فهرست مطالب

  • سال هشتم شماره 3 (پاییز 1399)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/07/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 12
|
  • فهیمه عباسی*، الهه حجازی، رضوان حکیم زاده صفحات 1-24
    هدف این پژوهش، تحلیل ادراک معلمان ابتدایی در خصوص فرصت ها و چالش های تدریس در شبکه آموزشی دانش آموزان (شاد) بود. این مطالعه با استفاده از رویکرد کیفی و طرح پدیدارشناسانه صورت گرفت. به منظور گردآوری داده ها از مصاحبه کیفی نیمه ساختاریافته استفاده شد. با استفاده از نمونه گیری هدفمند، پس از انجام 21 مصاحبه اشباع داده ها حاصل شد. تحلیل عمیق دیدگاه های معلمان، موجب شناسایی و دسته بندی ده فرصت شامل: جبران عقب افتادگی تحصیلی در ایام قرنطینه، افزایش مسئولیت پذیری و درگیری بیشتر اولیا با فرآیند یاددهی-یادگیری دانش آموزان، افزایش سرعت انتقال اطلاعات و ارایه اطلاعات جدید، ایجاد انگیزه در معلمان برای ارتقاء سواد رسانه ای، شناخته شدن معلمان توانمند و خلاق و فراهم شدن زمینه ای برای به اشتراک گذاشتن فایل ها و تجارب معلمان، افزایش مسئولیت پذیری معلمان برای مطالعه بیشتر، جذاب و برانگیزاننده بودن استفاده از آن برای دانش آموزان، علاقه مند کردن دانش آموزان به دانش روز و پژوهش کردن، انعطاف پذیری در ساعت شروع کلاس و حذف ترددهای پرهزینه، پرورش خلاقیت در دانش آموزان برای ارایه تکالیف به شیوه ای نو و نه چالش شامل: عدم دسترسی همه دانش آموزان به فضای مجازی به ویژه در مناطق محروم و ایجاد نابرابری در فرصت آموزش، سنگین بودن هزینه های اینترنت برای خیلی از خانواده ها، کند بودن سرعت اینترنت، دشوار بودن سنجش یادگیری واقعی دانش آموزان و سلب شدن قدرت نظارت از معلم، اعتیاد برخی دانش آموزان به اینترنت و گوشی، استفاده بی جا و بی رویه از مطالب دیگران، عدم وقت گذاری برخی معلمان به امر تدریس و ارزیابی، استفاده از نرم افزار به عنوان ابزار تبلیغات، کاهش انگیزه برخی دانش آموزان نسبت به تحصیل در شیوه جدید تدریس گردید.
    کلیدواژگان: ادراک معلمان، شبکه آموزشی دانش آموزان، شاد، مدارس ابتدایی، رویکرد کیفی
  • فرهاد احمدی اصل*، سکینه شاهی، یدالله مهرعلیزاده، مقصود فراستخواه صفحات 25-44
    هدف

    هدف از اجرای این پژوهش شناسایی ابعاد یادگیری پوی پا در دانشگاه بود.

    روش

    روش پژوهش، آمیخته از نوع اکتشافی است. در بخش کیفی پژوهش از رویکرد تحلیلی بافت نگاری و در بخش کمی از روش توصیفی- همبستگی  استفاده شده است. در بخش کیفی پژوهش، مشارکت کنندگان پژوهش به روش هدفمند انتخاب و با 16 نفر از متخصصان حوزه آموزش عالی مصاحبه انجام شد. مشارکت کنندگان پژوهش در بخش کمی، شامل 120 نفر برای مرحله اول و 378 نفر از اساتید دانشگاه های دولتی برای مرحله دوم بودند که به روش طبقه ای و تصادفی ساده انتخاب شدند. ابزار گرداوری داده ها در بخش کیفی مصاحبه های نیمه ساختمند بود. قابلیت اعتماد مصاحبه ها از طریق باورپذیری، انتقال پذیری، اعتماد پذیری و تاییدپذیری بدست آمد. در بخش کمی ابزار گرداوری اطلاعات پرسشنامه محقق ساخته ای بود که روایی صوری، محتوایی و سازه آن سنجیده شد و ضریب آلفای کرونباخ جهت سنجش پایایی برای پرسشنامه 93/0 بدست آمد. در این پژوهش تجزیه و تحلیل داده ها به کمک دو نرم افزار SPSS و LISREL صورت پذیرفت.

    یافته ها:

     نتایج پژوهش نشان می دهد مولفه های یادگیری پوی پا در دانشگاه در چهار محور، یادگیری برای یادگرفتن، یادگیری برای انجام دادن، یادگیری برای با هم زیستن و یادگیری برای زیستن دسته بندی می شوند. یادگیری پوی پا به عنوان یکی از سیاست های آموزشی در اکثر کشورها مورد توجه سیاست گذاران و برنامه ریزان آموزشی قرار دارد.

    کلیدواژگان: یادگیری، یادگیری پویا، دانشگاه
  • سید عطاالله آزاده، رزگار محمدی* صفحات 45-74
    هدف

    پژوهش حاضر با هدف شناسایی مسایل مربوط به روابط معلم-دانش آموز از دیدگاه معلمان دوره ابتدایی شهر سقز انجام گرفت.

    روش

    این پژوهش به روش کیفی پدیدارشناسی انجام گرفت. جامعه مورد مطالعه شامل کلیه معلمان ابتدایی شهر سقز بود. نمونه مورد مطالعه ی پژوهش شامل 12 نفر از معلمان ابتدایی شهر سقز بود. به منظور گردآوری داده های پژوهش از مصاحبه نیم ساختاریافته استفاده شد. مصاحبه ها تا اشباع نظری ادامه یافت. به منظور تجزیه و تحلیل داده ها از تحلیل محتوای کیفی استفاده شد و به منظور کدگذاری از شیوه گدگذاری باز، محوری و انتخابی استفاده شد.

    یافته ها: 

    از دیدگاه معلمان مدیریت کلاس درس (تبعیض بین دانش آموزان، نحوه اداره کلاس درس، سبک های تدریس معلم، توجه معلم به دانش آموز، وجود فاصله بین معلم و دانش آموزان)، فضای فیزیکی و آموزشی (مناسب نبودن منابع آموزشی، فضای فیزیکی نامناسب کلاس درس)، مسایل فردی دانش آموزان (انگیزه پایین دانش آموزان، اعتماد به نفس پایین دانش آموزان)، نظام کلی آموزشی (مسایل مربوط به نظام آموزشی)، مسایل مربوط به والدین (روابط مدرسه و خانواده، عدم آگاهی والدین از فرایند صحیح آموزش، پیش داوری های والدین از معلم و مدرسه) و مسایل مربوط به معلم و کادر مدرسه (کمبود دانش و تجربه معلم، مسایل فردی معلم، عدم هماهنگی معلم و کادر مدرسه) به عنوان مولفه های مسایل روابط معلم-دانش آموز شناسایی شدند.

    کلیدواژگان: مسائل، روابط معلم-دانش آموز، پدیدارشناسی، معلمان ابتدایی
  • وحید زکی خانی، مجید سلیمانی*، سیروس احمدی صفحات 75-96

    هدف از این پژوهش بررسی اثر ظرفیت سازی سازمانی بر یادگیری پایدار با میانجی آموزش چندرسانه ای و نوآوری آموزشی در دانشکده های تربیت بدنی منتخب کشور بود. این تحقیق؛ از نظر نوع توصیفی- همبستگی، از نظر هدف کاربردی، از نظر روش جمع آوری داده ها میدانی می باشد. جامعه آماری را تمامی اساتید، مدرسان و مدیران دانشکده های تربیت بدنی دانشگاه های دولتی کشور تشکیل می دادند (حدود 500 نفر). برای نمونه گیری همه دانشکده ها به مثابه یک سیستم جامع علمی آموزشی تربیت بدنی در نظر گرفته شد. نمونه آماری به تعداد قابل کفایت برای آزمون مدل در نرم افزار اسمارت پی ال اس (10 تا 20 برابر سوالات مربوط به متغیر دارای بیشترین تعداد سوال) انتخاب شد (136 نفر). نمونه آماری به روش نمونه گیری به صورت تصادفی - خوشه ای از بین دانشکده های کشور انجام گردید. ابزار پژوهش، پرسشنامه ای (نیمه محقق ساخته) شامل 50 سوال (برای 4 متغیر اصلی و 11 بعد آن ها) در مقیاس 5 گزینه لیکرت بود. اعتبارسنجی پژوهش با استفاده از روش روایی محتوایی (10 صاحب نظر)، پایایی (آلفای کرونباخ) و روایی سازه (برازش مدل) ارزیابی و تایید گردید. نتایج مدلسازی نشان داد که هم اثر مستقیم و هم اثر غیر مستقیم (دو میانجی نوآوری آموزشی و آموزش چندرسانه ای) متغیر ظرفیت سازمانی بر یادگیری پایدار معنی دار بود اما اثر غیرمستقیم آن از اثر مستقیم بیشتر بود. براین اساس می توان گفت که متغیرهای ظرفیت سازمانی هر چند اثر قابل توجهی بر یادگیری پایدار دارد اما مداخله در متغیرهای میانجی اثر آن ها را در سیستم آموزشی بسیار بیشتر اعمال خواهد کرد.

    کلیدواژگان: مدیریت آموزشی، فناوری آموزشی، مدیریت نوآوری، رسانه آموزشی، علوم ورزش
  • عباس حضرتی*، سید احمد هاشمی، عباس قلتاش، علی اصغر ماشینچی صفحات 97-122
    هدف

    هدف از پژوهش حاضر طراحی الگوی برنامه درسی پژوهش کاربردی برای دانش آموزان دوره ابتدایی است.

    روش

    این پژوهش دارای رویکرد کیفی بوده و از روش گراندد تیوری به عنوان روش تحقیق استفاده شده است. حوزه مورد پژوهش شامل کلیه صاحب نظران و اساتید حوزه برنامه درسی، آموزش ابتدایی و مدیریت آموزشی بود که با روش نمونه گیری هدفمند، اساتیدی که شرایط مورد نظر را داشتند مورد مصاحبه نیمه-ساختاریافته و اکتشافی قرار گرفتند که با رسیدن به اشباع نظری یافته ها، تعداد نمونه های پژوهش به 15 نفر رسید. برای تجزیه و تحلیل داده های حاصل از مصاحبه، از روش های سه مرحله ای کدگذاری (باز، محوری و انتخابی) استراوس و کوربین (1992) استفاده شد و نهایتا" الگوی برنامه درسی پژوهش کاربردی برای دانش-آموزان دوره ابتدایی طراحی گردید.

    یافته ها: 

    نتایج حاصل از بررسی الگوی ارایه شده نشان داد که از میان مقوله های موجود در برنامه های درسی، محتوای پژوهش کاربردی، روش تدریس و روش ارزشیابی بعنوان عللی تلقی می شوند که نقشی فعال در الگوی برنامه درسی پژوهش کاربردی داشته و تا این عوامل مهیا نشوند برنامه درسی پژوهش کاربردی محقق نمی شود. همچنین بایستی تشویق های پژوهش محور دانش آموزان و برقراری ارتباط دانش آموزان با منابع علمی بعنوان راهبرد؛ و حمایت مدیران مدارس، طراحی ساختار مدارس براساس فعالیت های پژوهشی و مربیان آموزش دیده در حوزه تخصصی پژوهش کاربردی بعنوان تسهیل گر؛ و انگیزش، نگرش و ارزش های پذیرندگان و همچنین توسعه مهارت های پژوهشی بعنوان بستر در نظرگرفته شوند. قابلیت اعتماد یافته ها به روش های مشارکت طولانی و مشاهده مداوم در میدان تحقیق، بررسی همکاران و تایید مشارکت کنندگان تایید شد.

    کلیدواژگان: برنامه درسی، پژوهش کاربردی، دانش آموزان دوره ابتدایی
  • رضا مالمیر*، فرهاد سراجی، حامد عباسی کسانی صفحات 123-146

    هدف پژوهش حاضر، تبیین خلق محتوای الکترونیکی توسط معلمان در شبکه های اجتماعی بود. این پژوهش از نوع پژوهش های کیفی بود که در آن از روش پدیدارشناسی استفاده شده است. در این پژوهش ابتدا با 30 نفر از معلمان فعال در شبکه های اجتماعی مصاحبه نیمه ساختاریافته صورت گرفت که همگی به طور مشترک مدیریت کانال ها و ابر گروه های مختلف در شبکه های اجتماعی را بر عهده داشتند و با استفاده از روش نمونه گیری هدفمند ملاک محور انتخاب شدند. سپس با تشکیل دو جلسه گروه کانونی، معلمانی که گروه های فعال در زمینه خلق محتوا داشتند، پس از بحث و بررسی به تعداد 10 نفر انتخاب شدند و مصاحبه با این افراد شروع شد. تحلیل داده ها با استفاده از شیوه تحلیل مضمون و در قالب مضامین فراگیر، سازمان دهنده و مضامین پایه نمایش داده شد. یافته های پژوهش نشان می دهد که معلمان در شبکه های اجتماعی مجازی چهار نوع محتوا خلق می کنند: محتواهای مکتوب، بصری، تعاملی و دیجیتالی. همچنین انگیزه معلمان برای خلق محتوا در شبکه های مجازی شامل مواردی همچون مهارت آموزی، برقراری ارتباط و رفع نیاز کاربران، و خودابرازی هدف دار است. از طرفی دیگر نتایج پژوهش نشان داد که برای خلق محتوای الکترونیکی در شبکه های اجتماعی مجازی، معلمان به مهارت های فکری، هنری، و رایانه ای نیاز دارند.

    کلیدواژگان: خلق محتوای الکترونیکی، معلمان، شبکه های اجتماعی مجازی
  • محمد نظری پور*، سهیله احمد حسین صفحات 147-170

    هدف پژوهش حاضر بررسی نقش نظام آموزش حسابداری در توانمندسازی دانشجویان با میانجی گری فناوری اطلاعات در اقلیم کردستان عراق است. روش پژوهش مطالعه حاضر توصیفی از نوع همبستگی است. جامعه آماری پژوهش حاضر شامل اعضای هیات علمی و مدرسان شاغل به تدریس در گروه حسابداری دانشگاه های منطقه اقلیم کردستان عراق بود که تعداد آنان در حدود 250 نفر برآورد گردید. بنابراین در این پژوهش از روش نمونه گیری در دسترس استفاده شده است. داده های مورد نیاز پژوهش از طریق پرسشنامه محقق ساخته گردآوری شده است. برای بررسی روایی ابزار اندازه گیری پژوهش از روایی صوری، محتوایی و سازه و همچنین برای بررسی پایایی از ضریب آلفای کرونباخ و پایایی ترکیبی استفاده شده است. برای تحلیل داده ها از مدل یابی معادلات ساختاری در قالب نرم افزار اسمارت پی ال اس نسخه 3 استفاده شده است. در این پژوهش توانمندسازی شامل پنج مهارت: فنی و کارکردی، فکری، شخصی، ارتباطی، مدیریت کسب و کار می شود. براساس نتایج پژوهش حاضر نظام آموزش حسابداری بر هر پنج بعد توانمندسازی اثر مثبت و معناداری داشته که میزان اثرگذاری آن بر هر کدام از بعدهای توانمندسازی به ترتیب اهمیت عبارتند از: مهارتهای فکری (614/0)، مهارتهای فنی (584/0)، مهارتهای شخصی (505/0)، مهارتهای ارتباطی (456/0) و مهارتهای شخصی (449/0) است. همچنین نظام آموزش حسابداری از طریق متغیر فناوری اطلاعات بر تمام بعدهای توانمندسازی به استثنای مهارت فکری اثر مثبت و معناداری دارد.

    کلیدواژگان: نظام آموزش حسابداری، توانمندسازی دانشجویان، اقلیم کردستان عراق
  • انور شاهمحمدی*، مهری بهمنی صفحات 171-192
    یکی از مسایل مشهود در برخی از نواحی روستایی کشور، عدم تحصیل یا ترک تحصیل دختران روستایی است. موضوعی که چالش آور و بغرنج است. چرا که فرد از تحصیل و کسب پیشرفت های متعاقب زندگی محروم می ماند. پژوهش حاضر با هدف مطالعه عوامل موثر بر ترک تحصیل دختران در مدارس مناطق روستایی (کلاترزان و موچش) استان کردستان به انجام رسید. از روش کیفی مبتنی بر نظریه داده بنیاد استفاده شد. افراد مشارکت کننده 19 دانش آموز دختر که به صورت هدفمند و ملاک محور انتخاب بر مبنای شاخص اشباع نظری مطالعه شدند. ابزار گردآوری داده ها مصاحبه نیمه سازمان یافته بود. بعد از پیاده سازی متن مصاحبه های کیفی و استخراج دیدگاه مصاحبه شوندگان، محتوای متون مصاحبه ها براساس شیوه کد گذاری (باز، محوری و انتخابی) تحلیل شد. برای اعتبار و روایی داده ها از دو روش بازبینی مشارکت کنندگان و مرور خبرگان غیر شرکت کننده در پژوهش استفاده شد.یافته های پژوهش از 7 مقوله اثرگذار بر ترک تحصیل دختران روستایی حکایت دارد که شامل عوامل اقتصادی و معیشتی، عوامل محیط آموزشی، تعاملات معلم و شاگردان، ساختار معیوب خانواده، زمینه های فرهنگی و ارزشی، آسیب های تحصیلی و نگرش منفی به کارکرد سواد است، که در قالب عوامل علی، مداخله ای و زمینه ای راهبرد ها و پیامد ها بصورت مدل نهایی ارایه شده است. درنتیجه ضعف این عوامل که موجب ترک تحصیل دختران شده، بهبود عوامل استنتاجی از یافته های این پژوهش که در قالب مدلی ارایه شده است، پیشنهاد می شود.
    کلیدواژگان: ترک تحصیل، دختران روستایی، دسترسی به آموزش، توسعه آموزشی، عدالت آموزشی
  • سید مهدی حسینی*، دلشاد فایق حمه توفیق صفحات 195-216
    زمینه و هدف

    آموزش و پرورش کردستان عراق از 2015 برنامه آموزش علم به زبان انگلیسی را اجرا نموده است. تاکنون این برنامه در 11 مدرسه ابتدایی حلبچه اجرا شده است. با توجه به آثار این تغییر بنیادین بر کیفیت آموزش، بررسی چالش‌های چنین برنامه‌هایی اهمیت دارد. اما تاکنون چالش‌های پیاده کردن این برنامه بررسی نشده است. این پژوهش با هدف شناسایی چالش‌های اجرای این برنامه انجام شد.

    روش شناسی:

     این پژوهش با رویکرد کیفی و به روش پدیدارشناسی توصیفی انجام شد. از معلمان، دانش‌آموزان و والدین آنها مصاحبه به عمل آمد. ملاک انتخاب جامعه داشتن تجربه مرتبط با بحث پژوهش بود. برای تعیین حجم نمونه از اشباع نظری استفاده شد. تجزیه و تحلیل داده نیز به روش سه مرحله‌ای کدگذاری (باز، محوری و منتخب) انجام شد.

    یافته‌ها:

     نظر مصاحبه شوندگان این است که اجرای این برنامه از آغاز تاکنون دارای چالشهایی است که حل نشده باقی مانده است و هیچکدام از معلمان، دانش‌آموزان و والدین آنها اجرای این برنامه را موفقیت آمیز و همراه با تجربه مثبت ارزیابی نکردند. تحلیل محتوای مصاحبه‌ها بیانگر ضعف در مراحل برنامه‌ریزی و پیاده‌سازی آموزش علم به زبان انگلیسی در مقطع ابتدایی شهر حلبچه است.

    نتیجه‌گیری:

     وزارت آموزش و پرورش کردستان عراق برنامه‌ریزی منطقی و بلند‌مدت برای آموزش علم به زبان انگلیسی تدوین ننموده است. عوامل اصلی و مجری آموزش در تدریس دروس ریاضی و علوم ابتدایی از ابعاد مختلف ناتوان و بدون انگیزه هستند. محتوای دروس نامناسب است و ابزارها و بودجه کافی برای تهیه تجهیزات آموزشی تهیه نشده است.

    کلیدواژگان: شهر حلبچه، مقطع ابتدایی، آموزش علم، زبان انگلیسی، زبان دوم
  • سید محسن طباطبایی مزدآبادی *، آزاده قمری صفحات 217-235
    هدف

    هدف پژوهش حاضر، تبیین نقش فرهنگ سازمانی و رهبری تحول آفرین در گرایش به رفتار شهروندی سازمانی مدیران ستادی آموزش و پرورش شهر تهران است.

    روش

    این پژوهش، مطالعه‎ای توصیفی- همبستگی می‌باشد جامعه آماری پژوهش حاضر، شامل کلیه مدیران ستادی آموزش و پرورش شهر تهران در سال 1398 به تعداد 230 نفر است که از جامعه آماری مذکور، نمونه‌ای به حجم 143 نفر با به‌کارگیری فرمول نمونه‌گیری کوکران به صورت تصادفی ساده، انتخاب شد. جهت گردآوری داده‎ها از پرسشنامه فرهنگ سازمانی دنیسون (2000)، پرسشنامه رهبری تحول‌آفرین بس و آولیو (2000) و پرسشنامه رفتار شهروندی سازمانی پودساکوف (2000) استفاده شد‌. پایایی پرسشنامه فرهنگ سازمانی با ضریب آلفای کرونباخ 89/0، پرسشنامه چندعاملی رهبری 83/0 و پرسشنامه رفتار شهروندی سازمانی 84/0 تایید شد. توصیف و تحلیل داده‎ها با استفاده از روش‌های آماری ضریب همبستگی پیرسون و تحلیل رگرسیون گام‌به‌گام، انجام گردید.

    یافته‌ها

    نتایج پژوهش نشان می‎دهد که بین فرهنگ سازمانی و ابعاد آن (درگیر شدن در کار، سازگاری، انطباق‌پذیری و رسالت) با گرایش به رفتار شهروندی سازمانی مدیران ستادی آموزش و پرورش شهر تهران، همبستگی مثبت و معناداری وجود دارد و از بین ابعاد فرهنگ سازمانی، بعد رسالت، ‌‌پیش‌بینی‌کننده اصلی رفتار شهروندی سازمانی مدیران ستادی آموزش و پرورش شهر تهران است.

    کلیدواژگان: فرهنگ سازمانی، رهبری تحول آفرین، رفتار شهروندی سازمانی، مدیران آموزش و پروش، شهر تهران
  • سید علیرضا سید اردوبادی صفحات 236-252

    هدف این پژوهش آن است که سازه خوش‌بینی علمی و مولفه‌های آن در سازمان‌های آموزشی، در راستای نیل به یادگیری بیشتر فراگیران که منجر به عملکرد بهتر آنها می‌شود، واکاوی گردد. خوش‌بینی علمی در کلیه محیط‌های آموزشی؛ اعم از مدرسه، دانشگاه، سازمان‌، جامعه و...، قابل استفاده است و باوری مثبت در کادر آموزشی کلیه فضاهای آموزشی می‌باشد، مبنی بر اینکه آنها قادرند با تاکید بر یادگیری، با اعتماد به مشارکت فراگیران، با ایمان به ظرفیت و کارایی خود و فراگیران و با تلاش و پشتکار، سبب یادگیری بهتر فراگیران و ارتقای سطح دانش، مهارت‌ها و توانایی‌های آنها شوند. از این‌رو هدف پژوهش حاضر، تبیین نقش فرهنگ خوش‌بینی علمی در بهبود یادگیری فراگیران است. روش پژوهش، از نوع پیمایشی است و جامعه آماری، فراگیران دوره‌های آموزشی مدیریتی مناطق 22گانه شهرداری تهران در سال 1398 هستند که به روش نمونه‌گیری تصادفی خوشه‌ای چندمرحله‌ای، 400 نفر به عنوان نمونه پژوهش انتخاب شدند. برای گردآوری داده‌ها، از پرسشنامه محقق‌ساخته 24 سوالی، استفاده شد. این پرسشنامه از طریق مصاحبه با خبرگان و نظرخواهی از آنها احصا شد. روایی ابزار، از طریق روایی صوری و پایایی آن، از طریق آلفای کرونباخ، محاسبه و کفایت ابزار، محرز گردید. به منظور تجزیه‌و‌تحلیل آماری داده‌ها، از آزمون‌های t تک‌گروهی و تحلیل واریانس یک‌طرفه استفاده شده است. نتایج پژوهش نشان دادند که نقش فرهنگ خوش‌بینی علمی در بهبود یادگیری فراگیران بیشتر از حد متوسط است که مولفه کارآمدی گروهی بیش‌ترین تاثیر را بهبود یادگیری فراگیران دارد.

    کلیدواژگان: واکاوی، خوش بینی علمی، سازمان های آموزشی، یادگیری
  • صمد ایزدی*، فاطمه نجف نژاد، مصطفی عزیزی شمامی صفحات 253-282

    هدف از این پژوهش بررسی تاثیر اجرای رویکرد کلاس معکوس بر یادگیری، احساس تعلق، انگیزش و خودتنظیمی در مقایسه با رویکرد سنتی می باشد. روش پژوهش از لحاظ هدف از نوع کاربردی و از نظر ماهیت در زمره تحقیقات شبه آزمایشی قرار دارد. جامعه پژوهش، دانش آموزان پایه ششم دوره ابتدایی شهر بابلسر به تعداد 1450 نفر در سال تحصیلی 97-96 می باشد. نمونه گیری از میان مدارسی که در طرح تدریس تخصصی شرکت کرده اند انجام شد، بطوری که در گروه کنترل 30 نفر و در گروه آزمایش نیز 30 نفر همتاسازی شدند. ابزارهای مورد استفاده در پژوهش سه پرسشنامه استاندارد انگیزه یادگیری(توان، چین و شی)،احساس تعلق به مدرسه (بری، بتی و وات)، انگیزش پیشرفت (واینر)، و پرسشنامه خود تنظیمی (بوفارد) و برای سنجش تاثیر رویکرد کلاس معکوس بر یادگیری دروس علوم و ریاضی از آزمون محقق ساخته به عنوان پیش آزمون و پس آزمون استفاده گردید. برای تجزیه و تحلیل اطلاعات نیز از روش های آمار توصیفی و استنباطی (تحلیل کواریانس و آزمون تی مقایسه میانگین ها) استفاده شده است. یافته ها نشان دادکه رویکرد کلاس معکوس بر متغیر پیشرفت تحصیلی علوم (با مقدار f=0.00) و ریاضی (با مقدار f=0.010) تاثیر معناداری داشته است. در رابطه با انگیزه یادگیری علی رغم تاثیر معنا دار در برخی مولفه های انگیزه یادگیری، اما به طور کلی (مقدار f=0.554) رویکرد کلاس معکوس در انگیزه یادگیری علوم و ریاضی موثر نبوده است، اما استفاده از رویکرد کلاس معکوس در مقایسه با رویکرد سنتی بر متغیرهای احساس تعلق، انگیزش و خودتنظیمی تاثیر مثبت داشته است.

    کلیدواژگان: رویکرد کلاس معکوس، انگیزه یادگیری، احساس تعلق، انگیزه پیشرفت، خودتنظیمی
|
  • Fahimeh Abbasi *, Elaheh Hejazi, Rezwan Hakimzade Pages 1-24
    The new coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has complicated state of affairs around the world. Originating from the Wuhan’s China in mid-September, COVID-19 has gradually spread to all countries across the world. The World Health Organization issued a statement declaring the outbreak of coronavirus to be a public health emergency that posed a threat to the entire world. Although different age groups and social classes are threatened by COVID-19, care for and control of educational environments have been amongst the first safety measures of the crisis-stricken countries due to the student high population, high classroom density, use of shared spaces and facilities and, in turn, health consequences and high probability of transmitting the virus through this group to all members of the community. Million children and young people were forced to drop out of school due to widespread closure of educational institutions by governments to slow down the spread of coronavirus. Some countries closed all schools resulting in negative impacts on students in pre-school to senior high school levels.  Following the crisis of coronavirus in different parts of the world, the outbreak of the disease in Iran was officially confirmed on February 20th, 2019. Considering the high population of Iranian students, shortly after the outbreak of coronavirus in the country, schools faced closure. However, government's motto during the shutdown was that although schools and universities are closed, but teaching and learning continues. Accordingly, various strategies were designed to continue educational and research goals, mainly based on cyberspace and distance learning. In this way, the Students Educational Network (SHAD) was launched by the Ministry of Education to organize the students' virtual education. SHAD is similar to real schools in the structure; i.e. students can enter their virtual classrooms and teacher carries on and monitors the process of teaching and learning according to the class timetables set by the principal. Moreover, school principals and administrative staffs are responsible for monitoring virtual classrooms and the students' attendance in the classes. Teaching lessons by the teachers constituted the main content of the virtual education on SHAD, but the teachers have been free to choose the appropriate educational content and resort to: the recorded TV educational programs uploaded on Telewebion for about a month, contents offered by the Roshd network affiliated with the Organization for Educational Research and Planning (OERP), sharing contents with other educational groups, using programs developed by educational groups and the curriculum secretariats, etc. Despite offering promising educational prospects of distance learning, SHAD has also posed certain challenges for the teachers. Their most important criticism was related to the application's technical infrastructure, especially its low speed Acknowledging the drawbacks of SHAD, some education experts have referred to the opportunities of this network including: motivating teachers to use technology, identifying and introducing capable and creative teachers, sharing the experiences and knowledge of capable teachers, expanding educational justice by sharing educational contents from/to different parts of the country, being an official network for monitoring different levels of education, creating opportunities to empower teachers and turning school principals into policy makers, as well as identifying efficient and inefficient school principals. Despite the identification of positive and negative outcomes of SHAD in various journals, there is a lack of comprehensive studies on the issue and scientific investigation on the application. Therefore, the present study tried to, objectively and regardless of any judgment, uncover and represent the perceptions and beliefs of teachers regarding the opportunities and challenges of primary education in the Students Educational Network (SHAD). The study reconstructed the semantic understanding of teachers about strengths and challenges of teaching in the SHAD network through phenomenological approach. Semi-structured interviews conducted on 21 teachers. Due to the fact that this study was conducted during the outbreak of coronavirus and during the quarantine period of the disease, all interviews were conducted on the phone. Each interview lasted 45 to 60 minutes. Although qualitative interviews with a limited number of participants cannot be statistically generalizable to the wider population, it serves to dispose hidden and generally forgotten layers and aspects in education. The results of the present study revealed a host of teacher problems when teaching on SHAD, which requires intelligent development and restoration by related organizations. In sum, in-depth analysis of teachers' opinions eventuated in the identification of 10 strengths in two categories of teacher-centered and student-centered strengths and nine challenges in the three categories of infrastructure and technical challenges, challenges created in the teaching-learning process and socio-cultural challenges. Benefits of virtual classes including compensating for school lost days during quarantine days; increasing parental responsibility and engagement with students' teaching-learning process; increasing the teaching speed of new and updated information; motivating teachers to promote media literacy; recognizing capable and creative teachers; providing a platform for teachers to share files and experiences; increasing teachers' responsibility to study more; to be appealingand motivating for students to use; making students interested in up-to-date knowledge and research; flexibility in classroom time and the elimination of costly traffic; and fostering creativity in students to present assignments in unique ways. In addition, nine deficiencies were revealed that can be improved including lack of access to cyberspace for some students especially in disadvantaged areas that creates inequality in education opportunities; high internet costs for many families; slow internet speed; difficulty in measuring students' real learning and teachers' deprivation of their complete supervisory; internet and cell phone addiction in some students; inappropriate use of other people's content; teachers' negligence in teaching and assessment; using SHAD application for advertisement; motivation reduction in some students to study in this new way of learning.  Taking these challenges and opportunities into account, SHAD can be applied as a good supplement to the traditional education after the reopening of the schools. Given the school shutdown and the continuation of formal education through cyberspace, it seems that distance learning (e-learning) might become a crucial element in future education systems which warrants governments' attention. Employing virtual teaching in tandem traditional schooling guarantees learning in students. Combining the strengths of both face-to-face and online learning methods, which is known blended learning or the 21st century strategic approach, has the potential to improve the quality of students' learning.
    Keywords: Teacher Perception, Student Educational Network, SHAD, Elementary Schools, qualitative approach
  • Farhad Ahmadiasl *, Sakineh Shahi, Yadullah Mehralizadeh, Maghsoud Farasatkhah Pages 25-44

    Learning can result from formal, non-formal or informal interactions (Chris Duke & Hinzen, 2010). Because learning occurs every day and during every period of life, finding appropriate nomenclature for how, where, and why people learn has spawned many new phrases in the literature including life-long, life-wide, and life-deep learning (Bell, 2012). There are many signs of change in educational system including; new climate of classrooms, textbooks and resources, physical space, co-location of educators and learners, bounded curriculum (Siemens & Matheos, 2010), online learning, new learning and teaching style, new funding mechanism, new organizing and controlling and changing interaction between families and educational systems. These signs are only some of the new trends in educational systems. In information era, based on changes in work places, educational systems have some emerging features including; Continuous progress, out coms base learning, individualized testing, performance - based assessment,  personal learning plans, cooperative learning, teachers as coach or facilitator of learning, thinking, problem solving skills and meaning- making communication skills. Education can take place in formal, non-formal and informal venues (Chris Duke & Hinzen, 2010). Formal education is a process of transforming knowledge, skills, and abilities and is typically delivered by trained teachers within schools, colleges, universities or official institutions with defined stages. This kind of education need systematic planning, organizing insight of formal educational systems, spanning lower primary school and the upper reaches of the university (La Belle, 1982). Non-formal education are placed outside the formal systems and plays supportive roles in beside of formal education, in fact person attending these forms of education makes it for own reasons (Tudor, 2013), for example community-based sports programs, professional conferences and continuing professional development.  Informal education deals by every time and everywhere experience that are not organized or systematic (Etling, 1993). There is no segmentation for informal education but Formal education is commonly segregated formally into such stages as kindergarten, primary school, secondary school and higher education. Change in the environment is inevitable, constant and dynamic. Change is the result of new and evolving technologies, efforts toward globalization, demographic shifts, moves toward environmental sustainability, urbanization, social and cultural changes, shifts in the labor markets and economic and political challenges (Deegan & Martin, 2018).  In light of inevitable change and in order to retain vibrancy, organizations must not only acknowledge the need for change but also be willing and able to exchange outdated inefficient structures for more robust adaptable alternatives. In information era, based on changes in work places, educational systems have some emerging features including; Continuous progress, out coms base learning, individualized testing, performance - based assessment,  personal learning plans, cooperative learning, teachers as coach or facilitator of learning, thinking, problem solving skills and meaning- making communication skills.

    Method

    This research was a mixed study with exploratory method. A qualitative design with recontextualization approach was selected to carry out the research. Semi structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 16 educational experts. Data were analyzed using inductive coding of phrases and words from participant interviews and documents analysis. The reliability of the interviews was obtained through credibility, transferability. The descriptive-correlational method applied in the quantitative part. The research participants included 120 for the first stage and 378 public university professors for the second stage who were selected by stratified and simple random sampling. The study used the researcher-made survey questionnaire as a principal tool for gathering data. Face validity, content validity and construct validity (exploratory factors analysis) were used for studying validity. The reliability of it was calculated via Cronbach's alpha. The quantitative data have been analyzed by descriptive and inferential tests (exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis).

    Results

     The quantitative and qualitative results of this study classified the components of lifelong learning into four pillars: learning to learn, learning to do, learning to live together and learning to be. Lifelong learning is becoming a necessity in many countries educational policies and these countries have ongoing strategies for extolling lifelong learning pillars in their universities. These pillars combined with personal responsibility are required for attainment of LLL goals (Nesbit, Dunlop, & Gibson, 2013).  The pillars are key features of lifelong learning that offer systemic learning, learner centralization, emphases on motivation, and a focus on multiple objectives in the learning process (OECD, 2001). In our model, these four pillars illustrate the open loop process for lifelong learning. Based on our model, the lifelong learner start her/his learning in informal shape then they enter formal educational systems (kindergarten, primary school, secondary school and higher education), After passing successfully all stages,  people come back to the complex milieu and play role in the labor market or society. This is not the end of the story, facing with new learning needs in workplaces, emerging new technology and demands in labor markets push people to go to the formal educational system to be updated with new conditions. Maybe this open loop cycle be continued until the human die.  Lifelong learning is a process of learning that happen in all human life and includes all formal, non-formal and informal learning. Considering needs for specific skills and competencies in future Lifelong learning includes all forms of learning that develop individuals’ knowledge, skills and critical thinking abilities through interactions with the environment. Increasingly LL and education are becoming important to career success in higher education (Moxley, Najor-Durack, & Dumbrigue, 2001). There are six characteristic elements that are necessary to support a lifelong learning in higher education: 1) overarching regulatory, financial, and cultural/social frameworks 2) strategic partnerships and linkages 3) research 4) teaching and learning processes 5) administrative policies and mechanisms 6) student support systems and services (United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization, 2001). Responding to subsequently changes in Higher education missions, changes in the educational environment and shifting needs cause that higher education will be different from the way it is today and there will be mass adoption of learning styles and methods in universities and colleges. Universities and colleges will have to undertake an important role in responding to the demand for LLL (Jongbloed, 2002), So lifelong learning included a combination of formal and informal learning in higher education.

    Keywords: Learning, Lifelong learning, University
  • Seyed Ata Azadeh, Rezgar Mahmoodi * Pages 45-74
    Introduction & Objective

    Most of the teaching activities are done in the classroom by the teacher. Shaping each and every process and process in the classroom requires specific ways of doing it that make it easier to achieve the desired goals. One of the most important topics in relation to teaching and learning is the type of teacher-student relationship. Skills in building good relationships with others enhance our abilities and confidence, showcase our talents and achievements and earn the respect and appreciation of others (Tileston, 2010). Creating a rational teacher-student relationship in the school's network and communication system is an inevitable necessity that makes it successful in education (Farhadiyam, 2014). According to Liberante (2012), teacher-student relationships are one of the strongest elements of the learning environment. Teacher-student relationships form the foundations of the social context in which learning takes place and is a major factor affecting students' development, involvement in school, and their academic motivation (Hughes & Chen, 2011; Spilt, Koomen & Thijs, 2011; Roorda & et al, 2011). Many studies have found that a positive relationship with teachers promotes student growth and development (Hughes & Kwok, 2006). In contrast, a negative relationship with teachers impedes student growth and development (Birch & Ladd, 1997). Teacher-Student Relationships Provide a unique entry point for educators and teachers to improve the classroom learning and social environment. When children enter formal school environments, communication with the teacher becomes the basis for successful adaptation to the social and academic environment (Hamre & Pianta, 2006). Close relationships with teachers lead to healthy socio-emotional development and also lead to school adjustment and school success, and negative relationships lead to adverse outcomes including behavioral problems, school dislike, and adjustment problems (Pianta, Nimetz & Bennett, 1997). Importantly, studies that have recently examined the student-teacher relationship with the risk of students entering high school have not found a direct relationship between the student-teacher relationship and the risk of dropout, but there is a strong relationship between student achievement and performance with student-teacher relationships (Lessard, Poirier & Fortin, 2010). In general, school research emphasizes that good communication and dialogue between teacher and student nurtures greater awareness of student status, their needs, and potentials, as well as enhance opportunities for individual educational goals (Berg, 2007; Cited in Ottosena, Goll & Sorlie, 2017). Also, good teacher-student communication fosters student personal growth and identity (Nordahl, 2010; Whannell & William, 2011) and reduces the risk of dropout when students feel that there is a collaborative partnership with the teacher and the school (Christensson & Thurlow, 2004). Good teacher-student relationships are important for students with poor financial standing, students with poor performance, and students who are at risk for academic incompatibility. In order for teachers to be in the best position to meet students' learning needs, it has been emphasized that they have to demonstrate the ability to take care of students and that they are actively and eagerly committed to teaching supportive learning (Hattie, 2009). This implies that a good teacher is capable of adapting to each student's perspective and directs meaningful instruction to progress on a particular subject and to achieve the goals of the program (Ottosena, 2017). There have been various studies on teacher-student relationships. In a qualitative study, they showed that teacher-student relationships were associated with student dropouts. Claessens & et al (2017) Showed that teachers often define the quality of the relationship with the level of intimacy, rather than the level of mastery (control vs Lack of power). Soo (2016) identified four themes from the interview data: (1) Participant’s notions of ‘positive’ classroom management consisted of having students be involved and engaged in the classroom, which was manifested through a positive classroom environment, (2) Participants emphasized the importance of connecting with students both within and outside the classroom, noting its significance in effectively managing a classroom, (3) The teachers recognizing that student empathy towards their teachers and peers is an outcome of strong relationship building, drawing on the idea of teacher ‘disappointment’ in student behavior and how it can be used to effectively manage the classroom, and (4) The participant’s realized limitations and challenges of using the relationship-building approach towards classroom management. As students spend much of their time in the classroom with the teacher, and many of the problems associated with the teacher-student relationship occur in the classroom, it can be expected of teachers to be familiar with the underlying problems and be able to provide them with different solutions. Therefore, the aim of this research is to identify the problems of teacher-student relationships from the viewpoints of primary school teachers in the city of Saqez. In this research we want to answer the following question in a qualitative and in-depth way:  From the teachers' point of view, what are the components of the teacher-student relationship problem?

    Method

    This research was carried out in the qualitative-phenomenology method. The statistical population included all primary school teachers in Saqez city. The sample consisted of 12 primary school teachers. A semi-structured interview was used to collect the data. The interviews continued until the theoretical saturation, and in interview No. 12 theoretical saturation was obtained and no other interview was conducted. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the data and was used open, axial and selected coding for coding data.

    Results

    The results of the analysis of the interviews indicated 16 axial codes and 6 selected codes. From teachers' point of view, classroom management (discrimination between students, classroom management, teaching styles, teacher's attention to the student, distance between teacher and student), physical and educational space (inappropriate educational resources, inadequate physical space in the classroom), individual problems of students (low motivation of students, low self-esteem of students), General Educational System (Issues of the Educational System), parents' problems (school and family relationships, parents' lack of awareness of the correct process of education, parents' preferences from teacher and school), And problems with the teacher and the school staff (lack of teacher knowledge and experience, teachers 'personal problems, teachers' and school staff disagreements) were as a components of the problems of teacher-student relationships.

    Conclusion

    According to the results of the study it can be said that besides the teacher-student relationships are influenced by the problems in the classroom there are also problems and problems that are outside the scope of the classroom and are not within the scope of the teacher and student, so they cannot control these.

    Keywords: Problems, Teacher-student relationship, Phenomenology, Elementary teachers
  • Vahid Zakikhani, Majid Solymani *, Sirus Ahmadi Pages 75-96

     According to environmental evidence, today in the country, the performance of the university is smoothly criticized and monitored. Expectations from universities go beyond student education and knowledge production and are referred to as leverage in national development. There are differences in these expectations in different disciplines and in proportion to the markets, systems and societies corresponding to these disciplines. In the meantime, more applied and interdisciplinary sciences are in the focus of several dimensions. Whether or not universities use a specialized and appropriate approach in the interdisciplinary sciences has created a challenge for various fields Sports science is one of the dynamic, interdisciplinary and applied fields in higher education. sports Faculties should be able to meet the scientific and educational needs of the sports community to play an important role in the development of sports. Achieving such a thing is no longer possible with the current capacity of these colleges and due to traditional methods of education and research, and there is a need for new and multidimensional methods. In fact, in line with the developments and advances in higher education at the international level, the faculties of sports sciences should provide the necessary ground for more and better participation of students and teachers in the educational process to achieve sustainable learning, and this requires the benefit of innovation. And educational technologies. The aim of this research was the effect of organizational capacity building on Sustain learning with mediator role of Multivariate Educational and educational innovation at the Selected sports sciences Faculties in Iran. Based on the review of the background, the study of these variables in the field of sports science has been very limited and the analysis of the relationships between these variables in all disciplines has been very limited attention of researchers.

    Methodology

    This research is descriptive-correlative, In terms of practical purpose and in terms of data collection method field. The statistical population consisted of all professors, lecturers and administrators of the sports science's colleges of the state universities (About 500 people). The statistical sample was adequately selected (10 to 20 times as many variable query questions) for testing the model in PLS software (136 persons). All colleges were designated as a comprehensive science education system for sampling. Statistical sampling was done by random-cluster sampling from the faculties of the country. The research tool was a questionnaire (Semi-standard) containing 50 questions (for 4 main variables and 11 dimensions) on a 5-point Likert scale. Content validity (10 experts), reliability (Cronbach's alpha) and construct validity (model fitting) were evaluated and validated.

    Results

    Modeling results showed that Dimensions of managerial capacity (0.84), cultural capacity (0.83), entrepreneurial capacity (0.83), resource capacity (0.70) and scientific capacity (0.67) have a significant role in explaining capacity building, respectively. They were organizational. In the multimedia education variable, the dimensions of multimedia technology (0.94) and multimedia culture (0.89) had a significant role in explaining the effect, respectively. Methodological (0.94) and content (0.93) dimensions also had a significant role in explaining educational innovation, respectively. The dimensions of learning continuity (0.89), learning significance (0.87) and professional learning community (0.87) had a more significant role in explaining sustainable learning, respectively. The test of direct relationships between variables in the model showed that organizational capacity building with coefficients of 0.72, 0.25 and 0.28, respectively, has a direct and significant effect on multimedia education, educational innovation and sustainable learning. Multimedia education with a coefficient of 0.60 and 0.32 has a direct and significant effect on educational innovation and sustainable learning. Finally, the variable of educational innovation with a coefficient of 0.37 has a direct and significant effect on sustainable learning. The test of indirect relationships between variables in the model showed that the indirect effect of organizational capacity on sustainable learning through educational innovation and multimedia training was significant with coefficients of 0.35 and 0.45, respectively. results showed that both direct and indirect effects (two mediators of educational innovation and multimedia educational) of organizational capacity variable on sustainable learning were significant but its indirect effect was more than direct effect. Based on this, it can be said that although organizational capacity variables have a significant effect on sustainable learning, intervention in mediating variables will have much more effect on the educational system.

    Conclusion

    Physical education schools, like other organizations, are made up of different components and different relationships between them that are interacting with each other. Hence, management in such a system would be very complex and incomprehensible. Models help managers to better understand the integrity of the system by simplifying the whole system, to better categorize problems, and to have a better chance of finding the right answers. in general, in explaining the convergence between the analyzed variables, it can be said that based on the research findings, it can be said that organizational capacity building can increase the educational system (innovation, multimedia and learning) in the organization. But much of its ultimate effectiveness depends on the dimensions of the education system (innovation and multimedia). Therefore, it is necessary for the management of the country's sports sciences faculties to know the mentioned variables and the relations between them in order to improve their educational system, and to consider their integrated performance mechanisms in the implementation of programs and actions. The research model can be studied and interpreted in a multilevel and systematic way. Based on this, it can be said that the mentioned variables flow from the structural level to the functional level of the faculties (capacity building, innovation, multimedia, stabilization). Therefore, in order to achieve proper educational performance, it is necessary to manage these colleges while improving the level, scope and intensity of the effect of these variables as much as possible. Explaining the application of research results, it can be said that the educational management of sports schools does not have sufficient quantitative and qualitative models to measure and requires an acceptable method to identify the risks that the weaknesses of the educational system impose on learning. Models such as the results of this study can better determine the degree of adaptation between how new educational approaches.

    Keywords: educational management, Educational Technology, Innovation Management, Educational Media, physical Education
  • Abbas Hazrati *, Seyyed Ahmad Hashemi, Abbas Gholtash, AliAsghar Mashinchi Pages 97-122
    Aim

    The researcher's purpose in the present study is to design a pattern of the applied research curriculum for Elementary Students.

    Method

    This research has a qualitative approach and the research Grounded Theory has been used as research method. The study area included all experts and professors in the field of curriculum, primary education and educational management who were semi-structured and exploratory interviewed by purposeful sampling method, professors who had the desired conditions that with the theoretical saturation of findings, the number of research samples reached 15. To analyze data from the interview, three-step coding methods (open, pivotal, and selective) of Strauss and Corbin (1992) were used and finally applied research curriculum pattern was designed for primary school students.

    Results

    The results of study of presented model showed that among available categories, the content of applied research, teaching method and evaluation method are considered as causes that have an active role in applied research curriculum and if these factors are not prepared, the applied research curriculum is not realized. Also It should have been providing research-focused students encourages and connect students with scientific resources as strategies and support for school principals, designing school structures based on research activities and trained instructors as facilitators and motivators, attitudes and values of acceptors, and also developing research skills as a infrastructure. The reliability of the findings was confirmed by long-term participation methods and continuous observation in the research field, review of colleagues and confirmation of participants.

    Keywords: Curriculum, applied research, elementary students
  • Reza Malmir *, Farhad Seraji, Hamed Abbasi Kasani Pages 123-146

    The purpose of this study was to explain the creation of electronic content by teachers in social networks. Phenomenological method used in this qualitative research. In this study, conducted a semi-structured interview with 30 teachers active in social networks who all jointly managed different channels and super groups in social networks using the method of Purpose-based sampling was selected. Then, with two focus group sessions, teachers with active content creation groups selected, after 10 discussions, and interviews started. Data analysis presented using content analysis method in the form of universal themes, organizers and basic themes. Research findings show that teachers create four types of content in virtual social networks: written, visual, interactive, and digital content. Teachers' motivation for creating content in virtual networks also includes skills such as training, communicating and meeting user needs, and targeted self-improvement. On the other hand, the results showed that teachers needed intellectual, artistic, and computer skills to create electronic content in virtual social networks.

    Keywords: Electronic Content Creation, teachers, virtual social networks
  • Mohammad Nazaripour *, Suhayla Ahmad Hussein Pages 147-170

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of accounting education system in the students' empowerment with the mediating role of information technology in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. The research method was a descriptive correlational study. The research population consisted of full time and adjunct professors in the accounting department of the Universities of Iraqi Kurdistan Region, whose number was estimated at about 250. In this study, convenience sampling method was used. The required data were collected through a researcher-made questionnaire. Face, content and construct validity were used to assess the validity, as well as Cronbach's alpha coefficient and composite reliability were used to assess the reliability of the research measurement tool. Partial least squares structural equation modeling was used to analyze the data. In this study, empowerment includes five skills: technical and practical, intellectual, personal, communication, and business management. According to the research findings, accounting education system has a positive and significant effect on all five dimensions of empowerment. The extent of its impact on each of the dimensions of empowerment are: intellectual skills (.614), technical skills (.584), personal skills (.505), communication skills (.456) and personal skills (.449). Also, the accounting education system through the information technology has a significant and positive effect on all aspects of empowerment except intellectual skills.

    Keywords: Accounting education System, Students' Empowerment, Kurdistan Region of Iraq
  • Anvar Shahmohammadi *, Mehri Bahmani Pages 171-192
    The acquisition of knowledge is the starting point of human development and the move of societies towards sustainable development. That is why in today's societies with lower education rates, they face more problems and their progress is slower. Access to education and continuing education is one of the challenges facing many girls in Iran, especially in rural areas. One of the prominent issues in some rural areas of the country is the lack of education or dropout of rural girls. It's a challenging and complicated subject. Because one is deprived of education and the subsequent development of life. Addressing disadvantaged areas to improve the general conditions of girls and women is a top priority for all communities. At the national level, the transition from elementary to middle school is 90% for boys and 80% for girls. Cultural barriers also prevent girls from continuing their education after elementary school. Women in rural areas also face challenges. In urban areas, the literacy rate of women is about 82 percent, while in rural areas it is about 62 percent. Other challenges include lack of broad participation, lack of access to information, knowledge and resources, domestic violence, and low levels of participation in development programs. One of the criteria for growth and development is literacy and equitable distribution of equal educational opportunities and opportunities among different segments of society in order to achieve educational justice. Given the importance of educating women and girls, identifying the factors that influence education in this area may be incomplete for future generations. Investing in girls' education is not only a moral necessity, but a very important one in the development of the country.The present study was a qualitative research in which the conceptual model of the factors influencing the desertion of rural girl’s qualitative method based on Grounded Theory was used. Participants in the study were middle and high school dropout girls in the villages of Clatterzan and Mouchesh. The reason for choosing them as the research community was that because of their dropout experience, they all had a more tangible and closer relationship with the factors influencing their dropout. They had girls. So, based on their experiences and perspectives, we can have a more realistic understanding of these factors. For this purpose, criterion and purposeful sampling method were used to evaluate the opinions of the sample members. The criterion for selection was mainly the girls' dropout experience and then the purposeful selection of those who volunteered to participate in the study. The sample size was 19 according to the theoretical saturation of the data, and the process of selecting participants continued until theoretical saturation. The research tool consisted of semi-structured interviews in order to gain insight into the opinions of the study participants. The interview was asked a broad general question such as "What was the reason for leaving school" and then exploratory questions such as "Please explain more" were asked to encourage participants and gain more in-depth information. Interviews ranged from 20 to 60 minutes. Data were analyzed by triple coding method. Finally, the findings were shared with some of the participants in order to assess the final validity, and to assure the reliability of this process, a faculty reviewer with experience of qualitative work was used.The findings of the study indicate 7 factors affecting the education of rural girls, including Economic and livelihood factors, educational environment factors, teacher-student interactions, defective family structure, cultural and value backgrounds, academic impairments, and negative attitudes toward literacy function that in the form of causal, intervention and contextual factors, strategies and outcomes are presented as the final model. First, there are economic and livelihood challenges. Factors that can be addressed by entering into adulthood and employment or marrying girls and renouncing public or university education. Challenges such as financial poverty, livelihoods, low income, lack of education, family need, and seasonality of family income are some of the factors that have been effective in dropping out of rural girls. The second category is the cultural and value attitudes of the parents that have been influenced by the causal factors of the dropout phenomenon along with the causal factors. Components such as poor parental supervision, paying attention to the preference of being a housewife, marrying over education, not allowing girls to continue their education in nearby villages, early puberty, the taboo of male teachers, fear of moral hazards Being mixed with boys and girls, the girl's perception of women is one of the components mentioned by the study subjects. The third category is that the educational environment, teacher-pupil interactions, and the defective family structure as interfering factors have also influenced the phenomenon of rural girls leaving school alongside causal factors. Issues such as a lack of school or separate learning environments, lack of transportation services, traffic hazards, distance between school and home, inappropriate behavior of teachers and classmates in the event of dropout, teacher displacement, change or displacement. School environment, unemployed peers, lack of interest in continuing education, male and sometimes single teachers, distance to school and home, maternal illness, parental oversight, parental illiteracy, death or absence of a parent, lack of male children. In Family, Parental Age, Family Population Frequency of Influential Components in Rural Girls' Education Are. Another result of this study is the category of academic injuries. In fact, this category is the result of the interaction of causal, interventionist, and contextual categories. These interactions have led girls to strategies such as repeated absences, poor schooling, a lack of interest in continuing education, and blaming parents and the school system for inactivity against learning or poor schooling. Therefore, the interaction of the previous passages has led to a strategy for girls to be passively educated. As a result, the weakness of these factors, which has led to the dropout of girls, suggests the improvement of the inferential factors from the findings of this study, which is presented as a model. Therefore, in order to prevent girls from dropping out of the social capital of society, in addition to providing a model.
    Keywords: Dropout, Rural girls, Access to education, Educational development, Cultural Development
  • S. Mahdi Hosseini *, Dlshad Faiq Hama Tofiq Pages 195-216

    Since 2015 in Kurdistan Region Government, English is used as Medium for Instruction to teach Science to elementary schools. This program is implemented in Halabjeh province, too. But so far no research has been done to show what Challenges teachers, students and their parents encounter in practice. The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the lived experiences of teachers, students and teachers in Halabjeh city in the field of science education with English language as a Medium for Instruction. This study was conducted with qualitative approach and phenomenological method. Semi-structured interviews were used for data collection and three-stage open, axial and selective coding was used for analysis. The findings of this study show that teachers, students and their parents are not satisfied with the results of this project. Teachers do not have the necessary skills (specialization in science, teaching with English language) to teach science and math courses, students are unable to communicate, understand text and do homework and are not psychologically interested and motivated to continue their education. Parents are unhappy with their children's upbringing and worry about their low spirits. Finally, the conceptual model outlines the reasons for the challenges of science education in English. Keywords: bilingual education, elementary school, Halabjeh city, science education, English as a Medium Instruction (EMI) Since 2015 in Kurdistan Region Government, English is used as Medium for Instruction to teach Science to elementary schools. This program is implemented in Halabjeh province, too. But so far no research has been done to show what Challenges teachers, students and their parents encounter in practice. The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the lived experiences of teachers, students and teachers in Halabjeh city in the field of science education with English language as a Medium for Instruction. This study was conducted with qualitative approach and phenomenological method. Semi-structured interviews were used for data collection and three-stage open, axial and selective coding was used for analysis. The findings of this study show that teachers, students and their parents are not satisfied with the results of this project. Teachers do not have the necessary skills (specialization in science, teaching with English language) to teach science and math courses, students are unable to communicate, understand text and do homework and are not psychologically interested and motivated to continue their education. Parents are unhappy with their children's upbringing and worry about their low spirits. Finally, the conceptual model outlines the reasons for the challenges of science education in English. Keywords: bilingual education, elementary school, Halabjeh city, science education, English as a Medium Instruction (EMI) Since 2015 in Kurdistan Region Government, English is used as Medium for Instruction to teach Science to elementary schools. This program is implemented in Halabjeh province, too. But so far no research has been done to show what Challenges teachers, students and their parents encounter in practice. The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the lived experiences of teachers, students and teachers in Halabjeh city in the field of science education with English language as a Medium for Instruction. This study was conducted with qualitative approach and phenomenological method. Semi-structured interviews were used for data collection and three-stage open, axial and selective coding was used for analysis. The findings of this study show that teachers, students and their parents are not satisfied with the results of this project. Teachers do not have the necessary skills (specialization in science, teaching with English language) to teach science and math courses, students are unable to communicate, understand text and do homework and are not psychologically interested and motivated to continue their education. Parents are unhappy with their children's upbringing and worry about their low spirits. Finally, the conceptual model outlines the reasons for the challenges of science education in English. Keywords: bilingual education, elementary school, Halabjeh city, science education, English as a Medium Instruction (EMI) Since 2015 in Kurdistan Region Government, English is used as Medium for Instruction to teach Science to elementary schools. This program is implemented in Halabjeh province, too. But so far no research has been done to show what Challenges teachers, students and their parents encounter in practice. The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the lived experiences of teachers, students and teachers in Halabjeh city in the field of science education with English language as a Medium for Instruction. This study was conducted with qualitative approach and phenomenological method. Semi-structured interviews were used for data collection and three-stage open, axial and selective coding was used for analysis. The findings of this study show that teachers, students and their parents are not satisfied with the results of this project. Teachers do not have the necessary skills (specialization in science, teaching with English language) to teach science and math courses, students are unable to communicate, understand text and do homework and are not psychologically interested and motivated to continue their education. Parents are unhappy with their children's upbringing and worry about their low spirits. Finally, the conceptual model outlines the reasons for the challenges of science education in English. Keywords: bilingual education, elementary school, Halabjeh city, science education, English as a Medium Instruction (EMI) Since 2015 in Kurdistan Region Government, English is used as Medium for Instruction to teach Science to elementary schools. This program is implemented in Halabjeh province, too. But so far no research has been done to show what Challenges teachers, students and their parents encounter in practice. The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the lived experiences of teachers, students and teachers in Halabjeh city in the field of science education with English language as a Medium for Instruction. This study was conducted with qualitative approach and phenomenological method. Semi-structured interviews were used for data collection and three-stage open, axial and selective coding was used for analysis. The findings of this study show that teachers, students and their parents are not satisfied with the results of this project. Teachers do not have the necessary skills (specialization in science, teaching with English language) to teach science and math courses, students are unable to communicate, understand text and do homework and are not psychologically interested and motivated to continue their education. Parents are unhappy with their children's upbringing and worry about their low spirits. Finally, the conceptual model outlines the reasons for the challenges of science education in English. Keywords: bilingual education, elementary school, Halabjeh city, science education, English as a Medium Instruction (EMI)

    Keywords: bilingual education, Elementary School, Halabjeh city, science education, English as a Medium Instruction EMI
  • Seyed Mohsen Tabatabai Mazdabadi *, Azadeh Ghamari Pages 217-235

    By examining the organizational culture, the possible reaction of employees to organizational changes can be evaluated, predicted and guided, changes can be facilitated and new developments in the organization can be sustained. Transformational leadership creates the most effective organization by creating emotional contexts and contexts. One of the reasons for the success of large organizations is that they have employees who go beyond their formal duties; That is, employees who exhibit organizational citizenship behaviors. The purpose of this study is to explain the role of organizational culture and transformational leadership in the tendency to organizational citizenship behavior of education managers in Tehran.This study is a descriptive-correlational study that examines the tendency of education managers in Tehran to organizational citizenship behavior, based on two variables of organizational culture and transformational leadership. The statistical population of the present study includes all managers of education staff in Tehran in 1398. From the statistical population, a sample of 143 people was selected using a simple random sampling formula of Cochran. Denison's Organizational Culture Questionnaire with 60 questions, Afrenbass and Olivier Transformation Leadership Questionnaire with 20 questions and Podsakov Organizational Citizenship Behavior Questionnaire with 24 questions were used to collect data.The reliability of the organizational culture questionnaire with Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.89, the multi-factor leadership questionnaire with Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.83 and the organizational citizenship behavior questionnaire with Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.84 were confirmed.Data were described and analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient and stepwise regression analysis. The results show that there is a positive and significant correlation between organizational culture and its dimensions (involvement in work, adaptation, adaptability and mission) with the tendency to organizational citizenship behavior of Tehran education managers and among the dimensions of culture Organizational, after mission, is the main "predictor" of organizational citizenship behavior of Tehran education staff managers.The results also show that there is a positive and significant correlation between transformational leadership and its dimensions (personal consideration, mental motivation, inspirational motivation and ideal influence) with the tendency of organizational citizenship behavior of Tehran education managers and among the dimensions of leadership The transformational, motivational dimension has the greatest ability to predict the tendency to organizational citizenship behavior.
    Organizational culture is a set of values, beliefs, perceptions and inferences and ways of thinking and thinking in which the members of the organization have common features and it is what is taught to new members of the organization as a phenomenon and represents the value system. Is an organization and acts as a behavioral norm for employees. Recognition of organizational culture as an important necessity is a priority in the activities of managers of organizations, because with accurate knowledge of organizational culture and familiarity with its characteristics, management can organize its short-term, medium-term and long-term plans and face the challenges. And prepare the competition and increase its probability of success and survival rate.
    In today's challenging world, organizations strive to hire employees who go beyond their assigned role and role in order to compete globally, meet customer needs and expectations, and adapt to the changing nature of the job; Because it is believed that these behaviors are reflected beyond the role in performance appraisal, affect employee participation in programs and can be said to be an effective factor in job involvement, organizational commitment and self-esteem.
    In today's management literature, behaviors beyond the role of employees that are spontaneous and conscious are referred to as "organizational citizenship behavior." A good organizational citizen is an idea that includes a variety of employee behaviors; Such as accepting and assuming additional duties and responsibilities, the role and adherence to organizational rules and procedures that contribute to the effective performance of the organization. According to the mentioned contexts and the tendency to organizational citizenship behavior is one of the basic necessities of organizations, the present study explains the role of organizational culture and transformational leadership tendency to organizational citizenship behavior of Tehran education staff managers and for this purpose tries to Answer the following questions:1- Is there a significant relationship between organizational culture and its dimensions (involvement in work, adaptation, adaptability and mission) with the tendency to organizational citizenship behavior in the managers of education headquarters in Tehran?
    2- Is there a significant relationship between transformational leadership and its dimensions (mental persuasion, ideal influence, inspirational motivation and personal consideration) with the tendency to organizational citizenship behavior in the directors of education in Tehran?
    3- Do the predictive dimensions of organizational culture (involvement in work, adaptation, adaptability and mission) have the ability to predict the tendency to organizational citizenship behavior in the education managers of Tehran?
    4- Do the predictive dimensions of transformational leadership (subjective persuasion, ideal influence, inspirational motivation and personal consideration) have the ability to predict the tendency to organizational citizenship behavior in the managers of Tehran's education headquarters?
    Findings from explaining the role of organizational culture and transformational leadership in the tendency to organizational citizenship behavior showed that there is a positive and significant correlation between the two variables of organizational culture and tendency to organizational citizenship behavior and also between the two variables of transformational leadership and tendency to organizational citizenship behavior.
    In other words, the more attention is paid to organizational culture and transformational leadership in Tehran education, the more likely they are to increase their tendency towards organizational citizenship behavior. This finding indicates the obvious need for the tendency towards organizational citizenship behavior in variables such as organizational culture and transformational leadership in education in Tehran, which is also mentioned in the statements of Asgari et al. (2008) and Modasir and Singh (2000). . Findings showed that there is a positive relationship between organizational culture and its components and with the tendency to organizational citizenship behavior of managers.
    If the Department of Education engages its managers in decision-making and policy-making and plans for team building and development of managers' capabilities, and also managers are aware of the core values of the organization and are aware of And if there is internal integration and external adaptability in education and managers are aware of the mission and philosophy of existence, mission, goals and strategies, these cases will cause organizational citizenship behavior of education managers.
    Also, if the senior managers of the education department have a positive relationship with the middle managers of their subdivisions, influence them and encourage them towards organizational goals, consider mutual respect, increase the motivation of their followers to work and differentiate. Individuals of their followers should pay attention to the tendency of organizational citizenship behavior in followers.

    Keywords: organizational culture, transformational leadership, organizational citizenship behavior, education managers, Tehran