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پژوهش های حبوبات ایران - سال دهم شماره 2 (پاییز و زمستان 1398)
  • سال دهم شماره 2 (پاییز و زمستان 1398)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/12/27
  • تعداد عناوین: 15
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  • هادی افضلی، مهدی مهیجی*، حسن فرحبخش صفحات 12-23

    تنش خشکی بزرگ ترین عامل محدودکننده رشد و عملکرد نخود در کشور است. به منظور برآورد تنوع ژنتیکی، وراثت پذیری و تعیین روابط بین صفات زراعی، مورفولوژیک و فیزیولوژیک، 64ژنوتیپ نخود کابلی در قالب دو طرح لاتیس ساده (8×8) در شرایط خشکی آخر فصل و آبیاری با دو تکرار در سال زراعی1395-1394 در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه شهید باهنر کرمان مورد بررسی قرار گرفتند. تنش خشکی در مرحله50درصد گل دهی اعمال شد. صفات عملکرد، اجزای عملکرد، دوره پرشدن دانه، سرعت پرشدن دانه، شاخص اسپد، فتوسنتز خالص و هدایت روزنه ای اندازه گیری شدند. در شرایط نرمال صفت دوره پرشدن دانه و تعداد برگچه ها با مقادیر 11/07و 9/13درصد بیشترین ضریب تنوع ژنتیکی را به خود اختصاص دادند. در شرایط تنش صفات فتوسنتز خالص و هدایت روزنه ای دارای بیشترین ضریب تغییرات ژنتیکی (به ترتیب 33/14 و 31/76) بودند. تجزیه علیت در هر دو محیط نرمال و تنش نشان داد که سرعت پرشدن دانه بیشترین اثر مستقیم را به ترتیب با مقادیر 0/527 و 0/702 بر روی عملکرد دانه داشت. در شرایط نرمال پس از سرعت پرشدن دانه، صفات تعداد دانه در بوته، وزن100دانه و دوره پرشدن دانه و در شرایط تنش، دوره پرشدن دانه بالاترین اثر مستقیم را بر عملکرد دانه داشتند. بر اساس نتایج، گزینش برای صفات فیزیولوژیک مانند هدایت روزنه ای یا سرعت پرشدن دانه می تواند در افزایش عملکرد نخود در شرایط تنش آخر فصل موثر باشد.

    کلیدواژگان: تنش خشکی آخر فصل، فیوسنیز خالص وراثت پذیری، هدایت روزنه ای
  • خدیجه باقری*، عاطفه بخشیان صفحات 24-35

    در مورد لوبیا هنوز یک پروتوکل بهینه باززایی وجود ندارد و این خود یک چالش بزرگ جهت استفاده از روش انتقال ژن برای اصلاح لوبیا محسوب می شود. در این تحقیق دو آزمایش برای بررسی کالوس زایی و باززایی گیاه لوبیا مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. در آزمایش اول ریزنمونه های محور جنینی شش رقم لوبیا بعد از 20 ساعت خیساندن جدا و در سه تیمار هورمونی شامل 1- (11µM) BAP و (0/57 µM) IAA، 2- (44/4µM) BAP و (2/27µM) TDZ و 3- (44/4µM) BAP کشت شدند. بیشترین میزان تولید کالوس مربوط به تیمار هورمونی 2 در رقم های ناز، ازنا، لاین 8 و الیگودرز و تیمار هورمونی 3 در تمامی رقم-ها به جز لاین 4 بوده است. کالوس های تولید شده در این آزمایش قادر به باززایی نشدند. در آزمایش دو،م بذور استریل در پیش تیمار هورمونی (TDZ 0 µM و TDZ 10µM) جوانه زده و بعد از 14 روز ریزنمونه های لایه ی سلولی نازک عرضی به ضخامت mm5/0-3/0 از اپی کوتیل جدا و به محیط MSB5 با تیمارهای هورمونی (10µM) TDZ و (10µM) BAP انتقال یافتند. بیشترین میزان کالوس زایی با پیش تیمار (10µM) TDZ و تیمار هورمونی (10µM) BAP و (10µM) TDZ در لاین 4 و الیگودرز بدست آمد. بیشترین میزان باززایی با تیمار هورمونی (10µM) TDZ در ارقام ناز، ازنا، لاین 8 و الیگودرز به دست آمد. نتایج این تحقیق نشان داد که ریزنمونه لایه سلولی نازک تحت تاثیر هورمونهای TDZ و BAP بهتر از ریزنمونه محور جنینی قادر به باززایی می باشد. همچنین هورمون TDZ برای باززایی لوبیا موثرتر از BAP است. تاثیر پیش تیمار با TDZ نیز متغیر و وابسته به ژنوتیپ است

    کلیدواژگان: باززای، کالوسزای، لای سلول نازک لوبیا، محور جنین
  • نورعلی ساجدی*، مجتبی نوروزی صفحات 36-48

    به منظور بررسی واکنش صفات فیزیولوژیک نخود به محلول پاشی سالیسیلیک اسید و سلنیوم در شرایط دیم، آزمایشی به صورت اسپلیت پلات فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی در چهار تکرار در سال1393 اجرا شد. عوامل مورد بررسی شامل سالیسیلیک اسید در سه سطح (بدون مصرف، محلول پاشی با غلظت های 100 و 200میلی گرم در لیتر) و سلنیوم در دو سطح (بدون مصرف و محلول پاشی به میزان 18گرم در هکتار در سه مرحله مختلف رشد رویشی، زایشی و رویشی توام با زایشی) بود. نتایج نشان داد که با محلول پاشی سلنیوم و سالیسیلیک اسید محتوای نسبی آب برگ افزایش یافت. با محلول پاشی مقادیر مختلف سالیسیلیک اسید محتوای کلروفیلa و کارتنویید ها افزایش و میزان نشت یونی به طور معنی داری کاهش یافت. محلول پاشی سلنیوم محتوای کلروفیلa را نسبت به شاهد افزایش داد. اثر متقابل دوگانه تیمارها نشان داد که با محلول پاشی 18گرم در هکتار سلنیوم، 100میلی گرم در لیتر سالیسیلیک اسید و بدون مصرف سلنیوم و همچنین محلول پاشی 200میلی گرم در لیتر سالیسیلیک اسید و بدون مصرف سلنیوم، محتوای کلروفیلb نسبت به شاهد به ترتیب 26/4، 29/4و 32/3افزایش نشان داد. با محلول پاشی تیمارهای سالیسیلیک اسید و سلنیوم در هر دو مرحله رشد رویشی و زایشی بیشترین شاخص برداشت غلاف و تلاش و بازآوری حاصل شد. نتایج کلی نشان داد با محلول پاشی توام 18گرم در هکتار سلنیوم و 100میلی گرم در لیتر سالیسیلیک اسید در دو مرحله رویشی و زایشی از طریق بهبود صفات فیزیولوژیکی می توان به عملکرد مطلوب در شرایط دیم دست یافت.

    کلیدواژگان: رنگدانه های گیاهی، سلنیت سدیم، محتوای نسبی آب، نخود، نشت یونی
  • سید حسین صباغ پور*، ابوالفضل شریفی، داوود ارادتمند اصلی صفحات 49-61

    مصرف بی رویه کودهای شیمیایی به منظور افزایش تولیدات کشاورزی به ویژه در بخش زراعی، موجب بروز صدمات زیست محیطی و اختلال در حاصلخیزی خاک می شود. این تحقیق به منظور بررسی تاثیر کودهای بیولوژیک و شیمیایی نیتروژنه بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد ارقام اصلاح شده نخود در شرایط دیم در ایستگاه اکباتان مرکز تحقیقات، آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی همدان به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی در چهار تکرار با پنج تیمار کودی (شاهد، سوپرنیتروپلاس، نیتروکسین، ریزوچک و کود شیمیایی نیتروژن با منشا اوره) و سه رقم اصلاح شده (آزاد، هاشم و آرمان) در سال زراعی92-1391 اجرا شد. نتایج این تحقیق نشان داد که تیمار کودی تاثیر معنی داری در سطح 1درصد بر شاخص برداشت و عملکرد دانه داشت. ارقام از نظر تعداد روز تا 50درصد گل دهی، شاخص سطح برگ، شاخص برداشت، تعداد دانه در غلاف و عملکرد دانه اختلاف معنی دار آماری داشتند. اثرات متقابل کود×رقم صفات مورد بررسی معنی دار نشد. بیشترین عملکرد دانه با تلقیح بذور نخود با کود زیستی ریزوچک حاصل گردید و استفاده از این کود زیستی به ترتیب موجب افزایش 39 و 26درصدی شاخص برداشت و عملکرد دانه نسبت به تیمار شاهد شد. رقم آزاد 58 و 116درصد از شاخص سطح برگ بیشتری نسبت به ارقام آرمان و هاشم برخوردار بود. همچنین نتایج این تحقیق نشان داد که بیشترین عملکرد دانه مربوط به رقم آزاد بود که 44 و 133درصد به ترتیب بیش از ارقام آرمان و هاشم تولید داشت. لذا با استفاده از رقم آزاد و تلقیح بذور آن با کود زیستی ریزوچک، علاوه بر افزایش عملکرد، مصرف کودهای شیمیایی در نخود کاهش خواهد یافت.

    کلیدواژگان: ریزوچک، سوپرنیتروپلاس، نیتروکسین، Cicer arietinum
  • رحیم ناصری*، عباس سلیمانی فرد، امیر میرزایی، فرشته دارابی، امین فتحی صفحات 62-76

    به منظور بررسی اثر ریزوباکتر ها محرک رشد بر فعالیت آنزیم های آنتی اکسیدان، خصوصیات فیزیولوژیکی و رشد ریشه چهار رقم نخود در شرایط دیم استان ایلام، آزمایشی به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در سال زراعی94-1393 در ایستگاه مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی سرابله اجرا گردید. تیمار های آزمایش شامل سه رقم نخود (هاشم، آزاد و آرمان) و توده محلی و ریزو باکتر ها محرک رشد و کود شیمیایی نیتروژن (عدم مصرف کود نیتروژن، 10کیلوگرم کود نیتروژن، 20کیلوگرم کود نیتروژن، آزسپریلیوم برازیلنس (Azospirillum brasilense)+ عدم مصرف کود شیمیایی نیتروژن، آزسپریلیوم برازیلنس+10کیلوگرم کود شیمیایی نیتروژن، آزسپریلیوم برازیلنس+20کیلوگرم کود شیمیایی نیتروژن، ازتوباکتر کروکوم (Azotobacter chroococcum)+ عدم مصرف کود شیمیایی نیتروژن، ازتوباکتر کروکوم+10کیلوگرم کود شیمیایی نیتروژن و ازتوباکتر کروکوم+20کیلوگرم کود شیمیایی نیتروژن) درنظرگرفته شدند. اثر برهمکنش رقم و ریزو باکتری ها محرک رشد بر خصوصیات فیزیولوژیکی و فعالیت آنزیم های آنتی اکسیدان و صفات ریشه معنی دار بود. استفاده از ریزو باکتری ها محرک رشد میزان رنگیزه های فتوسنتزی و محتوای آب نسبی را افزایش و موجب کاهش مالون دی آلدیید گردید. استفاده از این ریزو باکتر ها در تمامی ارقام مورد استفاده موجب افزایش فعالیت آنزیم های آنتی اکسیدان و همچنین موجب افزایش سیستم ریشه گردید. در این پ‍ژوهش ارقام هاشم و آزاد به آزسپریلیوم و رقم آرمان و توده محلی به ازتوباکتر واکنش بهتری نشان دادند. رقم آزاد به علاوه آزسپریلیوم + 10کیلوگرم کود نیتروژن دارای بیشترین میزان کلروفیلa و b، محتوای آب نسبی، فعالیت آنزیمی سوپراکسید دیسموتاز، پرکسیداز، حجم ریشه، وزن خشک ریشه و طول ریشه بود و توده محلی به علاوه تیمار شاهد (عدم مصرف کود نیتروژن) کمترین فعالیت آنزیم های آنتی اکسیدان، خصوصیات فیزیولوژیکی و رشد ریشه را در شرایط دیم دارا بود.

    کلیدواژگان: آنتیاکسیدانت، عملیرد دانه، محتوی آب نسبی، میزان کلروفیل
  • اکبر مرزوقیان*، محمدحسن کوشکی صفحات 77-89

    به منظور بررسی لاین های خالص گزینش شده ازجمعیت های محلی لوبیای قرمز، 14لاین به همراه دو رقم شاهد گلی و صیاد در قالب بلوک های کامل تصادفی با چهار تکرار در ایستگاه تحقیقات کشاورزی شهرستان بروجرد، استان لرستان ارزیابی شد. ارتفاع گیاه، تعداد گره، تعداد شاخه فرعی، طول نیام، تعداد نیام در بوته، تعداد دانه در بوته، وزن100دانه و عملکرد دانه اندازه گیری شد. برش کلاستر و مقایسه گروه های با پتانسیل عملکرد دانه متفاوت به ترتیب با آماره های ویلکس لامبدا و مربعT هتلینگ نشان داد که همگی ژنوتیپ های قرارگرفته در گروه با عملکرد دانه بالا متعلق به لاین های امیدبخش بود که حاکی از پتانسیل مناسب توده های بومی در برنامه اصلاحی بود. بین گروه ها برای تعداد دانه در بوته نیز اختلاف معنی دار در سطح 0/01 وجود داشت. صفت وزن100دانه، با وجود همبستگی پایین با عملکرد، در تجزیه رگرسیون در مدل باقی ماند و اثر غیرمستقیم منفی از طریق تعداد دانه در بوته بر روی عملکرد داشت. نتایج تجزیه به عامل ها علاوه بر خلاصه کردن تعداد زیاد متغیر (صفت)ها، دارای توانایی مطلوب در تشخیص ژنوتیپ های پرمحصول و کم محصول بود. جمع بندی و ارتباط نتایج تجزیه های مختلف نشان داد که افزایش تعداد دانه در بوته نسبت به دیگر صفات ارزیابی شده منجر به افزایش بیشتر عملکرد دانه شده بود. نتایج این پژوهش می تواند در شناسایی و بهره گیری بهتر از صفات و ژنوتیپ های مطلوب در برنامه های اصلاحی مورد استفاده پژوهشگران قرار گیرد.

    کلیدواژگان: روش های آماری چند متغیره، عملکرد، گزینش غیرمستقیم، لاین خالص، لوبیا
  • آرش مقصودی*، ابراهیم ایزدی دربندی، الناز مولایی صفحات 90-103

    به منظور بررسی امکان کشت مخلوط بالنگو و نخود، آزمایشی به صورت فاکتوریل و در قالب طرح آماری بلوک کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در سال زراعی 95-1394 در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد انجام شد. تیمارها شامل نسبت های مختلف کشت مخلوط افزایشی نخود/ بالنگو (100/0 ، 100/25 ، 100/50 ، 100/75 ، 100/100 و 0/100) و دو تاریخ وجین علف های هرز (50 و 70روز پس از کاشت) بودند. نتایج نشان داد که تاریخ وجین تاثیر معنی داری بر عملکرد زیست توده و دانه بالنگو و نخود داشت، به طوری که وجین علف های هرز 70روز پس از کاشت به ترتیب منجر به کاهش 24 و 55درصدی زیست توده و عملکرد دانه نخود و افزایش 7/5 و 4/20درصدی زیست توده و عملکرد دانه بالنگو شد. با افزایش نسبت کشت بالنگو در مخلوط با نخود کاهش معنی داری در عملکرد دانه و زیست توده نخود و افزایش عملکرد بالنگو مشاهده شد. بالاترین مقدار شاخص نسبت برابری زمین (52/1) در نسبت کشت100/25 (نخود/ بالنگو) مشاهده شد. براساس نتایج این پژوهش، نسبت کشت100/25 (نخود/ بالنگو) می تواند در کشت مخلوط این دو گیاه مفید، اقتصادی و قابل توصیه باشد.

    کلیدواژگان: تاریخ وجین، سری افزایشی، گیاه مکمل، نسبت های کاشت
  • فرناز احمدی نورالدین وند*، محمدرضا مرادی تلاوت، علی مشتطی، سید عطاءالله سیادت صفحات 104-118

    به منظور بررسی رشد رویشی و زایشی گوار یا لوبیای خوشه ای در واکنش به کاربرد هیومیک اسید در تراکم های مختلف کاشت، آزمایشی به صورت کرت های خردشده در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خوزستان در تابستان1395 اجرا شد. عوامل آزمایشی شامل چهار سطح هیومیک اسید (شامل صفر، پنج، 10 و 15کیلوگرم در هکتار) در کرت های اصلی و چهار تراکم مختلف (شامل 35، 55، 75 و 95بوته در مترمربع) در کرت های فرعی بودند. نتایج نشان داد که اثرات اصلی هیومیک اسید و تراکم کاشت بر صفات ارتفاع بوته، تعداد شاخه فرعی، تعداد برگ در مترمربع، تعداد غلاف و دانه در مترمربع، عملکرد دانه و ماده خشک (عملکرد بیولوژیک) معنی دار بود، به‏ طوری‏که با افزایش هیومیک اسید، صفات نامبرده افزایش یافتند. همچنین، با افزایش تراکم، اکثر صفات به جز تعداد شاخه های فرعی افزایش یافت. اثر متقابل فاکتورها بر صفات عملکرد دانه، عملکرد بیولوژیک، ارتفاع بوته و تعداد غلاف در مترمربع در سطح یک درصد معنی دار بود. به ‏طور‏کلی، بیشترین عملکرد دانه (4209/7کیلوگرم در هکتار) و ماده خشک (17955/6کیلوگرم در هکتار) از مصرف 15کیلوگرم در هکتار هیومیک اسید و تراکم 95بوته در مترمربع و کمترین عملکرد دانه (1433/2کیلوگرم در هکتار) و عملکرد بیولوژیک (4812/6کیلوگرم در هکتار) از عدم مصرف هیومیک اسید و تراکم 35بوته در مترمربع به دست آمد.

    کلیدواژگان: ارتفاع بوته، ریخت شناسی، عملکرد، کود آلی، ماده خش
  • لقمان احمدی، مختار قبادی*، محسن سعیدی، جلال قادری صفحات 119-131

    به منظور بررسی اثر آبیاری تکمیلی، زمان و روش‏های کاربرد کود آهن بر عملکرد دانه، اجزای عملکرد و برخی خصوصیات کیفی دانه نخود زراعی، آزمایشی در سال زراعی91-1390 در دانشگاه رازی واقع در کرمانشاه اجرا گردید. آزمایش به‏صورت کرت‏های یک‏بار خردشده انجام شد. شرایط دیم و آبیاری تکمیلی به عنوان فاکتور اصلی و همچنین زمان و نحوه کاربرد کود آهن به عنوان فاکتور فرعی در هشت سطح شامل عدم مصرف کود آهن (Fe1)، خاک ‏کاربرد (Fe2)، محلول پاشی در مرحله شاخه‏دهی (Fe3)، محلول پاشی در مرحله گلدهی (Fe4)، محلول پاشی در مرحله غلاف‏بندی (Fe5)، خاک‏کاربرد+محلول پاشی در مرحله شاخه‏دهی (Fe6)، خاک‏کاربرد+محلول پاشی در مرحله گلدهی (Fe7) و خاک‏کاربرد+محلول پاشی در مرحله غلاف‏بندی (Fe8) بودند. نتایج نشان داد که از نظر اکثر صفات مورد بررسی، آبیاری تکمیلی نسبت به شرایط دیم برتری داشت (به جز میزان پروتیین دانه). تاثیر مثبت آبیاری تکمیلی روی عملکرد دانه عمدتا از طریق افزایش تعداد غلاف در بوته و وزن100دانه بود. مصرف کود آهن بر صفات مهمی چون عملکرد دانه، عملکرد بیولوژیک، شاخص برداشت، تعداد دانه در غلاف، میزان آهن دانه و درصد پروتیین دانه اثر معنی‏داری داشت. تیمارFe7 از نظر عملکرد دانه (1614کیلوگرم در هکتار)، عملکرد بیولوژیک (3683کیلوگرم در هکتار) و درصد پروتیین دانه (27/7درصد)، بیشترین مقادیر را به خود اختصاص داد، هرچند میزان آهن دانه در تیمار Fe8 (66میلی‏گرم در کیلوگرم) بیشتر بود. جهت ارتقاء عملکرد کمی و کیفی نخود در شرایط اقلیمی غرب ایران، انجام آبیاری تکمیلی در مراحل گلدهی و غلاف‏بندی و همچنین مصرف کود آهن در دو مرحله خاک کاربرد و محلول پاشی در مرحله گلدهی قابل توصیه می‏باشد.

    کلیدواژگان: آبیاری تکمیلی، آهن دانه، اجاای عملکرد، پروتئین دانه، عملکرد دانه
  • هادی خاوری*، قدرت الله شاکرمی صفحات 132-148

    کاربرد کودهای زیستی در جهت بهینه سازی مصرف کودهای شیمیایی، مدیریت عناصر غذایی خاک و تولید پایدار محصولات در نظام های زراعی، اهمیت ویژه ای دارد. در این راستا آزمایشی با هدف بررسی اثر ریزوبیوم بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد ژنوتیپ های لوبیاچیتی، به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در سال زراعی1396 در منطقه بیران شهر لرستان اجرا شد. عوامل شامل مایه زنی با باکتری همزیست لوبیا (Rhizobium phaseoli Rb-133) در دو سطح (مایه زنی و عدم مایه زنی) و ژنوتیپ های لوبیاچیتی شامل (غفار، صدری، تلاش، لاینcos16، محلی خمین و کوشا) بودند. نتایج نشان داد که اثر ریزوبیوم و ژنوتیپ، تعداد دانه در غلاف را و برهمکنش ریزوبیوم و ژنوتیپ، تعداد غلاف در بوته، تعداد دانه در بوته، وزن100دانه، عملکرد دانه، عملکرد زیست توده و شاخص برداشت ژنوتیپ های لوبیاچیتی را به طور معنی داری افزایش داد. مایه زنی با ریزوبیوم عملکرد دانه ژنوتیپ های غفار، صدری، تلاش، لاینcos16، محلی خمین و کوشا را به ترتیب 13/7، 37/2، 23/0، 20/9، 55/3و 31/4درصد نسبت به شاهد افزایش داد. بیشترین عملکرد دانه در تیمار اثر توام مایه زنی با ریزوبیوم در رقم صدری (3485کیلوگرم در هکتار) به دست آمد. این تیمار نسبت به تیمار توام مایه زنی در رقم غفار، تلاش، لاینcos16، محلی خمین و کوشا به ترتیب 87/4، 14/6، 21/6، 27/8و 22/7درصد برتری داشت. یافته ها نشان داد که مایه زنی با ریزوبیوم، دارای اثر افزایشی بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد ژنوتیپ های لوبیاچیتی است و می توان در جهت تولید پایدار این محصول، عملکرد دانه را تا حد مطلوبی افزایش داد.

    کلیدواژگان: بهینه سازی، تولید پایدار، شاخص برداشت، کودهای زیستی، کودهای شیمیایی
  • عبدالمجید سهیل نژاد، عبدالمجید مهدوی دامغانی*، هومان لیاقتی، پیام پزشکپور صفحات 149-162

    به منظور بررسی اثرات سوپرجاذب و دور آبیاری بر خصوصیات ریشه و عملکرد گیاه ماش، آزمایشی به صورت کرت های خردشده در قالب بلوک کامل تصادفی با چهار تکرار در دو منطقه (خرم آباد و کوهدشت) انجام شد. کرت‏های اصلی شامل دور آبیاری در سه سطح (پنج، 10 و 15 روز) و کرت‏های فرعی شامل مقادیر مختلف هیدروژول‏های سوپرجاذب آکوازورب در چهار سطح (صفر، 100، 200 و 300کیلوگرم در هکتار) بودند. نتایج نشان داد که کمبود آب باعث کاهش صفات حجم ریشه، وزن خشک ریشه و افزایش طول کل ریشه ها شد، به طوری که کمترین مقدار حجم ریشه (11/3سانتی متر مکعب تک بوته) و وزن خشک ریشه (93/0گرم تک بوته) و بیشترین مقدار طول کل ریشه ها (1/9سانتی متر در بوته) در دور پنج روز آبیاری به دست آمد. کاربرد پلیمر سوپرجاذب، تمامی صفات مورد ارزیابی و عملکرد دانه را افزایش داد. بیشترین کارآیی مصرف آب (2/1کیلوگرم عملکرد دانه بر مترمکعب آب مصرفی) در تیمار دور آبیاری 15روز و مصرف 200کیلوگرم در هکتار سوپرجاذب به دست آمد و کمترین مقدار (31/0کیلوگرم عملکرد دانه بر مترمکعب آب مصرفی) آن در تیمار دور آبیاری پنج روز و عدم مصرف سوپرجاذب ثبت گردید. به طور میانگین در هر دو منطقه بیشترین عملکرد دانه (1966کیلوگرم در هکتار) در تیمار دور آبیاری 10روز و مصرف 200کیلوگرم در هکتار سوپرجاذب و کمترین مقدار آن (1167کیلوگرم در هکتار) در تیمار دور آبیاری 15روز و مصرف 300کیلوگرم در هکتار سوپرجاذب به دست آمد. به طورکلی نتایج این مطالعه نشان داد که سوپرجاذب آکوازورب در شرایط کمبود آب باعث بهبود عملکرد دانه و کارآیی مصرف آب گیاه ماش گردید و این ماده در دورهای آبی زیاد و محدودیت آب، باعث جلوگیری از اثرات منفی محدودیت آب بر عملکرد دانه گیاه ماش شد. این مطالعه مشخص کرد که مقدار بهینه کاربردی سوپرجاذب آکوازورب به ویژه در شرایط محدودیت آب برابر با 200کیلوگرم در هکتار بود و با کاربرد بیشتر از 200کیلوگرم سوپرجاذب در هکتار در شرایط محدودیت آب در این ماده اثرات منفی بر عملکرد دانه داشت. همچنین اگرچه برهمکنش سوپرجاذب و دور آبیاری بر صفات ریشه ای معنی دار نبود، ولی اثرات ساده این ماده نشان دهنده اثرات مثبت آب بر بهبود صفات ریشه ای اندازه گیری شده بود.

    کلیدواژگان: حجم ریشه، طو کل ریشه ها، عملکرد دانه، مناطق
  • علی آشوری*، منوچهر قلی پور، مصطفی حیدری صفحات 163-177

    پلی آمین ها، پلی کاتیون های آلی با وزن مولکولی کمی هستند که در فرآیندهای مختلف فیزیولوژیکی گیاه ازجمله مقاومت در برابر تنش ها موثر می باشند. به منظور بررسی تاثیر محلول پاشی پلی آمین های اسپرمین و اسپرمیدین بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد نخود در شرایط تنش شوری، آزمایشی به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح پایه بلوک های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مزارع خارتوران شاهرود با شوری 5/7دسی زیمنس بر متر در سال1395 اجرا گردید. محلول پاشی اسپرمین در سه سطح (صفر، 0/25 و 0/50میلی مولار) و اسپرمیدین در سه سطح (صفر، 0/25 و 0/50میلی مولار) در سه مرحله چهاربرگی، گلدهی و پر شدن غلاف ها انجام شد. صفات مختلفی از جمله محتوای نسبی آب برگ، شاخص پایداری غشاء، فعالیت آنزیم های کاتالاز، پلی فنل اکسیداز و گایاکول پراکسیداز، ارتفاع بوته، تعداد شاخه در هر بوته، تعداد غلاف در هر بوته، تعداد دانه در هر غلاف و عملکرد دانه مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. نتایج نشان داد که محلول پاشی اسپرمین با غلظت 0/50میلی مولار منجر به افزایش شاخص پایداری غشاء (15درصد) و ارتفاع بوته (23درصد) در گیاهان تحت تنش شوری نسبت به تیمار بدون محلول پاشی شد. همچنین کاربرد غلظت 0/50میلی مولار اسپرمیدین موجب افزایش شاخص پایداری غشاء (17درصد)، ارتفاع بوته (31درصد)، تعداد شاخه (52درصد)، تعداد غلاف در هر بوته (27درصد)، وزن100دانه (16درصد) و عملکرد دانه (15درصد) در مقایسه با تیمار بدون محلول پاشی گردید؛ در حالی که تیمارهای ترکیبی اسپرمین و اسپرمیدین تنها بر شاخص های محتوای نسبی آب برگ و فعالیت آنزیم های پلی فنول اکسیداز، کاتالاز و گایاکول پراکسیداز تاثیرگذار بود. براساس نتایج، محلول پاشی تیمارهای مختلف تاثیر معنی داری بر وزن غلاف، وزن دانه و تعداد دانه در غلاف نداشتند. در مجموع محلول پاشی اسپرمیدین در کاهش اثر سوء تنش شوری موثرتر از اسپرمین بود. همچنین کاربرد غلظت 0/50میلی مولار هر دو پلی آمین موثرتر از غلظت 25/0میلی مولار بود.

    کلیدواژگان: پایداری غشاء، پلی آمین، پلیفنول اکسیداز، عملکرد دانه، کاتالاز
  • علی سپهری*، هومن محمدی، سید حسین صباغ پور صفحات 178-192

    کمبود آب آخر فصل، علت کاهش شدید عملکرد نخود در اکثر مناطق ایران است. تاثیر مواد کاهنده تعرق و تنش تحت رژیم های مختلف آبیاری در رقم آزاد نخود طی آزمایشی مزرعه ای در دانشگاه بوعلی سینا در سال زراعی94 -1393 بررسی شد. آزمایش به صورت اسپلیت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار انجام گردید. سطوح آبیاری شامل آبیاری در مرحله گلدهی، آبیاری در مرحله غلافدهی، آبیاری در مراحل (گل و غلاف) و بدون آبیاری در کرت های اصلی و مواد کاهنده تعرق (کایولین پنج درصد، کیتوزان 200‎میلی گرم در لیتر) و کاهنده های تنش (کلریدکلسیم پنج ‎میلی مولار، سلنات سدیم 40‎میلی گرم در لیتر) به همراه شاهد (بدون مصرف) به صورت فاکتوریل در کرت های فرعی بررسی شدند. محلول پاشی کاهنده های تنش در دو مرحله قبل و بعد از گلدهی و محلول پاشی کاهنده های تعرق در مرحله غلاف بندی با غلظت های مذکور به طور جداگانه انجام شد. محلول پاشی کیتوزان و کلریدکلسیم در تیمار آبیاری مرحله گلدهی، صفات بیشینه سرعت رشد محصول، وزن100دانه، عملکرد دانه و شاخص برداشت را به ترتیب 59/2، 6/4، 106/3، 38/4درصد و در تیمار آبیاری مرحله غلاف دهی به ترتیب 72/5، 18/6، 191/9 و 59/9درصد و در تیمار آبیاری گلدهی+ غلاف دهی به ترتیب 106/3، 31/4، 312/6و 84/5درصد نسبت به شرایط دیم افزایش دادند. بنابراین در صورت وجود آب کافی، استفاده از دو بار آبیاری در مراحل گلدهی و غلاف دهی و یا حداقل یک بار آبیاری در مرحله غلاف دهی به همراه محلول پاشی کیتوزان و کلریدکلسیم در افزایش عملکرد نخود رقم آزاد موثر است.

    کلیدواژگان: رژیم آبیاری، سرعت رشد محصول، شاخ برداشت، کاهنده تنش، کاهنده تعرق
  • ارازقلی خوجم لی*، علی نخ زری مقدم، مهدی ملاشاهی، لیلا آهنگر صفحات 193-203

    به منظور بررسی تاثیر نیتروژن و آبیاری تکمیلی بر صفات کمی و کیفی نخود زراعی رقم عادل، آزمایشی به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مزرعه دانشگاه گنبد کاووس در سال زراعی95-1394 اجرا گردید. عامل نیتروژن در سه سطح شامل عدم مصرف نیتروژن و مصرف 25 و 50کیلوگرم نیتروژن در هکتار و عامل آبیاری در سه سطح شامل بدون آبیاری و آبیاری تکمیلی در مرحله گلدهی و آبیاری تکمیلی در مراحل گلدهی+پرشدن دانه بود. اثر نیتروژن و آبیاری تکمیلی بر صفات مورد بررسی به ‎جز وزن100دانه و درصد پروتیین معنی دار بود. بیشترین عملکرد دانه از تیمار مصرف 50کیلوگرم نیتروژن با 3287کیلوگرم در هکتار به دست آمد که با تیمار مصرف 25کیلوگرم اختلاف معنی داری نداشت. بیشترین عملکرد دانه از تیمار آبیاری در مراحل گلدهی+پرشدن دانه با 3218کیلوگرم در هکتار به دست آمد که با تیمار آبیاری در مرحله گلدهی اختلاف معنی داری نداشت. حداکثر و حداقل عملکرد پروتیین به ترتیب به تیمار مصرف 50کیلوگرم نیتروژن در هکتار و تیمار عدم مصرف نیتروژن تعلق داشت. بیشترین عملکرد پروتیین با 743کیلوگرم در هکتار به تیمار آبیاری در مراحل گلدهی و پرشدن دانه تعلق داشت و کمترین آن با 581کیلوگرم به تیمار عدم آبیاری مربوط بود. در مجموع، مصرف 25کیلوگرم نیتروژن در هکتار و آبیاری در مراحل گلدهی+پرشدن دانه حداکثر عملکرد را تولید کرد.

    کلیدواژگان: پرشدن دانه، تشکیل غلاف، عملکرد پروتئین، وزن دانه
  • محمدحسن وفائی*، مهدی پارسا، احمد نظامی، علی گنجعلی صفحات 204-218

    به منظور ارزیابی و به گزینی ژنوتیپ های عدس متحمل به تنش خشکی و مقایسه شاخص های قدیمی و جدید تحمل به تنش، آزمایشی در قالب طرح آگمنت تحت دو شرایط متفاوت رطوبتی (یک بار آبیاری در زمان کاشت و آبیاری هر 10روز یک بار) در سال زراعی93-1392 در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد اجرا گردید. ارزیابی تحمل به تنش خشکی، بر اساس هفت شاخص قدیمی (TOL، MP، SSI، STI، GMP، HARM و RDI) و سه شاخص جدید (SNPI، ATI و SSPI) با استفاده از 73ژنوتیپ عدس، شامل 67توده بومی و لاین از ایران و دیگر کشورها و شش نمونه شاهد (سه رقم ایرانی بیله سوار، کیمیا و گچساران و سه نمونه از ایکاردا شامل Cabralinta، ILL325 و ILL857) صورت گرفت. مطالعه همبستگی بین عملکرد دانه در شرایط عدم تنش و تنش خشکی و شاخص های مقاومت به خشکی نشان داد که سه شاخص قدیمی HARM، STI و GMP و شاخص جدید SNPI، برای شناسایی ژنوتیپ هایی با عملکرد بالا در هر دو شرایط تنش خشکی و بدون تنش مناسب هستند. برای گروه بندی ژنوتیپ ها، تجزیه کلاستر انجام گرفت و رسم دندروگرام، بر اساس عملکرد گیاه، تحت شرایط بدون تنش و تنش خشکی و شاخص های مورد بررسی، ژنوتیپ ها را به سه کلاستر گروه بندی کرد که ژنوتیپ های مقاوم به خشکی و با عملکرد بالا در کلاستر سوم قرار گرفتند. همچنین ترسیم بای پلات نشان داد که ژنوتیپ های 3، 8، 40، 45، 48، 52، 71 و 73 که دو ژنوتیپ آخر آن جزو شاهدهای آزمایش بودند، ژنوتیپ های متحمل به تنش خشکی و با عملکرد بالا هستند.

    کلیدواژگان: بایپلات، تجزیه کلاستر، شاخص های مقاومت به خشکی، همبستگی
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  • M.Mohayeji*, Hadi Afzali, Hasan Farahbakhsh Pages 12-23
    Introduction

    Chickpea is one of the most important protein producing crops in the world and drought is the greatest limiting factor for its growth. In addition, chickpea plays crucial role in soil fertility because of the nitrogen fixation in its roots. The chickpea is mostly grown in semi-arid and arid zones or in the rain fed condition. Hence, more than 90% of chickpea growing area is drought prone. Under such conditions, usually the last part of reproductive phase of chickpea, faces water deficiency. Generally terminal drought stress is responsible for reduction in yield and biomass as well as physiological traits such as CO2 assimilation, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, membrane stability index (MSI) and water use efficiency (WUE). In this condition, stress avoidance ability, tolerance or stress escape is essential for drought resistance. Significant genetic variation exists in chickpea germplasms for terminal drought stress. Nowadays, different breeding methods used for improving chickpea drought tolerance such as Marker assisted selection, omics and mutation breeding. Besides these techniques, enough information about traits affected by drought stress, their genetic parameters and relationships with economic yield is necessary for breeding programs.
     

    Materials & Methods

    According to estimation of genetic variation, heritability and relationships between agronomic, morphological and physiological traits, 64 Kabuli type chickpea genotypes were sown under two normal and terminal drought conditions in two-separated 8×8 lattice design in Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman during 2015-2016 growing season. Normal irrigation applied until flowering stage. Water withdrawing was done at 50% of flowering stage. Agronomic traits such as days to secondary branch, days to flowering, days to maturity, plant height, leaflet numbers, seed yield, yield components, harvest index, seed filling period, seed filling rate measured. Chlorophyll content measured by the SPAD chlorophyll meter. Stomatal conductance and net photosynthesis were measured by CI-340 Handheld Photosynthesis System apparatus from Bio-Science Company. Data was analyzed by SPSS ver. 22. Estimation of genetic parameters and path analysis were performed for all significant traits in both normal and terminal drought stress.
     

    Results & Discussion

    Analysis of variance for genotypes determined significant differences for day to secondary branch, day to flowering, day to pod setting, 100 seed weight and seed filling period in normal condition. Genotypes showed significant difference for all traits except number of seeds per pod, biological yield, seed filling rate and the SPAD index in stress condition. According to the results of genetic parameter estimation for normal condition the highest amount of CVg was belonged to seed filling period, leaflet number and 100 seed weight, which were 11.1, 9.13 and 8.4, respectively. The highest amount of heritability in normal condition also was belonged to days to flowering and days to secondary branch, which were 68.47 and 68.44, respectively. The highest amount of CVg obtained in terminal drought condition for stomatal conductance and net photosynthesis, were 33.14 and 31.76 respectively. Stomatal limitation and reduction in photosynthesis are the most important factors for loss of yield during stress condition. Therefore, the usage of mentioned genetic diversity may improve future breeding program for drought condition. However, marker assisted selection methods might be helpful, according to moderate heritability of these traits (29.58 and 24.08, respectively). Result of path analysis in normal condition determined that seed-filing period had the most magnitude direct effect (0.527) and the large indirect effect (0.365) via number of seeds per plant on seed yield. The highest amount of direct effect (0.702) on seed yield belonged to rate of filling in drought condition as well. It seems that during terminal progressive drought stress, the ability of filling the seed rapidly is the key trait for tolerant genotypes according to limitation in the seeds filling period.
     

    Conclusion

    Terminal drought stress is one of two reasonable factors reducing chickpea yield. The result of analysis of variance for genotypes indicated significant differences for days to secondary branch, days to flowering, days to pod setting, 100 seed weight and seed filling period in normal condition. In addition to mentioned traits, significant difference was achieved for days to maturity, seed yield, and number of pods per plant, harvest index, net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance. The highest amount of CVg belonged to seed filling period, leaflet number and 100 seed weight. However, highest CVg belonged to stomatal conductance and net photosynthesis in drought stress condition. In practice, relatively high genetic variation for these traits might be a new insight for improving drought tolerance in chickpea. The high direct and indirect effects of seed filling rate on seed yield in path analysis suggested a strong relationship between these characters. Moreover, the magnitudes of both direct and indirect effect of seed filling rate via number of seed per plant were increased during stress condition. According to the results, some physiological traits such as stomatal conductance, net photosynthesis and seed filling rate might be valuable in future breeding programs.

    Keywords: Heritability, Net photosynthesis, Stomatal conductance, Terminal Drought Stress
  • KH.Bagheri*, Atefeh Bakhshian Pages 24-35
    Introduction

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is the most important species of the legume. The common bean is a very important source of vegetable protein, especially in those regions of the world in which animal proteins are scarce. However, breeding cannot add certain genes that do not exist naturally in the P. vulgaris gene pool. Due to this limitation of plant breeding, new trait improvement approaches such as interspecific horizontal gene transfer via genetic engineering need to be utilized in order to complement the limitations encountered by conventional breeding of this crop. Still, there is not a optimized protocol for beans regeneration and this is a big challenge for bean breeding through genetic engineering

    Material and methods

    In this study, two experiments were done to evaluate callus induction and regeneration in bean. Seeds of P. vulgaris were washed thoroughly with distilled water and tween-20 (10%). Subsequently they were surface sterilized with 70% ethanol for 2 min followed by sodium hypochloride (6%) for 15 min. After five rinses with sterile distilled water, they were allowed to germinate aseptically on half strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium. In the first experiment, induction of callus and regeneration were investigated in six common bean cultivars with embryonic axis explants under the influence of hormones TDZ, BAP and IAA . The Sterile seeds were soaked for 20 hours, Embryogenic axes were isolated from seeds and cultured in MS medium with different regulator hormones including BAP (11µM) and IAA (0/57µM), BAP (44/4µM) and TDZ (2/27µM), BAP (44/4µM). In the second experiment. sterile seeds germinated under the pretreatments medium (free TDZ, 10µM TDZ) and then, after 14 days, Transverse thin cell layer explants (with 0.3-0.5 mm Thick) were excised from epicotyls. For induction of regeneration, explants were transferred to solid MS medium supplemented with 20 g/lit sucrose, B5 vitamins and concentration of TDZ (10µM) and BAP (10µM). After 14 days, TDZ concentration reduced the amount of 1μM in the TDZ (10µM) treatment and BAP (10µM) treatment remained intact. After 28 days, all samples were transferred to medium MSB5+ BAP (10µM) + AgNO3 (10 µM). After 48 days, all samples were transferred to MSB5+ BAP (1µM) + GA3 (3 µM) + AgNO3 (10 µM) and after 62 days, all samples were transferred to MSB5+ NAA (1µM) + AgNO3 (10 µM). During this period the callogenesis and regeneration rate were recorded.

    Results and Discussion

    The results of first experiment showed that the highest callus production (100%) related to hormonal treatments BAP (44/4µM) and TDZ (2/27µM) in Naz, Azna, Line 8 and Aligoodarz cultivars and hormonal treatment BAP (44/4µM) in all of cultivars except Line 4. Based on the resulte, callus induction in all varieties (except Line 4) were same in various hormonal treatments. In Embryogenic axes explant, The impact of hormones BAP and TDZ on callus induction was much better IAA. Second experiment data showed that most callus induction in the pretreatment of the seedlings by TDZ (10µM), treatment by TDZ (10µM) and BAP (10µM) in Line 4 cultivar and Aligudarz was in next rank. Most regeneration achieved in the pretreatment TDZ (10µM) and treatment by TDZ (10µM) in Azna, Naz, Line 8 and Aligudarz cultivars. The regenration of Line 4 was weak despite the good callogenesis. from the 6 cultivars, Aligudarz showed better results in callogenesis and regeneration. It can be concluded that TDZ is better than BAP for regeneration in tTCLS explants of bean. In both experiments, the positive effect of silver nitrate on the reduction of phenolic compounds were observed. Based on previous studies , the combination of BAP and AgNO3 at equimolar concentrations(10µM) significantly raised the number of developed shoots, but Unfortunately in our study the same result was not observed and the effect of AgNO3 on shoot development was weak.

    Conclusion

    Unlike previous studies, cytokinin hormones used in this study, did not lead to direct regeneration of bean .The results showed that high concentrations of the cytokinin hormone is lead to callus induction in beans. It was observed that a prolonged exposure to this TDZ concentration had an inhibitory effect on further development of shoots and by reducing the concentrations of TDZ, regeneration will occurs. The results also showed that transverse thin cell layers explants from epicotyl are able to regenerate under the influence of cytokinin hormone better than embryonic axis explants. Regeneration severly is affected by genotype, maybe that's why Still, there is not a optimized protocol for beans regeneration

    Keywords: Callogenesis, Embryonic axis, Phaseolus vulgaris, Regeneration, Thin Cell Layer
  • NA.Sajedi*, Mojtaba Norouzi Pages 36-48
    Introduction

     Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is one of the important pulse crops in the world. Also it is valued through high protein content in seeds (23.5-28.9%). In Iran, chickpea produced under arid and semi-arid zones and usually chickpea plants during flowering and maturity stages are exposed to increasing water deficit stress. Different methods are existed in agriculture to increase plants tolerance to abiotic and biotic stresses. Seed priming and foliar application by amino acids, proline, glycinebetaine, Salicylic acid as well as zinc, Selenium and Silicon have been considered in recent years. Selenium is not an essential nutrient for plants. Reports showed that selenium could protect the plants under abiotic stresses such as salinity, high temperature and drought. Selenium protected the plants from abiotic stresses by participate in several physiological and biochemical process such as water condition retain, increasing plant pigments and photosynthesis apparatus regulation. Salicylic acid (SA) is a plant-produced nature phenolic compound which plays an important role in the abiotic stresses tolerance. Growth and production of crops will affect by SA application. Several studies showed that salicylic acid application increased the plant tolerant to drought stress. Increasing proteins, photosynthesis pigments and sugars indicated on the role of salicylic acid in increasing the plant resistance to stress. Therefore, this experiment carried out to study the influence of foliar application of salicylic acid and selenium at different growth stages on some physiological traits of chickpea under rainfed condition.
     

    Material & Methods

    To evaluate the response of some physiological traits of chickpea at different growth stages to foliar application of salicylic acid and selenium under rain fed condition, an experiment was conducted as split plot based on Randomized Complete Block Design with four replications during 2013-2014 cropping season. Experimental factors were salicylic acid in three levels (0,100 and 200 mg L-1) and foliar selenium spraying in two levels (0 and 18 gr ha-1) that applicated in different growth stages (vegetative, reproductive growth and vegetative growth along with reproductive). According to the soil analysis results, 50 kg ha-1 urea and 40 kg ha-1 triple superphosphate fertilizers were applied at planting time. Each experimental plot included 30 cm distanced rows with 10 cm spacing between plants in rows. The chickpea cultivar was ‘Azad’. The seeds were sown at 6 cm depth in end of February 2013. Physiological traits measured from three replications. Relative water content was determined from five leaflet from leaves at flowering stage that were prepared immediately and weighed to measure fresh leaf weight in the laboratory at 25°C. Then, leaflet were placed in distilled water for 24 h until completely saturated. At the end of this stage, leaflet were dried with dry paper towels and reweighed. Samples were placed in the oven for 48 h at 72°C until dried and then weight of the dried leaves was recorded. Relative water content was calculated using the following relation.
    where RWC is the relative water content, Wf is the leaf fresh weight, Wd is the leaf dry weight and Ws is the leaf saturated weight. Photosynthetic pigments were calculated by the method presented by Arnon (1949). Samples collected from five leaflet, 0.5 gr leaves were ground in 80% acetone for determination and absorbance of the resulting extracts, recorded at 480, 510, 645 and 663 nm with a spectrophotometer. Biological and seed yield harvested from 2 m2 of middle in each plots. Data were subjected to analysis of variance using SAS program. Means were compared using the Least Significant Diffrence test (LSD) Multiple Range Test at 5% probablity level.
     

    Results & Discussion

    Results showed that the highest leaf relative water content observed from foliar application of selenium and salicylic acid at vegetative along with reproductive stages. Salicylic acid appli cation at the rate of 100 and 200 mg L-1 and selenium at the rate of 18 gr ha-1 increased the leaf relative water content by 18, 42.7 and 31%, respectively as compared with control. There were reports that, application of salicylic acid improved vegetative growth rate, chlorophyll a, b and total chlorophyll, leaf relative water content and resistance to water deficit in lawn. The highest ion leakage (82.57%) and the lowest (75.86%) recorded from treatments of without application of selenium and foliar application of 18 gr ha-1 selenium, respectively. Foliar application of 100 and 200 mg L-1 salicylic acid along with 18 gr ha-1 selenium increased chlorophyll a content compared with control, significantly. Foliar application of 100, 200 mg L-1 salicylic acid and 18 gr ha-1 selenium alone increased chlorophyll b content by 29.4%, 32.3% and 26.4% as compared with control, respectively. The highest carotenoids content belonged to foliar application of 200 mg L-1 salicylic acid. There were reports that application of selenium decreased chloroplast damage and help to retain of photosynthesis pigments. Foliar application of 100 and 200 mg L-1 salicylic acid along with 18 gr ha-1 selenium increased productivity index at different growth stages as compared with control. The treatments interaction effects showed that the maximum biological yields (1528.86 and 1628.40 kg ha-1) obtained from treatment of 100 and 200 mg L-1 salicylic acid along with 18 gr ha-1 selenium at different growth stages, respectively. The results showed that foliar application of salicylic acid and selenium could be increased chickpea seed yield.
     

    Conclusion

    The positive role of application of salicylic acid and selenium under rainfed condition exerted by the effects on physiological process such as water retain in plant, membrane stability retain and improve of photosynthesis pigments. Therefore, foliar application of 100 mg L-1 salicylic acid and along with 18 gr ha-1 selenium at vegetative growth along with reproductive growth could obtain optimum yield.

    Keywords: Chickpea, Ion leakage, Plant pigments, Relative water content, Sodium selenite
  • S.H.Sabaghpour*, Abolfazl Sharifi, Davoud Eradatmand Asli Pages 49-61
    Inroduction


    Excessive use of chemical fertilizers for increasing agricultural production causing environmental damage and disturbance in the soil fertility. Currently, biological approaches for improving crop production are gaining strong status among agronomists and environmentalists following integrated plant nutrient management system. Chickpea is the most important pulse crop which is grown on 463,000 hectares in Iran. Major chickpea areas (98%) are planted under rainfed condition and are grown in rotation with cereals mainly wheat and barley. Mean productivity of chickpea 402 kg/ha in 2014-15 cropping season in Iran. One of the reason for low chickpea productivity in Iran, is unsuitable using nutrition in chickpea farms. Currently biologic fertilizers as an alternative option for chemical fertilizer to enhance to soil fertility in the stable agricultural production are considered. Rhizosphere beneficial bacteria are commonly called plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and have been under researchers focus for many years. PGPRs can stimulate plant growth through different mechanisms. Solubilization of inorganic phosphate is a characteristic has been frequently used for screening these bacteria. The objective of present study was to investigate the effect of biological and chemical nitrogen fertilizers on yield and yield components of improved chickpea varieties.

     Materials & Methods

    An experiment was carried out in factorial based on a randomized complete block design with four replications and five fertilizers treatments (control, Super Nitro Plus, Nitroxin, Rhizocheck and 30 kg nutrition fertilizer per hectare) and three chickpea varieties (Azad, Hashem and Arman) in Ekbatan Research Station of Hamedan under rain-fed condition during 2012-2013. Rhizocheck had 107 bacteries from Pseudomonas putida and 108 Mesorhizobium cicero and Super Nitro Plus included 108 Bacillus subtilis, pseudomonas fluorescens and different species of Azospirillum. Also Nitroxin covered 108 nitrogen fixing bacteries such as Azotobacter and Azospirillum. During vegetative and reproductive phases, weeds were controlled and data were recorded on days to flowering, days to maturity, plant height, harvest index, number pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, 100-seed weight, and seed yield. Data were analyzed using the SAS. Ver. 9.1 and figures were drawn by EXCEL and means compared by using DMRT at the 5% probability level.
     

    Results & Discussion

    The results showed that fertilizer had significant effects on harvest index and seed yield at 1% level of probability. But fertilizer treatment had not significant effects on days to flowering, days to maturity, leaf area index, plant height, pods number per plant, seeds number per pod and 100-seed weight. Also the results showed that varieties showed significant difference for days to flowering, leaf area index, harvest index, seeds  number per pod, and seed yield. Varieties had not significance different on days to maturity, plant height, number of pod per plant and 100-seed weight. Interaction of fertilizer × variety on all characters was not significant. The result of mean comparison showed that the highest seed yield has been produced by Rhizochick consumption. The utilization of Rhizocheck had result in 39 and 26 percent higher harvest index and seed yield than control, respectively. Azad variety had the highest leaf area index, harvest index and seed yield. The lowest leaf area index, harvest index and seed yield was observed on Hashem variety. Stephan (2000) reported that 36 percent seed yield increased due to rhizobium inoculation on chickpea seed. Maximum seed yield was achieved in Azad variety with Mesorhizobium of SWRI-15 which produced 151 percent higher than check. Rhizobium inoculation in comparison with no inocultion on chickpea seed under drought stress condition increased seed yield. Most of scientists reported that using biological fertilizers have been effected on seed yield in comparison with check on lentil, sunflower, wheat, corn and pearl millet.
     

    Conclusion

    One of the most important factors for soil fertility is microorganism ability for production and plant growth promoting. The result of present study showed the highest productivity obtained from Rhizochick consumption. Azad improved chickpea variety produced the highest seed yield. Rhizochick may cause photosynthesis intensive activity and enhancing availability elements. Therefore seed yield have been increased. Generally, PGPR promote plant growth directly by either facilitating resource acquisition (nitrogen, phosphorus, essential element) or modulating plant hormone level. The reduction chemical consumption will affect decreasing environment contamination which is one of the important factors for stability agriculture. Therefore Azad improved chickpea variety with Rhizochick inoculation in Hamaden province is recommended.

    Keywords: Chickpea, Cicer arietinum, Nitroxin, Rhizochick, Super Nitro Plus
  • R.Naseri*, Abas Soeimanifard, Amir Mirzaey, Fereshteh Darabi, Amin Fathi Pages 62-76
    Introduction

    Chickpea is widely cultivated as an important cool season grain legume crop throughout the world. According to FAO, Iran is one of the major chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) producing countries in the world. In Iran, chickpea is the most important pulse crop with respect to production and area under cultivation. This crop is cultivated in about 500,000 ha, of which over 95 percent are grown under rainfed conditions. Average chickpea yield in Iran is about 400 to 600 kg.ha−1, that is well below the world average of 900 kg.ha−1. Drought and high temperature are two major factors limiting the growth and productivity of chickpea during summer in many regions. Drought stress is common in many parts of the world and more than 50% of the globe is arid or semi arid and plants are subjected to some level of drought stress. Drought stress can adversely affect plant growth and production. Plant response to drought stress, at cellular and molecular level, limits plant growth and yield. It has been shown that several PGPR can support plants by producing antioxidant factors or modulate photosynthesis decreasing ROS and thus lowering the need for antioxidant activity during stress which could explain why primed plants tend to decrease their own antioxidant defense system. Over reduction of the photosynthetic electron transport chain induces the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as singlet oxygen (1O2), superoxide anion (O2•-), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and hydroxyl radical (•OH). Therefore, the decline in growth and productivity due to these stress factors is associated with increased levels of ROS, which cause damage to cellular structures and macromolecules. In order to maintain or increase crop productivity it becomes necessary to evolve efficient low-cost technologies for abiotic stress management. It is now a priority area research for developing strategies to cope with abiotic stresses including development of stress tolerant varieties, shifting crop calendars, resource management practices etc. However, most of these techniques are cost-intensive and time taking. Recent studies indicate that soil microorganisms can help crops withstand abiotic stresses more efficiently. These include tolerance to salt and water stress (Azospirillum sp., Pseudomanas sp, Bacillus sp). The increased H2O2 content under stress conditions led to lipid peroxidation, which is widely used as an indicator of stress-induced oxidative damage. The relative water content (RWC) and lower electrolyte ion leakage (EL) in plants exposed to drought has been considered indicative of a relative tolerance to water stress. In our study, RWC declined while %EL increased in both inoculated and uninoculated seedlings under drought stress compared to normal irrigation. However, bacterial inoculation did help plants to increase their RWC and to decrease their %EL as compared with uninoculated plants in drought stress. Investigations involving wheat species and varieties have detected increases in the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and non-specific peroxidase (guaiacol peroxidase, POD). The main objective was to evaluate the effects of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizohacteria on activities of antioxidative enzymes, physiologic traits and root growth of chickpea in dry land conditions of Ilam province.
     

    Materials & Methods

    To evaluate the effect of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizohacteria on activities of antioxidative enzymes, physologiceal charactersitices and root growth of chickpea under dry land conditions of Ilam province, an experimental field was conducted using factorial arrangement based on randomized complete block design with three replications at Agricultural Research Research Center of Ilam during 2014-2015. Studied factors included cultivars (Azad, Hashem, Arman and locallandrace) and Plant Growth Promoting Rhizohacteria (without inoculation, 10 kg nitrogen, 20 kg nitrogen, Azospirillum + without nitrogen, Azospirillum + 10 kg nitrogen, Azospirillum + 20 kg nitrogen, Azetobacter + without nitrogen, Azetobacter + 10 kg nitrogen, Azetobacter + 20 kg nitrogen. Cultivars were sown on 16 November, 2013. Eeight rows with 30 cm width and 4 m long were designed during the growth season, hand weeding was done in necessary times. Studied traits were included of chlorophyll a and b, RWC, MAD, SOD, POD, CAT, root volum, dray root weight and main root length. The data were analyzed statistically by SAS program and the data means were compared by Duncan's multiple range test (DMRT).
     

    Results & Discussion

    The interaction effect between cultivars× PGPR on chlorophyll a and b, RWC, MAD, SOD, POD, CAT, root volume, dry root weight and main root length were significant. Application of nitrogen and PGPR in different cultivars provided better nutrition condition for plant growth by reducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) because these bacteria need these elements to grow and development. PGPR inoculation significantly increased the contents of chlorophyll a and b, RWC and decresed MAD content in chickpea plants. PGPR improved water status, enhance its defense system, and alleviate oxidative damage caused by drought stress. Drought stress damage decrease, evaluated as MDA content, has been observed under different stress conditions in PGPR. The improved plant growth under dry land farming was also observed in chickpea by inoculation of PGPR and application of N, which was found to be associated with enhanced, root system in field grown under rainfed condition.
     

    Conclusion

    Under dry land condition, due to the generation of reactive oxygen species, an efficient antioxidant system is needed in the plant. It has been observed that PGPR increase the activity of antioxidant enzymes of host plants. Study conducted on chickpea under dry land conditions showed that PGPR enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase compared to those in un-inoculated control plants.

    Keywords: Antioxidant, Chlorophyll content, Grain yield, Wter use efficiency
  • A.Marzooghian*, Mohammdhasan Koshki Pages 77-89
    Introduction

    Phaseolous vulgaris is highly important among bean species. China, Iran and Japan are the most important countries producing bean in Asia. According to reported information, cultivated area of bean was 94000 ha in Iran which 17841 ha located in Lorestan province. Improvement of new cultivar with high genetic potential for grain yield is the final goal in many breeding programs. To achieve this goal, many characteristics should be considered. Positive and negative significant correlation has been reported between traits in common bean. Various, traits had different direct and indirect effects on grain yield which should be considered. In addition to path analysis, evaluation and relationship of traits by other multivariate statistical methods such as cluster and factor analysis have been studied for better understanding of these relationships. This study aimed to investigate superior lines, study the relationship between important traits with seed yield by some univariate and multivariate statistical methods, and provide functional recommendation to breeding programs.
     

    Materials & Methods

    Elite lines obtained from red common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) local populations of Lorestan province and suburbs, Iran, including 14 lines belonged to Azna (2 lines), Aligudarz (4 lines), Aleshtar (1 line), Borujerd (1 lines), Durood (2 lines), Shazand (2 line) and Nourabad (2 lines), with two control cultivars Goli and Sayyad were evaluated in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with 4 replications in Borujerd station, Lorestan, Iran, in 2011. Plant height, node number, stem number, pod length, pod number per plant, seed number per plant, 100 seed weight and seed yield characteristics were measured. Data were normalized by Kolmogorov-Smirnov test at 0.01 probability level. Error, genetic and phenotypic variances, and broad sense heritability pertreatment mean were estimated. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to determine the relationship between traits. Cluster analysis based on UPGMA was performed and Wilks' lambda statistic was used for cutting dendrogram. Then, a code was allocated to each group and these groups were compared. However, in order to fix type I error, Hotelling’s T2 test was used at 0.05 probability level. Before that, the assumption of homogeneous variance-covariance matrix was tested by BOX test at 0.01 probability level. Then, traits were compared. Seed yield was considered as dependent variable (y) and regression analysis was performed by stepwise method. Traits, that had significant standardized coefficient, were used in path analysis. For statistical analysis, Excel, SPSS and MSTAT-C software were used.
     

    Results & Discussion

    The results of ANOVA showed that the lines had significant difference for all studied traits. Mean comparison by Duncan test showed the highest and lowest seed yield belonged to Aligodarz-3 line (6058 Kg ha-1) and Goli cultivar (3175 Kg ha-1), respectively. All of the genotypes that were located in high seed yield group by cluster analysis belonged to elite lines that indicated the local red common bean populations, as a heterozygote germplasm source that been mixed of homozygous genotypes, had high potential to selection of superior lines in the breeding program. Comparison between groups by Hotelling-T2 statistics indicated seed number per plant and had significant difference at 0.01 probability level. The highest and lowest significant correlation coefficient was observed for seed number per plant with seed yield (0.91**) and node number with stem number (0.27*), respectively. The results of multiple regression for seed yield as dependent variable showed that seed number per plant and 100 seed weight had significant standardized regression coefficient. While, 100 seed weight had no significant correlation coefficient with seed yield that breeders should be considered different aspect of trait relationships. Path analysis results showed seed number per plant with direct effect 1.03 had more effect on seed yield than 100 seed weight with direct effect 0.43. While, both seed number per plant and 100 seed weight had negative indirect effect on seed yield by each other. The results of factor analysis showed four factors explained 93% of total variation. The first and second factor were called yield and yield component, and phenological type explained 60% of total variation. The lines that located in high yield group had the highest value for yield and yield components factor. While, the lowest score for mentioned factor belonged to Goli cultivar that showed factor analysis can be used both to summarize many dependent variables (traits) into little independent variables (factors) and to selective genotypes based on factor value. According to reports, the genetic base of bean cultivars has been limited. One of the useful results of multivariate analysis is the investigation of genotypes that locate at the end of distribution for several traits and these genotypes can be used as parents for better utilizing of probably heterosis. Heterosis and crossing one of the sustainable agricultural goals would improve germplasm, increase human food, promotion of farmer’s livelihoods and provide food.
     

    Conclusion

    Local populations of red common bean should be considered by breeders to select superior lines because of its potential and adaptation. Some studied traits had high diversity that could be exploited in breeding programs. While, other traits need to increase diversity by breeding strategies. Considering that each of studied analysis showed the different aspects of traits relationships and genotypes potential. So, the results should be considered simultaneously by breeders to better interpretation. Among the studied traits seed number per plant, according to high heritability, the identification of groups with different grain yield, high correlation and positive direct effect on grain yield was appropriate to increase seed yield. Multivariate analysis can be used to evaluate desirable genotypes and accumulate favorable alleles in breeding programs. The results of this study can be useful for breeders to investigate and utilize both traits and genotypes in breeding programs.

    Keywords: Bean, Indirect selection, Multivariate statistical methods, Pure line, Yield
  • A.Maghsoudi*, Ebrahim Ezadi Darbandi, Elnaz Moaey Pages 90-103
    Introduction

    Intercropping is considered to be important for a lot of reasons like optimizing water and soil resource uses, increasing water use efficiency, increasing pest, diseases and weed control efficiency, decrease pesticide application, increasing total production and land equivalent ratio and sustainability in agroecosystems. Production of medicinal plants requires sustainable and healthy methods like intercropping for increasing quantity and quality of medicinal plants and intercropping is one of the methods has special attention for this approach. Intercropping would be more successful when one of the intercropping components is legume, because of their nitrogen fixation ability and compatability to different planting patterns in mixcropping systems. Chickpea and balangu planting date is close together, with these abilities of legumes and planting dates it seems that their intercropping is an ideal purpose for medicinal production. It is possible that chickpea nitrogen fixation is useful for balangu growth and allelopathic effects of balangu with planting patterns with increasing canopy covering on the ground and shading on weed seedling would be helpful to improve quality and quantity in this intercropping. The objective of this study was to evaluate the chickpea and balangu intercropping possibility, land equivalent ratio and effect of weed control in this intercropping pattern.
     

    Matherials & Methods

    The experiment was arranged as a factorial based on randomized complete blocks design with three replications and performed at research farm of faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, during 2015-16 growing season. Treatments considered six planting (Chickpea/Balangu) ratio: (100/0, 100/25, 100/50, 100/75, 100/100, 0/100) and two weeding time (50 and 70 days after planting). Chickpea and balangu were planted at the same time (March 11th) in the way that Balangu is planted on the top of the rows with high density and chickpea is planted on the sideways of rows in recommended density (40 plant/m-2). When Balangu is emerged, they were thinned to its recommended density (40 plantm-2). Because of good precipitation during the growing season, one time irrigation was applied at the beginning of chickpea poding and balangu seed ripening. To determine the effect of treatments, chickpea and balangu biomass and seed yield were determined at the end of the season. To compare the performance of intercropping, land equivalent ratio (LER) was used, according to below equation: 
     
    RYa: relative intercropped yield out of monocropped plant a yield Ryb: relative intercropped yield out of monocropped plant b. Yab: yield of plant a intercropped with plant b, Yba: yield of plant b intercropped with plant a, Yaa: yield of plant a monocropped, Ybb: yield of plant b monocropped. The data statistical analysis and draw the figures were performed by Mini Tab Ver 17 and Excel 2013. Means were also compared by Fisher test at 5% probability level.
     
     

    Results & Discussion

    Results indicated that chickpea biomass and seed yield decreased as 24 and 55 percent respectively in 70 days after planting weeding time. However, biomass and seed yield were increased 5.7 and 20.4 percent respectively in balangu. By increasing balangu density, balangu seed yield increased but chickpea seed yield decreased significantly. The highest seed yield and biomass in both crops is observed in their monocropping and 50 days after planting weeding time. When weeds were left longer (70 days after planting) to compete with the crops, yield was decreased. Results showed that land equivalent ratio (LER) in 100/25 (chickpea/ balangu) plant ratio were the highest (1.52) and is useful and economic in chickpea and balangu intercropping.
     

    Conclusion

    Based on the results, by increasing the balangu density, biomass and seed yield of chickpea was significantly decreased even at the lowest balangu density. However increasing balangu density, increased balangu yield. It seems balangu is competing with chickpea strongly. However balangu planting at 10, 20 and 30 plant m-2 density with 40 plant m-2 chickpea increased land equivalent ratio by more than 1, especially in the lowest balangu density (10 plant m-2) when weeding were did at the 70 days after planting. Generally intercropping of balangu and chickpea in Mashhad and the same climate condition recommended in 100/25 (chickpea/ balangu) plant ratio (40 chickpea plant m-2 + 10 balangu plant m-2) and it would be useful and economic.

    Keywords: Additive series, Plant ratio, Supplementary crops, Weeding date
  • F.Ahmadi Nouraldinvand*, Mohammadreza Moradi Talavat, Seyed Ataollah Siadat, Ali Moshtata Pages 104-118
    Introduction

    Guar or cluster bean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L.) is a drought-tolerant annual leguminous crop grown mostly in India and Pakistan. Each pod contains 5 to 12 seeds. Seeds vary from dull-white to pink to light gray or black. Like other legumes guar is an excellent soil-building crop with respect to available nitrogen. Guar is one of the unique beans which its large spherical endosperm contains a significant amount of galactomannans that is used in a wide range of food and industrial applications. Organic fertilizers have a positive effect on agricultural sustainability due to the fact that authentic and safe products are important. One of the most important compounds in soil structure is humic acid, which results from organic matter decomposition in the soil. Humic acid is one of the most organic substances that has been used today due to its advantages, such as improving drainage and soil air, causing the development of microorganisms, increasing plant yield and growth, and also reducing the consumption of other fertilizers. In general, humic substances are used as soil modifiers. One of the important factors in plant cultivation is to determine the most suitable planting density. Plant density is an important agronomic factor that manipulates micro environment of the field and affects growth, development and yield formation of crops. The optimum planting density of the plants results in a balance in the competition between the plants and the maximum yield. So, this research focuses on the reaction of vegetative and reproductive growth of guar (cluster bean) to humic acid application with irrigation water in different planting densities in Ahvaz region.
     

    Materials & Methods

    In order to evaluate the response of vegetative and reproductive growth of guar or Cluster bean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L.) to the humic acid application with irrigation water in different planting densities, an experiment carried out in summer of 2016. This experiment was performed by split plot design with three replications based on randomized complete block design in research farm of Agriculture Sciences and Natural Resources University, Khuzestan Ahwaz. The experimental factors were four levels of humic acid, control (H0), 5 Kg.ha-1 (H1), 10 Kg.ha-1 (H2) and 15 Kg.ha-1 (H3) as the main factor in main plots and plants spacing on the planting row with four densities, 35 plant.m-2 (D1), 55 plant.m-2 (D2), 75 plant.m-2 (D3) and 95 plant.m-2 (D4) as sub factor in sub plots. In this experiment, measured traits were plant height, number of branches in the plant, leaf number, grain yield, dry matter, number of pod and number of grain/m2, number of grain in pod and harvest index. Data were analyzed by SAS 9.4 and mean comparison performed by Duncan test in 5% probability level.
     

    Results & Discussion

    Analysis of variance of data results showed that the main effect of humic acid and plant density were significant at p≤0.01, for all the measured traits (except the number of grains in pod and harvest index). So that as humic acid level increased, the traits increased. Also with increasing in plant density; all studied traits increased significantly except the number of branches of the plant. The interaction effect between humic acid and plant density were significant (p≤0.01) on grain yield, dry matter, plant height and the number of plant.m-2. The results also showed that the effect of humic acid and plant density on leaf number was significant at 1% level. So that, the highest plant height and leaf number per m2 were obtained from density of 95 plants.m-1 and 15 Kg.ha-1 humic acid application. So, with increasing plant density, leaf number increased. Generally, the highest grain yield (4209.7 Kg.ha-1) and dry matter (17955.6 Kg.ha-1) was under 15 Kg.ha-1 application of humic acid and the density of 95 plant.m-2 and the lowest grain yield (1433.2 Kg.ha-1) and dry matter (4812.6 Kg.ha-1) was under zero humic acid level and density of 35 plant.m-2.
     

    Conclusion

    Generally, the results showed that humic acid solution has a positive effect on the plant, therefore, using humic acid, produced highest grain yield, dry matter and morphological traits. Also, with increasing plant density, traits such as plant height, leaf number, yield and yield components increased but the number of branches decreased. In general, 15 Kg.ha-1 application of humic acid and the density of 95 plants.m-2 produced the highest yield.

    Keywords: Dry matter, Grain yield, Morphology, Organic fertilizer, Plant height
  • M.Ghobadi*, Jalal Ghaderi, Mohsen Saeedi, Loghman Ahmadi Pages 119-131
    Introduction

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is one of the most important grain legumes in the south Asia and WANA (West Asia North Africa). In Iran, chickpea is the most important pulse crop of rain-fed systems, traditionally grown in rotation with wheat and barley. The annual cultivation and production of chickpea in Iran is about 0.5 million hectares and 270 thousand tons, respectively. High protein content in chickpea seed (about 20-30%) makes it a good food source for developing countries and low-income people. Among the micro-nutrients, iron (Fe) is used more for plants. Fe deficiency has adverse effects on plant morphology and physiology. Earlier studies have shown that Fe deficiency reduced seed yield in chickpea, soybeans, rapeseed and wheat. In a study, application of iron fertilizer increased the branching and yield components of chickpea. In another study, application of iron fertilizer increased the branching and yield components of chickpea. A study showed that Fe deficiency reduced the water use efficiency of chickpea. In another study, iron sulfate foliar application improved the symptoms of Fe deficiency and increased the yield in low-yielding cultivars, but did not have much effect on high yielding cultivars. Foliar application of iron sulfate also increased the seed iron content. The objective of this research was to study the effects of Fe fertilizer on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of chickpea. Comparison of time and methods of Fe fertilization in chickpea was another aim of this study.
     

    Materials & Methods

    This research was carried out at the Campus of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran, in 2011. The experiment was conducted as split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Dryland conditions and supplementary irrigation were considered as the main factors as well as the time and methods of application of Fe fertilizer as the sub factors. Fe fertilizer treatments included as follow: without application of Fe fertilizer (Fe1), soil application of Fe fertilizer during planting (Fe2), Fe spraying at branching stage (Fe3), Fe spraying during flowering (Fe4) Fe spraying during pod filling (Fe5), Fe soil application+Fe spraying at branching stage (Fe6), Fe soil application+Fe spraying during flowering (Fe7), Fe soil application+Fe spraying during pod filling (Fe8). For irrigation treatment, two supplemental irrigations were performed at flowering and podding stages of chickpea. For rainfed conditions, these irrigations were prevented. To soil application, Fe-EDDHA (OMEX Company, Germany) as much as 10 Kg ha-1 was used. For leaf spraying, a solution of iron sulfate (Cavin Company, Iran) was used as much as 1 lit ha-1. The planting date was March 15, 2011. The density was 50 plants per square meter. Each plot consisted of six rows, five meters long, 25 cm distance between two rows.
     

    Results & Discussion

    The results showed that the supplementary irrigation had significant effects on biological yield, grain yield, harvest index, straw yield, the number of pods per plant, 100 seed weight and seed protein content. For these traits, the supplementary irrigation treatment was superior to rainfed conditions. However, supplementary irrigation did not have significant effects on the number of seeds per pod, grain iron content and grain fiber content. The effect of Fe fertilizer on biological yield, grain yield, harvest index, the number of seeds per pod, grain iron content and grain protein content were significant. Straw yield, the number of pods per plant, 100 seed weight and grain fiber content were not influenced by time and methods of Fe fertilizer. The highest grain yield (1614 Kg ha-1), biological yield (3683 Kg ha-1), the number of seeds per pod (1.45 seeds) and seed protein content (27.72%) were obtained in Fe7 treatment. Fe8 treatment had the highest seed iron content.
     

    Conclusion

    The supplemental irrigation improved seed yield and its components. Also, supplementary irrigation increased the seed iron content, but reduced the seed protein content. The time and methods of application of Fe fertilizer increased the quantitative and qualitative grain yield. Therefore, it seems that in order to increase the quantitative and qualitative grain yield of chickpea, the supplementary irrigation with application of Fe fertilizer (as soil and foliar application) can be recommended.

    Keywords: Grain yield, Seed iron content, Seed protein, Supplemental irrigation, Yield components
  • H.Khavari*, Ghodratollah Shakarami Pages 132-148
    Introduction

    Increasing the production of crops to meet the food needs of a growing population of the world is a great necessity. Intensive farming is an agricultural system that uses more than necessary and unbalanced inputs (fertilizers and pesticides), causing major of pressure on the environment. Today, in conventional farming systems, due to the limited amount of agricultural land, as well as the growing need for crops produced in indigenous agriculture, they have led to unbalanced consumption without the management of chemical fertilizers in the production of these products. The use of chemical fertilizer: nitrogen (N), phosphate (P2O5), potassium (K2O) in 2014-year ad around the world to 85.5, 32.2 and 20.4 (Kg of nutrients per ha) respectively. In comparison with year 2000 (Within 14 years), 64.9, 25.9 and 18.2 (Kg of nutrients per ha) respectively: 31.7, 28.1 and 12 percent it has increased. This undesirable agricultural management can change species composition or reduce biodiversity in farmland, and thus affect their natural capabilities in terms of crop production. On the other hand, increasing the health and security of food products produced in agricultural systems to maintain the dynamism of soil and water resources in these canopy systems is important on the basis of ecological principles. On the other hand, unbalanced consumption without management of chemical inputs has led to instability in agricultural ecosystems and the irreparable economic and environmental consequences of their consumption in agriculture are known throughout the world.
     

    Materials & Methods

    An experiment was conducted as factorial based on a randomized complete block design with three replications during growing season of 2017 at the experimental field of Beiranshahr city of Khorramabad in Lorestan Province, Iran (42° 79' E, 36° 70' N and 1669m above the sea level). To determine the physical and chemical properties of soil samples were collected from 0-30 cm depth of soil. During the experiment effects of two factors were studied: 1. Inoculation with Rhizobium bacteria Rb (Rhizobium Phaseoli Rb-133) in tow levels (Rb1= inoculation, Rb2= non-inoculation), and 2. different genotypes of pinto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in six levels (C1: Gafar, C2: Sadri, C3: Talash, C4: cos16 line, C5: Khomein Landrace and C6: Kosha genotypes). The seeds were inoculated with Rhizobium phaseoli Rb-133 before culturing. Traits such as: number of pods per plant, seeds per pod, number of seeds per plant, 100 seed weight, seed yield, biological yield and harvest index were measured.
     

    Results & Discussion

    The results showed the effect of rhizobium and genotype, number of seeds per pod, as well as the effect of two interactions rhizobium and genotype, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per plant, 100 seed weight, grain yield, biological yield and harvest index of pinto bean genotypes significantly increased. The effect of rhizobium and genotype had significant effects on number of seeds per pod (p≤0.01); effect of rhizobium and genotypeon number of pod per plant (p≤0.05), number of seed per plant (p≤0.01), 100 seed weight (p≤0.01), grain yield (p≤0.01), biological yield and harvest index (p≤0.01) had significant effects on pinto bean genotypes. Inoculation with Rhizobium seed yields of Ghafar, Sadri, Talash, Cos16 line, Khomein and Kosha 13.7, 37.2, 23, 20.9, 55.3 and 31.4 % increased, respectively. The highest grain yield (3485 Kg. ha-1) was obtained in the interaction between rhizobium and Sadri genotype.
     

    Conclusion

    Generally, results showed that the yield and yield components of pinto bean genotypes were influenced by Rhizobium bacteria (Rhizobium phaseoli Rb-133) inoculation. The inoculation of seeds with rhizobium bacteria, coexistence of beans along with the nutritional elements during growth stages of Pinto bean genotypes, could improve growth indices, increase yield and yield components. Inoculation with rhizobium has an increased effect on yield and yield components of pinto bean genotypes and can increase the grain yield to a favorable level in order to produce a stable product.

    Keywords: Biological fertilizers, Chemical fertilizers, Harvest index, Optimization, Sustainable production
  • A.Mahdavi Damghani, Abdolmajid Soheinejad, Homan Liaghati, Payam Pezeshkpour Pages 149-162
    Introduction

    Water is an important economic resource in many parts of the world, especially in arid and semi-arid reigns. Also, drought stress is a major constraint for crop production in arid and semiarid regions, such as Iran. Drought stress affects different aspect of plant growth, through a series of morphological and physiological changes. Application of some soil conditioners, like superabsorbent polymers, could be effective for absorbing seasonal rain and suitable source of water for plant growth during dry seasons. These polymers can reserve different amounts of water in itself and so increases the soil ability of water storing and preserving and approve plant growth under water deficiency. Also, they can improve plant growth indices and increase its growth by changing the soil structure and improving the environmental conditions of plant growth. This experiment was conducted in order to study the effects of superabsorbent and irrigation period on root characteristics and yield of mung bean.
     

    Materials & Methods

    The field experiment was conducted at two locations during summer in 2015. First location was Khorramabad which located at 33.46° N, 48.33° E and has moderate and semi-humid climate with average annual rainfall of 504.3 mm. The second location was Kuhdasht that located at 33.52° N, 47.61° E and has semi-dry climate with average annual rainfall of 390.4 mm. The field experiment was carried out as a split-plot base on randomized complete block design with four replications. The treatments included irrigation period at three levels (5, 10, and 15 day) as main plots and four levels of superabsorbent polymer Aquasorb (control, 100, 200 and 300 Kg ha-1) as subplot. Finally, at the end of growth period, 5 plants was used to measure mung bean traits included root volume, root dry matter, the weight ratio of shoot to root stem dry weight, total root area, total root length and grain yield. The volume and length of root was measured using the method of Atkinson (Atkinson, 2000). ANOVA and Duncan's Multiple Range Test were performed to determine and analyze the significant difference and means comparison respectively at P<0.05. SAS-9.1 software was used to do statistical analysis. Also, OriginPro 9.1 software was applied to draw figures.
     

    Results & Discussion

    The results of variance analysis showed that location and irrigation had a significant effect on all the evaluated properties. Also, superabsorbent had a significant effect on all the evaluated properties (except the weight ratio of shoot to root). In addition, interaction effects of superabsorbent and irrigation and superabsorbent and location were just significant on grain yield (p<0.05). Interaction effects of superabsorbent and irrigation was also significant on water use efficiency (WUE) (p<0.05). Interaction effects of location and irrigation were significant on attributes such as the weight ratio of shoot to root, grain yield (p<0.01) and total root area (p<0.05). Results indicated that drought stress reduced root volume and root dry weight and increased total root length traits and root dry weight, increasing the total length of the roots so that the lowest root volume (3.11 cm3 Plant-1) and root dry weight (0.93 g. Plant-1) and the highest total root length (9.1 cm Plant-1) was recorded at 5-day irrigation period. However, all these traits and grain yield were increased by applying the super superabsorbent polymer. The highest root volume (3.62 cm3 Plant-1), root dry weight (1.1 g Plant-1) and total root length (9.8 cm Plant-1) were obtained at 200 kg superabsorbent per ha. The highest WUE (1.12 Kg grain yield m-3) was obtained at 200 Kg superabsorbent per ha and 15-day irrigation period and the lowest (0.31 Kg grain yield m-3) was recorded at control and 5-day irrigation. Also, across irrigation periods and locations, the difference between the highest (200 Kg superabsorbent per ha and 10-day irrigation period) and lowest (300 Kg superabsorbent per ha and 15-day irrigation period) grain yield was 800 Kg per ha. Actually by increasing superabsorbent per ha, grain yield was increased but it improved until a certain level of superabsorbent and after that grain yield was reduced. Result showed that although the interaction of irrigation period and superabsorbent was not significant on root morphological characteristics, effects of superabsorbent was significant on root morphological characteristics and these traits of mung bean were improved by applying superabsorbent.
     

    Conclusion

    Generally, results revealed that the Aqasorb superabsorbent hydrogel can improve the morphological characteristics of mung bean root and can reduce the negative impact of the high periods of irrigation on grain yield and WUE of mung bean. Thus, applying superabsorbent that has the ability of absorbing considerable amount of water, caused improving in physical conditions of soil and affected the plants response to water stress indirectly and can help plants in water shortage conditions. Also, the amount of optimal application of Aqasorb superabsorbent is 200 Kg ha-1 and using more than 200 Kg superabsorbent per ha (especially in the high periods of irrigation) will reduce grain yield, WUE and the morphological characteristics of mung bean root and will increase the cost of production.

    Keywords: Grain yield, Locations, Root volume, Total root length
  • A.Gholipoor, Manochehr Gholipour, Mostafa Heidari Pages 163-177
    Introduction

    Chickpea is one of the most important legumes in Iran. Despite the abundance of cultivated lands in Iran by chickpea, yield per hectare is considerably lower than world average. Environment conditions of chickpea cultivation in infertile, arid and semiarid regions limit the yield production in Iran. Salt stress, resulted from salts accumulation in soil solution is one the limiting factors for chickpea cultivation in arid and semiarid areas. Chickpea is a salt sensitive plant and yield loss is one of the most potential impacts of salinity on chickpea. Polyamines are low molecular weight polycationic molecules, which play important roles in a number of plant physiological processes, including resistance to various stresses. Recently, the role of polyamines, unique polycationic metabolite, was proved as a regulator of growth and plant membrane transport. They also act as a source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ROS scavenger and activator of key antioxidant enzymes. Moreover, they are involved in plant stress tolerance. The present study was conducted to investigate the ameliorating effect of spermine and spermidine spraying on yield and yield components of salt treated chickpea plants.
     

    Materials & Methods

    The experiment was performed as factorial based on a randomized complete block design with three replications in research farm of Khartooran Shahrood (salinity 5.7 dS m-1). Spermine was sprayed at three levels (0 (control), 0.25 and 0.50 mM) and spermidine also at three levels (0 (control), 0.25 and 0.50 mM) in three stages including four-leaf, flowering and pod-filling stages. Some attributes such as relative water content, membrane stability index and activity of catalase, polyphenol oxidase and guaiacol peroxidase enzymes, plant height, number of branches per plant, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod and seed yield were measured.
     

    Results & Discussion

    The results showed that foliar spray of spermine at the concentration of 0.50 mM increased membrane stability index (15%) and plant height (23%) in comparison with the unsprayed plants. Moreover, foliar spray of spermidine at the concentration of 0.50 mM significantly increased membrane stability index (17%), plant height (31%), number of branches (52%), number of pods per plant (27%), 100- seed weight (16%) and seed yield (15%), when compared to unsprayed plants. Sodium chloride treatment disturbs membrane integrity and leads to ionic imbalances in plants. On the other hand, polyamines as one of the most important growth regulators, play key roles in regulating membrane functions by attachment to anionic sites or to the negatively charged phospholipid head groups on membranes. Their exogenous consumption probably not only reduces absorption of hazardous ions such as Na+ and Cl-, disturbing normal functions of plant cells and reducing growth, but also protect membranes against the stress injuries caused by salt stress. Furthermore, polyamines are able to reverse the inhibitory effect of salinity stress on plant growth by increasing cell division and cell size. Salt stress declines nutrients transportation to growing shoots and also reduces chlorophyll contents which both leads to growth reduction in plants, while polyamines not only accumulate in thylakoid membranes and increase their integrity under stress but also leads to chlorophyll maintenance and by increasing cell division in root tips elevates nutrient absorption and help plants to keep normal growth. Nutrient and carbohydrate deficiency under saline stress is one of probable reasons for abscission of flowers and branch reduction leading to yield reduction which all can be reversed by exogenous polyamine application. Concerning relative water content (RWC) and enzymes activity, interaction of spermine and spermidine had significant effects on RWC and activity of polyphenol oxidase, catalase and guaiacol peroxidase enzymes. ROS scavenging will reduce their major impact on damages to the biomolecules such as membrane lipids, proteins, chloroplast pigments, enzymes and nucleic acids. Polyamines can act as osmoprotectants to increase water absorption under deficit water condition. They also act as ROS scavenger and activator of key ROS scavenging enzymes.
     

    Conclusion

    In general, foliar spraying with spermidine was more effective than spermine in mitigating the deleterious effects of salt stress and maintaining the different characteristics of chickpea. Furthermore, application of the concentration of 0.50 mM of both polyamines was more effective than 0.25 mM.

    Keywords: Catalase, Membrane stability, Polyamines, Polyphenol oxidase
  • A.Sepehri*, Homan Mohammadi, Seyed Hosein Sabaghpour Pages 178-192
    Introduction

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is one of the most important grain legumes, which is cultivated in most parts of the world, especially in arid and semi-arid regions because of its strategic importance in plant protein production. Among environmental stresses, drought stress limits plant growth and crop production more than any other factor. Many reports indicate that drought stress at the end of the season is the cause of a severe decrease in grain yield of chickpea in most regions, especially in Iran. Terminal drought, depending on the geographical area and weather conditions reduces 30 to 60 percent of the yield. With the improvement of crop management methods, such as breeding methods and using drought stress tolerant cultivars, it is possible to ameliorate the reduction of yield due to drought stress. On the other hand, application of supplemental irrigation at some stages of plant growth is a management factor for improvement, stability and finally reduction of risk for crop production under drought stress conditions. By increasing the intensity of drought stress, the plant development stages occur faster and the number of days to flowering, podding and maturation decreases. Drought stress decreases the area and weight of leaves. The results of the experiments indicated that drought stress caused a significant decrease in grain yield and yield components of chickpea. One way to reduce the adverse effects of drought stress on plants is reducing transpiration rates. In recent years, transpiration alleviator substances have been considered as a solution to reduce water losses from plant, because they reduce the rate of water vapor release from the leaves. Also, stress ameliorator substance such as calcium chloride and sodium selenate play an important role in adaptation of cells to abiotic stresses and increase the activity of antioxidants anzymes and photosynthesis through water absorption, root growth and maintaining turgor pressure in plant cells. The aim of this study was to investigate kaolin and chitosan as transpiration alleviator substances as well as calcium chloride and sodium selenate stress ameliorators on growth, yield and yield components of Azad chickpea cultivar under different irrigation regimes.
     

    Materials & Methods

    Effects of kaolin, chitosan and drought stress ameliorators on crop growth rate, grain yield and yield components of chickpea were investigated under supplemental irrigation at Hamedan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center during 2014-2015 growing season. A factorial split plot experiment basesd on a completely randomized block design with three replications were used. Three supplemental irrigation regimes, including irrigation at flowering stage, irrigation at podding stage and two irrigation flowering+podding stages with non irrigation (rainfed) in main plots and transpiration alleviator substances (kaolin 5%, chitosan 200 mlL-1) and stress ameliorators (chloride calcium 5 mM, selenat sodium 40 mlL-1) with non spray (control) treatments as factorial were placed in sub plots. Seeds were cultivated with 30 cm row spacing and 31 plants per m2 density at 5 cm depth of soil on March 5th. Application of stress ameliorators was performed in two stages before and after flowering. Spraying of anti-transpirations substances in the middle of the pudding stage was done by hand sprayed on the leaves. During this investigation, maximum leaf area index, maximum crop growth rate, biological yield, grain yield, yield components and harvest index of chickpea (var. Azad) were studied.

    Results & Discussion

    The results showed that the main effects of irrigation levels and transpiration alleviator substances in all studied traits, except to biological yield, also drought stress ameliorators except for seed number per pod were significant at the 1% level. The two and three interactions between studied factors were significant for different traits except to the number of seeds per pod. Foliar application of chitosan and calcium chloride in one irrigation at podding stage compared to irrigation at flowering stage or without irrigation (rainfed) increased seed yield by 42% and 192%, respectively. Also, spraying of chitosan with calcium chloride in two supplemental irrigation regime increased the grain yield comperad to one irrigation regimes at flowering or podding and rainfed by 99%, 41% and 312%, respectively. Two irrigation regimes with chitosan spray and calcium chloride consumption had the highest harvest index (50.3%) and in comparison to one irrigation regimes at flowering or podding and rainfed increased harvest index by 33%, 15% and 85%, respectively. Two irrigation regimes with chitosan and calcium chloride application had the maximum crop growth rate of plant and in comparison to one irrigation regime at flowering, podding stages and rainfed increased by 31%, 19% and 104%, respectively. In the two irrigation regimes with chitosan foliar and calcium chloride consumption, the maximum leaf area index was increased as compared to single irrigation regimes in flowering or podding stages and without irrigation.
     

    Conclusion

    Based on the present study, if sufficient water is available, it is preferable to use a double irrigation regime at flower and pod stages or at least a single irrigation regime in the podding stage with the spray of chitosan and calcium chloride to increase the grain yield of the chickpea (var. Azad) is recommended.

    Keywords: Crop growth rate, Harvest index, Irrigation regime, Stress ameliorators, Transpiration alleviator
  • A.Khojamli*, Ali Nakhzari Moghaddam, Mahdi Mollashahi, Laila Ahangar Pages 193-203
    Introduction

    Population growth and low protein content of cereals has attracted the attention of peoples to pulse crops. Pulses has important role in contributing to food and nutritional security and replenishing soil nutrients having a huge potential in addressing needs like future global food security, nutrition and environmental sustainability needs. These plants can fix nitrogen in their roots and are effectiveness in soil fertility. After harvesting of these plants, large amounts of nitrogen will be added to the soil that next plant can use them. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is an annual plant with indeterminate growth habit. It is one of the most important food legumes. Generally, legumes are highly sensitive to water deficit stress in flowering stage. In different crops as well as chickpea, differential genotypic response to drought stress as a result of variation in physiological parameters has been reported. Drought stress is the most important challenges in production of chickpea in Golestan province. On time using of water in the most sensitive stage of plant growth will result in higher production of seeds. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of nitrogen and supplemental irrigation on some quantity and quality traits of Adel chickpea cultivar in Gonbad Kavous conditions.
     

    Materials & Methods

     In order to study the effects of nitrogen and supplemental irrigation on quality and quantity of Adel variety of chickpea, an experiment as factorial based on RCBD in three replications was carried out in farm of Gonbad Kavous University in 2015-2016. Two factors was nitrogen in 3 levels of none consumption, consumption of 25 and 50 Kg nitrogen/ha and supplemental irrigation in 3 levels of none irrigation, irrigation in flowering stage and irrigation in flowering+seed filling stage. Traits that were measured included number of lateral branch, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per plant, 100-seed weight, plant dry weight, seeds weight per plant, harvest index, grain yield, protein percent and protein yield. Seed planting was done during the third week of December 2015. Row spacing was 25 cm. 50% of urea was applied during sowing and the rest was side banded when the chickpea plants were at seed filling stage. Weed control was performed manually. Harvesting date was first week of June. Data were analyzed by using of SAS Ver. 9.1 software. For comparison of means, LSD at level of 5% was used.
     

    Results & Discussion

    The results showed that effects of nitrogen and supplemental irrigation on all traits except 100-seed weight and protein content were significant. Number of pods per plant in the treatment of 50 and 25 Kg N/ha with 29.36 and 27.76 were more than treatment of non consumption of nitrogen with 21.13. Irrigation in flowering and seed filling stages produced the maximum of pods per plant that was not significantly different from irrigation at flowering stage. The maximum grain yield was obtained from consumption of 50 Kg N/ha with 3287 Kg/ha. Seed yield in none application of nitrogen was 2243 Kg/ha. The maximum grain yield was obtained from treatment of irrigation in flowering and seed filling stage with 3218 Kg/ha. The maximum and minimum protein yield belonged to consumption of 50 Kg N/ha and non consumption of nitrogen, respectively. The maximum protein yield with 743 Kg/ha belonged to treatment of irrigation in flowering and seed filling stages and the minimum protein yield with 581 Kg/ha was obtained from non irrigation treatment.
     

    Conclusions

    Based on this experiment results, nitrogen and supplemental irrigation was affected all traits except 100-seed weight and protein percent. The maximum amounts of traits were obtained from consumption of 50 and then 25 Kg N/ha. Irrigation in flowering and seed filling stages produced maximum seed yield that has not significant different with irrigation in flowering stage. In general, it seems that for suitable production of chickpea, it is necessary to irrigate it for two times and applicate 25 Kg N /ha

    Keywords: Pod setting, Protein yield, Seed filling, Seed weight
  • Ahmad Nezami, Ali Ghanjali, Mahdi Pars, Mohammadhasan Vafaey* Pages 204-218
    Introduction

    Drought stress is one of the main problems in agriculture of Iran and the world. Among the environmental limiting factors of the yield crops, drought is the most important factor to reduce production, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. Drought stress reduces water content in plant tissues, lead to growth shrinkage and some physiological and metabolic changes in them. Food legumes, as one of the most important protein-rich vegetable sources, played a major role in providing human protein, especially in low-income and developing countries, and after cereals are the second most important source of human food. These plants, with bio-stabilization of nitrogen, provide a large portion of their nitrogen, and because they require low water and nutrients, they are highly desirable for cultivation in poor lands. Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik) is one of the beans that had more than 20% protein content and characteristics such as the ability to grow in inappropriate conditions and poor soils, has been able to play an important role in the low-income diet of people in developing countries. Regarding to the success of a breeding program depends on the size and diversity of genetic resources, genetic diversity lead to succeeding in selection, so identification of cultivars with high yield, as well as limiting factors of yield potential and genotypes tolerant to these factors in lentil seems to be necessary.

     Materials & Methods

    This research was carried out in the research farm of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad in 2014. In this experiment, 73 lentil genotypes including native genotypes and lines from other countries were cultivated in two separate plots under non stress and stress conditions in Augmented design. Five genotypes used as control (Kimia, Gachsaran, Cabralinta, ILL325 and ILL857). Controls were cultivated in all blocks. Before planting, field soil was sampled from a depth of 30 cm and pH values, organic matter, EC, macro elements (N, P and K) and soil texture were measured. The planting was carried out on March 20, 2014. At the same time, according to the fertilizer recommendation, the amount of required elements was added to the soil and immediately after cultivation, an irrigation step was conducted to ensure the emergence of all the seeds for both dry conditions (drought stress) and non-stress. Afterwards, irrigation was performed only for non-stress treatments and every 10 days.
     

    Results & Discussion

    The results showed that mean and standard deviation of lentil genotype yields under drought stress and non stress conditions revealed significant differences. Accordingly, the average yield of genotypes under conditions of stress was 20.4 g.m-2, which showed a decrease of 70.3% in non-stress conditions with 68.6 g.m-2. According to 147 mm rainfall from planting to harvest, this yield reduction was not expected, indicating the need for supplementary irrigation. High standard deviation between genotypes indicates a large variety of lentil genotypes, and this wide variety can be used as a valuable genetic resources for later studies. According to the results, there was a significant correlation between yield and stress (P≤0.01) (r=0.71**). Also, there was a positive and significant correlation between performance in non stress conditions with the old indices HARM, TOL, MP, STI, GMP, SSPI, ATI and the new SNPI index (P≤0.01), and the correlation between yield in non stress conditions and SSI and RDI were not significant. There was also a positive and significant correlation between performance in non-stress conditions and ATI, GMP, HARM, RDI, STI, SSI, TOL and MP, and the new SNPI index (P≤0.01), but between yield in non stress conditions and the SSI was a significant negative correlation (P≤0.01). Old indices of HARM, TOL, STI, GMP, MP, ATI, and two new indicators of SSPI and SNPI, all have a positive and significant correlation (p≤0.01) with performance under stress and non stress conditions and can be considered as suitable indicators for screening stress tolerant genotypes.
     

    Conclusion

    The results of current study showed that the new SNPI index, which has a very high correlation (99.9%) with yield in stress conditions, as well as the old indices of HARM, STI and GMP, which have the positive and significant correlation with each other and with performance in two. The conditions of non stress and stress have been identified as the most suitable and effective criteria for identifying and selecting genotypes tolerant to drought stress. The results obtained from the three-dimensional, biplot, and cluster analysis methods are in agreement with each other for selection of high yielding and drought tolerant lines. Accordingly, it seems that genotypes 40, 48, 71, 73, 3, 8 , 45 and 52 are the promising and proposing genotypes in the Mashhad climate for further studies

    Keywords: Biplot, Cluster analysis, Correlation, Tolerance indices