فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:7 Issue: 2, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/05/19
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • MohammadReza Rezaie, Tahmoures Tahmasebi *, Akbar Hassanzadeh Pages 47-53
    Background

    Nowadays, smartphones are equipped with an accelerometer module that can measure and record the body linear accelerations during walking. The aims of this study were: 1) reliability assessment of smartphone accelerometer for trunk accelerometry; 2) comparison of stability indices base on trunk accelerometry between the amputee and able-bodied subjects; and 3) comparison between energy storage and release (ESR) and multi-axis prosthetic feet users.

    Methods

    Eleven below-knee amputees (5 multi-axis and 6 ESR prosthetic feet) and 11 able-bodied subjects enrolled in this comparative study. The dynamic stability was assessed using a smartphone attached to their back through an elastic belt during walking in a 6-m walkway. Also, normalized root mean squares (nRMS) of mediolateral (ML) and anteroposterior (AP) directions were calculated as stability indices. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), standard error of measurement (SEM), SEM%, and Bland-Altman plots were used for reliability analysis. The Independent T-test was also used to compare the healthy and amputee subjects as well as ESR and multiaxis prosthetic feet users. The critical alpha was set at 0.05.

    Results

    The results showed that the accelerometer has the ICC values more than 0.97 and 0.89 for test-retest and inter-session, respectively. Amputees had significantly higher trunk accelerations in ML direction compared to able-bodied subjects (p=0.023) but not in AP direction (p=0.496). Although the results were not significant between ESR and multi-axis prosthetic feet (AP P= 0.16, ML P=0.44), the AP stability index was higher in ESR users (AP Multi-axis=117.45, ESR=127.38).

    Conclusion

    The smartphone can be used as a reliable measurement tool in clinical environments to assess the stability indices based on trunk accelerometry in transtibial amputees. More studies should be conducted to obtain more reliable results.

    Keywords: Amputees, Stability, Smartphone, Accelerometry, Reliability analysis
  • Maryam Azamifar, Rahman Sheikhhoseini *, Rasoul Eslami Pages 54-59
    Background
    The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effects of static stretch alone and in combination with plyometric exercises on some functional indices in athletes with and without hamstring tightness.
    Methods
    For this controlled laboratory study, 20 female athletes with hamstring tightness and 15 female athletes with normal hamstring participated voluntarily in static stretching exercises or stretching in combination with plyometric exercises in two consecutive days after warm up, with a random stretching order. The maximum voluntary hamstring isometric strength, maximal vertical jump, and Y balance test were also measured.
    Results
    The results indicated that both static stretching and stretching in combination with plyometric exercises may affect balance more adversely in athletes with hamstring tightness. Both types of stretching programs may also cause adverse effects on balance, muscle strength, and maximal vertical jump (P <0.05).
    Conclusion
    According to the results, the level of balance of individuals with hamstring tightness may be affected more adversely through static stretching exercises. Thus, we suggest that the static stretch should not be prescribed for athletes with hamstring tightness at the warm up of training sessions.
    Keywords: Muscle Stretching Exercises, Postural Balance, hamstring muscles, Muscle strength, Athletes
  • Shyh Poh Teo * Pages 60-65
    Background
    Lower limb amputee patients tend to have multiple co-morbidities and are at risk of developing complications during early rehabilitation for lower limb amputees. These complications are associated with worse outcomes and interruption in rehabilitation, requiring a transfer from the rehabilitation ward to acute medical or surgical care. This study aims to describe the circumstances of patients transferred from early lower limb amputee rehabilitation ward to regional hospitals, and identify areas of potential improvement in management.
    Methods
    The present study is a retrospective study of electronic records for patients admitted or transferred to Hutt Hospital from vascular surgery wards for early lower limb amputee rehabilitation between 1st January 2009 and 31st December 2011. The data collected was identified through a multidisciplinary discussion to determine appropriate standards of care for amputee patients. This included patient demographics, comorbidities, cognitive and physical function, as well as complications during rehabilitation.
    Results
    There were 42 lower limb amputations with median age of patients 71.5 years. Dysvascularity was the most common cause (57.1%) for amputation. Patient care was inappropriately stepped-down to a rehabilitation ward, including one in six amputees who were not haemodynamically stable, and one-quarter of patients with hypoglycaemia. Handover between allied health staff and comprehensive assessment, particularly of the contralateral limb should be improved. Complications during rehabilitation involved 71.4% patients, the most common non-wound issues were decubitus ulcers, chest infections and delirium. A quarter of the patients, initially living at home were discharged to residential care. The median length of hospital stay was 44.5 days.
    Conclusions
    Amputee patients have multiple co-morbidities and a high risk of complications. The areas of improvement identified included transfer of care between allied health professionals, appropriateness of step-down transfer to rehabilitation, assessment of the contra-lateral limb and standardisation of care. Education of healthcare professionals and systematic transfer of care should be implemented for patients transferred for early rehabilitation for lower limb amputees.
    Keywords: Amputees, Comorbidity, Postoperative complications, Rehabilitation, Standards of Care
  • Mohamadreza Ahmadi, Ali Yalfani *, Farzaneh Gandomi, Khosro Rashid Pages 66-74
    Background
    Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) has been reported as one of the most common reasons for knee pain which accounts for about 25 % to 40% of all knee injuries. These group of patients have Postural Balance disorder that can cause pain, dysfunction in proprioception and decreased muscle strength. We aimed to study a twelve-week neurofeedback training (NFT) on pain, proprioception, strength and Postural Balance in PFPS patients.  
    Methods
    This randomized controlled trial included 32 patients with PFPS who were randomly allocated into experimental (n = 16) and control (n = 16) groups. The variables measured included pain, knee proprioception 20 and 60 degrees, muscular strength quadriceps and hip abductors and Postural Balance that were evaluated before and after intervention. The experimental group performed NFT during twelve weeks, three times per week and 30 min per session, while the control group did not receive any treatment during this time. Covariance statistical method was used for data analysis.
    Results
    The results of data analysis showed that the experimental group had significant improvement in postural balance index anterior-posterior (p<0.004), overall stability (p<0.003), knee proprioception 20 degrees (p<0.004), knee proprioception 60 degrees (p<0.004), quadriceps muscle strength (p<0.007) and pain reduction (p<0.001). However, postural balance index medial-lateral (p>0.140) and hip abductor muscle strength (p>0.164) had no improvement after twelve weeks of NFT.  
    Conclusions
    The NFT through thalamus inhibition led to reduced pain and improved sensory pathways, sensory integrity, increased attention and cognition. They also led to improved proprioception, Postural Balance, overall stability and quadriceps muscle strength. It is suggested that future studies examine the impact of long-term and short-term NFT on the variables of the present study.
    Keywords: Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome, Proprioception, Muscle strength, Postural Balance, Neurofeedback
  • Shiva Ebrahimian Dehaghani *, Mahmood Bijankhan, Fateme Arjmandpur, Hoda Mozoonei, Omid Yaghini, Mohadeseh Ebrahimian Pages 75-79
    Background

    The present pilot study aims at investigating the three features of time domain in speech in Persian-speaking children with Down syndrome.

    Methods

    In this Cross sectional study, our sample consisted of two 3-8-year-old children (2 males) with Down syndrome (4.9 years old and standard deviation of 1.52). Inclusion criteria were children with Down syndrome, aged 3-8 years old, no neurological or motor disorders, sensory disorders and psychiatric disorders. The voice sample of the children was analyzed with Praat, and the phonetic features of the voice onset time, vowel duration time and closure duration time were evaluated and descriptive statistics were reported by the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version (SPSS, Inc., Chicago IL, USA; version 16).

    Results

    we found that in /pa/, the mean of the voice onset time variable is (0.04±0.00) and in /ta/ the mean of the voice onset time variable is (0.04±0.00).

    Conclusion

    According to the results of this study, it can be concluded that the speech time domain features in Persian-speaking children with Down syndrome were similar to these features in other languages, which could be due to problems with the tone and muscular strength in these children.

    Keywords: Down syndrome, Acoustic, Voice, Child
  • Ebrahim MohammadAli Nasab Firouzjah *, Hassan Daneshmandi, AliAsghar Norasteh Pages 80-86
    Background

    Core stability is predominantly provided by the dynamic function of musculature. Although poor core stability ultimately leads to injury, a proper training can reduce injury. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of core stability training on the endurance and strength of core muscles among basketball players with trunk dysfunction.

    Methods

    The present research was a semi-experimental study. 28 basketball players with trunk dysfunction were voluntarily participated in this study, who were then divided into two groups randomly as experimental (n=14) and control (n=14) groups. At the onset of the study, core strength and endurance were measured using some field-based tests. Dynamometer was utilized for strength and the Sorensen, trunk flexion, right and left bridge, and Prone Bridge were used for endurance measurements as pre-test. Experimental group performed the exercise training in terms of the protocol, three days per week, for a 6week period. By the end of the sixth week, the subjects performed the same core tests as post-test.

    Results

    Some significant differences were observed in Sorensen (p=0.003), trunk flexion (p=0.001), prone bridge (p=0.001), right bridge (p=0.001), left bridge (p=0.001), total score of endurance (p=0.001), hip abduction strength (p=0.001), hip external rotation strength (p=0.001), trunk extension strength (p=0.001), and trunk flexion strength (p=0.001) between these two groups.

    Conclusion

    According to the results, it can be concluded that six weeks of core stability training improved core muscle strength and endurance, which are known as two components that being weak in people with trunk dysfunction. Overall, strength and conditioning coaches and basketball players with trunk dysfunction can incorporate the present study’s core training as a viable strategy to induce a significant improvement in the core suggesting a better trunk function.

    Keywords: basketball, Physical Endurance, Muscle strength
  • Foroogh Zakeri, Farzaneh Taghian * Pages 87-95
    Background
    Deafness is the most common sensory-neurological defect in human beings. This study aimed to compare the effect of 8 weeks of Total Body Resistance )TRX( and core stability training on balance and some common abnormalities among deaf adolescents.
    Methods
    This study was conducted with a two-group pretest-posttest quasi-experimental study design. The participants included in this study were 20 hearing-impaired students with a degree of deafness between 71-90 dB in Bandar Abbas city who were purposefully selected and then randomly assigned into two groups, as TRX (N=10) and core stability training (N=10). In this study, static balance, dynamic balance, kyphosis and lumbar lordosis, and forward head were measured before and after eight weeks in both groups using one-leg stance test, Y balance test, flexible ruler, and goniometer, respectively. The core stability training consisted of 10 different exercises in the core in terms of the progressing and the TRX protocols. Moreover, these exercises were performed 3 sessions per week for an 8-week period (1 day in between), and each session lasted for 40 minutes. The dependent and independent t-tests were also used to perform the intra-group and inter-group comparisons, respectively. The statistical significance level was set at p ≤ 0.05.
    Results
    The research results show that the abnormalities in the two methods of static balance with open and closed eyes as well as dynamic balance were equally evaluated based on the independent t-test and there was no significant difference between these two methods (p ≥ 0.05). Also, in the forward head, kyphosis, and lordosis variables, the performances of these two methods to reduce the abnormalities were equally evaluated. In this regard, no significant difference was observed between the performances of these two methods (p ≥ 0.05). However, there was a significant difference between the effects of TRX exercises and core stability training on dynamic balance (p ≤ 0.05).
    Conclusion
    Therefore, to reduce abnormalities and improve balance in deaf children, both methods can be considered as effective with no difference.
    Keywords: Deafness, Kyphosis, Lordosis, Resistance training
  • Mojtaba Babaei Khorzoghi * Pages 96-97
    The body is always under attack by viruses, bacteria and parasites. One of the new viruses is the emergence of Corona. Along the way, the body has always evolved its own systems to deal with all kinds of viruses and developed sophisticated mechanisms to defend against these invading agents. based on the consensus of the researchers, it can be concluded that exercising up to a maximum of 50 to 75% maximum and up to a maximum of 45 to 60 minutes per day can have positive effects on immune function. Because exercise improves cardiovascular health by maintaining and improving immune function indices to some extent (9 and 3), and suggests that in addition to maintaining and improving the immune system in response to coronary artery disease, it can be effective. It can be pointed to the proper effect of physical activity on depression, anxiety, self-esteem, general health, quality of life, lifestyle and other mental and psychological parameters. Finally, it was suggested as an effective strategy for physical activity to moderate intensity (9). It can also help maintain and improve the immune system if you work out at high intensity if resting and proper nutrition between exercise sessions (10). Following, as recommendations for staying home to prevent the onset of Coronvirusa Disease have been made available to different segments of the community, As a solution, moderate to home exercises can be done to maintain and improve physical fitness, as well as to improve immune system and mental health.
    Keywords: Physical Activity, Immune system, Viral diseases, coronavirus, COVID-19