فهرست مطالب

  • سال شانزدهم شماره 4 (بهار و تابستان 1397)
  • مطالعات آسیای صغیر (5)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/06/20
  • تعداد عناوین: 12
|
|
  • M. A. Movahhed Pages 9-22

    This article presents the contents of the first session of the Masnavi lessons by Dr. Mohammad Ali Movahhed, which has been held at the Persian Language and Literature Academy for more than two years. It begins with the narration written on Mawlana Jalaleddin Balkhi’s Masnavi and the attempt to explain the verses of this book from the time of the compilation so far. Then, it addresses the Persian and Arabic prose prefaces of the six- volume book and mentions the additional prefaces extant in some volumes including the first, second and fourth volumes, and whether these precious accounts have been written by Mawlana or not? What is their significance? which is discussed in detail. Referring to the corrections made in the Masnavi by Rumi and whoever surrounded with, is another issue that has been discussed and, due to the belonging of Hesameddin Chalabi, for whom Masnavi has been composed, to the congregation, a description of them and their way in that time has also been presented. In the end, there is also an important point about looking at Masnavi, which should take place within the framework of this book and its composer’s thought, not from other viewpoints, as the ancestors tried to adapt to the thoughts of Ibn Arabi, and the latter also attempted to analyze it through the new Menon’s interpreting methods (hermenneutics) and western psychological theories, both of which are based on error, and the result of which is nothing but a departure from Rumi’s thoughts and the book of Masnavi.

    Keywords: Lectures on the Masnavi, Mawlana, prefaces of Masnavi
  • N. Salehi Pages 23-38

    Selaniki’s History is written by one of the famous Ottoman historians, Selaniki Mustafa Efendi. The author wrote the events of the year of 971-1008 AH/ 1563- 1600 AD on the basis of personal observations as well as official government documents. This work has valuable information about various subjects, including a series of events in Iran, Ottoman, and European. Apart from historical significance, the industrial history is also valuable in terms of Persian language and literature. Because, the author sometimes uses Persian terms and expressions in the subject matter, and more importantly, in the place of the book alongside the Turkish poems, they also use Persian poems to express their meaning. Throughout his work, he often uses Turkish and Persian chronograms for recording history of events. The utilization of Persian poetry and chronograms during the writing of history suggests his acquaintance with Persian language and literature. The present research is based on this question: What is the presence of Persian poetry and chronograms in Selaniki’s History, which is a work in Turkish?

    Keywords: Selaniki, Selaniki’s History, Persian poetry, Persian chronogram
  • M. Rezvanfar, D. Zolfaghari Pages 39-56

    In the study of the inscriptions of the Islamic era of the Persian world, an overwhelming text in the inscriptions attracts the attention of the scholars; this text reads: The project “Review Persian Inscriptions in the World” from East China to the Heart of Africa, which is being prepared by the authors of this paper in a field and library, has had many achievements, one of which is the subject of this article. Based on the two main questions of the paper, we attempt to show which text has had the highest frequency of usage in the inscriptions of the monumental historical building? And what factors have spread this phrase among people with different beliefs and languages? To reflect on the subject, many of the historic buildings were surveyed in the cities of Istanbul, Turkey, Russia, Baku, Azerbaijan, Kabul, Uzbekistan, and many other parts of Iran. Eleven samples were selected. The accuracy of these images shows that in the course of successive periods on top of the door heads of the houses, palaces and public places of many countries of the region, despite some existing conflicts (Iran and Ottoman examples), this phrase is observed, which is a sign of reflection of Persian language in the religious, political and artistic culture of these areas. It can be said that the rhetoric of this text is in the form of a versatile word in which the word and meaning are beautifully intertwined. Also, the presence of «)I testify that there is only اشهد ان لاالله الا الله the most important slogan of Islam, » one God, the one and only), alongside Egyptian Farsi, which contains several cultural beliefs, is due to the expansion of this inscription, even in among other languages. Another reason is that the studied areas, within a certain time period, are among the Seljuk villages, and the ground for the development of Persian culture and language, including the theme, is provided in these areas.

    Keywords: Inscription, door head, Islamic era, Persian world
  • F. Farrokhfar Pages 57-84

    In the tenth century, the widespread political, cultural and social exchanges between the two Safavid and Ottoman governments led to the expansion of telecommunications in various fields, which can be seen in the professions and crafts of that era. Some of the documents and records provide a clear picture of the state of the professions and crafts of the Safavid and Ottoman governments, which is a comparative study of these two documents for the purpose of identifying the intellectual and cultural commonalities of the two lands, a new platform for more in-depth studies. The purpose of this research is to introduce and review the Safavid and Ottoman professions and to show the impact of these social and cultural relations on the development of crafts. To this end, in the first part of this study, the political exchanges of the Safavid and Ottoman states are reviewed, and then some of the most important documents and resources contain information about the professions of these countries. In the later sections, while introducing the letter mentioned in these documents, the status of professions of the Safavid and Ottoman era, with emphasis on its common points in the types of letters and constituencies, the position and salary of the traders and specialist businesses are studied. Despite the explanation of the differentiation aspects, the results of the research indicate the intellectual and cultural commonalities between the two Safavid and Ottoman governments. The research method is analyticalcomparative and the method of collecting information is library-documentary.

    Keywords: Iran, Safavid, Ottoman, professions, crafts
  • Y. Farrokhi, H. Khosrow Beygi Pages 85-110

    Mawlavi’s tradition or spiritual heritage of Mawlana Jalal al-Din al-Balkhi is one of the most influential and most important influences of sufism in the history of Asia Minor in the Middle Ages. In the meantime, the Aflaki’s book Manaqeb al-ʻArefin is also the most important source that shows the influence of this tragedy in Asia Minor. The study seeks to explore the interaction or the two-way link between the Mawlaviyyah Tariqah and the craftsmen as well as the quality and quantity of this two-way linkage with a recent source study. By benefiting from the descriptive-analytical approach, this research will answer the question of what kind of activities have been consistently arranged on the basis of Manaqeb al-ʻArefin or were important in this Tariqah? It seems that mentioning the names and the number and quantity of items reflected in this work is worthy of attention, and indicates the broader relationship with the craft groups. The present research shows that according to Aflaki, some of the craft groups are more important in Mawlaviyyah tradition, and as a result, there are more narrations about them in this work.

    Keywords: Mawlavi, Asia Minor, Manaqeb al-Arefin, craftsmen, interaction, continuity
  • A. Aldaghi Pages 111-132

    The existence of rare versions of the art of painting in Iran at the court of Istanbul, indicates the attention of the Ottoman government to the art schools of Iran. The Ottoman government has always been struggling to attract top artists to enhance the boom and credibility of the Istanbul court with their artwork. Early in the tenth century, the first sultan Salim through benefiting from the political and artistic exploits of Iran, captured Tabriz, the newly established Safavid capital, for a short time, and on his return, a significant number of precious reserves and books, and even some artists were transferred to the Ottoman Empire. The activities of Iranian artists in Istanbul workshops and the existence of valuable illustrated copies of their illustrations were among the factors involving in the impact of Iranian art on Ottoman painting. This research describes the evolution of the Ottoman painting art based on the artistic achievements of schools in Iran during the Safavid period in Tabriz.
    The results show that the activities of Iranian immigrant artists in the Topkapi workshops and Iranian illustrated manuscripts in the Topkapi Saray Treasury that was used as a model in the works of the Istanbul school works have played an important role in the formation of the Ottoman art.

    Keywords: Painting, Ottoman, Iran, Safavid, painting
  • M. Ghorbani Pages 133-156

    Calligraphy should be considered the most honorable, holiest and most spiritual of Islamic art. With the advent of Islam in Hijaz, Muslims for the first time began to write their Holy Quran, and this, with the encouragement of the elders of the progressive religion, resulted in thousands of exquisite versions of the various scripts of the Holy Quran, which among Islamic nations, Iran and Ottoman (Turkey) have had the largest share in the development of this art.
    Istanbul was the cradle for calligraphic art. The new forms of calligraphy that have been created with interest and support in Istanbul have expanded rapidly and well-liked in other parts of the world and have spread throughout our Muslim world in our day.
    The Ottomans, with the establishment of special centers of calligraphy, as well as the training of great masters in the six hands calligraphy, have been able to recognize them as the masters of these scripts in Islamic art. At the same time, Ottoman calligraphers used Iranian scripts, which had different names than those common in Iran. The scripts such as Toqra, Roqʻa, Diwani and Diwani-ye Jeli are also the origins of Ottoman calligraphers that are still of interest in Turkey and in many Arab countries.
    The present paper deals with the development process of this art and some of its schools as well.

    Keywords: calligraphy, ottoman, the six hands, Anatolia, Istanbul
  • N. Kina, A. Hajiyan Nejad Pages 157-170

    The present Afghanistan is the main origin of Persian poetry and literature that has been shined in the history of Persian literature. Sheykh Seyyed Soleyman Balkhi and his son, Sheykh Seyyed Abdolqader Balkhi are from the 13th century wise men and poets who lived in Kunduz and then they migrated from Balkh to Baghdad with the intention of going to Hajj due to the bad circumstances at that time, but in Baghdad, they gave up going to Hajj and moved first to Konya and then to Istanbul. Abdolqader Balkhi spent his primary education with his father and he also was taught by Seyyed Bakir Reshad in Turkey, and succeeded him in the spiritual order and sects of Naqshbandiyyah and Hamzaviyyah. In addition to spiritual guidance, he has written poetries in Persian, Turkish and Chagatai languages, some of which have been published, and some others have been remained handwritten. His works consists of Yanabi’al-Hikam, Konuz al-‘Arefin, Golshan-e Asrar, Asrar al-Tawhid, Shams-e Rakhshan, the Divan, Sonuhat-e Elahiyyah, va Elhamat-e Rabbaniyyah.

    Keywords: Sheykh Seyyed Soleyman Balkhi, Sheykh Seyyed AbdolqaderBalkhi, Naqshbandiyyah, Hamzaviyyah, the Divan