فهرست مطالب

نگره - پیاپی 53 (بهار 1399)
  • پیاپی 53 (بهار 1399)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/02/16
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
|
  • محمود اشعاری* صفحات 5-23

    عوامل آسیب رسان در هنر های کاربردی به خصوص فرش دستباف با عنایت به نوع مواد اولیه به کاررفته در آن بیشترین آسیب را بر پیکر مطالعات تاریخی آن وارد می نماید. گستره این آسیب به حدی است که تاریخ فرش قرون نخستین ایران اسلامی را تقریبا خالی از آثار تمدنی نموده است. بازسازی تاریخ و جغرافیای فرش دستباف ایران در سده های نخستین بر اساس منابع مکتوب تاریخی از اهداف این پژوهش است. تحقیق حاضر در مبنا تحقیقی بنیادی و نظری است. همچنین برمبنای پرسش هایی که پی می گیرد، در دسته پژوهش های کیفی قرار می گیرد و از نظر روش اجرا پژوهشی تاریخی تحلیلی محسوب می شود. در این مقاله مشخص گردید که برخلاف محدودیت های زمانی و موضوعی منابع مکتوب تخصصی و منابع مکتوب مستقیم؛ منابع مکتوب غیرمستقیم توانایی استخراج اطلاعات قابل قبولی در هنر های کاربردی خواهد داشت. بر این اساس انواع واژگان رایج مربوط به فرش دستباف در منابع فوق ردگیری گردید. در منابع مورد استناد در این مقاله به لحاظ فراوانی واژگان زیلو، گلیم، قالی و مصلی نماز به ترتیب بیشترین تعداد را به خویش اختصاص می دهند. همچنین مراکز عمده تولید در فارس، طبرستان و دیلمان، خراسان بزرگ، خوزستان و آذربایجان تشخیص داده شد که از این میان خراسان، فارس، طبرستان به ترتیب بیشترین فراوانی را در حجم تولیدات داشته اند.

    کلیدواژگان: هنر های کاربردی، منابع مکتوب، فرش دستباف
  • محبوبه پهلوان نوده*، ترنم تقوی صفحات 25-37

    ظهور اندیشه های ایرانشهری و توجه به مضامین باستانی و ملی در دوره اول مکتب قاجار موجبات نمود گونه ای تصویری می شود که ریشه های آن در امتداد هویتی تاریخ ایران و روح مستتر در جوهر آریایی متون مذهبی، حماسی و اسطوره ای جستجو می شود. اندیشه ایرانشهری مکتب قاجار به عنوان گفتمانی حکومتی- ملی همراه با گفتمان اسلامی-شیعی و مدرنیته، از باز یادآوری های تصویری مدد می جوید که ریشه در مضامین قهرمانی و اسطوره ای ایران دارد.هدف از این پژوهش مطالعه گفتمانی و شمایلی دیوارنگاره های فضای عمومی ذیل اندیشه ایرانشهری و علل بازتاب این گفتمان در مضامین قهرمانی-اسطوره ای است. نوع تحقیق به لحاظ هدف، بنیادین- نظری است و با مطالعات کتابخانه ای آغاز و بر محوریت اندیشه ایرانشهری و تاریخ دوره قاجار با روش های توصیفی و تحلیلی بنا شده است. مصادیق تصویری، دیوارنگاره های فضای عمومی با محوریت شمایل های قهرمانی، بالاخص نقش رستم و شاه است و چرایی استملاک از این مضامین مورد بررسی قرارگرفته است.بررسی ها نشان می دهند ارجاعات تصویری بینامتنی در نقوش دیواری، با مفاهیم اسطوره ای و بازتاب امر قهرمانی در شخص شاه در مکان های عمومی، استمداد قدرت خواهی تصویری ممتدی است که در هر دوره از تاریخ ایران با توجه به مفهوم وحدت ملی مطرح می شود. در این میان، دیوارنگاری مکتب قاجار رسانه تبلیغی قدرتمند جهت نمود ملی گرایی است و نقش شاه به عنوان رمزی از وحدت در تنوع همه اقوام ملت به رستم به عنوان کالبدی نمادین جهت بروز معنای مثالین پادشاه فره مند و آشنا در اندیشه ایرانی واگذار می شود.

    کلیدواژگان: دیوارنگاری، مکتب قاجار، گفتمان ایرانشهری، شمایل قهرمانی، فتحعلی شاه
  • زهره مختاری*، مهرنوش شفیعی سرارودی، یوسف امینی صفحات 39-49

    تنوع رنگی و نمایش رنگین کمانی لعاب مینایی، این لعاب را جزو باشکوه ترین تزیینات سفالینه ها قرار داده است و طیف گسترده رنگ های زرد، آبی، سبز، قهوه ای، ارغوانی، سیاه که گاه همراه با طلاکاری و زرین فام است را شامل می شود.سال تولید این شیوه تزیین سفالینه ها، براساس کتیبه های موجود بر آثار سفالین، دوره زمانی اواخر قرن 6 و اوایل قرن 7 هجری قمری است. مقارن با این دوران، محمد ابن ابی البرکات جوهری نیشابوری در کتاب جواهرنامه نظامی متن ارزشمندی در فصل چهارم خود با عنوان «صفت انواع رنگ ها که بر قواریر و انواع اوانی قاشی و اصفهانی و شامی و چینی و غیر آن به کاردارند»، در مورد این تکنیک، اشارات و ترکیبات متنوعی ارایه کرده است که در بین آن ها با دو ترکیب متفاوت با نام زرد مواجه می شویم؛هدف از این تحقیق، مطالعه و مقایسه ترکیب های مواد مولد رنگ زرد در کتاب مذکور و نتایج تجربی ساخت آنها و همچنین تطبیق بصری رنگ های حاصله با رنگ های بکاررفته در سفال های مینایی این دوران است تا از این راه صحت ترکیبات مذکور را هم از طریق آزمایش و هم به واسطه تطبیق بصری با نمونه های سفال های مینایی ارایه کنیم. در این راستا سوالی مطرح می گردد که حاصل آزمایش های تجربی دو ترکیب متفاوت ارایه شده در جواهر نامه نظامی با عنوان «لون زرد»، چگونه است و چگونه در بستر سفال های مینایی شاهد آن ها هستیم؟این تحقیق به روش توصیفی- تحلیلی در بخش نظری و به روش تجربی در بخش آزمایشگاهی است. اطلاعات و داده ها به روش کتابخانه ای، مشاهده و آزمایشگاهی جمع آوری و مورد ارزیابی کیفی قرار گرفته است. نتایج آزمایشگاهی نمایانگر دو رنگ زرد متفاوت با دو ترکیب متفاوت ارایه شده در متن جواهرنامه نظامی است. روش اجرایی به روش رولعابی در محیطی اکسیداسیون مشابه لعاب مینایی دوره سلجوقیان و خوارزمشاهیان است که در دو دمای متفاوت بدست آمدند. در مقایسه بصری نمونه های حاصله با رنگ های زرد بکار رفته در نقوش سفال های مینایی مشابهت های بسیاری یافت شد.

    کلیدواژگان: لعاب، مینایی، لون زرد، جواهرنامه نظامی، سلجوقی، خوارزمشاهی
  • سیدرضا حسینی*، سحر ذکاوت صفحات 51-69
    شکار از دوران باستان تا به امروز از موضوعات موردتوجه پادشاهان، امرا و مردم عادی بوده است، چنان که حتی مراسم تشریفاتی خاصی به این موضوع اختصاص می یافته و پادشاهان افرادی را برای تربیت حیوانات و پرندگان شکاری می گمارده اند. در آثار هنری و بالاخص در نگارگری و نسخه های خطی هم تصاویری مرتبط با موضوع شکار و پرندگان شکاری مشاهده می شود. شاهنامه طهماسبی یکی از شاهکارهای نگارگری ایرانی است که در برخی نگاره های آن پرندگان شکاری تصویرنگاری شده است. هدف از پژوهش حاضر تجزیه وتحلیل تصاویر پرندگان شکاری در نگاره های شاهنامه طهماسبی و ارتباط تصاویر با متن اصلی است. سوال های این پژوهش عبارت اند از 1. ساختار تصویری و زیباشناختی پرندگان شکاری در نگاره های شاهنامه طهماسبی چگونه است؟ 2. نقش چه پرندگانی به عنوان پرندگان شکاری در نگاره های شاهنامه طهماسبی آمده است؟ 3. ارتباط میان تصاویر پرندگان شکاری و متن شاهنامه چگونه است؟ روش تحقیق پیش رو به شیوه توصیفی- تحلیلی انجام شده و داده های آن با جستجو در منابع کتابخانه ای و مشاهده آثار جمع آوری شده است. نتایج پژوهش نشان می دهد که هنرمندان مصور کار شاهنامه طهماسبی در تصویرنگاری پرندگان شکاری و موضوع تربیت این حیوانات پایبند به واقعیت موضوع زمان خود بوده اند و در نگاره ها برخی امور رایج در نگه داری پرندگان نظیر کاربرد دستکش و چشم بند و نوع گونه خاص موردتوجه بازداران برای تربیت، هیچ کدام از دید ظریف و نکته سنج نگارگران شاهنامه فروگذار نشده است. همچنین در میان تصاویر پرندگان شکاری در شاهنامه 22 تصویر از این نوع پرندگان به دست آمده که بر اساس فرهنگ های عمید و معین، 17 تصویر به گونه باشه اختصاص دارد و تصویر غالب نوع باشه در میان گونه های دیگر این احتمال را افزایش می دهد که پرنده باشه بیشترین طرفدار را در میان بازداران آن زمان داشته و یا در آن زمان این گونه بیشتر یافت می شده است. همچنین در مورد ارتباط تصویر با متن باید افزود که از 15 نگاره فقط دو مورد از نگاره ها با متن ارتباط داشته و در راستای تصویرنگاری متن انجام شده اند.
    کلیدواژگان: پرندگان شکاری، نگاره های شکارگاهی، شاهنامه طهماسبی
  • عبدالرضا چارئی*، سپیده نصرتی لیالمانی صفحات 71-83

    هنر خوشنویسی در طول تاریخ وابستگی چشمگیری به فرهنگ یک ملت داشته است. خوشنویسی یک هنر ملی محسوب می شود. خط بنایی نوعی خط کوفی زاویه دار به شمار می رود که بر اساس خانه های شطرنجی طراحی شده و از ترسیم اشکال هندسی مانند مربع، مستطیل، خطوط موازی ایجاد می گردد. این نوع خط در بناها و مساجد به خصوص دوره تیموری از جمله مسجد گوهرشاد دیده می شود. پژوهش های زیادی در رابطه با خط بنایی صورت گرفته، اما هیچ یک به طور خاص به پایه کار (گرید که آن را مسطر یا مسطره نیز می گویند) در کتیبه های مسجد گوهرشاد نپرداخته اند. این پژوهش با هدف مطالعه و بررسی دو کتیبه بنایی مسجد گوهرشاد و پایه کار موجود در آن، به طراحی حروف فارسی پرداخته است. روش تحقیق به صورت توصیفی _ تحلیلی و شیوه گردآوری آن به صورت (کتابخانه ای- میدانی) و تجزیه و تحلیل داده ها به صورت کیفی و بر اساس منطق و استدلال بوده است. در این پژوهش دو پرسش مطرح است: 1- ویژگی های اصلی خط بنایی چیست؟ 2- عامل موثر خط بنایی مسجد گوهرشاد در طراحی حروف چیست؟ بر اساس تحقیقات انجام شده که بر کتیبه های بنایی مسجد گوهرشاد و با توجه به ویژگی های آن صورت گرفت نتیجه حاکی از آن است که، خط بنایی از قابلیت هندسی و ساختار گرافیکی زیادی برخوردار است. زیرا همواره برروی یک پایه کار ترسیم می شود. قرار گرفتن بر روی پایه کار این امکان را ایجاد می کند که خط بنایی دارای اندازه محاسبه شده باشد. خط بنایی به دلیل دارا بودن ویژگی هایی از جمله قانونمند بودن، رعایت تناسبات و تعیین عواملی مانند: ارتفاع حروف، فاصله حروف از یکدیگر، در خلق آثار گرافیکی، از جمله طراحی حروف و نشانه نوشته و... نقش عمده ای دارد.

    کلیدواژگان: بنایی، مسجد گوهرشاد، پایه کار (گرید، مسطره)، طراحی حروف
  • سلیمه باباخان*، بهنام کامرانی صفحات 83-97

    معراج رسول اکرم (ص) رایج ترین مضمون دینی در حوزه نگارگری ایرانی اسلامی است و در دوره های مختلف هنری و تاریخی بارها به تصویر درآمده است. درمیان نگاره های معراج، نگاره معراج حضرت رسول(ص) منسوب به سلطان محمد از شاهکارهای این حوزه است. نظریه گشتالت در اوایل قرن بیستم ابتدا در حوزه روان شناسی مطرح شد و سپس پا به عرصه هنر گذاشت. بر اساس این نظریه ذهن انسان در فرآیند ادراک بصری تمایل به دسته بندی و سامان دهی عناصر بصری دارد به طوری که این کل سازمان یافته با تک تک عناصر به تنهایی متفاوت خواهد بود. آنچه در اصول ادراک بصری گشتالت اهمیت دارد، پی بردن به ادراک ارتباط است که موجب ترکیب معنادار می شود. مقاله پیش رو با هدف کشف کیفیت تاثیرگذاری قوانین ادراک دیداری گشتالت بر نگاره مورد بحث جهت شناسایی قابلیت های آن در ایجاد ارتباطی سودمند و نیز بررسی میزان پراگنانس برخورداری نگاره در هرکدام از اصول هفتگانه انجام شده است. به طور کلی پژوهش پیش رو در صدد یافتن پاسخی برای سوالات زیر است: کدامیک از اصول ادراک دیداری گشتالت در نگاره معراج اثر سلطان محمد قابل بررسی هستند؟ پراگنانسهر کدام از این اصول چگونه است؟ روش تحقیق در این پژوهش، توصیفی- تحلیلی و شیوه جمع آوری اطلاعات کتابخانه ای است. نتایج حاصل از پژوهش نشان داد پس از تطبیق اصول هفتگانه گشتالت با نگاره مذکور، در پنج مورد شامل اصل مشابهت، اصل مجاورت، اصل تداوم، اصل یکپارچگی یا تکمیل و اصل سرنوشت مشترک با پراگنانس قوی قابل ارزیابی است که با به کار بستن هرکدام از این اصول، فرآیند ادراک بصری شکل می گیرد. همچنین استفاده (ناآگاهانه) نگارگر از اصول گشتالت، سازماندهی بهتر اجزای تصویر و دریافت آسان تر اثر را به همراه داشته که موجب ارتباط فعالانه مخاطب در دوره های مختلف با نگاره شده است.

    کلیدواژگان: معراج، سلطان محمد، نگارگری، نظریه گشتالت
  • الهام اکبری*، سعید خودداری نایینی صفحات 99-113

    جدول آرایه ای ساده است که در نسخه های اسلامی اولیه هم دیده می شود. می توان این جداول را بر اساس نقش آنها در صفحه آرایی به دو شکل جداول کاربردی و جداول تزیینی تقسیم کرد. با توجه به اینکه این آرایه ها به صورت مستقل و با تکیه بر نمونه های متقدم موجود در نسخ اسلامی کمتر موردپژوهش قرارگرفته اند مطالعه پیش رو ضرورت یافته است. از طرفی شناخت هرچه بهتر این آرایه شناخت جنبه های دیگر هنر کتاب آرایی را هم تسهیل می کند. هدف این پژوهش شناخت این آرایه، پیشینه و سبک ها و ابزارهای مرتبط با آن بوده است. پرسش های مطرح در این زمینه عبارت بوده اند از: 1. آیا تعاریف لغوی موجود از جداول (اعم از کاربردی و یا تزیینی) در متون با توجه به نمونه های موجود از هریک از آنها در نسخه های خطی مطابقت دارد؟ 2. پیشینه جدول و جدول کشی با استناد بر متون به چه تاریخی بازمی گردد؟ 3. چه سبک هایی از جدول کشی در متون ذکرشده است؟ در مقاله پیش رو در مرحله نخست متون به روش تحلیل محتوایی موردبررسی قرارگرفته و سپس سبک های مطرح شده در متون در نسخ خطی شناسایی و معرفی شده اند و برای جمع آوری اطلاعات علاوه بر اینکه متون منثور و منظوم در بازه زمانی مدنظر موردبررسی و تحلیل قرارگرفته اند، تمامی نسخ خطی همزمان با متون نیز در کتابخانه های مجلس و ملک و دانشگاه تهران مشاهده و مورد ارزیابی قرارگرفته اند. درنتیجه این پژوهش تعاریفی دقیق تر برای هر دودسته از جداول ارایه شد، ضمن اینکه با توجه به متون مشخص گردید که پیشینه جداول کاربردی در نسخ خطی به پیش از اسلام بازمی گردد، هرچند که قدیم ترین جدول کاربردی در نسخ اسلامی موجود، متعلق به قرن چهارم قمری است و در مقابل، واژه جدول در معنای جداول تزیینی از قرون پنجم و ششم در متون بکار برده شده است و این در حالی است که از قرون اولیه جداول تزیینی در نسخ خطی (مصاحف) دیده می شوند. سبک هایی از نحوه جدول کشی همچون جدول سه تحریر و سیمین و شنگرف، نیز در متون آمده که اغلب آنها نیز در نسخ خطی تا پیش از قرن نهم شناسایی شده اند.

    کلیدواژگان: جداول کاربردی، جداول تزیینی، نسخ خطی، متون تاریخی سده چهارم تا نهم قمری
  • سیده مطهره موسوی، حسنعلی پورمند*، لیلا کریمی فرد صفحات 115-133

    این مقاله پژوهشی پیرامون تخت های ایرانی در دوره باستان از سلسله ایلامیان تا پایان سلسله ساسانیان و آغاز اسلام در ایران است. هدف پژوهش شناسایی و معرفی گونه های متفاوت تخت های ایرانی و بیان چگونگی آن ها در این دوره است. پژوهش درصدد پاسخ گویی به سوال های ذیل است: 1. شکل های مورد استفاده در طراحی تخت های ایرانی در دوره باستان کدامند؟ 2. مفاهیم مرتبط با نقوش تخت های ایرانی در دوره باستان چیست؟ پژوهش حاضر از لحاظ روش پژوهشی توصیفی- تحلیلی و مبتنی بر آیکونوگرافی است. شیوه گرد آوری داده ها کتابخانه ای و میدانی است. نتیجه حاصله چنین بود که مبلمان ایرانی در دوره باستان، در عین تفاوت های بسیار، مسیری ممتد را در روند طراحی طی کرده است. در هر دوره شاهد به کارگیری نقش مایه های حیوانات اساطیری، اشکال هندسی و ساده در طراحی مبلمان هستیم که هر یک متناسب با باورهای مذهبی، کاربرد و درجه اجتماعی افراد، مورد استفاده قرار می گرفته است. به این ترتیب خدایگان، شاهان و ساتراپ ها در مراسم آیینی و رسمی از مبلمان با طراحی پیچیده تر و پرکارتر به کار می بردند و در ضیافت ها و مراسم غیر رسمی، مبلمان ساده تر توسط آن ها و نیز مردم عادی مورد استفاده قرار می گرفت.

    کلیدواژگان: تخت، چهارپایه، صندلی، ایران باستان
|
  • Mahmoud Ashari * Pages 5-23

    Applied arts are a collection of art works and products, provided and produced by man. In this type of human-centered production, taste, style and creativity are very efficient and reflect the tradition and culture of the antecedents that can be well observed by preserving the good deeds of the past. Historical written sources are a collection of cultural, social, historical, religious information of antecedents that can be explored in various events, sciences and past information. The flourishing of national and applied arts must be one of the major goals of the developed and the developing countries. Since this can provide special aid in identifying and recognizing lands and nations. In addition, the prosperity of lands and nations will lead to a variety of economic activities, employment, creation of tourist attractions, and utilization of sciences and experiences of nations. Therefore, retrieving and recognizing the applied arts of the past require considerable study and research. Applied arts of Iran are the subject of the study due to the declining production of related products, and its vague historical outlook. One of the major hurdles in clarifying this vagueness is the lack of compiled and written history of the evolution of such works, and destruction of many of the works in time. Despite the fact that Iranians have proven their writing skills in many other sciences, in the field of applied arts, writing is one of the few topics that has seldom been taken into consideration. On the other hand, due to the limited amount of surviving works and their state of being deteriorated, problems related to the historical sources in contemporary time remain all the same. Therefore, a historical researcher must inevitably continue the historical reconstruction of his research with parallel and complementary tools and methods. One of the most important tools used in contemporary research is the historical written sources, which has not been given any importance. Therefore, it is possible to make clear some of the specialized information on the Iranian applied arts from a variety of texts left from past historical sources. In Iranian applied arts, especially handmade carpets, with regard to the type of raw materials used in them, the most serious damage has been occurred to historical research. And on the same basis, by analyzing the content of the historical texts, it is possible to make a historical identification of the handmade carpets in the above-mentioned century. The aim of this study is to reconstruct the history and geography of handmade carpets of Iran in the first six centuries based on the sources of written history. The present research is based on fundamental and theoretical research. Also based on the questions it pursues, it falls into the category of qualitative research and uses a historical-analytical research method. The main purpose of this research is to become familiar with the latent abilities of written sources in the reconstruction of the history and geography of handmade carpets in the geographical realm of the first century until the end of the sixth century Hegira. This research seeks to answer the following questions:1. How can written sources be used to reconstruct the history and geography of handmade carpets? 2. According to the written sources, what were the characteristics of the handmade carpets of Iran in the first five centuries of the Hegira? In this paper, it has been shown that regarding the limitations of specialized and direct written sources in terms of time and subject, reliable information on the applied arts can be extracted from indirect written sources as well. The historical findings reveal a systematic link between the written sources and the extraction of historical information from the applied arts. In addition, it also shows that history in applied arts, and especially handmade carpets, has serious flaws which bring forth the need for presentation of an efficient definition and explanation. The innovation of the present study, apart from historical findings, refers to the ability to provide quantitative and qualitative content analysis in extracting information about the applied arts. The results of this study show that according to the written sources, the vocabulary of handmade carpets in Iran during the first six centuries of the Hegira differed qualitatively and quantitatively from the amount of keywords used in contemporary times. Of course, vocabulary such as rug, lay out, and carpet for prayers are examples based on this assumption and were among the common traditional words in the seventh and the eighth centuries. On the other hand, the geographical extent of the rugs of Iran during the first centuries was very vast, in a way that it encompassed most of the famous states and affiliated cities; namely Fars, Tabarestan and Dilman states, Great Khorasan, Khuzestan, and Azerbaijan that played a major role in the geographical distribution of the Iranian carpets during the mentioned centuries.

    Keywords: Applied Arts, Written Sources, Handmade Carpets
  • Mahboobeh Pahlavan *, Tarannom Taghavi Pages 25-37

    The emergence of Iranshahri ideas and attention to ancient and national themes in the first period of the Qajar School, give rise to an image which roots are traced back to the identity of Iranian history and the aura behind the Aryan essence of Iranian religious, epic and mythological texts. Qajar School of thought, as a state-national discourse, along with two other Islamic-Shia discourses and modernity, draws on visual reminders rooted in Iranian heroic and mythical themes; for every work of art or essentially any kind of cultural object is comprehensible in relation to the institutional structure of the society in which it is produced and received, based on its position and function, and certainly within it. Therefore, the Qajar murals and their relation to the ​​Iranshahri idea should be explored in the context of society and its government in particular. The murals of the Qajar School, as a state and national media, reflect the dominant thought and discourse of this period. The use of visual themes and objects with direct and indirect references to ancient history reflects a consistent paradigm that adapts to the epistemic system of Iranian art in particular epochs and emerges in the propaganda arena of society. Qajar masonry with developmental growth during Fath-Ali Shah, builds on several themes and visual subjects. There are a variety of subjects ranging from decorative, rhythmic, martial and religious to natural and artificial landscapes, archeology, historiography, masonry and even trilogy.But the purpose of this research is to study the visual form of themes that, for direct political and cultural validity and legitimacy of the government, directly and indirectly refer to the concept of Iranshahri, prince and archeology, and the heroic and national patterns that in Iranian thought are symbols of Shahnameh. The wall space was used as a propaganda ground for political discourse of the period. To this end, the main research questions are as follows: why the Iranian thought as a Qajar-centered idea in public spaces emerged, and why and how this idea appeared in murals with heroic themes as a form of discourse, and how it has changed following the elimination of this thought. In the meantime, the themes of heroism and ancient heroism are studied with Shahnameh images as a case study and statistical population, since Ferdowsi as the force behind survival and renewal of Iranian nationality and the national unity of the Iranians recounts Iranian pre-Islamic stories and tales in Shahnameh, in which Rostam’s central heroism as the legendary hero who links the court of kings with popular culture, creates the interface between the private and inner courtyards of the palace on one hand and the public square of the city on the other hand. Studies show that Iranshahri discourse as a continuous conceptual thought in Iranian history is not born again, but recalled. This discourse, in the critical moments of Iranian history that needed the epistemic system of nationalism, is fueled by two spectrums of power for legitimacy and survival, and society through the idea of ​​divinity and the belief in a good substitute force that reflects in visual expression. It manifests itself. Qajar-era discourse along with two traditional and modern discourses of intellectual development are preceded by visual developments, but the Qajar-era discourse of Fath-Ali shah which can be considered as continuation of the Khosravani tradition, the epistemic system of ancient Iranian thought, and the spirit of Aryan ideology, inspired by the Shahnameh of the community, is embedded in a long-lived tradition that is very different from the second period of Naser al-Din Shah's reign. For this reason, Fath-Ali Shah is considered to be a traditional legatee who has been familiar with the political ideas of the state from the previous era on which he emphasized. One of the manifestations of Iranshahri thought in Ferdowsi's Shahnameh and the legendary hero's thought is to continue in the visual tradition of Iran with two types of murals and book-making. Fath-Ali Shah's role as a legendary hero in the face of evil in the Qajar mural tradition, in addition to a propaganda tool, is a reminder of an old but continuing tradition that, considering the advent of modern ideas and the Eastern-Western epistemic system, is different from the past and modern. It is depicted with a continuing tradition. In the first period of the Qajar dynasty, Rostam, as a mythical prince in the urban context, and in particular the gates and entrances, bears the burden of the king's sense of unity in the diversity of all ethnic groups, and in the pursuit of this unity he constantly fights against enemies. Yet Rostam's icon in the second period is not an ideal king, but a powerful hero who is bred with a powerful arm to fight the wars and ultimately defeat the enemies.

    Keywords: mural, Qajar School, Iranshahri Discourse, Championship Icon, Fath- Ali Shah
  • Zohreh Mokhtari *, Mehrnoosh Shafie Sararodi, Yosef Amini Pages 39-49

    Color variation and rainbow-like look in Mina`i glaze have made this glaze one of the most attractive ornaments. The glaze includes a wide range of yellow, blue, green, brown, purple, black, white and red hues which is occasionally accompanied with gilding and Zarrin fam. The Minaʹi glaze, as art and science, has always historically and technically been of interest to scholars and artists. This art is based on the science of alchemy. In the field of pottery science, known as alchemy in the past, there are limited resources. In this area, there are two reliable sources in Persian language with titles “Arayes al-Jawahir and Nafayes al-Tayeb” by Abolqasem Kashani and “Javaher Name Nezami” by Mohammad ibn Abi al-Barakat Johari Neyshaburi. In the "Arayes al-Jawahir and Nafayes al-Tayeb" book, there are references to Minaʹi glazes and according to Abolqasem Kashani, its other names are “seven colors” and “two firing glaze”. Another book is Javaher Name Nazami which was written in 592 AH, and probably is the oldest and the closest Persian source to the golden age of Iranian pottery, including years of pottery and Mina’i glaze production.The production year of this ornamental style of pottery, according to the existing inscriptions on ceramic works, dates back to the late sixth century and the early seventh century. Simultaneous with the era, Mohammad Neishaburi has presented a precious text in the fourth chapter of his book titled “the variety of colors using on glassware and ewer types Qashy, Isfahani, Shamy and Chinese and otherwise”. He has written on various combinations and explanations about this technique which they used in pottery and glassware in the past. The colors include golden, yellow, red, black, silver, blue, green and white as well as other colors. Among the compositions, two types of yellow with the title “Lune zard” are observed which appear to be different hues of yellow. The following question is raised that what is the result of the empirical experiments of the two different combinations presented in Javaher Name Nezami with the title “lune zard”, and how are they manifested on Minaʹi pottery? The purpose of this research is to study and compare the yellow color compounds in this book and the experimental results of their manufacture as well as the visual comparison of the colors obtained with the colors used in the pottery of this era in order to verify the accuracy of these compounds, both through testing and through visual matching to samples of Mina`i pottery.In the present research, two different combinations of yellow were selected from the Javaher Name Nezami book and analyzed with the aim of matching them. In the research process, the compounds presented in the text of Javaher Name Nezami book were equated with modern materials and vocabulary after studying the structure. Based on the data and findings from validated books, the existing compounds were tested experimentally and in vitro. The two compounds were combined with non-industrial vinegar after extensive abrasion and applied with a brush on a body covered with alkali-boron glaze .Then, they were heated at four temperatures in the oxidation kiln: 550, 500, 580 and 630 ° C (It should be noted that all tests are the same in terms of type of ingredients, type of kiln and method of manufacture). This study is a combinational research; part of its theoretical foundations are based on a descriptive method, and in empirical parts expresses information about the accuracy of the yellow color compounds by using experimental method and visual comparison of obtained yellow hues with samples of Minaʹi pottery with a descriptive-analytical method. The primary data in descriptive parts of research were collected through library research, with emphasis on the Javaher Name Nezami book and ancient texts. Pictures of Mina`i pottery are collected from domestic and foreign museums, and information in the experimental part of the research through observation. In the end, this research has been evaluated qualitatively. The results of the experiments show two different yellow hues in two different combinations in military jewelry; yellow- olive and yellow- orange. The colors were obtained at temperatures of 580 and 630 ° C in oxidation environment using overglaze method similar to Mina’i glaze of the Seljuks and the Khwarazmian. Comparing the colors obtained from the experiments and samples of the Minaʹi pottery from the 6th and the 7th centuries AH, suggests similarities, indicating that the information in the book is correct, and with correct factors and materials including the precise selection and replacement of materials with modern ones, observing the proportions presented in the text, the choice of the appropriate base for the glaze, providing the environment and the conditions of oxidation as well as the appropriate temperature in accordance with this ancient text, different color combinations similar to the Minaʹi pottery of the 6th and the 7th centuries are produced.

    Keywords: Glaze, Mina’i, Yellow Color, Javaher Name of Nezami, Saljuk, Khwarazmian
  • Seyed Reza Hoseini *, Sahar Zekavat Pages 51-69
    From ancient times, up to the present, hunting attracted the attention of kings. Some mythological books attribute it to the Pishdadian dynasty (about 6700 years ago). Hunting and hunting ground have been of great importance in the Iranian tradition;to the extent that characters such as the Sasanian Anoushiravan, Bahram Gur, Rostam, Afrasiyab, Alexander, KhosrowParviz are famous for their skill in hunting, which adds to the grandeur as well as royal and agonistic power of these characters. In addition, even specialized books on the topic of breeding birds of prey were written under the title «Bāznāmeh (Falconry book)». For example, the oldest of these ancient books are the Bahram ibn Shahpur,s Bāznāmeh, Jamasb,s Bāznāmeh, Noushirawani,s Bāznāmeh and the king of pars Parviz,s Bāznāmeh. After Islam reached Iran, while the Arabs were skilled hunters themselves, they learned how to use raptors for hunting from Iranians. Thus, in the Islamic era in Iran, hunting had a significant boom and «kings and caliphs reminded of the Sassanian golden age» were interested in hunting by means of falcons and hawks and spent much time for hunting. There are also images related to hunting and raptors in artworks, particularly in painting and manuscripts. Among these, Tahmasebi Shahnameh is one of the costly works of Iranian Safavid Persian painting, with images of hunting and hunting ground and pictures of birds of prey. The purpose and goal of this study is to analyze the images of raptors in TahmasebiShahnameh and to examine the relationship between the images and the original text. Based on this, the research seeks to answer the following questions: 1. How is the pictorial structure and aesthetics of the birds of prey in images of Tahmasebi Shahnameh? 2.Which birds appear as birds of prey in the images of Tahmasebi Shahnameh? 3. What is the connection between the images of the raptors and the text of Shahnameh? The recent study is carried out in a descriptive-analytical manner, and its data and information is gathered from library sources and observing the works. The referenced version of Tahmasebi Shahnameh, which has been compiled and published by the Iranian Academy of the Arts, includes 174 images from the 258 works of the original version. Also, to complete the statistical population of the present study, the collection of the Metropolitan Museum’s paintings has been studied. The results of the study indicate that in this Shahnameh, there are 22 images of raptors. Of these, and based on Amid and Mo,in dictionaries, 17 images depict birds in the hands of a falconer and in all the images falconer wears gloves. Only in pictures (7-1) and (13-1) there is no portrayal of a falconer, and the bird is represented next to the king. This companionship of birds and kings somehow refers to the important position of the birds of prey to the kings. In the picture (14-1), the image of the bird of prey is drawn up in the upper left side of the Kay Qobád throne which seems to emphasize the king,s glory and majesty of kingdom. In the sample (2-15) two birds are depicted in a dedicated cage, though their species is not very recognizable. Also, in images (2-2) and (11-2) birds of prey are shown with a hood block. This point, as well as the image of the falconer,s gloves, refers to the artist,s adherence to the actual painting of the type and goal of breeding birds. Regarding the typology of the birds of prey, it can be said that there are 17 depictions of birdsin 15 images with a curved-down beak, a body and feathers of gray and white chest that suggest the sparrow hawk species. In addition to the above-mentioned image, the image (13-1) represents a type of sparrow hawk, but the body color of this example is darker than other images. Also, the images (1-3) and (15-1) both depict feathers, and white and smoky bodies similar to the features of Shahbaz bird. The last case has a brown body and darker feathers which are observed in hawks and falcons as well as sparrow hawks, thus it may not be identified with certainty. It should be pointed out that in terms of typology of the birds of prey; the illustrator artist adheres to the reality of his time. In general, the images of the Tahmasebi Shahnameh are valid historical documents that express the cultural and social characteristics and reality of hunting of the Safavid kings. In the case of the association of images with the lyric text in the images, it can be noted that out of 15 images only 2 images explicitly addressed the subject of hunting. The purpose of other images is not to portray the subject of hunting. The depiction of hunting and birds of prey suggests the ceremonial customs and courtly ceremonies of that time.
    Keywords: Birds of Prey, Hunting Ground Paintings, Tahmasebi Shahnameh
  • Abdolreza Chareie *, Sepideh Nosratilialemani Pages 71-83

    Writing system has been evolved during several centuries and through several stages, each stage requiring decades and hundreds of years. The most complete level of a writing system is the alphabetic writing system. Calligraphy has historically been dependent on the culture of a nation. Calligraphy is considered as a national art; therefore, it has been affected by turning points. One of these major developments is the advent of Islam and its spread to various regions. The Kufic script is the oldest Islamic writing system. The most common type of the Kufic script is the brick script, called the Banna’i or the masonry Kufic script. The masonry script is considered as a kind of angular Kufic script which is designed on the basis of checkered squares and is created from geometric shapes such as squares, rectangles, parallel and crossover lines. The masonry script is one of these items. This type of Kufic script is seen in ancient buildings and mosques, especially those belonging to the Timurid period, including the Goharshad Mosque. Many studies have been conducted on masonry script, but none have specifically addressed the work basis of this script and in particular the inscriptions of the Goharshad Mosque. Banna’i is a kind of script which has a surface; it is not distant, and is often used in buildings. The bases on which Banna’i is used often include tiles, inscriptions and buildings in general. Besides various scripts such as thuluth, decorative kufic, Naskh and etc., Banna’i script is used to decorate various buildings. In Banna’i script, the letters are arranged within different hypothetical frames and boxes, such as square, rectangular, circle, rhombus, and polygon. Banna’i script may simply be compared to the seat of the field in a direct and horizontal shape. In others, the seat of the field is not always straightforward or direct, but the letters can rotate around a hypothetical frame, or in some cases combinations of a word can be written with straight seats and other combinations in a portrait state; in a way that create a 90 degrees angle with the seat of the field line. So, in Banna’i script, plenty of the used seats and even the words are mounted on each other. The use of word repetition and spin is another feature of Banna’i script inscriptions. Symmetry and mirroring in Banna’i are among the most important principles. Asma al-Husna (God’s best names) and Imams’ names have been repeatedly used with the similar rhythm and symmetrical movements in Banna’i script. One of the most important features of Banna’i script is the importance of positive and negative spaces. In Banna’i inscriptions, the negative space is as important as the positive one; in some ways, the negative space between the inscriptions is also read. The purpose of this research was to study and examine two masonry Kufic scripts of the Mosque of Goharshad and its work basis in designing Persian letters. Grid is a regular network with foundational capability. Grid is known in Persian as work basis, model and frame. Grid is regarded as the foundation and basis of today’s graphic design. In fact, grid is a network-like system and device; it creates a rule-based and geometric system with a series of horizontal, vertical, and diagonal lines that appear in parallel on a single page and render creation process of the work structured. The design of letters is closely related to the recognition of geometry of the letters. In designing letters, it is more than necessary to know the features of the Persian writing system. To understand these features, one should study the shape and geometry of each letter and compare it with other items. In this regard, it is important to know the types of connections of Persian letters. The research method is descriptive-analytical, drawing on library and field research, and the data were analyzed qualitatively based on logic and reasoning. Here there are two questions: 1. What are the main features of the Kufic script?  2. What is the effective factor of Kufic script of the Goharshad mosque in designing contemporary letters? Based on the research on Banna'i inscriptions of Goharshad mosque and according to their features, the result implied that the Kufic Banna'i script has a great geometric capability and a substantial graphic structure since it is always depicted on a grid. Being set up on the grid and the plaid network allows the Banna'i script to have a calculated size. Banna'i script has a major role in creating graphic works such as designing the letters and signs which is due to having features such as regularity and proportionality, as well as assigning some factors such as height of the letters, the space between the letters and etc.

    Keywords: Banna’i Kufic, GoharShad Mosque, Grid, Fontography
  • Salimeh Babakhan *, Behnam Kamrani Pages 83-97

    The Miraj (Night journey) of the Prophet of Islam (PBUH) is one of the subjects depicted by various painters in various historical-cultural periods, and it can be said that the most popular religious themes in the field of Islamic painting are always appropriate contexts for creativity and innovation of painters. The present study was conducted using descriptive-analytical method and qualitative approach, and studied the story of the Miraj of the Prophet from Khamseh Shah Tahmasebi, the artwork of Sultan Mohammad, based on the principles of visual perception of Gestalt. Research data is also collected using library methods. What is important in Gestalt's visual principles is to understand the perception of communication that results in a meaningful combination. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to explore the effect of Gestalt visual perceptual rules on painting in order to identify its capabilities in creating useful communication. Miraj, as one of the topics that has a special place in Islamic culture, has been repeatedly portrayed by various painters, among which the work of Sultan Mohammad has been very popular. On the other hand, Gestalt theory of visual perception is a means to understand the perception of communication that results in a meaningful combination. Therefore, the main purpose of choosing this theory is to discover the extent and quality of influence that the principles of the Gestalt theory of visual perception have on the mentioned image to identify its potentials to result in a functional and successful communication. In fact, we can say that the present research seeks to read the pictures based on the same principles and tries to reconcile the scientific and credible theory with the brilliant example of Khamseh Shah Tahmasebi, and to explore the effect of these principles on painting. After description and visual analysis of the image and the classification of the elements in the image as the mind of the viewer demands, the existence, absence, and magnitude of the pragnanz of the seven principles of Gestalt's visual perception in painting are examined. Each item is explored individually in a graphic manner and visualized. In general, this research attempts to answer the following questions: Which of the principles of Gestalt's visual perception can be verified in Miraj of Sultan Mohammad? What is the pragnanz of each of these principles? Gestalt theory was first developed in the early twentieth century in the field of psychology and in reaction to the theory of structuralism. Some researchers believed that in perception and behavior; organized whole; these components are prior to others. Gestalt’s principles show their key role when visual information grows; because the human mind is interested in categorizing. The classification of visual elements is an activity that the human mind performs subconsciously from childhood. This feature is also widely used in the training process. Art theorists expanded and expanded the principles of Gestalt, and most notably in the analysis of works of art: The principle of similarity, the principle of proximity, the principle of continuity, the principle of integration or completion, the relations of form and background, the principle of the common destiny and the principle of superficiality. All these principles are under the influence of the principle of pragnanz, which forms the core of the Gestalt conceptual theory. Pragnanz or perfectionism is our perception of a good and strong Gestalt or representation, so that under conditions of domination, it is effectively distinguished from existing and weaker Gestalt or existing representations. According to what has been studied, it can be said that the principles of the Gestalt theory of visual perception play a very significant role in improving the process of reading the work of art. Reading this image, based on one of the most scientific and most systematic principles of visual perception and methodology of art, shows that the eyes and mind of the audience to understand the complexity and components and elements of a dense and tremendous effect use the seven principles of Gestalt, the organization and classification of the best, which will lead to an easier and more accurately understood communication. The result of analyzing the principles of Gestalt on the overall image of the Miraj showed that the effectiveness of each of the laws was not the same and left different Pragnanz, hence the emphasis on a single criterion alone is not a valid criterion. Therefore, in the present painting, the principle of similarity, Gestalt of the dimensions and similarity of the shape, the principle of proximity of the edge and the proximity of contact, the principle of continuity and the principle of completeness and integrity of the strong pragnanz are and can be appraised. Also, the principle of adjacency can be overlapping with the adjacency of integration, except in weak pragnanz.

    Keywords: Miraj, Persian painting, Sultan Mohammad, Gestalt theory
  • Elham Akbari *, Saeid Khoddari Naeeni Pages 99-113

    Islamic books have different artistic aspects. Rulings are among the most common decorations in Persian manuscripts during the 4th- 9th centuries (10th – 15th AD). Rulings are primarily red lines which had surrounded the texts or illustrations. This kind of simple and initial decorative efforts in Islamic manuscripts can be divided to functional and decorative ones. It means that some of the first rulings were just those which have had a function in the text and are called here as functional rulings. These types of rulings were used in scientific manuscripts such as mathematical texts to arrange   numbers or letters. The second type of rulings used to decorate around the text of other decorations. The term “Djadval” itself has many meanings throughout the history, and up to now, we do not have a clear definition of the word ruling (Djadval) as well as any investigation for the possible origins of this art. Despite its importance in the Persian art of book, there is no study on rulings which specifically analyzes the evolution and the role of this decorative element. This paper will focus on Persian historical texts to identify this art. Persian prose and poetry texts convey some clues to clarify the historical development of this art. The authors have studied many early Islamic manuscripts (from the 4th to the 9th century Hegira) to find the rulings which might be compared to those mentioned in historical texts. The Mushafs (Qurans) are among the most important sources to refer to, since the first illuminations appeared in these manuscripts and rulings are commonly classified under Illumination art. The first manuscripts in which rulings encompassed the texts belong to the 6th century AH (12th century AD). Also some astrological texts have tables (Zayjeh) which comprise rulings. We tried to propose a more clear definition for the word “ruling” which involve different forms and styles of this art. The authors studied all the manuscripts, which were dated before the 15th century, in some Iranian libraries to trace this type of rulings. In addition, the historical texts also helped us to clarify the literal meaning of the Djadvals. In many cases Djadvals are drawn not only in square or rectangular forms, but also in hexagonal or even polygonal and circular forms, all of which are called Djadvals in the texts of the same period; a term that is used in an astrological text in the 615 AH (Kuwait, Dar al-Athar, Inv. No.LNS 270 ms,) in which the authors have called polygonal shapes rulings. Therefore functional rulings can be described as those rulings which are drawn in different forms and are divided by cross lines. They are filled by abbreviated scientific facts which may be Arabic alphabets or numbers.   Using decorative rulings in a manuscript layout will result in a cohesive and integrated expression in the look of the book. According to the studied historical evidences, decorative rulings, which are drawn by rulers or compasses, can be described as the lines which have embraced texts or patterns and could be vertical, horizontal, diagonal and curved. Zij, which are mentioned in pre-Islamic texts, are astronomical tables and Islamic texts that showed such tables were drawn by rulings. Ibn al-Nadim (10th century) has addressed such Zijs. Also Tabary speaks about the zij of Kharazmshah. The earliest remaining Islamic manuscript which has red rulings is a collection of mathematical works, written in Shiraz. These drawings are called rulings in the same text. Gradually, well proportioned pages appeared in masterpieces which were produced for rulers, and rulings became a simple but important and laborious art in the Persian art of the book. The first Persian poem which mentions the rulings is a poem by Amir Muizzi (12th and 13th centuries). Based on a poem by Abd al-Rafie al-Hiravi, which is quoted by Awfi’s Lubab al-Albab, rulings may be considered as decorative types and artistic works. Drawing rulings in early Islamic art of the book was not an independent work of art, and it was considered as a branch of illumination and would be done by the scribe him/herself or the illuminator. By the beginning of the 9th century, in the Timurid period for the first time an artist is considered as ruling-designer. This document belongs to Baysunghr; the famous Timurid prince. Rulings are gradually drawn more beautifully and delicately, and with more colored lines (gold, lapis lazuli, silver, orange or even purple). In this paper evidences show that the art of ruling has pre-Islamic origins. Rulings and tables are called forms (Shekl) or shapes (Surat). First evidences are found in medieval prose texts of the 11th-12th centuries. Ruling pen, compasses and ruling sticks, as tools that artists used, and some styles such as golden, silver, double and triple-outlined rulings are introduced.

    Keywords: Functional Rulings, Decorative Rulings, Manuscripts, Historical Text of the 4th - 9th Centuries AH
  • Seyedeh Motahareh Mousavi, HassanAli Pourmand *, Leila Karimi Fard Pages 115-133

    In Iran, The beginning of the construction of thrones, stools and similar devices coincided with the beginning of urbanization in the sixth millennium BC. Pottery stool belonging to the second half of the 6th millennium BC, which was found in the excavations by Erich Schmidt in the Cheshmeh Ali (Shahr-e-Rey), from 1934 to 1936, is the oldest stool in the Middle East region and is a testimony to the long history of this art among the Iranians. Despite the ancient background of this art in Iran, little attention has been paid to Iranian furniture. This article is a research about Iranian furniture in the ancient period from Elamite dynasty to the end of the Sassanid dynasty and the beginning of Islamic era in Iran. The goals of research are recognition and presentation of different kinds of Iranian furniture as well as expressing how they were in this period. The research attempts to answer the following questions: What are the shapes used in Iranian furniture design in ancient times? What are the related concepts of Iranian furniture in ancient times? In order to answer the questions and reach the goals, while the writers investigated the remaining documents regarding Iranian furniture in the ancient period (including the Elamite, Achaemenid, Parthian and Sassanid periods), they tried to introduce, analyze and express the physical characteristics, symbols and concepts associated with them in this period. The research is a developing study and is qualitative and heuristic in nature. Data collection was done through library research as well as extensive field research. The statistical population includes the remains of Iranian ancient furniture from the emergence of the Elamite civilization (from the fourth millennium BC) to the extinction of the Sasanians (in the seventh century BC). The result was that the Iranian furniture during the ancient times, despite the many differences, has undergone a continuous way in terms of the design process. It was observed that a large part of Iranian furniture in ancient times was designed with mythological animals, as if the oldest kind of throne in Iran was a throne in the form of a snake. The ancient Elamites, inspired by the mythological and religious animals such as the head of the snake, created the furniture in the form of these animals. Gradually, the use of mythological animals' forms was replaced by the decorative incorporation of mythological animals' parts, such as the use of lion toes in the four legs of a spinner woman's stool in Neo-Elamite period. The Achaemenids continued the Elamite way and used the motifs of the mythological animals such as the head of the lion, in a way that lion toes were used in many examples of Achaemenid furniture. Since the lion is considered as the symbol of power and might in this era, it is the most commonly employed animal motif in the design of the furniture. In the Parthian era, the presence of mythological animals is dimmed, but it is observed that the whole body of the mythological animal forms the base of the furniture. This style was also used in the Sassanid era. Such furniture was often used by the gods, kings and satraps in religious and official ceremonies. The gods and kings used the furniture which was based on the religious and governmental beliefs of the people. For example, in the Elamite civilization, kings and gods used the furniture in the form of snake in religious and official ceremonies since the reverence of the snake was among the most important religious beliefs in Elam. The lion as the most important element of government during the Achaemenid times, or the horse during the Sassanid period were used in the design of the kings' furniture. Along with the use of furniture with the motifs of mythological animals, the geometric and simple furniture were also used in the banquets and informal ceremonies. In this way, in general, it can be said that in each period, we observe application of motifs of mythological animals, geometry & simple shapes in furniture design which everyone has been using in accordance with religious & aesthetic principals, social function & status of individuals. In this way, the gods, kings and satraps used sophisticated and delicately wrought furniture in religious and official ceremonies. In the banquets and informal ceremonies, simple furniture was used by them or the common people.

    Keywords: Furniture, Throne, Stool, chair, Ancient Iran