فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:19 Issue: 1, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/12/10
  • تعداد عناوین: 12
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  • Jafar Farhadi, Mohammad Nouri, Alireza Khabbazi, Nasser Samadi, Zohreh Babaloo, Mahdi Azad, Somayeh Abolhasani, Shahriar Alipour, Golamreza Jadideslam, Sam Seydi Shirvani, Ebrahim Sakhinia Pages 1-8

    Forkhead box P3 (Foxp3) gene is an important means in the Treg cells function, in both maintenances of immune tolerance and regulation of response. Epigenetic modifications of the foxp3 gene at its regulatory regions control the chromatin accessibility for the transcription factors and other transcriptional regulators in order to control Foxp3 expression. In addition, the methylation status of CpG islands within the Foxp3 promoter and regulatory elements regulate the expression of Foxp3. This study was performed to assess the role of the foxp3 gene in patients with Behçet’s syndrome (BS). Venous blood samples were collected from all participants and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were extracted through Ficoll-Hypaque method. Genomic DNA was randomly sheared by sonication and immunoprecipitated with a monoclonal antibody. The status methylation of the foxp3 gene was estimated in 108 blood samples of active BS patients and healthy individuals (controls); using methylation DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP) technique. Expression analysis was carried out; using Real-time PCR. The expression of foxp3 gene in the patients' group (mean±SD: 1.79±1.12) was significantly lower than the healthy group (mean±SD: 2.73±1.33) (p<001). Also, the methylation levels of Foxp3 promoter showed that its level in patients (mean±SD: 2.3±1.16) was higher than the healthy group (mean±SD: 1.85±0.59). However, this increase was not statistically significant (p>0.05). Also, these results indicated that increasing the amount of methylation of the foxp3 gene by reducing its expression leads to an increase and intensifying of the disease. The decrease in Foxp3 expression is possibly associated with hypermethylation of the gene, and it can be considered as a risk factor for BS. Future studies may be needed to identify the capability of specific DNA methylation alterations in this syndrome.

  • Mohammad, Reza Yazdani, Elham Aflaki, Nasser Gholijani Pages 9-17
    The cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE) is a common manifestation among systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. Malar rash and discoid lupus (DLE) are in the category of acute and chronic CLE, respectively. The pathogenesis of CLE is multifactorial, and cytokine imbalances contribute to immune dysfunction and the induction of organ damage. Many aspects of cytokine dysregulation are still unclear in SLE and in particular CLE. Therefore, we concurrently measured the inflammatory [Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and Interleukin (IL)-6)], T helper (Th)-17 (IL-17 and IL-23) and regulatory T cells [Transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ) and IL-10)]-related cytokines in patients with CLE (patients with malar rash and/or DLE) and compared them with SLE patients and healthy individuals (n=25 in each group, a total of 75 patients). The serum levels of cytokines were assessed by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) method. IL-6 cytokine was significantly higher in SLE, DLE, and malar rash patients compared to those in healthy controls (p=0.025) and in patients with arthralgia (p=0.038), and gastrointestinal involvement (p=0.048). IL-17 was significantly higher in malar rash patients compared to normal individuals (p=0.023), SLE (p=0.008) and DLE patients (p=0.019) and in patients with oropharyngeal ulcer (p=0.05) but, IL-23 was significantly higher only in DLE patients than healthy controls (p=0.019). In conclusion, inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 involved in inflammation and differentiation of Th17 cells are probably responsible in part for Th17 activity in CLE. IL-17, IL-23, and IL-6/IL-6R (IL-6 receptor) inhibitors may be good treatments for CLE patients. So targeting these cytokines activity pathways can improve the CLE treatment strategy and may open a novel guideline for SLE and CLE treatment.
  • Javad Fadaee, Maryam Khoshkhui, Maryam Emadzadeh, Seyed Isaac Hashemy, Reza Farid Hosseini, Farahzad Jabbari Azad, Hamid Ahanchian, Fahimeh Lavi Arab Pages 18-26
    Substance P (SP) is a neurotransmitter emitted from neurons that plays a role in the pathogenesis of itching conditions including chronic urticarial (CU). The present research aims to investigate the serum level of S.P among CU patients and compare them with healthy subjects and explore how it correlates with the severity of urticaria. The present research was conducted on 87 CU patients who visited the allergy clinic of Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad, Iran from October 2017 to June 2018. Besides, 86 healthy subjects were recruited as the control group. Background information of patient was collected including age, sex, duration of the disease and the co-occurrence of angioedema. S.P serum level was measured in two groups by ELISA method. In the patients group, the autologous serum skin test (ASST) was performed along with the urticaria evaluation questionnaire include Urticaria Activity Score 7 (UAS7), Urticaria Control Test (UCT) and Chronic Urticaria Quality of Life (CU-Q2OL). Among the patients, the SP serum level showed to be about two times higher than the healthy subjects (p˂0.001). SP showed to be increased as patients’ age grew (p=0.010). In patients with a positive ASST, SP level was higher (p=0.012). No correlation was found between SP and the presence of angioedema among patients. There was no correlation between the SP serum level and the scores obtained from urticaria evaluation questionnaires. SP among CU patients was higher than healthy subjects. SP was also higher among female, older and positive ASST patients. The SP value was not correlated with the severity of urticaria, angioedema. In conclusion, Using SP antagonist drugs could be a potential treatment for chronic urticaria.
  • Fereshteh Salari, Mohammad Bemanian, Morteza Fallahpour, Marzieh Tavakol, Sima Shokri, Leila Baniadam, Majid Khoshmirsafa, Farhad Seif, Mohammad Nabavi, Saba Arshi Pages 27-34
    Sesame food allergy (SFA); especially anaphylaxis, is a life-threatening condition. The accurate diagnosis of SFA is done by skin prick test (SPT), skin prick to prick (SPP) or specific IgE (sIgE) and is confirmed by oral food challenge (OFC). Since there are few studies evaluating and comparing the utility of these methods for diagnosis of sesame anaphylaxis in adult patients, we aimed to compare OFC with diagnostic tests, including SPT, SPP, and sesames IgE; using ImmunoCAP considering the sensitivity and specificity issues in patients with sesame anaphylaxis. Twenty patients with sesame anaphylaxis were diagnosed based on OFC. Then SPT, SPP, and sIgE were evaluated. Sixteen patients had positive OFC; while 4 patients had negative results. Out of 16 OFC+ patients, 7 patients were SPT+, 15 patients were SPP+, and 2 patients had detectable sIgE. A positive SPT indicated 44% sensitivity and 50% specificity. A positive SPP showed 87.5% sensitivity and 75% specificity. A positive ImmunoCAP test demonstrated 12.5% sensitivity and 75% specificity. The AUC of SPP was significant for the diagnosis of sesame anaphylaxis (p=0.038). In conclusion, when the OFC is not possible, the SPP test with natural sesame seed may be applicable in patients with a convincing history instead of the artificial or commercial extracts of sesame used for SPT. Positive SPP is a good alternative diagnostic method for patients with sesame anaphylaxis. Also, the poor sensitivity of SPT and sIgE may indicate the poor discriminative capability of these tests.
  • Ming Meng, Shengde Chen, Xiang Gao, Huifang Liu, Huijuan Zhao, Jingnan Zhang, Jinku Zhang, Dongzhi Chen Pages 35-44
    Whether different injection modes of α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer) affect the activation of different subsets of invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells in different tissues and organs of mice is unclear. This study included healthy control, subcutaneous injection, and intraperitoneal injection groups (n=10 in each group). The subcutaneous and intraperitoneal injection groups were injected with α-Galcer (0.1 mg/kg weight), and then the changes in thymus, spleen, and liver iNKT cell frequencies and subsets were observed. The intraperitoneal injection of α-GalCer could increase the frequency of splenic iNKT cells, but the subcutaneous injection did not affect the frequency. Neither injection had any effect on the frequency of iNKT cells in the thymus and liver. The subcutaneous injection of α-GalCer increased the rate of iNKT2 subsets in the thymus but did not affect the rate of iNKT1 subsets. However, the intraperitoneal injection of α-GalCer did not affect thymus iNKT1 and iNKT2 subsets. Interestingly, the subcutaneous injection of α-GalCer significantly increased the proportion of iNKT1 in the spleen and liver but did not significantly change the proportion of iNKT2. The intraperitoneal injection of α-GalCer significantly increased the rate of iNKT2 in spleen and liver but decreased the rate of iNKT1. Subsets of iNKT1 or iNKT2 cells in the spleen and liver were selectively activated by the subcutaneous or intraperitoneal injection of α-GalCer. It provides a valuable means for treating tumors and certain autoimmune diseases. Further exploration of the activation mechanism may provide new ideas about the development of related vaccines.
  • Mohammad Amin Momeni, Moghaddam, Gholamreza Asadikaram, Mohammad Hadi Nematollahi, Mojdeh Esmaeili Tarzi, Sanaz Faramarz, Gaznagh, Abbas Mohammadpour, Gharehbagh, Mohammad Kazemi Arababadi Pages 45-55
    Cigarette smoking and opium use are risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD). It has been known that scavenger receptors such as CD36 and CD68 play critical roles in the pathogenesis of CAD. CD9, as a member of the tetraspanin, has been shown to interact with scavenger receptors. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of these risk factors on expression levels of CD9, CD36, and CD68 on the THP-1 cell line. The THP-1 cell line treated with cigarette smoke extract (CSE( and opium, both individually and combinatory, in 24 h incubation. The protein and mRNA levels of CD9, CD36, and CD68 were evaluated by flow cytometry and quantitative reverse transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR) techniques, respectively. CD36 and CD68 mRNA and protein expression levels were significantly increased in the cells treated with cigarette smoke extract compared to the control (p<0.001 in mRNA expression levels and p=0.016 and p=0.012 in protein expression levels, respectively). The CSE increased the level of CD9 protein expression compared to the control group (p=0.041) on the human macrophage cell line THP-1. No significant differences were observed in the CD9, CD36, and CD68 gene expression and at the protein levels between opium-treated THP-1 cells and controls. In conclusion, cigarettes by increasing the levels of CD36, CD68, and CD9 can be a risk factor in the development of many inflammatory diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung carcinoma.
  • Shahla Danaii, Sadaf Shiri, Sanam Dolati, Majid Ahmadi, Leila Ghahremani, Nasab, Atefeh Amiri, Amin Kamrani, Hossein Samadi Kafil, Forough Chakari, Khiavi, Mohammad Hojjat, Farsangi, Aida Malek Mahdavi, Amir Mehdizadeh, Mehdi Yousefi Pages 56-64
    Slow coronary flow (SCF) is a coronary artery disorder. Several inflammatory mediators have been reported to be associated with vascular homeostasis and endothelial dysfunction. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between cytokines and miRNAs in patients with SCF compared to the controls. In this regard, blood samples were acquired from 45 SCF patients and 45 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects. Serum and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were separated. Expression levels of miRNAs and cytokines in PBMCs were measured by real-time PCR. As a final point, serum levels of cytokines were quantified by ELISA. Expression levels of miR-1, miR-133, miR-208a, miR-206, miR-17, miR-29, miR-223, miR-326, and miR-155 as considerable indicators of inflammatory function significantly increased in SCF patients while the expression levels of miR-15a, miR-21, miR-25, miR-126, miR-17, miR-16 and miR-18a as considerable indicators of anti-inflammatory function significantly decreased in patients with SCF compared to the control group. Additionally, serum IL-1β, IL‐8, and TNF-α concentrations were significantly higher in the SCF group than controls. However, no significant differences were observed in IL-10 production in SCF patients compared to the controls. This study provided the potential role of miRNAs as biomarkers for SCF diagnosis as well as suitable markers for monitoring coronary artery disease (CAD) development in these patients. More investigations are still necessary to unravel the detailed essential mechanisms of circulating miRNA levels in patients with heart failure and SCF.
  • Parya Basimi, Firouzeh Akbari Asbagh, Mir Saeed Yekaninejad, Mojgan Asadi, Ali Dabbagh, Farangis Najafi Arbastan, Samira Rajaei Pages 65-73
    Thyroid autoimmunity, being recognized by the presence of auto-antibodies against thyroid peroxidase (TPO) and thyroglobulin, has known to be associated with increased risk of recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA), even in euthyroid subjects. There was no robust evidence regarding T cell deviations in anti-TPO positive RSA patients. The aim of this study was to investigate if the numbers of different CD4+T  subsets were different in women who experienced RSA and have an anti-TPO antibody from those without autoantibody and normal fertile women or not. In this study, peripheral blood samples were obtained from three groups of women (age: 20-35 years) including RSA anti-TPO positive (n=17), RSA anti-TPO negative (n=27), and fertile (n=29) groups. The frequency of T helper (Th) 1, Th2, Th17, and regulatory T cells (Tregs) and also, the proportions of Th1/Th2 and Th17/Treg were measured by flow cytometry and compared between groups in different menstrual phases. The findings indicated elevated levels of Th1 in anti-TPO+ RSA in comparison with those without anti-TPO (p-value: 0.004), exclusively in the luteal phase. Other T cell subsets were different only between RSA and control groups. Also, the Th1/Th2 and Th17/Treg ratios were increased in both RSA groups compared to fertile women. The only subset of CD4+ T cell different between RSA groups (i.e. with and without anti-TPO) was Th1 cells. Other CD4+ T cells’ deviations including Th2, Th17, and Treg cells could be related to the presence of abortion, regardless of the underlying thyroid autoimmunity state.
  • Hossein Atwan, Mohammad, Ali Assarehzadegan, Mehdi Shekarabi, Seyed Mohammad Jazayeri, Shahram Barfi, Raheleh Shokouhi Shoormasti, Narges Chimeh, Hamid Reza Pouretemad, Behnoosh Tayebi Pages 74-83
    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is recognized by stereotypic and repetitive behaviors after 2 years of old. Dysregulation of the immune system, especially inflammation which is mostly regulated by IL-6, imposes a deficit in CNS development. Along with this crucial biomarker, researchers have proposed BCL-2, micro RNA-23a-3p (miR-23a-3p), miR-181b-5p as other probable biomarkers involved in inflammation and apoptosis. The aim of the study was to evaluate the alteration in the expression of these biomarkers in a group of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) children. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were obtained from 37 autistic patients. After RNA extraction with precipitation method, the Syber green qReal-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was performed in order to evaluate the possible alteration in the expression of IL-6, BCL-2, miR-181b-5p, and miR-23a-3p. The results were compared with healthy controls. IL-6 was significantly upregulated in ASD patients (p=0.003). On the other hand, miR-23a was upregulated and BCL-2 downregulated in ASD patients but the changes were not significant. In initial evaluations, expression changes of miR-181b-5p were not statistically significant. However, when Patients were divided into two groups of upregulated and downregulated, re-evaluation showed that both up- (p=0.005) and down-regulation (p=0.004) (i.e. changes regardless of the direction) of miR-181b were significant in autistic children. IL-6 and miR-181b-5p can have proper diagnostic values and are reliable biomarkers with high sensitivity and specificity. On the other hand, PBMC can be utilized for such studies and also evaluation of patients' condition instead of brain tissue as it is less accessible.
  • Amirhooman Asadi, Davood Yaghobi Nezhad, Amirreza Rafie Javazm, Parisa Khanicheragh, Ladan Mashouri, Fatemeh Shakeri, Mojtaba Abbasi, Mahya Sadat Afrazian, Zahra Niknam, Omid Abazari Pages 84-93
    Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) induces pro-inflammatory cytokines expression including interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and these cytokines are associated with the development of atherosclerosis. Curcumin has anti-atherogenic effects and anti-inflammatory properties in the vascular wall, but the relative mechanisms are almost unknown. In the present study, we investigate the effect of curcumin on modulating the pro-inflammatory action of TGF-β in human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and its molecular mechanisms. Cultured VSMCs were seeded into several groups: a control group (untreated group), a group treated with TGF-β, and several groups treated with TGF-β plus inhibitors. The cells were pre-treated with diphenyleneiodonium chloride, DPI, (20 μM), curcumin (5, 10 and 20 μM) and N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine, NAC, (10 mM) and then TGF-β (5 ng/mL) was added to the culture medium. The mRNA levels of IL-6 and TNF-α were detected by quantitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction. For monitoring the Smad2 linker region phosphorylation (pSmad2L), the western-blotting technique was applied and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was measured by utilizing 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescein diacetate-based assay. TGF-β increased the mRNA expression of IL-6 (p=0.02 and p=0.001) and TNF-α (p =0.014 and p = 0.001) in a time-dependent manner, ROS production (p=0.03) and Smad2L phosphorylation (p=0.015). Pre-treatment with curcumin, DPI and NAC inhibited TGF-β–induced IL-6 (p=0.04) and TNF-α (p=0.001) mRNA expression, Smad2L phosphorylation (p=0.02) and ROS production (0.03). Pharmacological inhibition by Curcumin blocks TGF-β–induced ROS production, Smad2L phosphorylation, and IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA expression in human VSMCs.
  • Taravat Talebi, Alireza Biglari, Mohammad Shahroeei, Majid Changi, Ashtiani, Hossein Dinmohammadi, Shadi Sadat Navabi, Nima Parvaneh, Xavier Bossuyt, Tina Shahani, Hassan Rokni, Zadeh Pages 94-101
    Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) comprises a heterogeneous group of genetic disorders caused by early defects in the development and function of T cells. Other lymphocyte lineages (B and/or natural killer cells) are variably affected. With a worldwide frequency of approximately 1:50,000 live births, SCID may result from diverse mutations in over 16 genes. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) provides an opportunity for parallel screening of all those genes. This approach is also useful for genetic diagnosis in parents whose infant expired before genetic testing. Here, we describe a heterozygous novel non-frameshift deletion (c.587_598del p.196_199del) in the adenosine deaminase (ADA) gene identified by WES in healthy parents of an expired child with SCID. The mutation was subsequently confirmed to be homozygous in the deceased baby whose left-over blood sample volume was insufficient for direct WES analysis. In conclusion, we here describe a novel mutation in ADA, a well-known SCID gene.
  • Nafisseh Esmaili, Hossein Mortazavi, Mahshid Sadat Ansari, Maryam Nasimi, Yasaman Ardalanrad, Amir Teimourpour Pages 102-104
    No Abstract