively. The head CT examination DRLs for the area was 54.9 mGy and 1103 mGy.cm. The Head CT examination’s DRLs for the state of Rivers has been obtained. Nonetheless, variation between CT scan center was noted, CTDIvol is lower than recommendations of European Commission (EC) of 60mGy. The DLP is slightly supper than EC value of 1000 mGy.cm. Personnel training and more awareness on optimization of dosage may still aid to further guide down the dosage of radiation within the location compared to international values. Therefore, centers with fairly lower values than the state derived DRLs (LDRL) should retain their values, while those whose values are higher should implement dose optimization.
    Keywords: Dose Optimization, Computed tomography, Diagnostic Reference Levels, Volume Computed Tomography Dose index, Dose length product
  • Isaac Kwabena Asare, Bernard Darfour * Pages 11-27
    The most commonly consumed essential edible crop in many tropical countries in Africa, South America, and Asia is Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). There are limitations on the utilization of cassava roots by processors, and they are also highly perishable and bulky. Raw cassava starches are excessively weak in terms of their structure and functionality, hence, limiting the diversity of industrial applications. The objective was to estimate the outcome of gamma irradiation as an amending agent on raw cassava starch from three cassava types (Ankra, Bosome nsia and TME419).
    Materials and methods
    Ankra, Bosome nsia and TME419 were the cassava varieties used for the study. The cassava starch was extracted, and then modified using cobalt-60 source. The administered doses were 5, 10, 15 and 20 kGy at a dose rate of 2.087 kGy/hr, and using zero as the control. The physicochemical and functional properties of the raw and modified cassava starches were evaluated using standard procedures.
    Gamma irradiation significantly reduced the amylose and carbohydrate contents as well as the colour of cassava starch. Amylose content of Ankra, Bosome nsia and TME 419 were 14.45, 16.39 and 18.21%, respectively. Also, the irradiation reduced the amylose content from 20.21% (control) to 17.47, 15.98, 14.99 and 13.27% at 5-20 kGy, respectively. The carbohydrate content of 44.44, 44.09 and 27.28% were recorded for Ankra, Bosome nsia and TME 419, respectively. Further, the irradiation decreased the carbohydrate content from 48.08% (control) to 45.63, 36.81, 34.94 and 27.54% at 5-20 kGy, respectively. The irradiation doses did not significantly affect the emulsion capacity and stability, and bulk density. The swelling power decreased as the radiation dose increased while solubility index, water and fat absorption capacities and least gelation significantly increased with the radiation dose.
    Therefore, gamma irradiation could be exploited to alter cassava starch for industrial applications likewise a chemical modification.
    Keywords: Gamma irradiation, Physicochemical, functional, cassava starch
  • Hamid Reza Vahidipour, Monireh Cheniany *, Mehrdad Lahouti, Ali Ganjeali, Maryam Moghaddam Matin Pages 28-43
    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is an important source of phytoestrogens. The abundance of alkaloids, phenols, flavonoids, and isoflavonoids has made this plant a rich source of these plant estrogens. Cultivation of alfalfa as a rich source of phytoestrogens for medicinal purposes has provided opportunities for alternative use of this forage.
    The study was carried out as a hydroponic culture in a perlite-cocopeat compacted bed with three replications. Roots and shoots of alfalfa plants were sampled separately in two stages (the 30th and 60th days after sowing). Plant samples were extracted with methanol solvent, and total phenols, flavonoids, and isoflavonoids contents were measured by spectrophotometric colorimetric method.
    The data analysis showed a significant effect of plant organ and harvest time on the contents of total phenols, flavonoids, and isoflavonoids (P≤0.05). The maximum accumulation of these compounds was in the plant shoots, and with the increase of the harvest time, the content of these phytoestrogens increased. Spearman's correlation analysis showed the different effects of the plant organ on the correlation level of the mentioned metabolites, so the flavonoids of the roots and shoots showed the most positive correlation, while isoflavonoids did not show a significant correlation (P≤0.05).
    The presence of the maximum contents of total phenols, flavonoids, and isoflavonoids in the shoots of alfalfa can be concluded that the distribution of secondary metabolites in plants, the same as the primary metabolites, is mainly dependent on the plant organ and tissue. Furthermore, the maximum content of these metabolites in the vegetative stage of alfalfa is due to the transition from the vegetative stage to the reproductive stage in these plants. Therefore, the late vegetative stage is the best phenological stage and the most suitable harvest time for medicinal applications.
    Keywords: Flavonoid, isoflavonoid, Phenol, phytoestrogens, roots, shoots
  • Francis-Dominic Makong Ekpan *, Merit Oluchi Ori, Humphrey Sam Samuel, Odii Peter Egwuatu Pages 44-66

    Artificial intelligence (AI) technology has garnered increasing attention in the last ten years due to its potential applications in biological or genetic data analysis, drug discovery acceleration, and the identification of rare or selected molecules. AI has become a disruptive force in the healthcare industry, providing creative ways to improve medicine delivery systems. AI-driven medication delivery systems optimize drug administration, leading to better therapeutic outcomes using machine learning algorithms and data-driven insights. The crucial role of artificial intelligence in medication delivery is examined, which also highlights how AI may improve drug formulation, precision dosage, and personalized medicine. By lowering side effects, raising treatment efficacy, and opening the door for the creation of innovative medications, the combination of AI with drug delivery holds the potential to completely transform the healthcare industry through various applications in personalized medicine, targeted drug delivery, drug formulation, optimization and improving efficiency, etc.

    Keywords: Artificial intelligence (AI), Drug Delivery, Drug Efficacy
  • Mubaraq Damilare Yussuf *, Alowoeshin Oluwaseun Samuel, Umoren Dayo Otoh, Irimoren Osaruese Emmanuella, Ike Chigozie Okechukwu, Sulaimon Olajuwon Abdul, Okafor Chukwudi Stanley, Adenike Okunade Ambrose, Olamide Tayo Akintola, Hannah Aderinsola Osibodu, Omeiza Momoh, Dayo Abdulwaheed Soleye Pages 67-91
    [Dichlorvos (2,2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate) is an organophosphate pesticide and insecticide used all over the world. Catalase is an enzyme that is responsible for degrading hydrogen peroxides present in organs or blood cells and tissue to prevent oxidative damage to these respected organs. The flavonoids (naringin and quercetin) and vitamin D and E have been found to reduce oxidative stress in the body. The study was carried out to detect the effect of specific lipophilic vitamins, naringin, and quercetin on catalase activity in the presence of a dichlorvos induced system. 112 male rats were divided into 14 groups of 8 rats each grouped as positive and negative control groups, dichlorvos only induced groups (2 groups), vitamins only induced groups (vitamin D and vitamin E), flavonoids only induced groups (quercetin and naringin), dichlorvos + vitamins administered groups (2 group each containing a different vitamin administration), and dichlorvos + flavonoids administered groups, baseline group and DMSO4 group. They were administered the dichlorvos for two weeks, and subsequent administration of vitamin D and E with naringin and quercetin respectively two weeks after. The animals were weighed every three days and were sacrificed immediately after administration, plasma and RBC along with the organs (liver and brain) were used to assess the effects of the vitamins and phytochemicals antioxidant capacity on catalase activity of the animals. Results showed that specific vitamin D, naringin, and quercetin were most important in their antioxidant capacity and helped improved catalase activity of initially treated dichlorvos group in some organs and compartments with the brain and red blood cells mostly benefitting from it with dichlorvos + vitamin D group, and vitamin D group having an SEM of 0.141±0.0044 and 0.150±0.00069, respectively, in the red blood cells. Meanwhile, the phytochemicals (naringin and quercetin) were more prominent in attenuating catalase activity in the brain with dichlorvos + naringin group and naringin group recording an SEM of 2.216±0.067 and 2.302±0.076, respectively, and dichlorvos + quercetin group and quercetin group recorded an SEM of 0.670±0.009 and 1.276±0.060, respectively. As a result, the fat-soluble vitamins, and phytochemicals reduced dichlorvos toxicity, but could not offer complete and absolute protection against the hydrogen peroxides and oxidative stress produced.
    Keywords: Dichlorvos, Naringin, Quercetin, Catalase, phytochemicals
  • Efe Omita *, Chikwendu Emenike Orji, Kelechukwu Bierechi Okeoma, Chinedu Iroegbu, Caleb Ayoade Aborisade, Rilwan Usman Pages 96-106
    Radiation encompasses a spectrum of electromagnetic and particle radiation, posing potential health risks when exposure surpasses recommended limits. This study assesses the health impact of low ionizing radiation on professional radiation workers in selected South Eastern Nigerian hospitals, comparing doses among medical and non-medical personnel with International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) standards. Among medical workers, Centre (A) records the highest effective dose (0.9160±0.2248 mSv), followed by center (B) (0.7726±0.1374 mSv), and center (C) with the lowest (0.7204±0.1561 mSv). Non-medical workers exhibit a similar trend, with center (A) having the highest dose (0.6247±0.2561 mSv), followed by center (B) (0.5687±0.1413 mSv), and center (C) with the lowest (0.4429±0.1546 mSv). Despite slightly higher doses for medical workers, all values fall below ICRP limits, emphasizing safety adherence. Statistical analyses confirm significant differences in mean doses between medical and non-medical workers across all centers, providing valuable insights into radiation health impact in these tertiary hospitals.
    Keywords: Radiation, Ionizing Radiation, Health impact, Professional radiation workers, Doses, International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), Tertiary hospitals
  • Seham Mansour Ismail * Pages 107-114
    Chlorantraniliprole and emamectin benzoate have been widely used to control pests including FAW. For effective pest control, the sublethal effects of these insecticides should be considered.
    The toxicity of chlorantraniliprole and emamectin benzoate to third-instar FAW larvae has been determined using topical application. Alpha esterase (EST-α) and beta esterase (EST-β) activity were also assessed after 1, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h of exposure of larvae to low doses of these insecticides.
    The susceptibility of FAW larvae to chlorantraniliprole and emamectin benzoate increased after 48 h, and the LD50 was 0.18 and 0.23 μg/larvae, respectively.EST-α and -β activity changed significantly in FAW larvae over time after exposure to insecticides. After only 1 h, EST-α, and -β activity after exposure of larvae to insecticides at LD10 showed no significant difference compared to control. However, under LD30 treatments, the activity of EST-α and -β decreased significantly. Significant reduction of EST-α and -β activity was observed in larvae after 48 h exposure to chlorantraniliprole at LD30 (0.5 and 0.15 nmol/min/mg protein, respectively) followed by emamectin benzoate (1.19 and 0.29 nmol/min/mg protein, respectively) compared with control activity.
    Sublethal doses of chlorantraniliprole and emamectin benzoate affected activities of EST-α and -β of FAW.
    Keywords: Alpha esterase, Beta esterase, Chlorantraniliprole, emamectin benzoate, Spodoptera frugiperda, Sublethal effects