فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:4 Issue: 1, 2016
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1394/11/12
  • تعداد عناوین: 17
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  • Guteta Negasu *, Nigussie Banchiamlak, Mokonen Mihirat Pages 1-9

    Ethiopia is remarkably rich in its biological, ecological and landscape diversity and is home to outstanding natural bio-resources such as a number of herbs, aromatic and medicinal plants. The present study was carried out to study the composition, distribution and economic importance of insect pests of prioritized aromatic (Mentha sp., lemon verbena, fennel, rosemary, rosadamascene, oregano, palmarosa, lemon grass, rose scented geranium) plants between 2013 to 2015 in some growing area of Ethiopia. 10 to 20 random sample units (plants) were taken to assess pest prevalence from each of the upper, middle and lower canopy layers of the main stem. Sample pests and infected plant parts were taken and examined in Wondo Genet Agricultural Research Center. The species were later on got identified from different sources. The result showed that Agrotis sp., Dysaphsfoeniculus, Iceryapurchasi , Melanchrapicta, Papaipemanebris, Rhodobiumorosumwere the major insect pests where as Tetranychus spp., Dicyphusspp., Myzuspersicae, Odontotermesspp., Odontotermesspp., Ornithacris sp. and Ovatuscrataegariuswere minor insect pests recorded feeding of prioritizedaromatic plants. In all 12 insect species belonging to 5 orders were recorded to be associated with (8) aromatic plants in the survey area of Ethiopia. All these insect-pests were recorded in very low to very high causing damage. This study important for understanding the situation of aromatic plants insect pests that will help to eventually achieve an economically sound and efficient pests management strategy.

    Keywords: Insect-pests, Prioritized aromatic plants, Infestation, Damage level
  • Mohammad Ali Emami Mibody, Mahboubeh Iranmanesh *, Reyhane Motamedi Mojdehi, Mehrdad Ghasemi Meymandi Pages 10-14

    A Camel Research Station was established in 1990 at the central desert land of Iran named Kavir-e-loot, to evaluate productivity performance of one humped camel. The data consisted of birth weights (BW), three (W3), six (W6), nine (W9) months and yearling (W12) body weight of animals and the pedigree was registered during a period of 14 years since 1991 to 2004. The body weight traits of birth, three, six, nine months and yearling of camel calves were genetically analyzed using multiple trait animal models. The results showed low to moderate heritability for all of the studied traits. The lowest and highest value were for three 0.13 ±0.14 and six months 0.330.17, respectively. The genetic correlation between six months and yearling body weight was 0.47 0.38 which is lower than between six to nine months body weight, 0.79 0.37. The variances of common maternal effects for body weights were moderate For summer weights three, six, and nine months body weights, and high for winter, birth and yearling weight. The genetic parameter estimates indicated that the six months weight can be used as a selection tool for genetic improvement of growth traits considering its higher heritability and positive genetic correlations with succeeding growth traits.

    Keywords: Dromedary camel, Body weight, Genetic parameters
  • Beemnet Mengesha Kassahun *, Manaye Balcha, Zewdinesh Damtew, Daniel Bisrat, Gelila Asaminew, Seferu Tadese, Muluken Philipos, Negasu Guteta, Hassen Nurhusain, Fikremariam Haile, Solomon Abate, Betelihem Mekonnen Pages 15-31
    For determining the fatty acid characteristics and biodiesel quality of Ethiopian Jatropha provenances, the study was conducted in five regions namely Southern Nation Nationalities Peoples Regional State (SNNPRS), Amhara region, Tigria region, Oromia region and Benishangul Gumuz Regions, where physic nut is found abundantly. For each region, representative sampling sites were selected following thorough discussion with head of Mines and Energy at zonal level. During representative sample site selection, one knowledgeable and responsible expert was assigned from the zonal mines and energy office for making the site selection more perfect and easier and thereby to collect representative data from each region. Following this arrestment, a total of 23 Zones, 36 Weredas and 40 sampling sites were considered from five regions of the country for the study. It was observed that the identified constituents of the Jatropha oils are linoleic acid, stearic acid, palmetic acid and oleic acid. From the identified fatty acids, oleic acid was the major constituent followed by stearic acid. The constituents of the fatty acids ranged from 42.8-51.4% for oleic acid, 10.9-19.3% for stearic acid, 10.62-15.91% for palmetic acid and 21.73-25.43% for linoleic acid. The biodiesel quality characteristics of Ethiopian Jatropha seeds were found within the limits of American standard (D874) and European standard (EN 14214 standard). Hence, it can be concluded that the seeds of the existing Ethiopian Jatropha population can be used for the production and processing of environmentally friendly biodiesel.
    Keywords: Biodiesel, Ethiopia, Fatty acid
  • Shahid Amin *, Sajjad Ur Rahman, Iftikhar Hussain, Ghulam Muhammad, Mohammad Arif Awan, Zafer Ahmad, Mohammad Masood Tariq, Muhammad Irfan Ullah, Muhammad Azam Kakar Pages 32-39
    Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae is an important respiratory pathogen of sheep across the world. In the present study nasal swab samples (n=778) were processed and 51isolates of M. ovipneumoniae were identified through biochemical tests and PCR. Difference in the isolation rate among districts (n=12), age groups (n=3), breads (n=6) was assessed. Similarly the isolate rate among healthy (n=513) and respiratory distressed (n=265) sheep were also compared. The results for the district-wise isolation of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae in sheep showed non-significant variations among districts of Balochistan (2= 1.65, P=0.9990). Statistically significant difference (2 = 7.698, P< 0.02) in the isolation of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae among various age groups was recorded, while highest isolation was seen in sheep of < 1 year.Statistically highly significant difference (2 = 16.6, P <0.0050) in the isolation of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae among various breeds of sheep in Balochistan was seen, whereas highest isolation rate (3.70%) was observed in Harnai breed for sheep Furthermore, statistically highly significant difference (Fisher's exact test P≤0.0001) in the isolation of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae between healthy and respiratory distressed sheep breeds in Balochistan was found.
    Keywords: M.ovinpeumoniae, Sheep, Biochemical, PCR, Balochistan
  • Hossein Sabet Zangeneh *, Hamid Reza Mohammaddust Chamanabad, Eskander Zand, Ali Asgheri, Khalil Alamisaeid Pages 40-47
    Laboratory studies were conducted to compare the relative fitness of clodinafop-propargyl herbicide resistant Lolium rigidum accessions with their clodinafop-propargyl susceptible counterparts in 2014. Factors evaluated were Lolium populations at constant salinity stress (0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 dS cm2) and water stress (0, -3, -6, -9, -12 and -15 bar). The maximum germination in salinity stress was among three biotypes regarding susceptible biotype with 93.62 percent. The concentration of salinity which 50% seeds germination reached S and Semi-R biotypes to the is more than Rbiotype. In salinity stress the highest rate of germination in the S biotype of 8.66 (number of germinated seeds in days) at a concentration of 17 dS RG reaches 50% in S and Semi-R biotypes and in R biotypes in salinity 14 dS cm2. The results of the application of various potential water showed that the more negative water potential, germination all biotypes (R, Semi-R and S) dropped and in potential -15 bar PG in R and Semi-R biotypes to less than 15 percent. Coefficients from the regression equation sigmoid three parameter data PG resistant and susceptible biotypes showed that Semi-R biotype Compared to R and S were more tolerant of water stress and in water potential 7.5, it PG Reduced to 50 percent. In examining the relative fitness of ryegrass biotypes water and salinity stress showed that Semi-R and R biotypes the cost of considerable fitness, But the most results cost fitness no significant.
    Keywords: Biotype, fitness, Lolium rigidum, Salinity stress, Water stress
  • Asra Sadat Talebi, Payman Hejazi *, Majid Jadidi, Raheb Ghorbani Pages 48-57
    Medical linear accelerators are one of the most widespread methods for cancer treatment. Despite their advantages, unwanted photoneutrons are produced by high energy linacs. This photoneutrons are as undesired doses to patients and a significant problem for radiation protection of the staffs and patients. Photoneutrons radiological risk must be evaluated because of their high LET and range.in order to achieving this aim, photoneutron spectrum are calculated. The head of linac and a common treatment room was simulated by the MC code of MCNPX. Photoneutron spectrum was calculated in different field sizes, distances from isocenter and different cases (with and without structures and materials such as flattening filter, compensator, air and treatment room walls).The inclusion of the flattening filter and compensator had not any effects on shaping the photoneutron spectrum but neutron fluence and the average neutron energy are reduced obviously. Also effect of air on photoneutron spectrum was negligible. The calculation of photoneutron spectrum with concrete walls show that the component of fast neutrons is decreased and thermal neutrons are increased due to the room-return. In this case, with increasing distance from isocenter, fast neutrons are decreased and thermal neutrons are increased. As the field size is increased from 5×5 to 15×15 cm2, the neutron flux is increased clearly in isocenter. The neutrons flux are decreased near the door due to maze effect. The photoneutron spectrum investigation and risk estimation due to inclusion of neutron contamination in treatment room prevent from secondary cancer mortality.
    Keywords: Photoneutrons, Medical linear accelerators, Monte Carlo
  • Bekri Melka Abdo * Pages 58-61
    Low caloric sweeteners have been investigated to substitute sugar as an advantage for both nutritional and medicinal purpose. These sugar substitutes are interesting particularly for concepts marketed under a natural claim. Among these, Stevia rebaudiana is a small shrub; its leaves are used as a sweetener. Serial dilution of the hot water Crude extract of S. rebaudiana leaves and aqueous solution of table sugar were subjected to test the panelist in order to choose their preferable sweetening level from both solutions independently. After their reaction, the stevia and sugar ratio were corresponded for individual panelist perception. The nutritional composition also analyzed. Majority of the panelist preferred 2.5 mg/mL stevia solution and 50 mg/mL sugar solution for sweetening. This ratio shows 1 g of stevia is equivalent with 20 g of sugar. The nutrient composition analysis results also indicated that stevia rebaudiana is a good source of calcium, potassium, sodium, Iron and phosphorus. As conclusion hot water crude extract of stevia is 20 times sweetener than sugar with be full of good minerals when using as sweetener in different foods and drinks.
    Keywords: Nutritional analysis, Sensory evaluation, Stevia rebaudiana
  • Seyede Fatemeh Moosavi Sardoo * Pages 62-67
    In order to finding cultivars with high yield and compatible with potato in the form of fall cultivation in jiroft area, an experiment in randomized complete block design with three replication, was done in Jiroft agricultural research center in 2013. In this experiment height plant, No. Stem, Tuber diameter, Tuber weight/plant, No. tuber and yield were examined. Effect Prevent Freezing Cropaid of potato significant (p<0.01) on No. tuber, yield, Tuber diameter, No. stems, Tuber weight/plant and height plant. Results of the mean data comparison, indicate that the No. tuber, yield, Tuber diameter, No. stems, Tuber weight/plant and height plant during the test was related to the observer T1 (Use anti-freeze in time the seed tubers and green plant complete) treatment. From the obtained results, it was concluded that Use anti-freeze in time the seed tubers and green plant complete with a high regrowthing potential after freezing stress can be recommended in autumn culture in jiroft region.
    Keywords: Component yield, Prevent freezing cropaid, Potato, Tuber diameter
  • Zewdinesh Damtew Zigene *, Beemnet Mengesha Kassahun Pages 68-76
    The investigation was conducted on wet and dry seasons of Ethiopia during the year 2012/2013 at Wondo Genet Agricultural Research Center Nursery site. Four levels of cutting size and three levels of cutting positions were arranged in randomized complete block design with three replications. Data on seedling height, branch number/seedling, root number/seedling, root weigh/seedling, root length/seedling and survival count were collected and analyzed except for root length/seedling in dry season. Cutting size exerted a significant influence (P<0.05) on all of the parameters considered in this study except on root length/seedling in dry season experiment. Cutting position also exerted a significant influence (P<0.05) on all of the parameters except on branch number/seedling, root length/seedling and root weight/seedling during dry season experiment. Interaction effect of cutting size and cutting positions didn’t excreted a significant influence (P>0.05) on majority of the agronomic characters. But its effect was significant (P<0.05) on seedling height and root length/seedling during wet season experiment and on seedling height and branch number/seedling during dry season experimentation. Different perpetuation abilities of sage were observed in dry and wet season experiment. Top cuttings having a cutting length starting from 9 cm to 12cm can be recommended for sage propagation in wet season. However, bottom cutting position from 12cm to 15cm cutting size can be recommended for propagating sage in dry season using stem cuttings.
    Keywords: Asexual propagation, Cutting position, Cutting size, Sage
  • Beemnet Mengesha Kassahun *, Zewdinesh Damtew, Negasu Guteta, Muluken Philipos, Daniel Bisrat, Gelila Asaminew, Seferu Tadese, Hassen Nurhusain, Fikremariam Haile, Solomon Abate, Manaye Balcha, Betelihem Mekonnen Pages 77-88
    For determining the oil content, seed and fruit characteristics of Ethiopian Jatropha provenances, the study was conducted in five regions of Ethiopia namely Southern Nation Nationalities Peoples Regional state, Amhara region, Tigria region, Oromia region and Benishangul Gumuz Regions, where Jatropha is found abundantly. A total of 23 Zones, 36 Weredas and 40 sampling sites were considered from five regions of the country for the study. Data on seed to shell ratio, thousand seed weight, seed coat weight, endosperm weight, endosperm to seed ratio and oil content were collected and summarized. The values of seed to shell ration was ranged from 2.7 to 2.85. The 1000 seed weight was varied from 546.47 g to 714.4 g. The seeds were found to have a relatively similar endosperm to seed shell ration ranging between 1.83 and 1.87. Endosperm weight of the seeds ranges from 5.58 g to 6.27 g. Averaged over the study regions, the oil content of Ethiopian Jatropha populations ranged from 29.88% to 34.34%. Seeds with higher endosperm weight were positively and strongly associated with oil content. Hence, considering endosperm weight during selection and improvement program plays a significant role in maximizing oil content of. Jatropha provenances having oil content ranging between 30-35% are considered good for oil production. The values obtained from Ethiopian Jatropha populations growing in different regions are within the ranges of the different reports. This indicates the possibility of using the existing Jatropha populations for the production of Jatropha oil.
    Keywords: Ethiopia, Jatropha, Oil content, Seed, Thousand seed weight
  • Melkamu Hordofa Sigaye *, Aynalem Gebere, Ashenafi Nigussie, Belistie Lule Pages 89-95
    Vernonia galamensis Cass is a huge potential industrial crop with very high content of vernolic acid in the seed oil. The experiment was carried out to determine the effect of inter- and intra- row spacing on the yield and yield related traits of Vernonia galamensis Cas.The experiment was conducted for two years during 2014-2015 on experimental field of Wondo Genet Agricultural research center, Southern Ethiopia. The factorial combinations of five intra-rows (30, 40, 50, 60 and 70cm) and three inter-row plant spacing (60, 80, 100cm) were laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Data on yield and yield related traits including plant height (cm), number of branch/plant, number of pods /plant, Seed yield kg/ha, oil yield kg/ha, Oleoresin % and 1000 seed weight (gm) were recorded .The combined analysis of the two years trial showed that the interaction effect of Inter and Intra row spacing treatments significantly influenced all parameters measured except thousand seed weight and oil content. Inter and Intra row spacing interaction effect was highly significant (P<0.0001) on number of branches per plant, seed yield and oil yield. The maximum seed yield of 2491.3 kg/ha, Oil yield 932.2kg/ha were obtained from a spacing combination of 60cm intra-row and 60cm inter-rows. Therefore, the inter and intra row spacing combination of 60 x 60cm is a recommendable optimum spacing for Vernonia galamensis (Cass.) production to attain maximum yield under the conditions of Wondo genet and similar locations.
    Keywords: Vernonia galamensis, Inter, intra row, Spacing, Plant population, Seed yield
  • Saeide Saeidi, Fereshteh Javadian *, Zahra Sepehri, Zahra Shahi, Fahime Mousavi, Mahmood Anbari Pages 96-99
    The aim study antibacterial effects of silver nanoparticles against resistant strains of E.coli bacteria.12 strains of E. coli strains arising urinary infection were isolated from hospitalized patient in zabolhospitals. Minimum inhibitory concentration of winter cherry were determined by dilution method in various concentration on bacteria. The highest MIC values was found to be 100ppm against one E.coli and the least MIC values was observed in 12.5 ppm. This work, integrates nanotechnology and bacteriology, leading to possible advances in the formulation of new types of bactericides.
    Keywords: Antibacterial activity, Nano silver, E. coli
  • Mahin Rigi * Pages 100-103
    Recently, the effects of antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles was considered by researcher because of Bacterial resistance to antimicrobial agents in chemical.The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the gold nanoparticles on Escherichia coli. Gold nanoparticles are chemically synthesized. Standard strain of E. coli was cultured in a nutrient broth. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was determined by microdilution. The results showed that gold nanoparticles have good inhibitory effect against E.coli have been studied.
    Keywords: Gold nanoparticles, E. coli, Minimum inhibitory concentration
  • Mahin Rigi * Pages 104-107
    Vibrio cholerae is a human pathogen that causes mild to severe diarrheal illnesses and has major public health significance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of antimicrobial activity of the gold nanoparticles on Vibrio cholera. Gold and Silver nanoparticles are chemically synthesized. Standard strain of Vibrio cholerawas cultured in a nutrient broth. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was determined by micro dilution.
    Keywords: Vibrio cholera, Antibacterial activity, Gola nanoparticles, Silver nanoparticles
  • Saeide Saeidi, Fereshteh Javadian *, Zahra Sepehri, Zahra Shahi, Razieh Farazmand, Mahmood Anbari Pages 108-111
    The synthesis of nanoparticles from biological processes is evolving a new era of research interests in nanotechnology. The aim of this study was to determined antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles produced by Rosmarinus officinalis L leaf extract against some human pathogenic bacteria. The formation and characterisation of AgNPs were confirmed by UV-Vis spectroscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). All strains were obtained from standard laboratory and the minimum inhibitory concentrations were investigated by microdulition method.The result show that, the levels of MIC was observed ranges from 1.25 to 2.5 mg/ml. The highest MIC value was observed against S.pneumoniae, Hafnia alvei, S. saprophyticus.
    Keywords: Silver nanoparticles, Human pathogens, Rosmarinus Officinalis
  • Mohammad Raoofi, Mohammad Taghi Alebrahim *, Mohammad Ali Baghestani, Mohammad Khanjani Pages 112-116
    This study was conducted in perennial alfalfa farm infected by weeds located at Km 7 Hamadan-Tehran road in the spring of 2014 and 2015 in a randomized complete block design with 11 treatments and 4 replications compared with control to investigate the effects of different harvest times of first cutting on the increase or decrease in percentage of dry weight of weeds and also alfalfa in second cutting. Treatments of this research were different harvest times in different stages of flowering in terms of percentage including: first harvesting in 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30%, 35%, 40%, 45% and 50% of flowering in Alfalfa farm. In both years, the treatments were performed only in the first cutting and their effects were evaluated on the first and second cutting. In the second cutting the harvest time took place in 50% of flowering. Sampling was performed to determine the dry weight of alfalfa and also density and dry weight of weeds. The results showed that when the weed infestation is high in established alfalfa farm, early harvest in the first harvesting can significantly reduce the percentage of weeds and also the positive effects of it can be observed in second harvesting, as if early harvest increased the percentage of dry weight of alfalfa and a wide range of weeds was controlled. The final results showed that alfalfa harvesting in lower percentages of flowering led to better control of weeds.
    Keywords: Alfalfa, Weeds, Harvest time
  • Mousa Reza Rasteh *, Behroz Dastar, Mahmoud Shams Shargh, Saeid Zerehdaran, Omid Ashayerizadeh Pages 117-125
    Objective
    The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of different levels of germinated barley on performance and egg quality in laying hen.
    Methods
    One hundred and twenty laying hens, 44-weeks old, Lohmann LSL hens were used in this experiment. Birds were assigned randomly to the groups, each of which consisted of 20 birds (4 replicate cages each containing 5 birds). The experiment was conducted as a randomized complete block design. Six experimental diets were used, diets that contained: corn-soybean meal, barley, barley plus enzyme supplementation (safizym: β-glucanases, Xylanases and Celluloses) and germinated barley replaced barley at 33, 66 and 100 percent. Experimental period was 10 weeks. The performance of laying hens measured weekly, but biweekly for egg quality.
    Results
    The results of experiments indicated, by increasing of germinated barley in diets of laying hens feed convention ratio egg production and egg mass production significantly improved as compared to barley treatment (P
    Keywords: Germinate barley, Performance, Egg quality, Laying hen