فهرست مطالب

  • سال دوازدهم شماره 45 (پاییز 1399)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/07/30
  • تعداد عناوین: 13
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  • محسن نظری صفحات 520-522
  • سمانه رحیمیان*، مهدی شامی زنجانی، امیر مانیان، محمدرحیم اسفیدانی صفحات 523-547
    هدف

    در عصر کنونی، تجربه مشتری مفهومی است که عملکرد سازمان ها را به خوبی نمایان می کند. خلق تجربه جذاب برای مشتریان، سازمان را از رقبای خود ممتاز کرده و در به دست آوردن مشتریان وفادار، حایز اهمیت است. سازمان ها، باید بر مدیریت تجربه مشتری تمرکز کنند. این موضوع، اهمیت طراحی و مدیریت تجربه مشتری را در صنایع مختلف، به خصوص صنایع مشتری محور، نظیر هتلداری، نمایان می کند. هدف این پژوهش، ارایه چارچوبی برای تبیین مراحل مدیریت تجربه مشتری در صنعت هتلداری است.

    روش

    دیدگاه های پراکنده در خصوص مراحل مدیریت تجربه مشتری در صنعت هتلداری و نیاز به تبیین دقیق تر آن، در این پژوهش، از روش مرور سیستماتیک مبانی نظری استفاده شده است. بدین منظور با مرور سیستماتیک مبانی نظری، 38 پژوهش علمی و حرفه ای این حوزه بررسی شده است.

    یافته ها

    مرور سیستماتیک مبانی نظری، در نهایت به خلق چارچوبی با چهار مرحله انجامید و گام های لازم برای هر مرحله نیز شناسایی شد. چهار مرحله مدیریت تجربه مشتری، شامل شناسایی مشتریان، طراحی تجربه، اجرای تجربه و پایش تجربه است که در بستر عوامل سازمانی فرهنگ، ساختار، رهبری، منابع انسانی و فناوری انجام می گیرند.

    نتیجه‎گیری

    فهم تجربه مشتری و اطمینان از اینکه تجربه‎ها در تمام نقاط تعامل مشتری با سازمان به صورت اثربخش مدیریت می شود، برای سازمانی که می خواهد رهبری بازار را بر عهده داشته باشد، هدفی کلیدی است. مدیریت تجربه مشتری در صنایع خدماتی و مشتری محور، مانند هتلداری، اهمیت ویژه ای دارد. چارچوب پیشنهادی این پژوهش، دارندگان هتل در مدیریت تجربه مشتریان، یاری می‎کند.

    کلیدواژگان: تجربه مشتری، مدیریت تجربه مشتری، صنعت هتلداری
  • ساناز رمضانی، مهدی کیامهر* صفحات 548-572
    هدف

    هدف این پژوهش شناسایی عوامل اثرگذار بر تمایل مشتریان به بازگشت به فروشگاه های آنلاین است و می کوشد که نشان دهد نیازهای بنیادین روان شناختی چگونه می تواند به طور مستقیم یا از طریق تاثیر بر متغیرهای مدل پذیرش فناوری، تمایل مشتریان به بازگشت به وب‎سایت را تقویت کند.

    روش

    چارچوب مفهومی این مقاله، از یکپارچه کردن عوامل انگیزشی تیوری خودتعیین گری و مدل پذیرش فناوری شکل گرفته است. این پژوهش، بر اساس الگوی پیاز پژوهش کمی بوده و از استراتژی پیمایش بهره برده است. ابزار جمع آوری اطلاعات این پژوهش پرسش نامه ای بود که سوال های مندرج در آن برای سنجش متغیرها، از چند پرسش نامه که در پژوهش های پیشین به تایید رسیده بود، استخراج شد. در این پژوهش، اسنپ فود به عنوان نمونه انتخاب شد و 425 نفر که به صورت رندوم از بانک اطلاعاتی کاربران این فروشگاه انتخاب شده بودند، پرسش نامه را پر کردند. برای تحلیل داده ها نیز از نرم افزار لیزرل کمک گرفته شد.

    یافته ها

    بر اساس تحلیل داده ها، بهبود حضور اجتماعی برداشت شده توسط کاربران می تواند بر ارضای نیازهای بنیادین و در نتیجه تقویت تمایل به بازگشت اثرگذار باشد. به علاوه، ارضای نیاز به شایستگی و بهبود برداشت کاربران از آسان بودن و مفید بودن بر تمایل به بازگشت، قوی ترین تاثیر را دارند.

    نتیجه گیری

    یافته ها نشان می دهد که نظریه خودتعیین گری، در توصیف ویژگی های فروشگاه آنلاینی بسیار تاثیر می گذارد که تمایل کاربر را به بازگشت به فروشگاه افزایش می دهد. ارایه دهندگان این گونه خدمات، می توانند از طریق برقراری ارتباطی گرم و انسانی با کاربران، حس حضور اجتماعی را در آنها تقویت کنند و با فراهم کردن اطلاعات کافی و مناسب و همچنین، یاری رساندن مشتری هنگام ارزیابی و ثبت سفارش، شرایط فروشگاه آنلاین را به شرایط واقعی نزدیک تر کنند.

    کلیدواژگان: پذیرش فناوری، نیازهای بنیادین روان شناختی، خودتعیینگری، تمایل بازگشت مشتری، فروشگاه اینترنتی
  • رضا شافعی*، آرمان احمدی زاد، شیما غلام شهبازی صفحات 573-593
    هدف

    بازاریابی کارآفرینانه، به معنای شناسایی و بهره برداری پیش دستانه از فرصت ها برای جذب و حفظ بیشتر گردشگر است که از طریق رویکردهای نوآورانه به مدیریت ریسک، استفاده اهرمی از منابع و خلق ارزش صورت می گیرد. هدف از پژوهش حاضر، مشخص کردن وضعیت قوم نگاشتی بازاریابی کارآفرینانه در گردشگری روستای دولاب است.

    روش

    این پژوهش، به شیوه کیفی و با استفاده از قوم نگاشتی انجام شده است. جامعه آماری این پژوهش، ساکنان روستای دولاب هستند که در زمینه گردشگری روستایی، به عنوان کارآفرین فعالیت می کنند. با روش نمونه گیری هدفمند، 10 نفر از روستاییان کارآفرین انتخاب شدند. داده ها از طریق مشاهده، مصاحبه و یادداشت برداری جمع آوری شدند. استادان، معیارهای اعتبار، انتقال، اعتماد، تایید و اصالت را بررسی و روایی و پایایی داده ها را تایید کردند. در نهایت، پس از اعمال کدگذاری باز، مفاهیم استخراج شده با استفاده از روش تحلیل شماتیک و نسخه 18 نرم افزار مکس کیودی آی مدل سازی شدند.

    یافته ها

    پس از انجام مصاحبه با نمونه آماری و کدگذاری و مقوله بندی داده های مربوط به بازاریابی کارآفرینانه، در مجموع، 158 مفهوم، 44 مقوله و 10 مقوله محوری استخراج شد. کدگذاری گردشگری روستایی در روستای دولاب تمامی ابعاد اقتصادی، اکولوژیکی، فرهنگی، محیطی، اجتماعی، کشاورزی، خدمات و اقدامات، تجربه محوری را شامل می شود.

    نتیجه گیری

    این پژوهش، یکی از پژوهش های اولیه در زمینه بازاریابی کارآفرینانه در گردشگری روستایی است که به مدلی توسعه یافته در خصوص بازاریابی کارآفرینانه با ابعاد بسیاری همچون فرصت محوری، پیش نگری، ایجاد ارزش، اهرم کردن منابع، مشتری گرایی، نوآوری گرایی، ریسک پذیری، محتوامحوری، هدایت و رهبری و هدف محوری دست یافته است.

    کلیدواژگان: بازاریابی کارآفرینانه، گردشگری روستایی، قوم نگاری، روستای دولاب
  • احمد سلیمی، علی صنایعی*، آذرنوش انصاری صفحات 594-626
    هدف

    هدف پژوهش حاضر، طراحی مدل مفهومی یکپارچه مبتنی بر تمامیت، به منظور توسعه قابلیت های بازاریابی، دستیابی به مزیت رقابتی پایدار و عملکرد برتر کسب وکار است.

    روش

    در مرحله کیفی، مصاحبه های عمیق با 20 نفر و مصاحبه های نیمه ساختاریافته با 10 نفر از مدیران ارشد، میانی و خبرگان و همچنین 4 گروه کانونی متشکل از 6 عضو، در یکی از بزرگ ترین صنایع فولادی کشور، برنامه ریزی و انجام شد. در مرحله کمی نیز، 350 نفر، از بین مدیران و خبرگان شرکت های صنعت فولاد ایران و پذیرفته ‎شده در سازمان بورس و اوراق بهادار تهران برای نمونه انتخاب شد. روش اجرای پژوهش، از نوع آمیخته کیفی کمی (اکتشافی تاییدی) است. به این منظور، ابتدا در مرحله کیفی با استفاده از تحلیل مضمونی، داده های گردآوری شده از طریق مصاحبه های عمیق و نیمه ساختاریافته، گروه های کانونی و همچنین مرور جامع ادبیات موضوع، مدل اولیه پژوهش مفهوم سازی شد. سپس در مرحله کمی با استفاده از داده های گردآوری شده از طریق پرسش نامه و همچنین داده های مربوط به عملکرد شرکت های در دست بررسی از سامانه کدال سازمان بورس و اوراق بهادار تهران، مدل مفهومی اولیه، در چارچوب معادلات ساختاری حداقل مربعات جزیی و با استفاده از آخرین نسخه نرم افزار اسمارت پی ال اس آزمون شد و مدل مفهومی نهایی پژوهش با تحلیل تلفیقی یافته های مراحل کیفی و کمی به دست آمد.

    یافته ها:

    بنگاه های کسب وکار به منظور ایجاد، نگهداشت و توسعه قابلیت های بازاریابی و سایر قابلیت های سازمانی مرتبط، به توسعه تمامیت داخلی بنگاه نیازمندند. تمامیت داخلی بنگاه های کسب وکار، به توسعه هوشمندی کسب وکار، یادگیری مستمر سازمانی و مدیریت دانش منجر می شود و توسعه موارد پیش گفته، توسعه قابلیت های بازاریابی، یکپارچگی زنجیره تامین، ارتقای خصیصه های منابع بازاریابی، مزیت رقابتی پایدار و عملکرد برتر کسب وکار را به همراه می آورد. همچنین، تمامیت شرکای زنجیره تامین و تمامیت بخش های حاکمیتی، روابط بین قابلیت های بازاریابی، مزیت رقابتی پایدار و عملکرد برتر بنگاه را تعدیل می کند.

    نتیجه گیری

    نتایج این پژوهش، در ارتباط با ایجاد، نگهداشت و توسعه قابلیت های بازاریابی و ارتباط آن با مزیت رقابتی پایدار و عملکرد بنگاه، سه مفهوم جدید تمامیت داخلی بنگاه، تمامیت شرکای زنجیره تامین و تمامیت بخش های حاکمیتی را وارد ادبیات راهبرد بازاریابی و مدیریت راهبردی کرده است. ضمن آنکه مفاهیم جدیدی را نیز به ادبیات قابلیت های بازاریابی افزوده است و پیکربندی جدیدی را در خصوص پیشایندهای توسعه قابلیت های پیش گفته، پیشنهاد می دهد.

    کلیدواژگان: تمامیت، قابلیت های بازاریابی، هوشمندی کسب وکار، یادگیری مستمر سازمانی، مدیریت دانش، مزیت رقابتی پایدار
  • علیرضا شیرمحمدی، فرهاد وفایی*، فرشید نمامیان، محمد تابان صفحات 627-651
    هدف

    اهمیت ویژه و حیاتی اشتغال زایی و راه اندازی کسب وکار و مهم تر از آن، پایداری کسب وکارهای ایجاد شده در وضعیت کنونی اقتصاد جهانی، برای هر کشور در حال توسعه ای همچون کشور عزیزمان ایران، محققان را بر آن داشت تا پژوهشی با هدف طراحی و تدوین الگویی برای پایداری کسب وکار در زنجیره ‎تامین اجرا کند.

    روش

    برای دستیابی به این هدف مهم، پژوهشگران رویکرد فراترکیب را در پیش گرفتند. بر این اساس، 81 پژوهش پیشین مرتبط با اهداف مطالعه حاضر را با استفاده از الگوی هفت مرحله‎ای سندلوسکی و باروسو بررسی کردند و به تجمیع، ترکیب و تفسیر یافته های این پژوهش ها پرداختند تا با بسط مدل جدید، تصویر جامع، نو و بدیعی از پایداری کسب وکار در زنجیره ‎تامین ارایه دهند. بسط مدل یاد شده، یکی از قوت ها و نوآورهای این پژوهش است.

    یافته ها

    الگوی پایداری کسب وکار در این پژوهش، 96 شاخص پایداری کسب وکار را در قالب 16 مضمون و 3 بعد اصلی شناسایی و ارایه کرده است. مدل یاد شده دارای بعدهای اصلی اقتصادی، اجتماعی و زیست محیطی است که بعد اقتصادی 3 مضمون، بعد اجتماعی 7 مضمون و بعد زیست محیطی 6 مضمون را دربرمی گیرد.

    نتیجه گیری

    در این پژوهش بعد زیست محیطی با 45 شاخص دارای بیشترین گستردگی و ابعاد اجتماعی و اقتصادی، به ترتیب با 33 و 18 شاخص در رده های بعدی اهمیت قرار گرفتند.

    کلیدواژگان: پایداری کسب وکار، زنجیره ‎تامین، فراترکیب
  • محمد دانشگر، محمدعلی عبدالوند*، کامبیز حیدرزاده هنزایی، محسن خون سیاوش صفحات 652-678
    هدف

    هدف از اجرای این پژوهش، شناسایی عوامل موثر و مولفه های هویت شرکتی و همچنین، مدل سازی ارتباطات درونی آنها در بستر بانکداری شرکتی است. بانکداری شرکتی خدمتی است که در دسته کسب وکارهای B2B (کسب وکار به کسب وکار) قرار می گیرد و بانک ها از این طریق بازار هدف خود را شرکت ها و سازمان ها در نظر می گیرند.

    روش

    به منظور دستیابی به هدف این پژوهش، با 18 تن از خبرگان حوزه بانکداری شرکتی مصاحبه به عمل آمد و متن مصاحبه ها با استفاده از روش تحلیل محتوا، کدگذاری شد. پس از شناسایی عناصر و مولفه های هویت برند شرکتی، با استفاده از روش مدل سازی ساختاری تفسیری (ISM)، روابط درونی این عوامل مدل سازی شد.

    یافته ها

    مطابق یافته های این پژوهش، عناصر موثر بر هویت برند شرکتی در قالب 13 مقوله اصلی و 41 مقوله فرعی تعریف می شوند و با توجه به نتایج پژوهش، میان این عوامل، رابطه علی معلولی وجود دارد. همچنین، مطابق خروجی روش ISM مقوله ها یا ابعاد اصلی هویت برند، در پنج سطح تعریف می شوند که بر یکدیگر نیز اثرگذارند.

    نتیجه گیری

    بر اساس نتایج، پژوهش، روش ISM می تواند روابط علی معلولی میان عناصر و مولفه های هویت برند شرکتی را مشخص کند. علاوه بر این، پنج مقوله استراتژی، فرهنگ، شایستگی و قابلیت سازمانی، نظام مدیریت سرمایه انسانی و زیرساخت ها و ساختار سازمان، عوامل بسیار مهم در ساخت و شکل گیری هویت برند شرکتی در بستر بانکداری شرکتی محسوب می شوند.

    کلیدواژگان: هویت برند شرکتی، مدل سازی ساختاری تفسیری (ISM)، بانکداری شرکتی
  • غلامرضا جندقی*، مسعود کیماسی، علی عمویی اوجاکی، میثم شفیعی رودپشتی صفحات 679-701
    هدف

    نفوذ علوم اعصاب در رشته های علوم انسانی، سبب آشکار شدن ضعف روش های تحقیقاتی، به خصوص روش های خودگزارشگری و ارزیابی اقدام های بازاریابی مانند اقدام های تبلیغاتی شده است؛ به طوری که پارادایم جدیدی با عنوان بازاریابی عصب پایه در حال ظهور است. هدف این مطالعه، بهره گیری از بینش های حاصل از علوم اعصاب و یکی از روش های رایج بازاریابی عصب پایه برای سنجش اثربخشی تبلیغات چاپی مشترک بانک ملت و بیمه ما است.

    روش

    پژوهش حاضر از نوع کمی است که به صورت شبه آزمایشگاهی اجرا شده است. در این پژوهش، از روش ردیابی چشم برای گردآوری داده ها استفاده شده است. 15 آزمودنی در این پژوهش مشارکت کردند که به صورت تصادفی گزینش شدند. داده های جمع آوری شده از طریق تحلیل بصری و تحلیل آماری استنباطی با دو آزمون تی تک نمونه ای و ناپارامتری فریدمن تحلیل شدند.

    یافته ها

    نتایج سنجش تبلیغات، نشان داد که عناصر موجود در تبلیغات، به خوبی توجه بصری را جلب کرده و تبلیغات چاپی به میزان خوبی به خاطرسپردنی بوده است. با این حال، تفاوت معنادار و چشمگیری بین طرح های تبلیغات چاپی، از جنبه جلب توجه و قابلیت به خاطرسپاری به ‎دست نیامد.

    نتیجه گیری

    روش ردیابی چشم توانایی پاسخ به سوال هایی را دارد که روش های خودگزارشگری در پاسخ گویی به آنها عاجزند. اینکه کدام عناصر در تبلیغ دیده شده اند، کدام عناصر بیشتر دیده شده اند، عناصر به چه ترتیبی در تبلیغ مشاهده شده اند، کدام عناصر در تبلیغ بیشتر سبب پردازش و درگیری ذهنی می شوند و کدام تبلیغ عملکرد بهتری دارد، بر خلاف سایر روش ا با روش ردیابی چشم پاسخ داده می شوند.

    کلیدواژگان: بازاریابی عصب پایه، خودگزارشگری، اثربخشی تبلیغات، تبلیغات مشترک، ردیاب چشم
  • مهدیه مختاری موغاری، عزت الله عباسیان*، طهمورث حسنقلی پور یاسوری، وحید محمودی صفحات 702-726
    هدف

    صادرات غیرنفتی از موضوعاتی است که در چند دهه اخیر، مباحث زیادی را به خود اختصاص داده است. در ایران، بخش عمده درآمد صادراتی، از فروش نفت تامین می شود و اتکای دولت به منابع درآمدی دیگر در کمترین سطح قرار دارد، از این رو، صادرات غیرنفتی از اهمیت ویژه ای برخوردار است. خروجی این پژوهش، مدلی شبکه ای از ریسک هایی است که صادرکنندگان ایرانی در بخش صادرات غیرنفتی با آن مواجه هستند. این مدل یکپارچه از بررسی، تحلیل روابط و سطح بندی ریسک ها به دست آمده است و به تصمیم گیران حوزه صادرات کشور کمک می کند تا از ارتباطات بین ریسک های موثر بر بخش صادرات غیرنفتی، نگرشی کامل داشته باشند و در سیاست گذاری ها، اولویت ها را شناسایی کنند.

    روش

    مرحله نخست پرسش نامه توزیع شد و مولفه های تاثیرگذار، با توجه به نظرهای خبرگان و فعالان اقتصادی منتخب و با استفاده از آزمون آماری t، مشخص شدند. پرسش نامه دوم، بر اساس مولفه ها تدوین و دوباره توزیع شد که با استفاده از مدل سازی ساختاری تفسیری آن را تحلیل کردیم.

    یافته ها

    خروجی پژوهش، مدل شبکه ای شش سطحی حاصل از مدل سازی ساختاری تفسیری است که کلیه ریسک ها سطح بندی و ارتباط بین آنها مشخص شده است. سطح شش که سطح آخر و تاثیرگذارترین عوامل را نشان می دهد، جنگ، قوانین دولتی و نرخ ارز را شامل می شود.

    نتیجه گیری

    بیشتر ریسک ها با ارتباطات و تاثیرات زیادی به هم گره خورده اند و در این میان، ریسک زاید یا کم همیتی مشاهده نمی شود. هر گونه کوتاهی در یک ریسک، باعث می شود نتیجه نهایی که همان افزایش صادرات غیرنفتی است، با نقصان مواجه شود.

    کلیدواژگان: ریسک، ریسک بین الملل، صادرات، صادرات غیرنفتی، مدل سازی ساختاری تفسیری
  • مصطفی اسفندیاری، نیلوفر ایمان خان*، مجید فتاحی صفحات 727-747
    هدف

    هدف پژوهش حاضر، ارایه مدل و شناسایی عوامل موثر بر انتخاب برند، از طریق ارزشیابی آن برند در صنعت بانکداری است.

    روش

    روش به کاررفته در پژوهش، روش آمیخته بود. روش های آمیخته، از دو بخش کیفی و کمی تشکیل می شوند. در بخش کیفی از روش گرندد تیوری و در بخش کمی از مدل سازی معادلات ساختاری استفاده شد. ابزار جمع آوری اطلاعات بخش کیفی، مصاحبه های نیمه ساختاریافته بود که داده های این بخش، در سه مرحله باز، محوری و انتخابی کدگذاری شدند. اطلاعات بخش کمی نیز، به کمک توزیع پرسش نامه محقق ساخته ای که روایی و پایایی آن به تایید رسید، جمع آوری شد. گفتنی است، تحلیل داده ها به کمک نرم افزار LISREL انجام گرفت.

    یافته ها

    با توجه به کدهای احصاشده از مصاحبه ها، در نهایت، 260 کد نهایی به دست آمد که در قالب 90 مفهوم و 23 مقوله اصلی دسته بندی شدند. در این میان، در مطالعه کمی، از طریق تحلیل رفتار مشتریان (پدیده محوری)، فعالیت های نشان تجاری، عملکرد نشان تجاری، ارزش یابی مقایسه ای نشان تجاری و ارزش یابی مبانی رفتاری نشان تجاری، برای متغیر ارزش یابی نشان تجاری شناسایی شدند.

    نتیجه گیری

    با توجه به یافته های بخش کیفی (کدهای شناسایی شده)، ارتباط ابعاد با متغیرها و مدل معادلات ساختاری پژوهش به تایید رسید و مشخص شد که متغیر شرایط علی با ضریب اثر و ضریب معناداری قابل قبول، بر پدیده محوری اثرگذار است؛ پدیده محوری، شرایط زمینه ای و عوامل مداخله گر بر راهبردها تاثیرگذارند و راهبردها هم روی پیامدها اثر می گذارند. شاخص های برازش مدل ساختاری، همگی مقادیر مجاز و مقبولی داشتند.

    کلیدواژگان: رفتار مشتریان، ارزش یابی نشان تجاری، صنعت بانکداری
  • مژده ولی زاده، میثم شیرخدایی*، حمیدرضا فلاح لاجیمی صفحات 748-773
    هدف

    هدف پژوهش حاضر، شناسایی روش های تبلیغات اینترنتی تیاتر و اولویت بندی آنها با استفاده از روش بهترین بدترین فاصله ای است. این روش، یکی از روش های نوین در تصمیم گیری چندمعیاره است.

    روش

    پژوهش حاضر با در پیش گرفتن رویکرد ترکیبی اکتشافی طی دو مرحله اجرا شده است. مرحله نخست با استفاده از روش پژوهش کیفی و رویکردهای مطالعه موردی، تحلیل محتوای کیفی و انجام مصاحبه های نیمه ساختاریافته با 14 خبره حوزه بازاریابی و تیاتر انجام شد. در مرحله دوم، روش های شناسایی شده با استفاده از پرسش نامه های بهترین بدترین فاصله ای و به کمک نرم افزارهای Lingo و Excel اولویت بندی شدند.

    یافته ها

    یافته های پژوهش، حاکی از شناسایی روش هایی برای تبلیغات اینترنتی تیاتر است. این روش ها عبارت اند از: تبلیغات عادی در صفحات وب، خبرسازی، تبلیغات گام به گام، تبلیغات در شبکه های اجتماعی محبوب، اپ مارکتینگ، بازاریابی ایمیلی، تبلیغات دهان به دهان اینترنتی، بازاریابی وسوسه ای، بازاریابی پارتیزنی اینترنتی و بازاریابی وارونه. اولویت بندی این روش ها در بخش کمی، نشان داد که تبلیغات در شبکه های اجتماعی محبوب، مهم ترین و بازاریابی ایمیلی کم اهمیت ترین روش از روش های شناسایی شده است.

    نتیجه گیری

    نتایج تجزیه وتحلیل داده ها نشان داد که از بین روش های شناسایی شده برای تبلیغات اینترنتی تیاتر، تبلیغات در شبکه های اجتماعی محبوب، مهم ترین روش است. از آنجا که دستیابی به نتایج کارا در تبلیغات تیاتر، در گرو انتخاب بهترین روش‎ هاست، موسسه های هنری و گروه های تیاتر باید در برنامه تبلیغات خود، به اولویت و اهمیت به کارگیری روش های اشاره شده در پژوهش توجه کنند.

    کلیدواژگان: بازاریابی هنر، تبلیغات اینترنتی تئاتر، تصمیم گیری چندمعیاره، روش بهترین بدترین فاصله ای
  • تارا اصغرخانی*، رحیم محترم قلاتی صفحات 774-799
    هدف

    پژوهش حاضر با هدف بررسی تاثیر ویژگی های شرکت های صادرکننده، ویژگی های معاملات صادراتی و تجربه در دعاوی تجاری از طریق متغیر میانجی مدیریت ریسک تجاری بر عملکرد صادرات در شرکت های صادرکننده دارو در ایران، انجام شد.

    روش

    این پژوهش، پیمایشی، کاربردی و به لحاظ هدف توصیفی است. جامعه آماری پژوهش را 48 شرکت صادرکننده دارو در ایران تشکیل می دهد. برای گردآوری داده های پژوهش از پرسش نامه مقاله جو و پک (2017) استفاده شده است که روایی محتوایی آن از دیدگاه صاحب نظران تایید شد و  در خصوص آن، بومی سازی انجام گرفت. روایی هم گرایی آن به کمک روش های آماری به تایید رسید. برای پایایی پرسش نامه، ضریب آلفای کرونباخ محاسبه شد و آزمون فرضیه های پژوهش با استفاده از مدل معادلات ساختاری و نرم افزارهای SPSS25 و SmartPLS3 انجام شد.

    یافته ها

    نتایج پژوهش نشان می دهد که ویژگی های شرکت های صادرکننده، ویژگی های معاملات صادراتی و تجربه در دعاوی تجاری به طور مستقیم و غیرمستقیم از طریق متغیر میانجی مدیریت ریسک تجاری، بر عملکرد صادرات تاثیر مثبت و معنادار دارد. همچنین تاثیر مدیریت ریسک تجاری بر عملکرد صادرات مثبت و معنادار است.

    نتیجه گیری

    تمام ده فرضیه پژوهش که روابط بین متغیرهای ویژگی های شرکت های صادرکننده، ویژگی های معاملات صادراتی و تجربه در دعاوی تجاری، مدیریت ریسک تجاری و عملکرد صادرات را بررسی کرده اند، تایید شده اند. شرکت های صادرکننده دارو می توانند از نتایج پژوهش برای بهبود عملکرد صادرات خود استفاده کنند.

    کلیدواژگان: عملکرد صادرات، مدیریت ریسک تجاری، تجربه در دعاوی تجاری، ویژگی های شرکت های صادرکننده، ویژگی های معاملات صادراتی
  • مرتضی سلطانی، داریوش طهماسبی آقبلاغی صفحات 800-832
    هدف

    امروزه، بخش بانکی دستخوش تغییر ساختار و رویکردهای سازمان‌دهی فرایندهای تجاری شده است. انتظارهای مشتریان، تحولات فناوری، الزامات قوانین و مقررات و بحران در اقتصاد، ضرورتی برای تشکیل و تحول در نظام بانکی است. با در نظر گرفتن این عوامل، بهتر است بانک‌های سنتی، با فناوری‌های مالی، شراکت راهبردی تشکیل دهند تا بتوانند میزان کارایی خود را در بازار رقابتی فعلی افزایش دهند. هدف پژوهش حاضر، تبیین نقش شراکت راهبردی بانک تجارت با فین‌تک‌ها در کارایی با میانجیگری تحولات فناورانه و بانکداری دیجیتال است.

    روش

    جهت‌گیری پژوهش، کاربردی و از نظر هدف، توصیفی است و در آن، برای جمع‌آوری داده‌ها، از روش پیمایشی و برای تحلیل داده‌ها، از روش هم‌بستگی استفاده شده است.

    یافته‌ها

     بر اساس یافته‌های پژوهش، نقش شراکت راهبردی بانک تجارت با فین‌تک‌ها (944/19 T:)، تحولات فناورانه دیجیتال (340/27 T:)، بانکداری دیجیتال (374/72 T:)، نقش تحولات فناورانه دیجیتال (439/4 T:) و بانکداری دیجیتال
    (161/8 T:) بر کارایی تایید شد. از سوی دیگر، نقش غیرمستقیم متغیرهای میانجی تحولات فناورانه دیجیتال (362/121 T:) و بانکداری دیجیتال (644/590 T:) میان شراکت راهبردی بانک تجارت با فین‌تک‌ها و کارایی به تایید رسید.

    نتیجه‌گیری

     تمام هفت فرضیه اصلی و دوازده فرضیه فرعی تایید شدند. نتایج این پژوهش نشان داد که شراکت راهبردی بانک‌ها با فناوری‌های نوین مالی یک انتخاب نیست، بلکه برای همه بانک‌ها، ضرورتی است که به کارایی آنها منجر می‌شود و در حوزه‌های تحولات فناوری دیجیتال و بانکداری دیجیتال برای بانک‌ها مزیت زیادی دارد.

    کلیدواژگان: شراکت راهبردی، تحولات فناورانه دیجیتال، بانکداری دیجیتال، کارایی، فین تک
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  • Samaneh Rahimian *, Mehdi Shamizanjani, Amir Manian, Mohammad Rahim Esfiddani Pages 523-547
    Objective

    Customer experience is considered as a concept that can indicate the organizations performance in the current era. Creating an engaging experience is the distinctive feature for an organization and delivering a great experience is important in developing customers’ loyalty. Organizations need to focus on managing the customers’ experience which highlights the importance of designing and managing the customer experience in a variety of industries, especially customer-centered industries such as hoteling. The purpose of this study is to provide a framework to explain the customer experience management process in hoteling industry.

    Methodology

    In this study, due to the lack of a clear and accurate explanation of the customer experience management process, systematic review of theoretical foundations has been used in the present study. This study aims to find the answer to this question: "what are the steps involved in managing the customer experience in the hoteling industry?". The present study also intends to explain the customer experience management process in hoteling industry (what?). As a result, Scopus, Emerald, Science Direct, Springer, and Proudest databases were reviewed and all the related articles in hoteling, tourism, and entertainment industries were collected. Articles were reviewed using the following keywords: "customer experience management" and hotel / hospitality / tourism / lodging"; and then, 29 sources were found in the selected databases. At this stage, 38 articles were found and then carefully reviewed in several stages to determine which ones fit the research questions. The remaining articles should be reviewed for content quality. For this purpose, the critical assessment method (CASP) was used and a checklist consisting of 10 questions was used to assist the researcher in assessing the accuracy, validity and importance of research studies. After completing the evaluation process of the articles, the researchers started a detailed study of the selected articles. At this stage, the researcher would look for the concepts that have appeared among the codes in the systematic review of theoretical foundations. Once the codes have been identified, the researcher creates a classification and places similar and related classes in a group that best describes them. This group is called the "concept". This process is done using the qualitative content analysis method and continues until a duplicate model or pattern is extracted from the content.

    Findings

    Systematic review of the theoretical foundations and concepts extracted from resources led to customer experience management process including the customer identification cycle, customer experience design, customer experience implementation and customer experience monitoring as well as creating organizational factors of culture, structure, leadership, human resources and technology. Customer identification is the first step that must be done in customer experience management. This stage includes the steps to identify the individual characteristics of customers; their needs, expectations and values; the customers’ previous experiences; customers’ experience in other companies; and to categorize the customers. Developing the right strategy, designing the service, designing the contact point routes and prioritizing the strategies are the steps involved in the customer design stage. The purpose of the design is to encourage customers to move in the direction of the company or brand contact points and to transfer it from the post-purchase stage to the pre-purchase stage. Development of contact points; building awareness; responding to customer interactions; responding to customer needs, expectations and values; partnering with customers and their communities and personalizing the experience are the steps involved in the implementation phase. Understanding the customers’ experience and ensuring that experiences are effectively managed at all the points of customer interaction with the organization is considered as a key objective for an organization that intends to lead the market. Customer experience is not created in isolation and solely through marketing strategies. Creating and managing customer experiences that are related to the unique brand identity of the company should be part of the strategic vision of the organization and arrange in a line all the efforts of the organization.

    Conclusion

    In the era of experience economics, companies compete to create a pleasant experience for their customers. All the activity of the organizations, including the production of products and services, advertising, marketing activities, after-sales service, aim to create a great customer experience. Understanding the customer experience and ensuring that experiences are effectively managed at all points of customer interaction with the organization are the key objectives for an organization that aims to lead the market. Despite the importance of customer experience management in recent research, customer experience management research is still in its infancy which shows the importance of customer experience management in various industries, especially the hoteling industry. This study was conducted to identify and explain the steps of customer experience management in the hoteling industry. Besides, the research findings can help hotels manage their customers’ experience.

    Keywords: Customer experience, Customer experience management, Hoteling industry
  • Sanaz Ramazani, Mehdi Kiamehr * Pages 548-572
    Objective

    The purpose of this study is to identify the factors affecting the intention of customers to return to online stores and attempts to show how basic psychological needs can strengthen the customers’ intention to return to the website directly or as a result of the influence of the variables of the technology acceptance model.

    Methodology

    This research has used a survey strategy and a questionnaire was used to collect the data. All the questions were extracted from previous research questionnaires for measuring variables. Snapfood was selected as the sample in this study. The online questionnaire was sent to 657 randomly selected individuals from the database and 425 individuals responded to the questionnaire; 389 participants claimed that they had previously used Snapfood. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 25 and LISREL 8.80 software. Correlation test was also used to examine the pair wise relationships of the main variables and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) technique was used to test the model and test the hypotheses.

    Findings

    Based on the model hypotheses presented in this study, websites or software that provide their users with a greater sense of authority will be able to increase the users’ intention to return through increasing the users’ perceived usefulness. Therefore, it is possible to increase the usefulness of a store from the users’ point of view as a result of creating a supportive virtual environment by providing the right to choose, free and convenient search conditions, various payment facilities, and a wide range of stores. Users’ perception of competency which was measured by the belief in the self-efficacy of Internet and computer use, had a significantly positive effect on the users’ intention to return and their perception of the ease of purchasing which have been confirmed in previous researches. The third basic psychological need is the need of involvement, which is also positively correlated with the intention to return to the online store and the users’ perception of the usefulness. Nevertheless, the direct effect of satisfying the need for involvement is relatively weaker than its indirect effect through reinforcement of the usefulness belief.

    Conclusion

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which the theory of self-determination can explain the persistence of customers to go online shopping. More specifically, this study can claim that the use of technology, visiting a website, and in particular the purchase in cyberspace can occur as a result of the formation of individual motivations for these behaviors. Accordingly, based on the self-determination theory (SDT), the more an individual’s basic needs are met, the more internalized his motivation will be and the more persistent he will be in the desired behavior. For this reason, according to the hypotheses proposed by this study, the three basic needs of "need for autonomy", "need for competence", and "need for relatedness" can lead to the strengthening of the individual’s intention to return to the website.

    Keywords: Technology Acceptance, basic psychological needs, Self-determination, customers’ intention to return, Online store
  • Reza Shafei *, Arman Ahmadizad, Shima Gholamshahbazi Pages 573-593
    Objective

    Rural tourism has grown exponentially in recent decades. Meanwhile, Doolab village is one of the nationally approved villages in Kurdistan province, which is considered as an attraction according to studies conducted in terms of rural tourism and has attracted 62% of the tourists to its residences. Therefore, in order to investigate the reason behind their success, the researcher intends to examine the entrepreneurial marketing dimension model – a concept that seeks to describe marketing processes and identify opportunities in a fluctuating environment for small businesses with limited resources – among the entrepreneurs of Doolab village. Hence, the main purpose of this study is to determine the ethnographic status of entrepreneurial marketing in rural tourism in Doolab village.

    Methodology

    The present study is interpretive in terms of philosophical approach. Therefore, this study is a qualitative research based on ethnography. The statistical population includes all the residents of Doolab village who were active in the field of rural tourism as entrepreneurs. According to the purposeful sampling method, 10 entrepreneurial villagers were selected for this study. Moreover, validity, transfer, trust, approval and authenticity were examined by university professors for validity and reliability of the data. Observation, interview and note-taking methods were also used to collect the data. Finally, the extracted concepts were modeled based on schematic analysis technique using Max QD software version 18 through open coding method.

    Findings

    The results of entrepreneurial marketing conceptualization coding showed that a total number of 286 key points were extracted from the content of the interviews, which according to their concept which were devided into 158 common initial codes (concepts). The results of categorization related to entrepreneural marketing showed that a total number of 44 categories were extracted from 158 open source interviews. Finally, the results of the coding within core categories related to entrepreneurial marketing showed that among the total number of the interviews with the samples under study within the 44 categories, 10 core categories were extracted including opportunity-oriention, predictive, value creation, resource leveraging, customer-orientation, innovation, risk-taking, content-oriented, guidance and leadership, and goal-oriented.

    Conclusion

    In the present study, it was concluded that entrepreneurial marketing has 10 dimensions and rural tourism in Doolab village proposes economic, ecological, cultural, environmental, social, agricultural, services and measures, experience-oriented dimensions. Entrepreneurs in Doolab village, based on the tourism nature of the village as a tourist destination, have long been known for their history, religion, politics, and agriculture, and they have the best visual perspective as well. Preservation of values ​​and customs and the intact nature of the village due to the existence of new style houses in cities and gardens have led to fewer constructions. Most of the people who are involved in ecotourism in this village were familiar with the tourism industry and had built their buildings in the old texture of the village and had used original decoration and interior architecture.

    Keywords: Entrepreneurial Marketing, Rural Tourism, Ethnography, Doolab village
  • Ahmad Salimi, Ali Sanayei *, Azarnoosh Ansari Pages 594-626
    Objective

    Several theoretical foundations and models have been developed and proposed in order to explain marketing capabilities and their link to competitive advantage and business performance over the past years. However, review of the research literature has revealed theoretical gaps regarding building and developing marketing capabilities, the integrative relationship between supply chain and marketing capabilities, types of items that affect the link between marketing capabilities and competitive advantage, as well as the dimensions and characteristics of sustainability of competitive advantages and business performance. On the other hand, the evidence and experiences related to the low rate of competitiveness of the country’s businesses in the global market have led to discovery and confirmation on how businesses can improve their marketing capabilities as the most important motivation in the present study which can help them achieve a sustainable competitive advantage. A few studies have investigated creating, maintaining, and developing marketing capabilities in a way that is integrate into the enterprise supply chain which leads to promotion of the characteristics of marketing resources, and ultimately to sustainable competitive advantage and superior business performance. Therefore, the present study aimed to develop an integrated conceptual model based on integrity in order to develop marketing capabilities as well as to achieve sustainable competitive advantage and superior business performance.
     Methodology

    The mixed method considering qualitative-quantitative types (exploratory-confirmatory) was used in the present study. For this purpose, the initial research model was conceptualized using the thematic analysis of the data collected through in-depth and semi-structured interviews, focus groups as well as a comprehensive review of the literature in the qualitative stage. Then, the primary conceptual model was evaluated within the framework of structural equations - partial least squares - using the latest version of Smart PLS software in the quantitative step, using the data collected through a questionnaire and also the secondary data collected related to the performance of the studied companies from the Codal system of the Tehran Stock Exchange. And the final conceptual model of the research was extracted through combined analysis of the findings in the qualitative and quantitative stages. In the qualitative stage, in-depth interviews with 20 people and semi-structured interviews with 10 senior, middle and expert managers, as well as 4 focus groups consisting of 6 members in one of the largest Steel Industries in the country have been planned and implemented. In the quantitative stage, the statistical population of the study included 842 managers and experts of Iranian steel industry companies that have been accepted in the Tehran Stock Exchange. In the end, 350 individuals were selected as the statistical samples.

    Findings

    The research findings confirmed that in order to create, maintain and develop marketing capabilities and other related organizational capabilities, businesses require the development of the internal integrity. The internal integrity of businesses can lead to the development of business intelligence, continuous organizational learning and knowledge management, which in turn lead to the development of those items, marketing capabilities, supply chain integration, upgrading of marketing resource attributes, sustainable competitive advantage and performance. In addition, the integrity of supply chain partners and the integrity of state sectors can moderate the relationship between marketing capabilities, sustainable competitive advantage, and business performance. Moreover, 1) the reliability of indices including: factor loads of indices, Cronbach’s alpha coefficient, and integrated reliability, 2) convergent validity including average variance extracted (AVE) coefficients of the constructs, and 3) divergent validity including cross-loadings, Fornell-Larker Criterion and Heterotrait-Monotrait Ratio HTMT index have been measured and evaluated. The results of Cronbach’s alpha indicates that the obtained Cronbach’s alpha values ​​for all the variables are higher than 0.7, which shows a good fit for the measurement model in this regard. The highest Cronbach's alpha coefficient is related to the marketing capabilities (0.96) and the lowest Cronbach's alpha coefficient belonged to the product management (0.72). In addition, the highest combined reliability index was obtained as 0.97 which also shows a desirable situation for the marketing capabilities and the lowest value is related to product management capability with 0.83. The AVE index of constructs was used to measure the convergent validity of the measurement model. The outputs of Smart P.L.S software shows that the measured AVE values were above 0.5​​ for all the first-order constructs. However, the AVE index was calculated manually for higher-order constructs, where the results also confirmed that the AVE value was higher than 0.5 for all second-order constructs; it indicates the optimal convergent validity of the measurement model. In order to evaluate the divergent validity of the model, cross-loadings, Fornell-Larker matrix, as well as HTMT index were used. Evaluation and analysis of the measurement model and the structural model using the data which were collected in the quantitative stage of the research indicated that the conceptual model which was developed based on the results of the qualitative stage has been approved using the data collected in the quantitative stage.

    Conclusion

    According to the conceptual framework in the present study, businesses in the Iranian Steel Industry should improve the business intelligence and knowledge management in order to develop marketing capabilities. Moreover, Iranian Steel Industry firms need to improve the level of continuous organizational learning in order for the business intelligence and knowledge management capabilities of the firm to have the greatest impact on the creation and development of marketing capabilities. Continuous organizational learning acts as a facilitator which accelerates the relationship between business intelligence capabilities and knowledge management with marketing capabilities which helps strengthen this relationship. The proposed conceptual framework in the present study also suggests that Iranian Steel Industry enterprises are able to create, internalize and develop business intelligence capabilities, continuous organizational learning and knowledge management provided that they can develop internal integrity. When business leaders and systems develop internal integrity, they provide the necessary opportunities and capacities for maximum efficiency and minimum vulnerability, and thus for the creation and development of the proposed capabilities. To this end, it also suggests the basic indicators that businesses need to promote internal integrity (business leaders and systems).

    Keywords: Integrity, Marketing Capabilities, Business Intelligence, Continuous organizational learning, Knowledge Management, Sustainable competitive advantage
  • Alireza Shirmohammadi, Farhad Vafae *, Farshid Namamian, Mohammad Taban Pages 627-651
    Objective

    Entrepreneurship as well as the creation of dynamic and productive businesses is considered as the important factors and the driving force for economic development in any country. In this regard, it is important to pay attention to identifying and activating the capacity to create jobs and entrepreneurship and to the sustainability of established businesses. However, our country is deprived of the benefits of a sustainable supply chain. It is not possible to expect a stable performance from the supply chain until all the businesses across the supply chain build sustained interactions with each other. Therefore, one must look for the dimensions, components and indicators to develop a business sustainability model in the supply chain so that the businesses within the supply chain could be sustained and, ultimately, supply chain stability would be achieved. The present study has attempted to develop a model of sustainability for the businesses within the supply chain through selecting a different perspective from previous studies by identifying, combining and deeply understanding the dimensions, concepts and indicators. Therefore, the main purpose of this study is to propose a model in order to fill the gap in the related literature in our country, which can show the innovative and distinctive aspects of this research.

    Methodology

    The present study is applied in terms of purpose because businesses can measure their sustainability based on the indicators of the final model of this research and it is a meta-synthesis of the previous qualitative studies in terms of method. To achieve the research objective, the meta-synthesis method was used in accordance with the seven-step model proposed by Sandelowski and Barroso. The statistical population of this research includes all the articles, research reports, books, databases, as well as local and international publications in the field of business sustainability in the supply chain from 2000 to 2018. The keywords were looked up in MAGIRAN, SID, CIVILICA, NOORMAGS, Science Direct, Springer, Scopus, Google Scholar and Emerald databases. The inclusion criteria were: valid databases, research period and using the keywords. As a result of reviewing the databases using different search engines and based on the inclusion criteria, 422 cases were finally found.

    Findings

    Business sustainability model in this study proposed 93 indicators for business sustainability in the form of 16 themes and 3 main dimensions. The main dimensions of the model include economic, social and environmental dimensions where the economic dimension includes 3 main themes and 18 indicators, the social dimension includes 7 themes and 33 indicators, and the environmental dimension includes 6 themes and 42 indicators. In this study, the environmental dimension provided the highest variety with 42 indicators followed by the social and economic dimensions with 33 and 18 indicators, respectively.

    Conclusion

    The achievement of economic stability means continuity of business economic activity as well as sustainability in the economic system which requires the indicators such as organizational capabilities (strategic flexibility, value chain flexibility and achieving customer integration), innovation in business processes and activities, lean management, competitive advantage, marketing, risk management and entrepreneurship. On the other hand, business sustainability refers to the ability of the society to maintain the necessary instruments to create wealth, prosperity and social participation to promote social integration and cohesion. Besides, as a concept, it seeks to maintain and stabilize the social and cultural components of society in relation to other aspects of sustainability (economic and environmental). In addition, the environmental responsibilities of companies and the related activities can be considered as a source to legitimize their competitive advantage. This, in turn, leads to the formation of a better image of the company in the minds of its customers as an environmentally friendly image and helps sustain its activities. Based on the findings and the results of the research (identifying the dimensions, themes and indicators of business sustainability), it is recommended to the managers, planners and policy makers in the field of business to establish a business and its management, evaluate the existing businesses, eliminate possible shortcomings and avoid complying them with those indicators based on the indicators which were proposed by this model.

    Keywords: Business sustainability, Supply Chain, Meta-synthesis
  • Mohammad Daneshgar, Mohammad Ali Abdolvand *, Kambiz Heidarzadeh Henzaei, Mohsen Khoon Siavash Pages 652-678
    Objective

    Despite the importance and significant role that branding can play for business-to-business (B2B), most research has been conducted in the context of business to consumer (B2C). Corporate banking is considered as one of the relatively new areas that has occurred in banking industry in the the country which occurs in B2B business model. After reviewing the related literature, the researcher can claim that no research has been conducted on the elements and components of corporate brand identity in the banking industry, especially in Iran. Therefore, this study aims to identify the factors affecting the corporate brand identity in the context of corporate banking and explore the relationships between these factors.

    Methodology

    The present study aims to discover and identify the factors affecting the corporate brand identity, and then to present a causal structural model of these factors in the context of corporate banking. Therefore, the present research falls into the category of applied research. Given that this research seeks to describe the elements and dimensions of corporate brand identity and then to describe the causal relationships between them, this study is discpriptive in terms of research method. The present study is a survey research which used the opinions of 18 experts in the field of corporate banking. Identification and selection of the individuals was done using non-statistical and available methods. Content analysis method was used in order to extract the factors and elements of corporate brand identity, and then interpretive structural modeling (ISM) method was used in order to identify the relationships between the main categories. From this perspective, this research falls into the category of consecutive exploratory mixed research.

    Findings

    According to the findings of this study, the factors affecting the corporate brand identity were defined in the form of 13 main categories including strategy, market orientation and market focus, organization, strategic brand analysis and market research, organizational culture, stakeholder relationship management, organizational infrastructure and structure, organizational competencies and capabilities, human capital management system, brand personality, brand visual identity, brand communication, brand reputation, brand proposed value as well as 41 sub-categories. In addition, there is a causal relationship between these factors according to the research results.

    Conclusion

    The brand identity is formed based on strategy, culture, infrastructure and structure, competencies and capabilities, and human capital management system. These factors, which are also involved in the stimulus cluster, are considered as the most important factors or in other words, the underlying factors in forming the company brand identity. Following these five factors, market orientation and market focus at the fourth level are the other important factor that affect the formation of the company brand identity. Regardless of the market and market orientation, it is obvious that organizations cannot identify the needs of the market properly and cannot form a coherent and consistent identity in order to fulfill their missions. At the third level, there are two factors of stakeholder relationship management as well as strategic brand analysis and market research which are influenced by market orientation and market focus. In fact, it is the market image that requires companies to seek brand analysis and market research in order to form and develop their brand position accordingly. At the second level, the factors related to brand visual identity, brand communication, and brand value are influenced by the factors belonging to level three, four, and five. These three factors all affect and also contribute to the realization of each other. Finally, all of these factors can affect the two factors of level five, namely brand personality and brand reputation. In order to complement the results which are obtained from the ISM hierarchical model, organizational strategy, market orientation and focus on organizational market, organizational culture, infrastructure and organizational structure, organizational competence and capabilities, and human capital management system which are also involved in the stimulus cluster are the result of the MICMAC analysis. The factors in the stimulus cluster are highly effective but less affected by other elements. As a result, the priority is given to the changes in these factors in order to change the status of brands. Other factors are also included in the category of dependent elements, which indicate their high effectiveness.

    Keywords: Corporate brand identity, Interpretive Structural Modeling (ISM), Corporate banking
  • Gholamreza Jandaghi *, Masoud Keimasi, Ali Amoei Ojaki, Maysam Shafiee Pages 679-701
    Objective

    Marketing activists are always looking for answers to the questions such as "what can attract the consumers?" and "how can consumers’ attention be focused to vital products and information?". Among a variety of research methods, self-reporting method is considered as the optimal method to answer these questions and evaluate marketing practices, especially in advertising. However, the influence of neuroscience in the humanities has revealed the weaknesses of these methods, so that a new paradigm is emerging which is referred to as neuromarketing. The purpose of this study is to use the insights obtained from neurosciences and particularly neuromarketing to measure the effectiveness of joint printed advertising of Mellat Bank and Ma insurance company.

    Methodology

    This research is quantitative and applied in nature which is conducted in a quasi-experimental manner. Eye tracking method was used to collect the data in this study. The statistical population of this study includes the customers and audiences of the advertisement; 15 testes, who belong to the age group of 25 to 50 years, were randomly selected to participate in this study. Study data were analyzed using visual analysis and inferential statistical analysis through one-sample t-test and non-parametric Friedman test. In this study, items such as thermal map, blur map, eye movement and glare map, number of fixations, average duration of first fixation, and average duration of fixation were analyzed.

    Findings

    The results of the measurement of advertisements showed that the elements in the advertisements had efficiently attracted visual attention and the printed advertisements were well memorable. However, there was no significant difference between printed advertising designs in terms of attraction and memorability.

    Conclusion

    Contrary to the traditional assumptions, consumers are not rational and the majority of the brain activities and processes are performed outside of our conscious consciousness over which we have no control. These activities and processes are not accessible through self-reporting methods and identifying the stimuli that affect brain activity requires the use of new perspectives and methods based on neurosciences. A number of marketing researchers and corporate executives tend to answer sensitive questions about consumers’ behavior based on a neuromarketing approach due to the weaknesses of self-reporting methods such as the inability to describe emotions and feelings, limitations regarding cultural and linguistic differences, acceptance and social acceptance errors, misconceptions about human rationality, and memory limitations. Neuromarketing is considered as an approach to highlight the hidden stimuli of consumers’ behavior that were not previously recognizable by conventional research methods. The eye tracking method has the ability to answer the questions which were difficult to answer by traditional self-reporting methods. Eye tracking meythod can help respond to the following questions: “which elements are seen in the ads?”, “which elements are seen the most?”, “what is the order of noticing the elements in the ads?”, “which elements in advertising cause the most processing and mental conflicts?”, and “which ads result in better performance?”.

    Keywords: neuromarketing, Self-reporting, Advertising effectiveness, Joint advertising, Eye tracker
  • Mahdieh Mokhtari Moughari, Ezatollah Abbasian *, Tahmoores Hassan Gholipour Yasory, Vahid Mahmoodi Pages 702-726
    Objective

    Non-oil exports have been the subject of a lot of debate and discussions in recent decades. In Iran, the majority of the export revenue comes from oil sales and the government does not necessarily rely on other sources of revenue; therefore, non-oil exports are of particular importance. Meanwhile, Iran has been under economic sanctions for 40 years after the Islamic revolution, and export companies are facing many problems as a result. Thus, appropriate strategies should be used in order to maintain the business and increase the company performance in business exchanges, especially in the complex and ambiguous environment that causes many risks for various reasons due to political, economic, and cultural reasons. Such strategies can help deal with these uncertainties and risks. According to the previous studies in Iran, there are only few researches to analyze and assess export risk, which can be due to the dependence of the Iran economy on imports. Most research in this area has often examined the impact of a single risk. In this study, Miller model is considered as the basis for identifying risk factors. The output of this study is a network model of risks that Iranian exporters are faced with in the non-oil export sector.

    Methodology

    In this study, the risks were identified by reviewing the related research literature and the opinions of professional and academic experts were collected through a questionnaire to select the most important risks. Judgmental sampling was considered for this study and an online questionnaire was sent to 187 people in both stages where the first questionnaire was responded by 31 individuals and the second questionnaire by 18 individuals. In this study, the same 31 questionnaires were considered sufficient. Then, interpretive-structural modeling method was used in order to extract the relationships between these risks. Using SPSS software, the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of the initial questionnaire was reported 0.722 and the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of each item was higher than 0.7, which indicates that all the questions in the questionnaire are reliable. The second questionnaire was designed based on the outputs of the first questionnaire and the second questionnaire was analyzed using interpretive structural modeling.

    Findings

    The final model obtained from this study consists of 6 levels; it should also be noted that the higher level risks are less effective and are more likely to be affected by other barriers. Level one risks include changes in the pattern of society, changes in the amount of use by others, the elimination of pollution, product innovation and workforce, which indicates that these components are affected by their five sub-levels. On the other hand, level two risks include quality change in machinery, social unrest, job security, and motivation management. Monetary-financial reform, price control, shortage of complementary goods, process innovation, shortage of raw materials and the results of research and development activities are considered as level three risks. Level four risks include strikes, barriers to capital and money outflows, inflation, changes in consumers’ taste, and collection of debts. Level five risks include chaos, revolution, business restrictions, earthquake, interest rates, heavy rainfall, and technology. Finally, level six risks, which are considered as the last and the most influential factors, include war, government laws, and exchange rates.

    Conclusion

    Managers should note that the importance of risks will be different compared to each other in different environments and different conditions, and also in different stages of the product life cycle. Therefore, considering the type of organization and environmental conditions, the manager should pay attention to the risks with different prospecrives. Regarding the connections made between the risks, it can be seen that most of the risks are associated with a lot of communication and impacts, and no unnecessary or insignificant risks are found. Any type of defect or shortcoming in a risk can cause disruptions in the end result, which is the increase in non-oil exports. In other words, the obtained model indicates that the model should be viewed as a process or system and also all the related aspects should be taken into account as well.

    Keywords: risk, International risk, Export, Non-oil export, Structural modeling interpretation
  • Mostafa Esfandiari, Niloofar Imankhan *, Majid Fattahi Pages 727-747
    Objective

    Trademark is one of the most important intangible assets of the companies, which includes the brand name of the products and the brand name of the company. Due to the high level of competition in the market, a strong brand can help the company be distinguished from the market and explain why its products or services have the ability to meet the needs of customers in a unique way. Therefore, this study aims to analyze the customers’ behavior in the banking industry by examining the existing literature in the field of brand name based on the model derived in the research findings. The selected model can help the banking industry choose a reputable brand in the market and can also be of help in the process of creating a brand in the global market. Given the importance and necessity of this issue, the factors that influence the choice of a brand name should be examined to develop a native pattern based on existing and newly known variables.

    Methodology

    Mixed method was used in the present research including qualitative and quantitative analysis. The qualitative strategy of the present study is based on the grounded theory method (GTM) and the quantitative strategy is conducted using the structural equation model (SEM) based on the Glaser and Strauss model. The statistical population includes marketing and banking experts and managers (board members and managers of several private and public banks) to analyze customer behavior who were selected using theoretical sampling method. The structural equation modeling was conducted using partial least squares method based on variance. The statistical population, more than 100,000 people, includes the selected customers of Bank Mellat in Golestan province with a long history of working with the bank.

    Findings

    According to the codes which were obtained from the interviews, the 260 final codes were extracted in the form of 90 concepts and 23 main categories. As a result, the quantitative study dimensions including brand activities, brand performance, brand comparative evaluation and evaluation of brand behavioral principles related to brand evaluation variable were identified through customer behavior analysis (phenomenon-centered).

    Conclusion

    According to the findings of the qualitative part (the identified codes), the relationship between dimensions and variables and structural equation model of the research were confirmed using LISREL software. It was then found that the causal variable have an impact on effective and acceptable coefficient of significance, on the phenomenon-centeredness; besides, underlying conditions and interfering factors affect strategies and strategies on outcomes. The results of qualitative data analysis, based on grounded data theory, determined the conditions affecting the banks and financial institutions activities to develop a brand valuation model. According to the results, providing long-term benefits can lead to reduction of financial risk and maintaining and increasing liquidity while changing customers' attitudes, strengthens the need to identify expectations and patterns of customer attitudes and analysis. Creating a distinctive mental image in the minds of customers and strengthening the customer relationship management system are essential measures for survival and growth in the financial services market. In addition, the results of identifying the underlying conditions in developing a banking brand valuation model highlights the intensification of competition between banks, perceived risk, diversity of decision-making models based on individual differences of customers and the complexity of financial activities.

    Keywords: customer behavior, Brand evaluation, Banking Industry
  • Mozhde Valizade, Meysam Shirkhodaei *, Hamidreza Fallah Lajimi Pages 748-773
    Objective

    Theater in Iran, despite existing in the country for many years, has yet to establish the necessary connection with the society and has been unable to increase the number of the audience. Therefore, the lack of an adequate audience or the inability to attract a general audience in society is considered as one of the main problems of theater in Iran. On the other hand, in developing societies including Iran, there is a advertising gap in the field of theater, while experiences in many countries with active theater sector has shown that the use of organized advertising can change the basis of theater performance. There have been a few researches on advertising theater on social media as well as strategies to improve theater marketing. But, no research has been conducted to identify the methods affecting theater advertising on the Internet. Besides, the prioritization of these methods is not pursued in these studies. Therefore, the present study aims to fill the existing gap and identify the methods affecting theater advertising in the Internet environment, and finally to prioritize these methods considering the expansion of the Internet and its potential possibilities in theater advertising.

    Methodology

    The present study is applied in terms of purpose and uses a mixed exploratory approach consisting of two phases. The first phase was conducted using a qualitative research method through a case study strategy as well as qualitative content analysis with the aim of "identifying the methods of theater advertising on the Internet". For this purpose, semi-structured interviews with 14 experts in the field of marketing and theater were conducted. The second phase of the research was followed with a quantitative approach using the best-worst interval technique considering the experts’ opinion in the field of theater and marketing. Lingo and Excel software were used to prioritize the solutions identified in the previous step. The snowball sampling was used in this study. In addition, the present study examines three cases including the three theaters: "thirty", "Mississippi Dies Reclined" and "Miss Pistol".

    Findings

    The research findings indicated the identification of methods for online theater advertising. These methods include regular web-page advertising, newsmaking, step-by-step advertising, popular social media advertising, app marketing, email marketing, word-of-mouth internet marketing, tempting marketing, online guerrilla marketing, and inverse marketing. According to the analysis, "advertising on popular social networks" was the most important method of online theater advertising with the highest set of preferences followed by the "word-of-mouth Internet advertising". "Regular web-page advertising" was also ranked third; Thus, according to the results of prioritizing the categories using the best-worst interval method, newsmaking method, step-by-step advertising, tempting marketing, app marketing, online guerrilla marketing, inverse marketing and email marketing are among the other solutions introduced for the next priorities. Therefore, "advertising on popular social networks" is the most important category and "email marketing" is the least important category.

    Conclusion

    The methods identified in the present study are more comprehensive. Research findings also show that the "advertising on popular social networks" is more important than the other indicators in ranking online methods of theater advertising. "Internet word-of-mouth" is the next technique and its importance cannot be ignored. The "regular advertising on the web" is reported as the third most important technique. Thus, according to the results of prioritizing the categories using the best-worst interval method, newsmaking, step-by-step advertising, tempting marketing, app marketing, internet guerrilla marketing, inverse marketing and email marketing were introduced as the next priorities, respectively. In order to make a comparison between the findings of the present study with the efforts of other researchers, it can be said that the Internet along with traditional advertising provides an extremely substantial platform for theater art advertising. Theater groups and art institute's can benefit from the findings of the present study to attract the audience and interact more frequently and thus to increase the ticket fees which leads to an increase in revenue.

    Keywords: Art marketing, Internet theater advertising, Multi-Criteria Decision Making, Best-worst interval method
  • Tara Asgharkhani *, Rahim Mohtaram Pages 774-799
    Objective

    Export is considered as the driving force of economic growth for each country. Hence, identifying the effective factors of export performance is one of the most important measures for export success. Companies might encounter a variety of risks and uncertainties in international trade transactions much bigger than domestic trade which affect their performance during their international transactions. As a result, it generates additional transaction costs. Therefore, companies should take appropriate actions in order to face such risks. International trade is a form of international transaction that generates corporate profits through imports and exports. Because it is difficult to consider the environments of both exporting and importing companies, the researchers will just focus on exports and exporting companies in this research. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of characteristics of exporting companies, characteristics of export transactions and experience in trade claims through mediating role of trade risk management on export performance and to analyze the effects of characteristics of exporting companies, characteristics of export transaction and experience in trade claims on export performance in pharmaceutical exporting companies in Iran.

    Methodology

    The present survey study is applied in nature and descriptive in terms of purpose. The statistical population of the study consists of 48 pharmaceutical exporting companies in Iran. Joe and Pack’s (2017) questionnaire was used to collect the data; the content validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by the experts and it was localized afterwards. Besides, the convergence validity of the questionnaire was also confirmed using statistical methods. In addition, Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was calculated for the reliability of the questionnaire. The research hypotheses were tested using structural equation modeling in SPSS version 25 and SmartPls3 software.

    Findings

    The results showed that the characteristics of exporting companies, characteristics of export transactions and experience in trade claims have a direct and indirect significantly positive effect on export performance through the mediating variable of trade risk management. Moreover, the impact of trade risk management on export performance was positive and significant.

    Conclusion

    The characteristics of exporting companies have a significantly positive effect on export performance. Large companies can have high export performance due to the high division of labor in the organization and specialization. The characteristics of exporting companies have a significantly positive effect on trade risk management as well. Therefore, the second hypothesis of the research was confirmed. In fact, the larger the organization and the more experienced it is in exporting, the more likely it is to identify risks and react to them in a timely manner. Trade risk management has a significantly positive effect on export performance. Export performance can be expected to increase with the application of business risk management. The characteristics of exporting companies have a positive and significant effect on export performance through the mediating variable of trade risk management. In addition, characteristics of export transactions have a positive and significant effect on export performance. If the shipping methods are tailored to the type of goods as well as the distance and delivery time, the payment methods based on the factors such as economic and political conditions of the trading country, it is then expected to observe improvement in export performance. The characteristics of export transactions have a significantly positive effect on trade risk management. It is suggested that exporting companies choose appropriate transportation methods according to the type of export goods and time interval, and also consider the conditions to prevent failure or late receipt of transaction amounts in the international purchase and sale contract. Characteristics of export transactions have a positive and significant effect on export performance through the mediating role of trade risk management. To prevent failure in receipt of transaction funds, the use of export credit as a tool for trade risk management has a positive effect on export performance. Experience in trade claims has a significantly positive effect on export performance. If companies have experienced trade claims and disputes in international trade in the past, they can prevent such disputes from recurring with greater insight and awareness. Experience in trade claims has a significantly positive effect on trade risk management. In fact, the more business claims a company has, the higher their level of understanding of trade risks. It will, in turn, affect the trade risk management practices used by the company. Experience in trade claims has a positive and significant effect on export performance through the mediating variable of trade risk management. Therefore, if the company has experienced business disputes and lawsuits during its operation, it has the opportunity to timely identify potential and actual trade risks that could lead to disputes and take the necessary measures accordingly.

    Keywords: Export performance, Trade risk management, Experience in trade claims, Characteristics of exporting companies, Characteristics of export transactions
  • Morteza Soltanee, dariush tahmasebi Aghbolaghi * Pages 800-832
    Objective

    This study seeks to determine whether the strategic alliance of Tejarat bank with Fintech affects their efficiency. And also, does the mediating role of technological change and digital banking variables between the strategic alliances of Tejarat bank with Fintech affect efficiency?

    Methodology

    Orientation of applied research and in terms of purpose is descriptive that has used survey method to collect data and correlation method to analyze data. Data analysis was performed using SPSS tools and Smart PLS software.

    Findings

    The findings showed that the role of strategic alliance of Tejarat bank with Fintech with single fin on efficiency (T: 19/944), digital technology developments (T: 27/340) and digital banking (T: 72/374) and the role of digital technology developments (T: 4/439) Digital Banking
    (T: 8/161) confirmed efficiency. The indirect role of the mediating variables of digital technological developments (T: 121/362) and digital banking (T: 590/644) between the strategic alliance of Tejarat bank with Fintech and efficiency was also confirmed.

    Conclusion

    Strategic alliance between Tejarat bank and financial technologies will significantly reduce the costs of services and increase the efficiency of the bank so that communication with new financial technologies can lead to competitive advantage and control of the service market. The majority of the banks in Iran are operating based on traditional procedures and customers are looking for easy and affordable banking operations, so the alliance between the bank and Fin Techs has been able to gain customer satisfaction and generate revenue. The related activities will subsequently improve the banking efficiency. In recent years, the increasing use of digital technologies has had a major impact on many sectors, especially the banking sector. This rapid change is called the digital technological change. Therefore, digitization of Tejarat bank is one of the most important concerns of bank executives and managers. According to this research, Tejarat bank can provide digital transformation with strategic and bilateral unity between themselves and different areas of financial technology. Given that Tejarat Bank is one of the local banks that have provided the necessary platform for digital transformation, this process is possible through the sharing of emerging technologies such as Fintech and single Fintech startups. Digital transformation provides opportunities for non-traditional service delivery with the driving force that creates financial capacity in the financial services markets; these opportunities are either consolidated or in many cases can help achieve the desired result. Digital Banking is a new concept of e-banking that aims to enrich and improve online services along with the use of new digital technologies such as mobile and financial social networks. This has led to lower operating costs and reduced errors, market expansion and increased bank revenue sources. The change in the nature of the physical branches of the Tejarat bank is considered as a key point in the role of the strategic alliance between Tejarat bank and modern financial technologies on digital banking. In other words, the physical branches of a Tejarat bank will not be eliminated, but they will apply some changes in the business model.

    Keywords: Strategic alliance, Digital technology developments, Digital banking, Efficiency, Fintech