فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:3 Issue: 1, 2015
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1393/12/10
  • تعداد عناوین: 23
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  • Hadi Tavakkoli *, Sajedeh Salandari, Seyede Saeedeh Mosallanejad Pages 1-6
    Objective
    Fungal agents cause disease in virtually any susceptible hosts. In the poultry production and medicine, pathogens were eliminated from a line of a breeder by injection of antifungals into hatching eggs. There is little information available describing the safety of the antifungal drugs on the birds embryonated eggs. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficiency of the injection ofcopper sulfate solution on the chicken embryonated egg.
    Methods
    Fertile chicken eggs were distributed into 3 groups and set in the incubator. On 4th day post incubation, two groups were injected with the copper sulfate solution, 5 and 10 mg per Kg egg-weight, dissolved in 0.5 ml phosphate buffered saline. The rest group was used as sham control (0.5 ml phosphate buffered saline solution).
    Results
    Macroscopic evaluationon 18th day post incubation showed that embryos were normal in all treatment groups. Microscopically, no lesions were also diagnosed in the brain, heart, muscle, liver, kidney and lung of the embryos. Based on macroscopic and microscopic findings, it is concluded that copper sulfate at above-mentioned concentration is not toxic for the chicken embryo at the stage of development. So, copper sulfate egg-injection can be used toeliminate fungal agentswithout any adverse effect.
    Keywords: Chicken, embryo, Histopathology, Copper sulfate
  • Mohammad Reza Yousefi *, Ayat Mohammad Razdari Pages 7-9

    Agriculture is a complex system science and the knowledge of it is consisting of much concepts and relationships. Examinations in connection with site-specific farming have been carried out by our institute since 1998. Precision farming is a way of agricultural production, which takes into account the in-field variability, a technology where the application-seeding, nutrient replacement, spraying, etc. has taken place to act on the local circumstances of a given field. The geographic information system (GIS) created by computing background makes possible to generate complex view about our fields and to make valid agro technological decisions. With the advent of the satellite-based Global Positioning System, farmers gained the potential to take account of spatial variability. Our goal was to compare two systems for marking out further research tasks, because in some cases there have been misunderstandings among the researchers, and the information provided by given companies seems to be complicated for potential users. This article provides an overview of worldwide development and current status of precision agriculture technologies and Application of GIS and GPS in Precision agriculture.

    Keywords: GPS, GIS, Computer Application, Precision Agriculture
  • A.O. Adekeye *, C.O. Akintayo, L.A. Enye, O.O. Ogendengbe, A.I. Adeniyi Pages 10-13
    Objective
    This study was to evaluate the effect of Vitamin C on the histology and histochemistry of the prefrontal cortex of ethanol-induced rats.
    Methods
    Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used for the study. Ethical approval was obtained from the University’s ethical committee. The rats were randomly divided into 6 groups of 10 rats each. Rats in group A= free access to normal saline. Rats in group B= treated with 4.25 ml ethanol. Rats in group C= treated with 100 mg/kg Vit. C. Rats in group D= pre-treated with 100 mg/kg Vit. C followed by 4.25 ml ethanol. Rats in group E=co-treated with 100 mg/kg of Vit. C and 4.25ml ethanol.  Rats in group F=post-treated with 4.25ml ethanol followed by 100 mg/kg Vit.C. 24hrs after the last administration, the rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation: the fraction of the brain for tissue histochemistry was fixed in formol calcium and later processed for Heamotoxylin and Eosin with Cresyl fast violent staining techniques and the other fraction meant for enzyme and/or marker histochemistry was processed accordingly for some neurochemical indices for oxidative stress.
    Results
    The markers of oxidative stress were statistically increased in the rats in group D, E and F compared with the rats in group B. There is a significant reduction of TBARS when compared with ethanol induced group (group B). The histological profile of the prefrontal cortex of rats in group A and C were preserved while that of the rats in group B displayed distorted cytoarchitecture profile with a marked increase in apoptotic bodies, lateral deviation of neurons and a marked increase in the activities of oxidative markers.
    Keywords: Ethanol, Apoptosis, Oxidative markers, Prefrontal cortex, Neurodegeneration
  • Neda Ozhan, Maryam Hajibabaei * Pages 19-23
    Objective
    In order to investigate effects of different concentrations of poly amines Sprimidin and Putrescine on germination of Arg cultivar under salinity stress.
    Methods
    This experiment was conducted as factorial based on completely randomized design with four replicates in agronomy and plant breeding laboratory, Agricultural department, Islamic Azad University, Varamin-Pishva Branch in spring of 2014. First factor was four levels of salinity including S1: 3.87, S2: 5.95, S3: 10.25 and S4: 12.87 ds/m and the second factor was three levels of poly amines including H0: control (not application of poly amines), H1: Putrescine 2.5 m/mol and H2: Sprimidin 5 mmol/L. coleoptile and cleorhiza length, cleorhiza number, coleoptile, cleorhiza and seedling dry weight, Tissue water content (TWC), germination percent and number of damaged seeds were measured.
    Results
    Analysis of variance showed that coleoptile and cleorhiza length, cleorhiza dry weight affected by salinity and hormone levels at 1% of probability level. There was no significant difference among other treatments for other properties. Results of this experiment indicated that following increasing salinity, sever reduction in germination-dependent properties were observed.
    Keywords: Pishtaz, germination, Sprimidin, putrescine, Salinity
  • Abbas Ali Damangir, Akbar Baghvand, Seyed Masoud Monavari *, Faramarz Moattar Pages 24-34
    Objective
    Metal concentrations in 53 soil samples of Shahr-e-Babak were determined.  
    Methods
    Assessment of enrichment factor and geo-accumulation index revealed higher degree of contamination of Cd, Pb, and Cu in soil samples. Moreover, results of metal fractionation study revealed high amount of Cd and Pb are associated in weakly bounds may lead to environmental risk of these metals.  
    Results
    According to the results of risk assessment code and pollution index, Cd and Pb have the high risk of release and pollution degree in soil samples of Shahr-e-Babak. A new quality index named industrial pollution index was developed based on background values of metal and their toxicity in soil samples. Results exhibits higher degree of pollution based on new index (Iind) in south-eastern and central part of the study area where is close to the main anthropogenic sources.
    Keywords: Shahr-e-Babak, heavy metals, Soil pollution, index, Mining
  • Hossein Moradian *, Fariborz Nazarpoor, Hadi Ostovan Pages 35-37
    Mites of family Erythraeidae are parasites in their larval stage and predators in their post-larval stages on a variety of arthropods, among which are important pest species. During 2011-2013, in a faunistic survey of mites associated with beetles of the family Chrysomelidae in Oil and Gas company of Gachsaranregion, Iran. Specimens were preserved in AG (alcohol 75%, glyserin 5%), cleared in lactophenol solution and mounted by Hoyer’s medium. Mite of the genus Leptus (Acari: Erythraeidae) was removed from larva and adult of Cassida persica Spaeth (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). The first time in the world C. persica was observed as a new host of Leptus n. sp. It is concluded that Leptus n. sp. can be considered as a valuable addition to the existing IPM methods for Chrysomelid control. Description of new species is in process.
    Keywords: Acari, Erythraeidae, Leptus, Chrysomelidae, Cassida persica, Iran
  • Vahi Alizadeh *, Vahid Shokri, Amir Soltani, Mohammad Ali Yousefi Pages 38-42

    Drought is still limited in most crops is produced. Morphological and physiological knowledge to improve drought resistance under drought conditions created problems important is the fact each of these genetic relationships and processes associated with the exact amount of important plant and grain yield is unknown. The other hand, heritability of grain yield under water is reduced. Improve the performance of drought tolerant cultivars based on morphological and physiological components of plant modification as an important solution is proposed. One of the key predictions of climate change is that, in some regions, droughts are likely to increase in frequency and severity. This will have significant implications for the long-term viability of plant populations, especially where water availability plays a key role in delineating species ranges. However, while drought and overall aridity are known to be strong determinants of plant species distributions at the landscape level, much less is known about the ways in which plant populations respond to changes in drought regime, or the long-term impacts that extreme droughts have on plant community composition, structure, and function. While it is known that drought can cause significant re-structuring of plant communities, relatively few studies have quantified the environmental and biological factors that promote plant survivorship under acute moisture stress, especially in topoedaphically heterogeneous landscapes. The capacity for evolution to rescue plant populations faced with increasingly severe drought from extinction is also poorly understood. This places severe restrictions on our ability to predict the impacts of climate change on plant populations in many environments worldwide. In this paper a review Effects of climate change and Drought-stress on plant physiology.

    Keywords: Plant, Drought, Climate, Physiology, Stress
  • Hamideh Ghobeishavi, Ebrahim Dorani Uliaie *, Seyed Siamak Alavikia, Mostafa Valizadeh Pages 43-50
    Objective
    n present study effect of various factors including sucrose, agar, PEG, AgNO3, activated charcoal on somatic embryo induction and its subsequent regeneration was investigated using varieties Dom siah and Nemat.
    Methods
    330 explant (Mature embryos) of each varieties were cultured, 33/plate (100 x 15 mm), on callus induction Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium (Murashige and Skoog 1962) supplemented with 30 g/L sucrose, 7g/L agar and 2 mg/L 2,4-D.
    Results
    Significant difference was observed between two variety in callus induction. Somatic embryogenesis and the plant regeneration were influenced by the genotype as well as composition of the medium used. The callus induction rate and callus morphology were different depend on genotypes. High somatic embryogenesis was obtained in medium (MS medium containing 2 mg/L 2,4-D) supplemented with 3 mg/L AgNO3, 9 gr/L agar and 20 gr/L PEG, respectively. The high frequency plant regeneration was achieved from both varieties in medium supplemented with 9 and 11gr/L agar and 5 mg/L AgNO3.
    Keywords: Rice, Mature embryo, somatic embryogenesis, PEG, AgNO3, Activated charcoal
  • Mohammad Reza Yousefi, Ayat Mohammad Razdari * Pages 51-54

    In spite of the technologies developed during the last decade, the level of food loss is still high and is reported in many countries. According to the United Nations, more than 30 per cent of the mortality rate world-wide is caused by alimentary diseases. The desire of most countries to make food safer for consumption requires better food preservation and production techniques. In this regard, irradiation is an interesting alternative to be considered Food irradiation is a process exposing food to ionizing radiations such as gamma rays emitted from the radioisotopes 60Co and 137Cs, high energy electrons and X-rays produced by machine sources. Some agricultural products are important commodities in international trade. The trade of these products is often seriously hampered by infestation of several species of insects and mites. The presence of parasites, some microorganisms, yeast and moulds are also the source of problems, sometimes directly or indirectly through toxin formation in the food products. Irradiation alone or combined with others processes can contribute to ensuring food safety to healthy and compromised consumers, satisfying quarantine requirements and controlling severe losses during transportation and commercialization. Depending on the absorbed radiation dose, various effects can be achieved resulting in reduced storage losses, extended shelf life and/or improved microbiological and parasitological safety of foods. However, hindering factors in the way of commercial implementation of the food irradiation process are politics and consumer advocacy. This paper reviews the application of irradiation for preserving some fruit and vegetables.

    Keywords: Irradiation, food, Quality, gamma ray, technology, Preservation
  • Maisam Rafe, Bahman Khosravipour, Sayed Ali Moosavi, Maryam Roozbahani * Pages 55-60
    Objective
    The purpose of this study was to identify affecting factors on students’ environmental protection behavior (SIPB).
    Methods
    Statistical population of this research consisted of 1480 students in Alborz agricultural technical higher education centers. A stratified random sampling method was used to select 145 student applying Cochran's formula. The main tool to collect data was a researcher made questionnaire that Content validity of the questionnaire was approved, by a panel of experts and Exploratory factor analysis and its reliability, was confirmed by calculating Cronbach's alpha coefficient (a = 0.71- 0.83). Data was analyzed by SPSS software.
    Results
    Results of factor analysis showed that four factors: Environmental attitudes, environmental concerns, knowledge and educational content, explained 50.92 percent of the variance in the Protective behavior variables. Results of correlation analysis indicated a positive statistically significant relationship between Environmental attitudes, environmental concerns, knowledge and educational content.
    Keywords: Environmental, Behavior, attitudes, Knowledge, Protective behavior
  • Vahid Shokri, Mohammad Reza Yousefi * Pages 61-64

    Agriculture has a key role to play in reducing poverty and hunger in many developing countries. About 75% of the world's poor live in rural areas and most are dependent on agriculture and related activities in the rural economy. For this reason the benefits for developing countries’ farmers have been shown to be substantial if OECD member countries reformed their agricultural policies. The issue of how OECD members’ agricultural policies join-up with their development commitments and policies requires decision makers’ undivided attention as the UN General Assembly meets to review progress in meeting the Millennium Development Goals and as trade negotiations progress under the Doha Development Round. At the global level the dependence of the developing world on agricultural exports creates many problems. World demand for these products tends to be both income and price inelastic. As a result, for many crops, of which the supply is also inelastic in the short-run, the growth rate of export earnings is held to a relatively low level and prices fluctuate. Efforts at diversification and commodity stabilization can be successful only if undertaken under viable international agreements. Empirical evidence on the terms of trade of the developing vis-à-vis the developed country leaves at least a presumption that they are not improving. This paper has reviewed the economic and management literature related to the role of agriculture in development.

    Keywords: Agriculture, Management, Economic, development, Policy
  • Gholamali Mozafari, Moslem Torki * Pages 65-69
    Objective
    An increasing number of studies have reported on shifts in timing and length of the growing season, based on phonological, satellite and climatologically studies. Changes in the timing and length of the growing season (GSL) may not only have far reaching consequences for plant and animal ecosystems, but persistent increases in GSL may lead to long-term increases in carbon storage and changes in vegetation cover which may affect the climate system. With the aim of these study is an investigation the trend of time changes of starts and end season growing length in west of Iran.
    Methods
    This investigation has presented 49 years inputs of temperature from 8 synoptic stations in west of Iran. Homogenize the series using run-test experiment were determined and accomplished in the way of auto regression from rebuilding of missed data by way of man-Kendal test the randomness of data was examined and the series that had change or trend with %5 confidence interval were recognized then with graphically man-Kendal test and moving mean of 5 year, circumstances and the start time of trend or changes were determined and the values of changes were calculated.
    Results
    The results show more changes in series associating with start and end of temperatures.
    Keywords: Growing Season, Climate change, Man-Kendal, West of Iran
  • Zohreh Nabipour *, Farzad Paknejad Pages 70-74
    Objective
    Understanding climate effects on crop yield has been a continuous endeavor aiming at improving farming technology and management strategy, minimizing negative climate effects, and maximizing positive climate effects on yield.
    Methods
    In order to evaluate agroclimate of Corn cultivation throughout the selected substations at Kermanshah province in this current investigation, the statistics data related to daily temperatures within a 10- year statistical period were employed. Deviation from Optimum Percentage (DOP) technique, Growing Degree Day (Active Day Temperature), and thermal gradient methods have been adapted for computation and agroclimatic analysis.
    Results
    The results of this study indicate that the optimal date for cultivation of Corn in high and cold- weather lands (Kermanshah and Eslamabad West) is the of June. Temperature gradient analysis and DOP technique in various heights at the studied region may show that there is one month postponement in deviation from the optimum conditions for optimal cultivation per 100m increase in height of given region. This point is important in terms of date of cultivation and production of commercial product. According to the acquired farming calendar, of June is the most appropriate time for cultivation in this area and thus date of harvest will be the end of September.
    Keywords: Agroclimate, corn, Deviation from Optimum Percentage (DOP), Kermanshah
  • Ali Izadi Ghorveh, Mahmoud Solhi *, Hamid Ghaiumi Mohammadi, Saeed Vazan Pages 75-81
    Objective
    Zayandehrood habitat has economical and environmental importance in central plateau of Iran    and it performs a vital role for habitants, agriculture section and the industries which are located along river bed. So current research  has been done to measure the contamination of heavy metals, its changes along the river route and defining the important and effective regions on this contamination. It was defined and stations of sampling along the zayandehrood river route to gain this aim.
    Methods
    The samples were taken from the depth of 30 to 50 cm of the substances which are located in river bed. In each sample, the absorbable thickness and whole metals of Lead, Cadmium, Cobalt, Nickel and Copper were measured. The maximum thickness for all studied elements in this station was observed after Isfahan city (Isfahan-Yazd Highway Bridge). Among these heavy elements, the thickness absorbance amount for lead metal in 6 stations was in toxic amount. The thickness of Cobalt in 5 stations and Copper in one station was in toxic amount. The absorbance amount of lead in Dorche bridge was 2.5 times and in Yazd-Isfahan Highway Bridge was 3.5 times more than the toxic amount.  
    Results
    According to the results of this research and according to other researcher’s studies, Cadmium metal which has special importance because of its pollution on the environment has pot and toxicity along the river route, but the studies have been done via other researches in Gavkhooni pond, have registered the toxicity amount of this element.               we can conclude that Isfahan city and also the region which is the center of big industrial factories near Nekouabad Dam and Polchalleh, have the most pollutant effects on zayandehrood habitants.
    Keywords: pollution, River bed, Zayandehrood, heavy metals, environment
  • Mandana Saniee * Pages 82-86
    Information and communication technologies are the most recent scientific achievements of mankind's ability seems to have much to offer society and are expected to be useful in solving the problems of human society. Many around the world believe that accelerates the process of adjustment in the exchange of knowledge and information through information and communication technologies a vital role in achieving sustainable development, human resources development and will play. Nowadays, information and communication technology (ICT), as the most important factor in the development of the world is hardware. Gains resulting from the negligence of such a life are incorporated it comes in different divisions. Due to the increasing information and communication Fnavrhay ICT in cities and the rise of the information age, the need for applying this technology to achieve sustainable development is strongly felt. In this research discusses the necessity of using information technology in urban management issues in order to achieve sustainable development: social, economic, environmental and physical towns mentioned. Documents and content analysis is a research method and Strategic SWOT descriptive model to evaluate internal and external opportunities and threats of the use of ICT in cities is discussed. Of this research is that the coordination of information and communication technologies lack of infrastructure development with other programs and provides technical and socio-economic impacts of sustainable development will be a lot.
    Keywords: Sustainable urban, ICT strategic, SWOT Model
  • Sohail Nosraty, Bahman Khosravipour, Feyzallah Monavvarifard *, Fahimeh Hamidi, Laleh Salehi Pages 87-92
    Objective
    The purpose of this study was to analyzing the role of motivation factors in Herzberg’s theory on teacher’s job satisfaction.
    Methods
    The population of this study consisted of elementary school teachers in Talesh city (N=850), that 265 of them selected as the sample by using the systematic random sampling. The data collection tool was questionnaire that it's  face and content validity from different sectors were approved by panel of experts and that’s reliability approved by using the Cronbach's alpha coefficient (α = 0.78). Results of descriptive statistics showed that teacher’s job satisfaction in general were in the low level (36.2 percent).
    Results
    Results of correlation coefficient indicated that there was a significant and positive correlation between job satisfaction and job feedback, job characteristics, opportunities for advancement, appreciation and recognition, training and development and responsibility. Results of stepwise multiple regressions showed that appreciation and recognition, job characteristic, job feedback and opportunities for advancement variables in four steps entered into the regression equation and were explained 69/6% of job satisfaction variance.
    Keywords: Job Satisfaction, Work motivation, Talesh City, Herzberg theory
  • Anush Dogra *, Ayush Dogra Pages 93-96
    In this paper, Gaussian and elliptic high pass filters are analyzed for image sharpening qualitatively and quantatively . The filters are implemented in frequency domain using matlab software. Experiments are performed to compare the performance of both the filters ,processed images are presented. The results demonstrate that elliptic yields better results.
    Keywords: Gaussian, Elliptic Image sharpening, Frequency Domain, High pass filter
  • Mahdi Jahangiri, Payman Hejazi *, Seyed Mehdi Hashemi, Abbass Haghparast, Bardia Hajizadeh Pages 97-104
    Objective
    Using Megavoltage photons generated by medical linear accelerator is a common modality for the treatment of malignant. The crucial problem for using photon beams >8MV is the photoneutron yields that increase the risk of secondary cancer that treated with high-energy photon beams. The contaminated neutrons produced in different components of the accelerator head and rely on many parameters. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of field size on the neutron dose equivalent in center and far from it at the Elekta Sl 75/25 18 MV linear accelerator.
    Methods
    Neutron dosimetry was carried out with CR-39 films with using of chemical etching technique. The measurement was done at isocenter, 25 cm and 50 cm far from it at 100 cm SSD for squared field with 5 up to 30 cm side.
    Results
    The results revealed that the neutron dose equivalent increased with increasing field sizes especially for 5*5 cm2 field size. It was decreased with increasing distance from the isocenter.
    Conclusion
    The effect of field size on neutron contamination depend on amount of field aperture where in small field size 5×5 cm2 less variation need for significant change but for larger field size 10×10 cm2 this variation must be larger. The contaminated neutron outside photon field is independent of field size.
    Keywords: Medical linear accelerator, Photon field size, Neutron contamination, CR-39 dosimeter
  • Masoumeh Taghibaygi, Maisam Rafe *, Sayed Ali Moosavi Pages 105-114
    Objective
    Today people are aware of the important role of agriculture as a vital source in their life. Development in agriculture and making healthy food for human, needs trained man. Vocational schools and agricultural training centers provided the first stage for arriving at this purpose. One of the reasons for the weak influence of agricultural training centers in creating occupational opportunities for students is lack of motivation in students that prevents acquiring skills and technologies that are necessary for doing agricultural occupations and businesses.
    Methods
    Therefore, this research devoted to introducing motivations of students in vocational schools and agricultural training centers of Kermanshah for education in the field of agriculture with the method of descriptive-correlation. Sampling method was random-classification approach (based on training centers and agricultural school centers) and the number of each class members was specified using appropriate appointment method. To specify motivation factor among students discovery factor Analysis (EFA) method was used.
    Results
    Analyzing data by SPSS software show that there is no difference between students in vocational schools and agricultural training centers about training motivation in the field of agriculture so that: the most motivation of students in agricultural training centers toward education in the fields of agriculture is interest in promotion of information and knowledge about agriculture and acquiring skills and technology for the future occupation. Also, most of these students are interested in continuing this field of study in the university. In the case of vocational school students, the first motivation of these students in educating in the field of agriculture is acquiring skills and technology for the future job and most of these students are interested in continuing their studies in the field of agriculture.
    Keywords: Motivation, Student, Agricultural school, Agricultural training center
  • Houshang Ordikhani, Iraj Ranjbar, Mohammad Ghahderijani *, Mohammad Gholami Parashkoohi Pages 115-118
    Objective
    Economic analysis was performed for the main horticultural crops in Buin Zahra (pistachio, peach, nectarine, and apple). There were dependent and independent variables in this research.
    Methods
    The independent variables were planting method (mechanized and conventional), land area used for fruit production, and land ownership. The maximum energy used, mostly in the form of fossil fuels, was in peach production. The two-stage simple random sampling method was employed. Random sampling is, in fact, the easiest sampling method, and the obtained results are reliable and generalizable to the whole society if the sampling principles are followed.
    Results
    Results showed the best economic performance indicator (2.55 with the profit to cost indicator of 2.93) belonged to pistachio orchards, while apple, peach, and nectarine (with economic performance indicators of 1.83, 1.67, and 1.27, respectively) ranked second to fourth. The maximum ratio of profit to cost (2.93) was that of pistachio, which also had the largest energy ratio (with apple and peach ranking second and third with 2.15 and 2.08, respectively).
    Keywords: Economic Analysis, Ghazvin, Horticultural crops, Mechanization
  • Moein Rezai, Akbar Shabani *, Shahram Nakhjavan, Alireza Zebarjadi Pages 119-128
    Objective

    In order to study genetic variation and effect of drought stress on grain yield and some morphological traits in chickpea, an experiment was conducted on 64 genotypes during 2013-2014 cropping season at deputy of Kermanshah Sararood Dry Land Agricultural Research Institute, located on the western part of Iran.

    Methods

    The experimental design was a randomized lattice design with tow replications under two complementary irrigation and dryland conditions. Six drought tolerance indices including stress tolerance index (STI), geometric mean productivity (GMP), mean productivity index (MP), stress susceptibility index (SSI), tolerance index (TOL), harmonic mean productivity (HMP),  were calculated and adjusted based on grain yield under drought (Ys) and irrigated conditions (Yp).

    Results

    Results of ANOVA under two complementary irrigation and dryland conditions revealed significant differences among genotypes for YLD, NPMP and NSPP. In dryland condition all of tolerance indices except SSI*TOL have significant negative correlation with SSI index and the rest of indices except TOL*YS, HMP*TOL and YI*TOL show positive correlation. The first two components explained 95.8% of total variation between the data. Based on biplot the genotypes 40 and 63 were superior genotypes under both stress and non-stress conditions. These genotypes had stable performance in the circumstances of low sensitivity to drought stress. Genotypes 29, 55, 56, 57, 45 and 16 had a relatively low yield and they are sensitive to drought stress. In conclusion, this study showed that the effect of drought stress on grain yield was varied which suggested genetic variability for drought tolerance in this materials. Therefore, breeders can select better genotypes based on indices and a combination of different methods of selection.

    Keywords: Biplot, Chickpea, Drought indices, Grain yield, Stress Tolerance Score (STS)
  • Azam Zare, Afshin Hashmie * Pages 129-137
    Objective
    The Asmari Formation is characterised by alternation thick carbonate and marl sequence of the Oligocene- Miocene in the Zagros Basin, southwest of Iran that were deposited on the shelf of Eastern Paratethys.
    Methods
    This formation is exposed at Tang-e-Khoshk in the Fars subcoastal zone with a thickness of 286 m comprising alternation of medium and thick to massive bedded carbonates, marlylimestone and marl. The age of the Asmari Formation in the study area is the Oligocene (Ruplian&Chattian).
    Results
    Ten microfacies are defined, characterizing a gradual shallowing upward trend; the related environments are as follows: open marine (MF1, 2&3), shoal (MF4) and lagoon (MF5, 6&7). A carbonate ramp platform is suggested for the depositional environment of the Asmari Formation. MF 1, 2, 3 &4 are characterized by the occurrence of large and small foraminifera representing a represent a deeper fair weather wave base of a middle ramp setting. MF 5, 6& 7 with large particles of different bioclast debis and algae, shallow-water setting of an inner ramp.
    Keywords: Tang-e-Khoshk, Asmari formation, Oligocene, Biostratigraphy, Carbonate ramp
  • Abasalt Rostami Ajirloo *, Morad Shaaban, Zahra Rahmati Motlagh Pages 138-143
    Objective
    This field experiment was laid out in order to study on effect of Nano and Bio fertilizers on yield and yield components of tomato (Lycopersicone sculentum L.) during the growing seasons 2013- 2014.
    Methods
    The experiment was laid out in a factorial based on randomized block design with three replications. Treatments were K nanofertilizer in five levels such as (0, 100, 200, 300 and 400 kg.ha-1) and pure Azot in five levels such as (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 kg.ha-1).
    Results
    Results showed that the application of humic acid and nitrogen fertilizer were significant of all traits of tomato but effect of humic acid on fruit length was not significant.  Application of 400 kg per ha K nanofertilizer had the highest plant height and stem diameter. Also results showed that application of 300 kg per ha K nanofertilizer had the highest number of fruit per plant, fruit weight, fruit diameter and fruit yield. However application of nitrogen fertilizer increased yield and yield components of tomato. In final results of the present study reviled that application of K nanofertilizer and nitrogen fertilizer increased yield and yield components of tomato.
    Keywords: Nano fertilizer, Nitrogen fertilizer, Tomato