فهرست مطالب

  • پیاپی 35 (زمستان 1396)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/03/21
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
|
  • Seyed Mohammad Bagher Najafi* Page 11

    It is now about three decades since the third major economic revolution in human life, the knowledge-based economy, has begun. Like its former counterparts, the agricultural revolution and the industrial revolution, knowledge-based economics will change all aspects of human social life. Like the two previous revolutions, corporations and societies that recognize this phenomenon and its prerequisites and characteristics in time can benefit from its remarkable achievements, especially the revolution in productivity, and greatly increase growth rates, income levels, and welfare. To find. Knowledge, technology and innovation are factors of production in the knowledge-based production model. Creating a platform for achieving a sufficient amount of parturient and productive innovation requires a set of institutional reforms, which this paper examines the necessity of these reforms. The method of data collection is library-documentary and the method of data analysis is descriptive-analytical. The findings of this article show that innovation is intertwined with the institutional matrix of every society and that the framework for achieving a sufficiently parturient and productive innovation entails a set of institutional reforms in the social life system, socio-economic reward system, intellectual property, institutions of competitiveness of the economy, trust and collective participation and reforming the socio-economic path of society.

    Keywords: Knowledge based Economy, Innovation, Institution
  • MohammadReza Yosefi sheykh Robat* Page 33

    In this century, Iran has always been concerned about building a vibrant and diverse society from the past. In the Constitutional Revolution, they made great efforts to achieve this great feat and succeeded in drafting a progressive constitution. Some progress was made, but those aspirations were soon lost and the Pahlavi dictatorship replaced the absolutism Qajar regime. The Islamic Revolution was formed with the aim of transforming the former society. But after four decades of revolution, the idea of "living according to religious values" has faded. Accordingly, this paper attempts to examine the experience of the early Islamic world by using content analysis method to answer the reasons for not realizing these values. The experience of the emergence of Islam shows that the most fundamental step in the evolution of a society is to change its attitude. Accordingly, Islam has aimed to reject secularism and the idea of human inequality and replacing it with humanism, eschatology, and the idea of human equality. The Prophet then sought to elaborate on these values in various aspects of life, and to ensure them through the establishment of government and institutions that safeguard religious values. Consequently, the reason for not realizing these values is the lack of focus on the fundamental principles of thought, the lack of expansion of these ideas into the political, social, economic and cultural aspects of society. Ultimately, through the establishment and reform of institutions, it must be sought the reason of do not guarantee these values.

    Keywords: the Fundamentals of Attitude Change, the Aristocracy, a SystemBased on Human Equality, Ignorance, Thought of Islam
  • Saeid Naeb* Page 57

    The purpose of this article is to explain technology and policymaking in this field according to the new institutionalism theory. So, an attempt has been made to explain how the three main problems of new institutionalism - Information, benefits distribution and coordination (Cooperation) - in the field of technology are explained by expressing the nature and levels of technology on the one hand, and what the institutions in the new institutionalism theory are, on the other hand. It is shown here that the three main institutional groups, namely mental structures, government entities, and technology institutions, are the most important institutions influencing technology components and its ten levels. Also, by highlighting the factors that influence institutional change, the policy-making process in the area of technology promotion is outlined and at the end of the article, waiting time for a change of each of the three institutions influencing technology promotion is explained. In this context, opposition to and resistance of the losers to technology upgrades are the most important determinants of the costs of institutional change, and therefore, mental models, government, and technological institutions, respectively, need the most time to change.

    Keywords: Institutionalism, Technological Institutions, Policy Making, MentalModels, Government
  • Farshad Momeni*, Amineh Shibaei Page 101

    The new institutionalist school was formed alongside the old institutionalist beliefs, which combined economic science with social sciences and cognitive science to address the deficiencies of conventional economics. In this school of thought, identifying institutions and paying attention to people's cognitive characteristics were introduced as the first steps to solving the economic problems of any society. In the meantime, Douglas North has attempted to develop models of human behavior, especially in the face of uncertainty, with the help of cognitive science advances and to provide solutions to promote resilience in societies. But for some issues, there are insufficient explanations and need for further correction studies. This includes talking about the endorsement of the same mental models by environmental responses as well as the consolidation of these models as well as the formation of beliefs and learning, but about how it happens in the brain and mind, and how cognitive changes occur, especially in the face of Shocking factors and uncertainty conditions require a more complete explanation. Therefore, the present study seeks to study the effects of shocks from shock therapy policies by further studying the relationship between brain and mind and behavior (MBB). The purpose of this study is applied, developmental, and type of study, library and documentary, and is complemented by Douglas North's cognitive ideas with a new institutionalist approach. Also, with regard to the complete shock of Iranian society with various shocks, this study also studies the cognitive and socio-economic effects of political shock therapy in Iran. One of the findings of this research is the pivotal functions of the Prefrontal Cortex (PFC) in planning and then following it. So that the human prefrontal cortex regulates planned behaviors related to sensitivity to reward and punishment; and that more abstract representational or planning activities are performed in the APFC. The OPFC also plays an important role in decision-making, especially in the face of emotional factors. In the face of shocking hazards, both VPFC and VS are activated. In such a way that the striatum, independent of the type of shock, is associated with the loss of individuals. In general, from simple attention to complex decision making, all are made by the PFC. The role of the brain striatum in learning and habit formation can also be mentioned, such that information about shocks and uncertainties is transmitted through the striatum to the PFC, and since the striatum transmits information to the brain via dopamine neurons (with a combination of rewards), so by repeating a behavior and receiving rewards, that behavior becomes habituated, and the system of beliefs and mental models are formed. Another finding of this study is the similarity of the effects of shock-therapy policies with the effects of torture to confess inmates, which results in impaired normal brain functions and complete mental breakdown. The information rain and the unending shocks eventually lead to the formation of irrational beliefs in society and add to the uncertainty. As in Iran, following the structural adjustment programs of the 1970s, the people of Iran have had to endure the damaging consequences of years of shock therapy that has led to the formation of future horror beliefs. The lack of transparency in the country's big decisions, and the lack of a proper information flow system coupled with the constant manipulation of facts for unproductive interests, have created profound gaps in public opinion which has led to increased uncertainty in society and reduced the predictive power of actors and the level of resilience of society. Ultimately, Iranian society has entered a cycle of misery.

    Keywords: Cognitive Science, Human Brain, Prefrontal Cortex, Striatum, Shock Therapy
  • Ebrahim Kardegar*, Mehdi Ahrari, Hamid Reza Mohammadi Ojan Page 135

    The efficiency of the insurance market is not permanent and absolute and the market is not always working properly and so-called economists often fail to allocate resources efficiently. The philosophy of business oversight that is shaped by the market and operates according to its rules is to identify the failures of the market mechanism that lead to market failure. Accordingly, supervision in the insurance industry is also focused on dealing with market failures in this area. In this paper, we examine the risk management in the insurance industry based on the methodological framework of the economics of transaction costs, from the perspective of the structure of the insurance market in Iran. The results of the analysis showed that the reality of the insurance market of the country has a significant deviation from the conventional and favorable economic frameworks, which is considered by the policymakers and legislators (Creating a conventional competitive environment free from insufficiency and failure); and in this unconventional environment, many market-based laws and regulations and policies not only don't reduce transaction costs to develop and expand insurance institutions but also reinforce divergent risk structures at the level of insurers and It will have anti-development and destructive effects.

    Keywords: Market failure, Insurance Market Structure, Transaction CostEconomics, Institutions, Risk Management, Adverse Selection, Moral Hazards
  • Farshad Momeni*, Shima Haji Noroozi Page 159

    This paper investigates the effect of institutions on resilience within the framework of the new institutional school, through applying a descriptive-analytical approach. The result of the study shows that ignoring the establishment of efficient, flexible and production–oriented institutions makes countries vulnerable to risks, shocks and uncertainties. Based on this, one of the common innovations for reducing uncertainties and dealing with shocks is principly institutionalization. Effectiveness of institutions on production determines how countries are exposed to shocks. The global experience shows that countries with export-oriented manufacturing sectors in which institutions encourage production especially in industry are more responsive to shocks. On the contrary, in countries with inefficient institutions and weak production capacity, exposure to shocks becomes a crisis. Investigating the institutional framework and the way of exposure to oil shocks and sanctions in iran confirms that in the absence of production-oriented institutions and with the lack of learning from the past, the Iranian governments have always shown spontaneous reactions which has deteriorated the situation causing the greatest damage to the country’s manufacturing sector due to short-sighted policies.

    Keywords: Resilience, Institutional Framework, Production, Shock, RiskManagement
  • Hamid Padash* Page 191

    The purpose of this article is to analyze the philosophical foundations of institutionalism in economics. From the existing scientific literature, three philosophical foundations for institutionalism can be identified: pragmatism, Darwinism, and historicism. In the old institutionalist economy, the philosophical foundations of pragmatism and Darwinism predominate and on the analytical framework of the new institutionalism, historicism surrounds. In this paper, the impact of the three philosophical foundations on the views of each of the institutionalists in different generations is analyzed.

    Keywords: Institutionalism, Philosophical Foundations of Institutionalism, Pragmatism, Darwinism, historicism