فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:1 Issue: 4, 2013
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1392/01/12
  • تعداد عناوین: 14
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  • Ahmad Beiranvand *, Amir Eslam Bonyad, Javad Sousani Pages 321-330
    Quantitative identification of physical changes, developments and dynamic position of urban green space is considered as the first step in its planning. By means of the aerial photos taken in 1956, 1974, and 1994 as well as the Quick Bird satellite image captured in 2006, this study has dealt with changes in per capita green space in Khorramabad during these years. First, geometric corrections of the photos were made and their orthophotos were provided. Then, through visual interpretation, city area was estimated over different years. Therefore, dot grid was used to calculate the urban green space during these years. Results show that the ratio of the green space area to total urban area is 10.42, 9.67, 15, and 9.1 percent during these years, respectively. Statistical test results indicate that there is a significant difference between green space percentage in 1994 and those of other years. However, there is no significant difference between green space percentages in 1956, 1974, and 2006. Per capita green space was calculated according to the population data provided by the Statistical Center of Iran. Results suggest that per capita green space in Khorramabad is 5.27, 4.2, 7.73, and 6.88 square meters in 1956, 1974, 1994 and 2006, respectively. Thus, its per capita green space is not proportional to universal standards. The relationship between changes in per capita green space and its percentage does not follow a definite procedure. In conclusion, we must actually consider not only the high ratio of green space but also the regional density, so that we may proportionately increase the green space and then take right decisions.
    Keywords: Per capita green space, Changes, Remote Sensing, Khorramabad
  • Ezatollah Farshadfar *, Hossein Romena, Akbar Shabani Pages 331-340
    Selection of genotypes based on high value of heritability and forecasted genetic conditions would be an effective method for improvement of wheat cultivars. The present investigation was carried out to estimate the genetic variability of agro-physiological characters using biometrical genetic techniques in 20 bread wheat genotypes under irrigated condition. For this purpose an experiment was conducted to estimate the genetic parameters of some agro- physiological traits and their relationship with yield under Irrigated conditions. High genetic variability was observed between the genotypes for the characters grain yield (GY), chlorophyll a (Chl a), chlorophyll ab (Chl ab), quantum yield (QY), performance index (PI), relative water loss (RWL) and leaf chlorophyll content (LCC), therefore direct selection is effective for improvement of these traits.Total chlorophyll content (Chl ab), chlorophyll b (Chl b) and PI revealed high heritability and co-heritability with yield. Hence, they can be used as indirect selection for the improvement of yield under irrigated condition.
    Keywords: Diversity, Genetic parameters, Selection index, Wheat
  • Neda Mohamadi *, Peyman Rajaei Pages 341-350
    Triamidefon is a triazole derivative, which have both fungicidal and plant growth regulator (PGR) properties, and also protect plants from several types of abiotic stresses. The influential mechanism of Triamidefon on plants is not much studied. In this study effect of this compound on the drought stressed in tomato plants was investigated. The plants were subjected to 5 day interval drought stress and drought stress with TDM (15mgl-1) and TDM alone from 30 days after sowing. The plant samples were collected for estimating the related analysis. Individual and combined drought stress and TDM treatment increased dry weight, Chlorophyll content, SOD, CAT, PPO activities and decreased leaf area and prolin content. From the result of this investigation it can be concluded that the application of TDM caused a partial recovery of the damaging effect of drought stress by its influence on antioxidant system.
    Keywords: Fungicide, Triamidofon, Drought stress, Lycopersicom esculentum Mill
  • Saeed Dadashi *, Morad Mousazadeh, Zahra Emam Djomeh, SeyedMohammad Mousavi Pages 351-363

    The pomegranate seeds of four Iranian commercial varieties  (Abanmahi (AB), Malas (MS), Pust Sefid (PS) and Shahvar (SH)) were evaluated in terms of some quality properties including protein, oil, dietary fiber, mineral contents and fatty acid composition. Physicochemical properties and antioxidant activity of pomegranate seed oils (PSOs) were also determined. The oil antioxidant activity was measured by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity. Results showed that PS had the highest oil (16.9%) and crude fiber (42.4%), and nutritional value (460.7Kcal/100g) among selected varieties. PS had the highest level of phosphorus (2766.3 mg/kg) and magnesium (2052.0mg/kg), while the highest calcium (675.3mg/kg) and potassium (3724.6mg/kg) were related to SH. The main fatty acid identified by gas chromatography was punicic acid ranged from 72.07% for SH to 73.31% for MS (p<0.05). The ratios of polyunsaturated/saturated and unsaturated/saturated fatty acids of PSOs were found to be between 9.174 and 9.450, and 10.325 and 10.861, respectively (p<0.05). PSOs obtained presented acid (3.78-8.36% punicic acid), peroxide (0.39-0.48meq O2/kg), iodine (216.9-220.3g I2/100g) and saponification (179.3-182.5mg KOH/g) values. Also, refractive index at 25°C, viscosity and density of PSOs varied from 1.461-1.527, 0.036-0.063Pa.s and 0.9202-0.9311g/cm3, respectively. The oil obtained from MS showed the lowest level of ortho-diphenols (ODC) and DPPH radical scavenging capability. The relationship between percentage of remaining DPPH and ODC of PSOs also illustrated high correlation among all varieties (R2 = 0.98, p<0.01).

    Keywords: Pomegranate seed, Fatty acid profile, Oil characterization, Ortho-diphenols, DPPH radical scavanging
  • Ali Jafari, Abotaleb Saleh Nasab, Yousef Askari *, Zahra Seyfi Pages 364-375
    Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Province is one of the 31 provinces of Iran and located on the southwestern part of the country. Its capital is Shahrekord. It has an area of 16,332 square kilometers and a population of 857,910. To study of human development used the Surplus Biocappacity (SB) and Human Development Index (HDI). This research accrued in the shahr-e-kord, Boroojen, Farsan, Ardal, Lordegan and Kohrang region (chaharmehal va Bakhtiari Province). our research used the raw data in related the Surplus Biocappacity (SB) and Human Development Index (HDI) include number of death, student in the primary, guidance, high school, tertiary and number of Adult Literacy in the calendar of 2010 year. Results showed that the quantity of human development index and sub- index in the shahr-e-kord was higher the other region of chaharmehal va Bakhtiari Province, but this index in the Kohrang region was lowest quantity. because the the quantity of family income, level of education and life Expectancy index in this region are lowest in the chaharmehal va Bakhtiari Province. Other region of province arranged the Boroojen (17%), Lordegan (17%), Farsan (13%) and Ardal (12%) have a maximum of effect on the human development. Overall results showed that the shahr-e-kord (center of chaharmehal va Bakhtiari Province) has a maximum of human development, and Kohrang region have a minimum of human development. Authors suggested increasing the human development of Kohrang region more focused in this region and determinate the more financial resource and managements.
    Keywords: Surplus Biocappacity (SB), Human Development Index (HDI), Sustainable development, chaharmehal va Bakhtiari Province, Kohrang, shahr-e-kord
  • SeyedMostafa Moslemi SeyedMahalleh, Mehrnosh Shabanipour, Nilofar Mostafa Soltani *, Maziar Haidari Pages 375-381

    To detection of suitable sampling method to study tree canopy cover in the northern Zagros forest, Baneeh region forest, Kurdistan province, and west of Iran was selected. 40 square sample plots one hectare (100×100 m) were selected and perfect inventoried. In every sample plot the position of tree, kind of species and two diameter of crown (m) were recorded. To study of canopy cover different sampling methods (rectangular sample with 20×50 m and 10×50, random sampling method with 40, 50 and 60 circle sample plots which everyone was 1000 m2) compered the prefect inventory. To determination of suitable sampling for study of canopy cover used the %E2 ×T indexes. Results showed that the rectangular sample with 20×50 m sample methods was the best methods and have maximum of accuracy. Overall results showed that the rectangular sample with 20×50 m sampling methods was (have minimum of time and %E2×T criteria) the suitable methods to study of canopy cover (%).

    Keywords: kurdestan province, sample methods, canopy cover (%), northern zagros forest, %E2 ×T criteria
  • Marzieh Mohammadi *, GholamAbass Barani, Kourosh Qaderi Pages 382-397

    Earth dam is a structure as homogeneous or non-homogeneous forms for raising water level or water supply. Earth dam consist of different parts that one of the main parts is clay core. Choosing an optimal non permeable core which causes reduction of seepage through dam body and also being stable is necessary. The objective of this research is to optimize the geometry of earth dam clay core such that, beside of reduction of seepage through dam body, the volume of core material is minimized. For access of this objective a consolidated model consist of a simple model which obtained by linear regression and SA algorithm were used, to optimize the Birjand Hesar Sangi dam. Optimal parameters such as seepage through dam body, hydraulic gradient and safety factor of stability access from model compared by the values access from the direct run of the software modeling that show a good agreement. Also the result of access by modeling have been compared by actual dimensions of Birjand Hesar Sangi dam, that cause reduction of material volume for construction core dam and shell dam about 21 and 8 percent, respectively. Result show that the consolidated model has successful operations and a general optimal plan design of clay core dimensions in stable condition can be achieved.

    Keywords: Simulated Annealing Algorithm (SA), Optimization, Earth dam, Seepage, Clay core
  • Fatemeh Noori, Parvin Salehi Shanjani *, AmirHossein Bandar Abadi, MohamadAli Alizadeh, Reza Tabaei Aghdaei, Rahim Hadadi Pages 398-402

    Chamomile serves as one of the most important medicinal plants. The most known secondary metabolites in chamomile species are volatile oils of triponoides, poly stilens, flavonoids and phenolic cafeic acid (Krori). These metabolites have wide variety of applications thanks to having medicinal properties of anti-inflammation, antispasmodic and bactericide activity. Also it is used to cure liver disorders and icterus (Zargari). Isozyme has been used successfully as biochemical markers n specific genetic and plant breeding areas. Isozymes serve as different molecular form of enzyme with protein nature, accelerating the same reactions. These molecules appear on electrophorese through pigmented reaction associated into enzyme function. They are products of different alleles located at locus or loci. The present research was conducted to evaluate genetic variation of thirteen chamomile populations and peroxidase enzyme quality. Peroxidase was extracted from fresh leaves and young seedlings. The PAGE approach was used to evaluations. There were three action sites on polyacrylamide gels called PX-A, PX-B and PX-C. based on results of  electrophoreses on peroxidase enzyme, the most and least genetic distances were observed between populations Ghazvain-Ts2, Naghadeh-AT1 and Ghazvin-TS2,Ardabil2 respectively.

    Keywords: Genetic variations, Iranian, German false chamomile populations, Isozyme bands pattern
  • Tahsin Rahmani, Hadi Poorbagher *, Arash Javanshir, Barzan Bahrami Kamangar Pages 403-420
    The Zerebar Lake is a shallow freshwater lake located in the northwestern Iran. The lake is surrounded by three human activities: agriculture, tourism and dam. The present study aimed to investigate (1) which human activity has the greatest impact on eutrophication of the Zerebar Lake (2) If phytoplankton communities, as the indicator, are correlated with the human activities. Water samples were collected from three selected sites (nearby three human activities) in the Lake every two months, from August 2010 to June 2011. Water variables and parameters of phytoplankton communities (distribution, abundance, biomass and diversity indices) were examined. Agricultural runoff had the main effect on eutrophication of the Lake and the dam deteriorated trophic condition by preventing removal of the nutrients. Although, phytoplankton diversity was affected by nutrients, especially phosphorous, phytoplankton biomass was likely affected by physical parameters, mainly light. The present study suggests that phytoplankton diversity indices are not good indicators for anthropogenic activities around the Lake. However, some phytoplankton genera were more suitable indicators of trophic condition of the lake than others.
    Keywords: Shallow Lake, human activities, Eutrophication, Phytoplankton indices
  • Kobra Saghafi *, Jafar Ahmadi, Ahmad Asgharzadeh, Shiva Bakhtiari Pages 421-431
    Salinity is one of the most important abiotic stresses that limit crop growth and productivity. This study focuses on the effects of different strains of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on the physiological responses of two wheat cultivars under normal and salt stress conditions. The wheat cultivars selected include one which is tolerant to salinity (Kavir) and one which is sensitive to salt-stress (Qods). The factors considered were four levels of PGPR (B1 to B4) and two levels of salinized culture solution (S1 to S2). Before planting, the wheat was inoculated with strains of PGPR. Results showed that salt stress reduced RWC, Leaf Chlorophyll index and photosynthesis characteristics. The application of PGPRs strains reduced the negative effects of saline stress by increasing the leaf’s relative water content and enhancing photosynthetic pigment production in both stress and normal condition. The mechanism of PGPR elicitation of growth promotion may involve the enhancement of root hair development and therefore increased relative water content, chlorophyll pigments and water uptake. Single and dual inoculations of PGPR strains showed variations in their effect to enhance the wheat tolerance to salt. The bacterial consortium was effective for wheat plants as an acceptable and ecofriendly technology to improve plant performance and development.
    Keywords: Azosprilliumc, Mixed inoculants, Pseudomonas, PGPR, Salt stress, Wheat
  • Aboulghasem Yousefi *, Leila Darvishi Pages 432-449

    Increasing urbanisation and industrialisation have led to a dramatic reduction in forest area, and now only culturally protected remnants of natural forests and some new plantations remain in most areas of the north of Iran. To investigate the status of the chemical and physical characteristics of soil under these remnant forests and assess the possible impacts of reforestation on soil properties in the plantation forests, soils at 0-10, 10–20, and 20–30 cm depths were sampled from four tree plantations 22 years of age and it covers 42ha, composed of Pinus brutia L., Populus nigra L., Acer velutinum Boiss and Fraaxinus excelsior L. species, which is located in the South of town of Ghaemshahr in Berenjestanak lowland forest in the North of Iran, where there was remnant natural forest, and soil pHKcl and pHH2O, total nitrogen, soil organic matter (SOM) and soil organic carbon (SOC) contents, exchangeable cations (Ca, Mg and K) contents and saturation moisture were determined. Results showed that the amount of SOM of the first layer of the soil profiles in all forest types was greater than the other two layers. Furthermore, Soil pH was significantly lower in Pinus brutia L. plantation than the other forest types at 0-10 cm of soil depth. A positive value for ∆pH demonstrate the presence of negatively charged clay colloids and the cation exchange capacity is higher than the anion exchange capacity .Soil exchangeable K and Ca contents were significantly lower under plantation forests than under natural forest in all layers, whereas exchangeable Mg contents showed little difference between types of forests.  Moreover, contents of all exchangeable cations except Mg showed a significant decrease with depth. The value of soil moisture in the topsoil was higher than in the subsoil in all the categories of the natural forests and the tree plantation studied. The comparison indicated that the tree plantation conducted in this region must be forwarded to mixed forest under tending operations instead of monoculture to enhance and improve soil physicochemical statues.

    Keywords: Berenjestanak, Soil changes, Exchangeable cations, Soil Moisture, plantation
  • Ayat Rohina *, Ayob Baharani Fard, Nader Kazemi, Kazem Abadi, Asghar Mohammadi Pages 450-458
    Several empirical methods for flood flow rate estimation have been presented. In this study,eight new empirical runoff estimation method including Dredge & Burge, Bourges, Inglis, Faning, Hyderabad, Burkli Ziegler, Cramar and Possenti were calculated in Bakhtegan watershed which is located in Fars province. After studying empirical methods for annual flood flow rate estimation and comparing the results from empirical methods with measured values by hydrometric station existing in the region, it was found that in most watersheds, the most suitable methods were Cramar, Burkli Ziegler, Faning, Dredge & Burge, Bourges, Possenti, Hyderabad, and Inglisrespectively.
    Keywords: Flood maximum flow rate, Bakhtegan watershed, Empirical methods
  • Ayat Rohina *, Mohammad Karami, Ayob Bahranifard, Mohsen Dehghan Pages 459-466
    Sensitivity analysis to determine variations in evapotranspiration is much important considering a known variation in one of climatic variables. In this study, sensitivity of evapotranspiration from Penmann-Mantith, Penmann-Kimberly (1996), Penman-Kimberly (1972) and Penmann (1984)  and Hargrivs (1985) approaches to three climatic variations (maximum temperature, wind speed, solar radiation) was studied in station Fasa for an interval of 22 years (1982-2003). In this research, in order to represent the effect of climatic variables on evapotranspiration, variation percentage standard was used. The results showed that, in most approaches, the most sensitivity was to net radiation, maximum temperature and wind speed, respectively. The results of this study are applicable for measurement of climatic variations in order to estimate evapotranspiration.
    Keywords: Potential evapotranspiration, Sensitivity analysis, Variation coefficient, Fasa synoptic station
  • AmirHussein Asgari Safdar *, Hussein Daghigh Kia Pages 467-476

    Nutrition has a significant effect on reproduction and lactation in Ruminant. Supply of require nutrient of dairy cows and ewes in early lactation is the main challenges that will be considered, since in most cases the animals facing negative energy balance after calving and the beginning of the period of lactation. Negative energy balance may sometimes result in reduced livestock production and metabolic diseases and thus negatively affected the growth of lambs and calves. The use of energy-rich diets, especially during the rearing period lactation can help to solve this problem. Studies showed that fat supplementation has positive effects on dairy cattle during a 120-day lactation period. Milk fat yield increased linearly during the nursing period, but not in the rest of lactation, with increased CSFA feeding. The absence of a positive response in milk fat yield during the milking period, even with high levels of CSFA in the diet, indicates a decrease in transfer of fat from CSFA to milk as lactation advanced, which is quantified by the lower relative milk fat yield response with high CSFA levels at the end of lactation

    Keywords: Calcium, fatty acids, Ruminant