فهرست مطالب

تدریس پژوهی - سال نهم شماره 1 (بهار 1400)
  • سال نهم شماره 1 (بهار 1400)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1400/01/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 12
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  • ارسلان رحمن نژاد، جهانگیر یاری حاج عطالو*، صادق ملکی آوارسین، رفیق حسنی صفحات 1-22

    پژوهش حاضر با هدف تحلیل ساختاری سکوت سازمانی بر اساس ادراک از رفتارهای سیاسی و حسادت سازمانی با نقش میانجی سازگاری شغلی کارکنان دانشگاه پیام نور استان آذربایجان غربی انجام گرفت. این پژوهش از نظر هدف کاربردی و از نظر ماهیت و روش توصیفی همبستگی از نوع مدل یابی علی(مدل یابی معادلات ساختاری) می باشد جامعه آماری کلیه کارکنان دانشگاه پیام نور استان آذربایجان غربی در سال 1398 که تعداد آنها 347 نفرمی باشند روش نمونه گیری تصادفی طبقه ای نسبتی که بااستفاده از جدول مورگان 216 انتخاب شدند..برای گردآوری اطلاعات از چهار پرسشنامه استاندارد استفاده شد.روایی محتوایی و سازه ای پرسشنامه ها تایید و پایایی پرسشنامه ها به ترتیب 76/0،88/0،75/0 ،88/0بدست آمد به منظور ارزیابی روابط بین متغیر ها مکنون و اندازه گیری شده در الگوی مفهومی،از مدل یابی ساختاری داده ها با استفاده از نرم افزار PLS3 استفاده گردید.یافته های مطالعه حاضرحاکی از نقش معنی دار بین متغیرها،بجز رفتارسیاسی بر سازگاری می باشد و همچنین نتایج حاکی از تایید نقش میانجی سازگاری شغلی و در روابط علی بین حسادت سازمانی با سکوت سازمانی بود

    کلیدواژگان: سکوت سازمانی، ادراک از رفتارهای سیاسی، حسادت سازمانی، سازگاری شغلی، کارکنان دانشگاه پیام نور
  • رضا ابدلم*، عباس قلتاش، فائزه ناطقی صفحات 23-42
    هدف

    هدف از این تحقیق اعتبار سنجی برنامه درسی مبتنی بر شایستگی عمومی برای دوره دوم متوسطه نظری بود.

    روش ها

    روش تحقیق از نوع آمیخته اکتشافی (کیفی-کمی) بوده که داده های آن به شیوه میدانی و با استفاده از پرسشنامه جمع آوری گردید. جامعه آماری شامل متخصصان برنامه ریزی درسی و کلیه دبیران و کارشناسان دوره متوسطه نظری استان فارس که در این زمینه صاحب نظر بودند، می باشد. نمونه آماری در بخش کمی در دو مرحله انتخاب گردید در ابتدا 10 نفر از متخصصان برنامه ریزی درسی به صورت هدفمند انتخاب و سپس از بین کلیه دبیران وکارشناسان دوره متوسطه نظری استان فارس که در زمینه برنامه ریزی درسی صاحب نظر بودند 80 نفر به عنوان نمونه آماری به روش نمونه گیری تصادفی ساده انتخاب شدند. ابزار اندازه گیری برای جمع آوری داده های، در مرحله کیفی شامل تحلیل محتوای قیاسی و در مرحله کمی پرسشنامه ای است که بر اساس یافته های بخش کیفی تدوین شده است که روایی صوری پرسشنامه مورد تایید 15 تن از اساتید علوم تربیتی همچنین پایانی آن ها با استفاده از ضریب آلفای کرونباخ برای کل پرسشنامه 92/0 α= مورد تایید قرار گرفت. داده ها با استفاده از تحلیل محتوای کیفی با نظام مقوله بندی قیاسی و روش های کمی از جمله تحلیل عاملی از طریق نرم افزار SPSS تحلیل شدند.

    کلیدواژگان: اعتبارسنجی، برنامه درسی، شایستگی عمومی، دوره دوم متوسطه نظری
  • شهرزاد سرخوش*، علیرضا صادقی، بتول فقیه آرام، حسن شعبانی، رزیتا ذبیحی صفحات 43-72
    هدف

    هدف پژوهش حاضر، شناسایی مولفه ها و عناصر برنامه درسی مبتنی بر پرورش مهارت حل مسئله و ارایه الگوی بهینه برای دوره پیش دبستانی بود.

    روش

    این پژوهش به صورت کیفی و مبتنی بر نظریه پردازی داده بنیاد است. پژوهش حاضر در دو مرحله اجرا شد، اول: کشف مولفه های مهارت حل مسئله و دوم: شناسایی عناصر برنامه درسی پرورش مهارت حل مسئله و ارایه الگوی برنامه درسی با استفاده از عناصر نه گانه کلاین برای دوره پیش دبستانی. جامعه پژوهش از متخصصان برنامه درسی، روانشناسان تربیتی و مربیان پیش دبستانی تشکیل شد. نمونه گیری به روش هدفمند از نوع گلوله برفی بود. از هر گروه با یک نفر واجد معیارهای مشخص، مصاحبه نیمه ساختاریافته انجام و نفر بعدی توسط وی معرفی و مصاحبه ها ادامه یافت تا اشباع نظری با 36 نمونه، حاصل شد و داده ها براساس روش استراوس و کوربین در سه مرحله کدگذاری باز، محوری و گزینشی تجزیه و تحلیل گردیدند.

    یافته ها:

    نتایج در مرحله اول، کشف10مولفه مهارت حل مسیله: خودآگاهی، تشخیص مسیله، سازماندهی، تجزیه وتحلیل، ارزیابی، پرورش مهارتهای تفکر، مهارتهای اجتماعی و... بود. در مرحله دوم عناصر برنامه درسی مبتنی بر پرورش مهارت حل مسئله شامل اهداف(شناختی، نگرشی، عملکردی)، محتوا(سازماندهی، روش های ارایه)، روش تدریس(سنتی، فعال)، فعالیت یادگیری(انفرادی، گروهی)، مواد آموزشی(ویژگی، انواع منابع)، فضا(ویژگی های فیزیکی، تجهیزات)، زمان(مدت زمان، توجه به آمادگی و سن)، گروه بندی(توجه به ماهیت مسیله، جنسیت، سن، ناهمگنی، تعداد اعضا) و ارزشیابی(توجه به تفاوت فردی، فرآیندی، کمی، توصیفی) شناسایی و الگوی بهینه دوره پیش دبستانی ارایه شد.

    کلیدواژگان: مهارت حل مسئله، الگوی برنامه درسی، دوره پیش دبستانی
  • سید جمال بارخدا*، پرستو احمدحیدری صفحات 73-98

    آموزش مجازی و تدریس در این فضا همراه با بروز پاندومی کرونا در یک سال اخیر، یکی از مهم ترین مسایل موردنظر و به نوعی موجود در سیستم آموزشی کشور به صورت عام و دانشگاه ها به صورت خاص بوده است. بر این اساس محققان در پژوهش حاضر به بازنمایی تجارب دانشجویان دانشگاه کردستان از چالش ها و مشکلات تدریس در فضای مجازی در یک سال اخیر پرداخته اند. رویکرد پژوهش حاضر کیفی بوده و بر اساس روش داده بنیاد انجام یافته است. میدان تحقیق کلیه ی دانشجویان دانشگاه کردستان بوده است. مشارکت کنندگان در پژوهش 55 نفر از دانشجویان در هر سه مقطع کارشناسی، کارشناسی ارشد و دکتری بوده که به صورت هدفمند موردبررسی قرارگرفته اند. ابزار پژوهش مصاحبه های نیمه ساختارمند بود. تجزیه وتحلیل داده های پژوهش در فرآیند سه مرحله ای کدگذاری باز، محوری و انتخابی انجام شده است. نتایج پژوهش نشان داد که چالش های دانشجویان در پنج دسته ی اصلی شامل موارد مربوط به تعاملات کلاسی، مدیریت کلاس درس، کنترل و ارزشیابی، زیرساخت های ارتباطی و پارازیت های محیطی دسته بندی می شوند. درنهایت مدل اصلی پژوهش بر اساس داده های حاصل از پژوهش و الگوی سیستمی نظریه داده بنیاد ارایه شده است.

    کلیدواژگان: چالش ها، آموزش مجازی، تدریس، پاندمی کرونا
  • ابوالقاسم یعقوبی*، افشین افضلی، مریم پلنگی صفحات 99-120

    هدف این پژوهش ساخت و اعتباریابی آزمون تشخیصی نارسانویسی برای دانش اموزان پایه اول، دوم و سوم ابتدایی بود. جامعه پژوهش را دانش آموزان مشغول به تحصیل در مدارس ابتدایی شهر همدان تشکیل می دادند، از جامعه هدف 332 نفر (175 عادی و 157 نارسانویس) به عنوان نمونه انتخاب گردید. پس از ساخت آزمونها و اجرا بر روی نمونه ها، پایایی آزمون 91/0 محاسبه شد که در سطح مطلوبی می باشد. برای بررسی معناداری تفاوت میان نمرات گروه نارسانویس و عادی از آزمون T مستقل استفاده شد که بر اساس نتایج، تفاوت میان دو گروه در سطح آلفای 01/0 معنادار بود. به منظور سنجش روایی ملاکی از روش چند روش چند صفت استفاده شد، که به این منظور چک لیستی از نشانگان توسط متخصصین برای گروه نارسانویس تکمیل شد در کلیه موارد همبستگی مولفه های هم نام در چک لیست و آزمونها معنادار و بالاتر از مولفه های غیر همنام بود. به منظور بررسی روایی محتوایی از تحلیل عاملی تاییدی استفاده شد، که بر اساس نتایج کلیه شاخصهای برازش مدل در حد مطلوبی بود، و بارهای عاملی کلیه مولفه ها نیز قابل قبول بودند

    کلیدواژگان: اختلالات خاص یادگیری، نارسانویسی، املاء، اعتباریابی آزمون تشخیصی، روایی محتوایی آزمون تشخیصی
  • محمد رضا یوسف زاده* صفحات 121-134
    هدف
    هدف پژوهش بررسی تاثیر روش آموزش مبتنی بر ناسازی معنایی بر مهارت نوشتن خلاق دانش آموزان بود.
    روش
    روش پژوهش شبه آزمایشی با طرح پیش آزمون -پس آزمون با گروه کنترل بود. جامعه آماری کلیه دانش آموزان پسر سال اول دوره دوم متوسطه ناحیه دو همدان در سال تحصیلی 98-97 بودند که تعداد کل آن ها 1021 نفر بود. با استفاده از روش نمونه گیری خوشه ای مرحله ای 32 نفر دانش آموز پسر پایه اول دوره دوم متوسطه به عنوان نمونه آماری انتخاب شدند و به صورت تصادفی به دو گروه آزمایش و کنترل تقسیم شدند. ابزار اندازه گیری آزمون محقق ساخته بود. این آزمون دارای 20 سوال بود. برای سنجش روایی ابزار از روایی محتوی CVR استفاده شدوبراین اساس سوالات در اختیار 12 نفر از معلمان رشته ادبیات فارسی قرار گرفت و.میزان روایی محتوایی 79/. محاسبه شد که براساس جدول لاوشه از روایی محتوایی لازم برخوردار بود. برای سنجش پایایی از آزمون آلفای کرونباخ استفاده شد و میزان آن 81/. محاسبه شد. برای تجزیه وتحلیل داده ها از شاخص های آمار توصیفی و آزمون آماری کالموگروف- اسمیرونف، آزمون لوین و تحلیل کوواریانس استفاده شد و داده ها با استفاده از نرم افزار آماری SPSS مورد تجزیه وتحلیل قرار گرفتند.یافته ها: نتایج نشان داد بین میزان مهارت نوشتن خلاق دانش آموزانی که به روش ناسازی معنایی آموزش دیده اند با مهارت نوشتن خلاق دانش آموزانی که به روش عادی آموزش دیده اند، تفاوت معنی دار وجود داشت. به عبارت دیگر روش آموزش ناسازی معنایی میزان مهارت نوشتن خلاق دانش آموزان را افزایش داده است.
    کلیدواژگان: ناسازی معنایی، فضای دهنی، شیکه معنایی، نوشتن خلاق
  • رحمان بدری، فیروز محمودی*، علی ایمانزاده، یوسف ادیب صفحات 135-153
    پژوهش حاضر با هدف توصیف تجارب زیسته معلمان از آسیب ها و چالش های برنامه درسی کلاس های چندپایه دوره ابتدایی انجام شد. مطالعه حاضر در سال تحصیلی 98-99 با رویکرد کیفی، از نوع پدیدار شناسانه، با نمونه گیری هدف مند و با مصاحبه عمیق نیمه ساختار یافته با 19 نفر از معلمان کلاس های دوره ابتدایی استان آذربایجان شرقی انجام گرفت. راهبردهای اعتباربخشی به داده ها با استفاده از چندسویه سازی، بازبینی اعضاء و درگیری طولانی مدت پژوهشگر در جریان مصاحبه انجام شد. در این پژوهش ابتدا کدهای باز و جزیی شناسایی شده و با کنار هم قراردادن آن ها بر اساس روابط بین آن ها کدهای محوری و کلی تر ایجاد شده اند پس از این روند استقرایی، مجددآ کدهای باز شناسایی شده و کدهای بازی که بعد شناسایی شدند به صورت انتخابی در زیر مفاهیم محوری ایجاد شده یا مفاهیم محوری ای که بعدا ایجاد و یکپارچه شدند قرار گرفتند. تجزیه و تحلیل متن مصاحبه ها به صورت دستی و با استفاده از الگوی کلایزی انجام شد. یافته های تحقیق نشان داد که چالش اصلی کلاس های چندپایه، استفاده نکردن از معلمان با سواد تخصصی کلاس های چندپایه، نبود مدیریت نظام جبران خدمات مناسب معلمان، چالش های جانبی کلاس های چندپایه و محاسن و معایب کلاس های چندپایه می باشد. مطابق با یافته ها، این نتیجه بدست می آید که می توان با طراحی الگوی مناسب آموزش در کلاس های چندپایه و بکارگیری نظام مناسسب جبران خدمات، بر اغلب چالش های کلاس های چندپایه غالب شد.
    کلیدواژگان: چالش های برنامه درسی، کلاس های چندپایه، تجارت معلمان کلاس چندپایه
  • رضا معصومی نژاد*، غلامحسین میکائیلو، امین شیخکانلوی میلان، کیمیا شیخه صفحات 154-173
    هدف

    هدف از مطالعه حاضر تعیین شاخصه های روایت پژوهی به عنوان یک فعالیت معلم محور بود که باعث رشد حرفه ای دانشجویان- معلمان در مدارس ابتدایی می شود.

    روش

    رویکرد تحقیق کیفی از نوع تحلیل مضمون با تاکید بر داده محوری بود. جامعه آماری شامل کلیه دانشجویان شاغل در دانشگاه فرهنگیان شهید مطهری خوی در سال تحصیلی 1400-1399 بوده است که 18 نفر از آنان به صورت نمونه گیری هدفمند از نوع همگون مورد مطالعه قرار گرفتند. در این راستا مصاحبه های نیمه سازمان یافته ای از آنها صورت گرفت و نمونه گیری تا اشباع داده ها ادامه یافت. برای اعتبار سنجی یافته ها از روش خود بازبینی محقق، تکنیک کنترل اعضا و توصیف غنی داده ها استفاده شد. در تجزیه و تحلیل داده ها، فرایند 3 مرحله ای ترکیبی متشکل از روش کینگ و هاروکس (2010)، براون وکلارک (2006) و آتراید- استرلینگ (2001) مورد استفاده قرار گرفت.

    یافته ها

    یافته ها نشان داد که در شبکه مضامین، مولفه های هویت پذیری عملی، خودپژوهی، آگاهی معلمان و کاوشگری آموزشی مضامین فراگیری هستند که با 17 مضمون سازمان دهنده و 161 مضمون پایه می توانند شایستگی ها و صلاحیت های حرفه ای دانشجو- معلمان را تحقق بخشند. نتایج نشان داد که روایت پژوهی چارچوب آموزشی نوآورانه ای است که می تواند قابلیت های معلمان را در حوزه های مختلف علمی توسعه دهد و زمینه عکس العمل مطلوب آنها را در برخورد با مسایل آموزشی فراهم سازد.

    کلیدواژگان: روایت پژوهی، توسعه حرفه ای، دانشجو- معلمان
  • انور حاجی زاده*، قادر عزیزی، جواد کیهان صفحات 174-204
    پژوهش حاضر با هدف تحلیل فرصت ها و چالش های آموزش مجازی در دوران کرونا و رهیافت توسعه آموزش مجازی در پساکرونا انجام شد. روش تحقیق، کیفی از نوع پدیدارشناسی و با استفاده از راهبرد اکتشافی انجام شده است. جامعه پژوهشی شامل تمامی معلمان مقطع ابتدایی مهاباد در سالتحصیلی 1400/99 بوده که 31 نفر به صورت هدفمند و با رعایت قاعده اشباع نظری داده ها انتخاب شدند. ابزار گردآوری داده ها مصاحبه نیمه ساختار یافته بود. و بعد از کسب رضایت معلمان مصاحبه ها به صورت ناشناس ضبط و پیاده گردید. تجزیه و تحلیل داده ها بر اساس تحلیل مضمون و با رویکرد تفسیری انجام گردید. برای اعتباریابی اطلاعات جمع آوری شده از تکنیک بازخورد به مصاحبه شوندگان، بازنگری پژوهشگر، هم راستایی با منابع پژوهشی و اسناد مکتوب استفاده گردید. یافته های تحلیل مضامین نشان داد که 262 مضمون پایه، 37 مضمون سازمان دهنده و 4 مضمون فراگیر شناسایی شد، در این راستا مشکلات موجود و چالش های آموزش مجازی شامل 18 مضمون، فرصت های آن شامل 4 مضمون، پیامدها شامل 5 مضمون و راهکارهای توسعه آموزش مجازی شامل 10 مضمون سازمان دهنده می باشد. با توجه به نتایج تحقیق می توان گفت پاندمی کرونا از یک طرف باعث افزایش مهارت و تجربه آموزشی کلیه ذینفعان شده و از طرفی دیگر آسیب های جسمانی، روانی، افت تحصیلی، فرسودگی شغلی را به بار آورده است، اما با پیش بینی الزامات و نیازها، برنامه ریزی و سیاست گذاری وبازنگری جدی در منابع انسانی، مالی و پشتیبانی می توان آموزش مجازی را توسعه داد و در آینده به عنوان مکمل آموزش حضوری بنحو احسن از آن بهره جست.
    کلیدواژگان: آموزش مجازی، فرصت های آموزش مجازی، چالش های آموزش مجازی، محتوای آموزش مجازی
  • امیرعلی برومند، مهدی کلاهی* صفحات 205-233
    با توجه به بحران آب در ایران، آموزش الگوی مصرف مسوولانه آب به دانش آموزان ضروری است. هدف پژوهش حاضر، سنجش محتوای آموزش آب در درس «انسان و محیط زیست» پایه یازدهم، دوره دوم متوسطه و بهبود کیفیت ارایه آن است. این مطالعه براساس نوع داده‏ ها، کمی و از لحاظ نوع برخورد با مسیله، کیفی است. طرح کلی پژوهش آمیخته حاضر تبیینی یا اصطلاحا تشریحی بود. در فاز اول با رویکرد توصیفی-پیمایشی داده های کمی استخرج و در فاز دوم برای توضیح بیشتر و آشکار کردن برخی جنبه های ابهام انگیز موضوع از رویکرد کیفی بهره گرفته شد. در بخش کمی برای جمع آوردی داده ها، از پرسشنامه محقق ساخته استفاده شد. مفاهیم پرسشنامه با تاکید بر طبقه بندی بلوم، اهداف کلی تعریف شده برای آموزش آب در کتاب راهنمای معلم درس «انسان و محیط زیست» و مصاحبه نیمه ساختاریافته تنظیم و پاسخ دهی به گویه های آن در طیف پنج گزینه‏ ای لیکرت سامان داده شد. روایی صوری و محتوایی به تایید هشت خبره ذی صلاح رسید و پایایی آن با ضریب آلفای کرانباخ (75/0) تصدیق شد. براساس فرمول کوکران 384 دانش آموزان مورد پرسشگری قرار گرفتند. در بخش کیفی پژوهش پنل تخصصی باحضور کارگزاران اصلی نظام آموزشی (5 معلم و 20 دانش آموز) تشکیل و راهکارهایی پیشنهاد شد. جهت اعتباریابی، برونداد نظرات پانل دلفی، به 3 خبره ی دارای صلاحیت ارایه و پس از جرح و تعدیل، تایید نهایی شد. نتایج نشان داد آموزش آب در این کتاب، در سطوح پایین یادگیری هر دو حیطه «شناختی» و «عاطفی» به طور نسبی اتفاق افتاده، اما در سطوح میانی و غایی هر دو حیطه، ناکام است.
    کلیدواژگان: آموزش محیط زیست، برنامه درسی، توسعه پایدار، مدیریت منابع آب
  • فریده گودرزی*، حسن ملکی، محبوبه خسروی، عباس عباسپور صفحات 234-254
    هدف
    هدف پژوهش حاضر تعیین ویژگی ها و الزامات عناصر برنامه درسی تربیت اجتماعی دوره متوسطه دوم بر اساس الگوی تایلر بود
    روش
    رویکرد پژوهش کیفی و با استفاده از روش پدیدارشناسی تفسیری بود. جامعه آماری پژوهش متخصصین حوزه تربیت اجتماعی ، مطالعات برنامه درسی ، فلسفه تعلیم و تربیت و روانشناسی تربیتی بودند که شیوه انتخاب آنها هدفمند از نوع گلوله برفی بود. در مجموع با 15 نفر مصاحبه شد. برای جمع آوری داده ها، از مصاحبه نیمه ساختار یافته استفاده شد. داده های حاصل از مصاحبه ها با استفاده از روش تحلیل مضمون تحلیل شد. با استفاده از تطابق همگونی یافته ها و روش بازخورد مشارکت کنندگان و خبرگان غیر مشارکت کننده از اعتبار تحلیل ها اطمینان حاصل شد.
    یافته ها
    یافته ها نشان داد که ویژگی های عناصر برنامه درسی تربیت اجتماعی مشتمل بر مقولاتی مانند: هدف (شناختی، عاطفی و روانی حرکتی)، محتوی (انتخاب و سازماندهی)، روش های یاددهی و یادگیری(گزینش و روش ها) و ارزشیابی (اصول و روش ها) شکل می گیرد. و یافته ها نشان دهنده آن بود که؛ شناسایی ویژگی های عناصر برنامه درسی تربیت اجتماعی می تواند چارچوب و خطوط راهنمایی برای تعیین مسیر و استراتژی در زمینه تدوین اهداف، تولید محتوی، روش های آموزش و شیوه ارزشیابی فعالیت های یادگیری در نظام آموزش متوسطه باشد و مبتنی بر آن طراحان برنامه درسی برای توسعه ویژگی های عناصر برنامه درسی تربیت اجتماعی و ارتقای کیفیت آموزشی تدابیر شایسته اتخاذ کنند.
    کلیدواژگان: برنامه درسی، تربیت اجتماعی، دوره دوم متوسطه
  • ژیلا مهنام، امیرحسین مهدیزاده*، حسن شعبانی گیل چالان، جمال سلیمی، علیرضا عراقیه صفحات 255-274
    در این پژوهش سعی گردیده، با ارایه الگو محتوای برنامه درسی دوره اول متوسطه مبتنی بر تفکر انتقادی روش جدیدی برای یادگیری کتب درسی ارایه گردد.این مطالعه به روش آمیخته اکتشافی و در دو فاز کیفی و کمی انجام شد. در مرحله کیفی مشارکت کنندگان متخصصان برنامه ریزی درسی و ابزار مطالعه مصاحبه نیمه ساختار یافته بود. در مرحله کمی نیز جامعه آماری دبیران مقطع متوسطه اول بودند و روش نمونه گیری تصادفی در دسترس(320 نفر حجم نمونه) و ابزار مطالعه پرسشنامه ای بر اساس مولفه های به دست آمده مرحله قبل با پایایی 81/0 بود. تجزیه و تحلیل اطلاعات کمی با روش های آمار توصیفی و استنباطی در نرم افزار SPSS و داده های کیفی نیز براساس تکنیک تحلیل محتوای سه مرحله ای انجام شد.
    یافته ها
    محتوای برنامه درسی مبتنی بر تفکر انتقادی دوره اول متوسطه عوامل متعددی را برای هر متغیر نمایان ساخت که این عوامل راه را برای دستیابی به راهکارهای مناسب هموار کرد.. 22 کد شناسایی شدند و محتوا برای توسعه تفکر انتقادی دوره متوسطه به شرح ذیل (محتوای سوال انگیز و مسئله محور، ساختار مناسب در تدوین، یادگیری چندجانبه تناسب محتوا با زندگی واقعی دانش آموزان و دانش آموز محور)؛ می باشد.
    نتیجه گیری
    دانش آموزا دوره اول متوسطه با درک درست تواناییهایش با توجه به هدفی که در زندگی دارد و بدون مقایسه با شرایط ایده آل و دست نیافتنی با اعتقاد به شک پذیری، تردید منطقی نسبت به گزاره هایی که می شنود یا می بیند، از خود بروز می دهد.
    کلیدواژگان: تفکر انتقادی، محتوای برنامه درسی، دانش آموزان دوره اول متوسطه
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  • Arsalan Rahmannejad, Jahangir Yari Haj Ataloo *, Sadegh Maleki Avarsin, Rafigh Hasani Pages 1-22

    The aim of this study was to structurally analyze organizational silence based on perceptions of political behaviors and organizational jealousy with the mediating role of job adjustment of Payame Noor University staff in West Azerbaijan province. This research is applied in terms of purpose and in terms of nature and descriptive method of correlation is causal modeling (structural equation modeling). Relative class was selected using Morgan 216 table. Four standard questionnaires were used to collect information. Content and structural validity of the questionnaires were confirmed and the reliability of the questionnaires were 0.76, 0.88, 0.75, and 88, respectively. / 0 In order to evaluate the relationships between latent and measured variables in the conceptual model, structural modeling of data using PLS3 software was used. The findings of the present study indicate a significant role between variables, except for political behavior on adaptation. The results also confirmed the mediating role of job adjustment and in the causal relationship between organizational jealousy and organizational silence.Organizations, as a social entity, are both influenced by and influenced by the environment. The organizational environment is constantly changing and it is mandatory for organizations to adapt to these changes. (Moghimi, 1390).

    Keywords: Organizational Silence, Perception of Political Behaviors, Organizational Jealousy, Job Adjustment, Employees Payame Noor University
  • Reza Ebdam *, Abbas Gholtash, Faeezh Nateghi Pages 23-42
    Objective

    The aim of this study was to Validation of curriculum based on general competency for the second year of theoretical high school.

    Method

    The research method was exploratory (qualitative-quantitative) type and is done by Traversal- Field method by Using questionnaires were collected. The statistical population includes curriculum planning specialists and all teachers and experts of theoretical high school in Fars province who were experts in this field. The statistical sample was selected in a quantitative section in two stages Initially, 10 curriculum planning specialists were purposefully selected And then from all the teachers and experts of the theoretical high school in Fars province who were experts in the field of curriculum planning 80 people were selected as a statistical sample by simple random sampling. Measurement tools in the study for gathering data was In the qualitative phase, including deductive content analysis and In the quantitative phase, it is a questionnaire that has been developed based on the findings of the qualitative section. that the content validity of the questionnaires confirmed by 15 Educational Science professors so questionnaire's reliability was approved respectively, α= 0/92 By Cronbach's alpha. Data Using Qualitative content analysis with deductive categorization analog And quantitative methods including factor analysis via Software SPSS were analyzed. Result and Discusion: The results showed that the characteristics of curriculum elements include objectives, content, method and evaluation. Findings confirmed the main elements of purpose, content, method and evaluation. Also, features curriculum elements based on general competency for the second theoretical high school were extracted and designed. The pattern designed by experts and factor analysis were validated and approved. Results showed that curriculum based on general competency for the second year of theoretical high school in this study can be used in the new educational system. Based on this finding, it can be concluded that the curriculum based on general competence has been designed for the second theoretical high school in this research, can be used in the new educational system. It can also be concluded that Process, steps and how to present a general competency-based curriculum model for the second theoretical high school, It was the result of previous research on the subject. The model was approved by experts after the validation and adjustments were made. The results of this research can be used in designing a competency-based curriculum.

    Keywords: Validation, Curriculum, General Competence, Second Theoretical High School
  • Shahrzad Sarkhosh *, Alireza Sadeghi, Batool Faghih Aram, Hassan Shabani, Rozita Zabihi Pages 43-72
    Aim

    Education is a lifelong process. Education in its broadest sense includes all the knowledge and experiences gained from childhood, adolescence, youth and adulthood through any educational factor such as school, home, community and so on. The purpose of education is to develop children in all aspects. Since preschool is a period of gaining and observing important experiences of the child, it is very important in his development. Preschool education is the cornerstone of children's education activities for later levels. As society becomes more complex and diverse, the process of preparing children and adolescents for independent thinkers, productive citizens, and future leaders becomes more difficult and complex. Accordingly, in order to cope with the amazing changes in today's society, people must learn problem-solving skills. Problem solving is a vital skill for living in the present age. In most societies, everyone believes that the emphasis should be on increasing problem-solving skills. The curriculum, as one of the most important parts of the educational system, has an effective role in providing quality education in childhood. Since there is no comprehensive and specific educational program in the country to develop problem-solving skills of preschool children; therefore, the aim of this study was to identify the components and elements of the curriculum based on developing problem solving skills and provide an optimal model for preschool. In this study, two questions were raised, which are 1. What are the components of problem solving skills in preschool? 2. What characteristics should the elements of the preschool curriculum have based on the components of problem-solving skills?

    Method

    The research approach was qualitative and the research method used was the Grounded theory method. Grounded theory is a systematic methodology that has been largely, but not exclusively, applied to qualitative research conducted by social scientists. The methodology involves the construction of hypotheses and theories through the collecting and analysis of data. A study based on grounded theory is likely to begin with a question, or even just with the collection of qualitative data. As researchers review the data collected, ideas or concepts become apparent to the researchers. These ideas/concepts are said to "emerge" from the data. The researchers tag those ideas/concepts with codes that succinctly summarize the ideas/concepts. As more data are collected, and re-reviewed, codes can be grouped into higher-level concepts, and then into categories. These categories may become the basis of a hypothesis or a new theory.This research was designed and implemented in two stages. The first stage led to the discovery of the components of problem-solving skills, and in the second stage, the elements of the curriculum based on the development of problem-solving skills were identified and the model of the problem-solving curriculum using nine elements of Klein for preschool was designed and presented. The research population consisted of three groups of specialists in various fields of educational sciences and psychology, including curriculum planners, educational psychologists and preschool teachers. Due to the need for interviews in the qualitative section, the three groups (curriculum planners, educational psychologists and preschool teachers) were sampled separately and in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with these specialists. For sampling, the snowball type of purposive sampling method was used, so that in the first step, the interview began separately with one of the curriculum planners, educational psychologists and preschool teachers who have criteria based on expertise and experience in the field of the present study. The interviews began separately and the interviews continued until there was a theoretical saturation and no new information was obtained. The interviews continued until there was a theoretical saturation and no new information was obtained. Interviews were continued with two other people in each group to ensure theoretical data saturation. In total, 36 people were interviewed in three specialists groups. In the second step, the data obtained from the interviews were collected by taking notes, and in the third step, the text and content of the interviews were analyzed. Data analysis consisted of three stages of text coding(open coding, axial coding, selective coding).

    Findings

    The findings of this research in the first stage were the discovery of 10 main components of problem solving skills, which are: development of self-awareness, problem recognition, organizing skills, analysis, evaluation, selection, individual differences, development of, development of thinking skills, development of social skills, development of life skills such as anger and stress management, reducing fear and anxiety and development of self-confidence. In the second stage, the nine elements of the Francis Klein curriculum based on problem-solving skills were developed, based on the components extracted from interviews and specialists opinions, and the optimal model of preschool was presented. The first element identified was the goal, which was classified into three areas: cognitive, attitudinal, and functional. Achieving the all-round development of children is one of the important goals. The preschool curriculum should be regular, flexible, and varied. Content is the next element that should be selected based on criteria such as activity-oriented, logical and explicit, and organized in a way that helps deep understanding, learner motivation and knowledge building in the learner. The third element is educational materials and resources, which are very diverse and as tools and tools that facilitate the teaching-learning process, should be compatible with problem-solving skills and be usable and attractive to preschool students. The fourth element is learning activities that must be designed according to principles to make the learner think, reflect, actively learn and solve problems. In the case of the fifth element, teaching methods, they must have features such as interactivity, practicality, and exploratory. The sixth element is grouping, which should have characteristics such as building common and purposeful knowledge, interaction and negotiation and coordination with the group, flexibility in groups, spirit of cooperation, preferably working in small and two-sided groups, respect for all aspects of personality, be critical, division of tasks, responsibility, specifying tasks in the group, paying attention to individual differences. The seventh element, i.e. evaluation, must be a process and continuous, and various, original and real strategies must be used in evaluation. Space is the eighth element. Appropriate mental and physical spaces create a learning environment to develop problem-solving skills. Regarding the last element, i.e. time, flexibility, coordination, complementarity and time management are important features. The identification of all these elements eventually led to the design of an optimal curriculum model to develop problem-solving skills in preschool children

    Keywords: Problem Solving Skills, Curriculum Model, Preschool
  • Jamal Barkhoda *, Parastoo Ahmadhidari Pages 73-98

    Today, in our country, like other countries in support, the use of the benefits of information networks to learn in universities and schools is expanding that distant education is considered a distant factor that takes learning opportunities for everyone and wherever and at any time. Provides. The use of modern intelligence technologies and communication in the field of virtual education can be one of the options for filling out educational gaps in the absence of access to education. Virtual education has transformed the field of education, using network technology and has used network technologies to create, breed, transfer and facilitate learning at any time and place (Sharif Moghadam and Malekian individual, 1396). Online teaching has many positive and negative effects in teaching and learning, so the challenges of teaching and learning should be examined to determine what influences (positive) influential and negative (negative) are not effective. The present is seeking to examine it Life experiences of postgraduate students in Kurdistan University in relation to teaching online. For this purpose, all experiences of participants have been evaluated and evaluated from this virtual period. This research will be done with a qualitative approach and a theory of the theory. Grounded method Theory is a qualitative research method used to identify the infrastructure of the phenomenon of the study. (Frostakh, 1395, p. 95). The present study was conducted on the basis of the systematic GTM system of Strauss and Corbin (1998). In this researcher, the researcher should take a specific method and fan for analysis and implement stage coding in the open, axial and selection process and in the form of a Provide the final paradigm pattern. (Frostakh, 1395, p. 95). The research field included all Kurdistan university students in the academic year of 1399-1400, which has been held in virtual university systems in terms of epidemic of Corona virus. The sample has participated in the non-probability and in theoretical form of 55 in research. The interview is the most general method of collecting information in qualitative research. In this research, researchers have used semi-structured interviews tailored to the research objectives and the questions. In this research, analyzing and coding the text of interviews in the open, axial and selective process to provide a paradigm model. The results of this study showed that the students' challenges in five main categories include categorical interactions, class management, control and evaluation, communication infrastructure and environmental parasites. Finally, the main research model is based on the data obtained from the research and system model of the foundation data theory. The research data were collected from students at the university level and divided by colleges, at each section of all tried researchers to discuss students' experiences of teaching challenges in cyberspace and their views in the form of this research Be submitted. The results of the research are categorized in the form of five main concepts involving non-interactions of students and faculty members, class management problems, control and evaluation, infrastructure and environmental parasites. The concept of lack of interaction consists of five axial code and 31 open source. Problems and challenges of professors in the classroom discussion are also the result of 6 axial code 34, each of which has been addressed and part of the discussion of the professor's classroom. The discussion of control and evaluation was also one of the most important and influential issues related to education and teaching in cyberspace from the students' point of view, the concept was also the result of the output of 30 open source and 5 axial code. The concept of infrastructure problems, as well as another major challenging topics, are in the desired table, the problems of infrastructure, as well as its own options, and 7 axial code, and ultimately the concept of environmental problems or environmental parasites is another case and general challenges of students. It has been in the desired table. This concept is also the result of 17 open source and 6 axial code, each of which is part of this concept. In the present study, the results showed that these challenges are categorized in five main categories. It is natural that each of these cases is composed of concepts with different characteristics. The first challenge, which in the advertisement of 30 participants in the research, is the issue of not reducing the interaction in teaching and teaching cyberspace. Cases such as face-to-face communication and reduce team and group activities are an important issue for teaching in this space. The essence of their virtual training has been struggling with individual learning and reducing team communication, if there are certain and regular thoughts to increase the interactions of individuals in this space, naturally, many problems in this area will be created. The viewpoints of all theorists and researchers in this area, such as Dursun (2006) Gürsul (2010) çalõkan (2002) Aydõn (2001), the success of virtual training is due to the interactions and participation of students. An indifference towards student participation in the process of passing in their passivity in training and focuses on training and only the professors in the direction of activation. Managing virtual classes, as well as useful management of this period, is one of the most important issues, as well as the proper time to classes, as well as the preparation and compilation of proper content with this period so much. The content of this course is very different from other courses. Virtual systems are typically more dependent on the lesson plan and the optimal electronic content, if the content is weak, the quality of this period will be very impressed. The teaching method of instructors and most importantly, in this way, in this way, there are many qualitative and qualitative effects in the training process. Among all those cases as the challenge of students and had a lot of influence, the issue of evaluation was valuable and important. Among most perspectives to evaluate the instructors at the end of the course with many problems. One of the most important things that has been. The discussion of some students in the test has been in the test, and especially the end test tests. The fundamental problem that may be common among all the students of the country and the university of Kurdistan. The discussion of the infrastructure required for virtual education. Restrictions on Internet access, inappropriate digital tools and supervision of professors and students are all and all fixed problems that are seen in many forms in most articles and writings of virtual training. The challenges present in most cases along with similar cases with differences in other higher education centers are always raised. It is desirable that this kind of training has provided many desirable opportunities and opportunities that the University of Kurdistan himself with successful efforts in the last year has been successful in education in this area, which other researchers can investigate in this field. To do.

    Keywords: challenges, Virtual Education, teaching, Corona Pandemic
  • Abolghasem Yaghoobi *, Afshin Afzali, Maryam Palangi Pages 99-120

    The aim of this study was to construct and validate a non-transcript diagnostic test for first, second and third grade elementary students. The study population consisted of students studying in primary schools in Hamadan, 332 people (175 normal and 157 non-native writers) were selected from the target population as a sample. After making the tests and performing them on the samples, the reliability of the test was calculated to be 0.91, which is at a desirable level. Independent t-test was used to evaluate the difference between the scores of the non-writing and normal groups. Based on the results, the difference between the two groups was significant at the alpha level of 0.01. In order to assess the validity of the criterion, the multi-attribute method was used, for which a checklist of symptoms was completed by experts for the non-writing group. In all cases, the correlation of components of the same name in the checklist and tests is significant and higher than non-identical components. Was. In order to check the content validity, confirmatory factor analysis was used, which was based on the results of all model fit indices, and the factor loads of all components were acceptableWriting began to take shape when man began to think deeply about interacting with more societies and making a lasting impact on his future. On this basis, it can be said that writing has been considered since the beginning of human civilization. Therefore, writing is one of the most important ways of communication and the written form of language is the highest and most complex type of communication. Skills in it can pave the way for better and more complete communication with others (Karand, Mahjan, Kolkarani, 2016). In fact, man understands the thoughts of others by listening and reading and uses speech and writing to inform others of his intentions and thoughts, so all activities and efforts in the field of language teaching in primary school, especially in the first and second grades of primary school should be To cultivate its four pillars, namely listening, speaking, reading and writing. Students may have difficulty with one or both of these. It should be noted that the types of mistakes that students make are not of the same type so that all mistakes can be eliminated by using the same method and their progress can be ensured. To achieve a promising effective method, it is best to first ensure that the child's intelligence is normal by performing an intelligence test. Then write down the mistakes of the student's various dictations on the notebook and choose the appropriate solution according to the type of mistake. In many cases, students do not show interest in writing because they can not put their thoughts on paper and this can have a negative impact on their academic achievement (T. Hell, 2019). Given the fact that writing is one of the skills needed to convey linguistic comprehension and expression of thoughts and ideas, it is effective in the academic and even professional and social success of individuals. Characteristics of written expression deficits include: Writing skills much lower than expected due to the individual's age, intelligence and educational capacity. The prevalence of specific learning disability with impaired written expression is estimated at 15.5% of school-age children. Over time, it fades in many children and is stable at 4% in adults. The disorder in boys is two to three times higher than in girls. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, the diagnosis of a specific learning disability with a defect in written expression based on a child's poor performance in punctuation and correct use of grammar in sentences makes it impossible for him to organize his parable. Poor performance in writing written texts is also poor handwriting and inability to spell and place words in a row in solid sentences. In addition, children with writing disorders have grammatical errors and may not be able to remember which words begin with capital letters. Other characteristics of eating disorder include poorly organized written stories that lack important elements such as where, who, and who or where the clear plot design (Kaplan and Zadok, 2018). Statistics show that 28% of the total learning abilities are written disorders, which families and teachers have specifically reported the occurrence of this disorder in the third and fourth grades (Nazari and Barzegar, 2019). This problem is evident from the second grade in severe cases, and in cases where the disorder is less severe, it may not be known until the fifth grade or later. Most children with mild to moderate forms of writing disorder make relative progress, provided they are properly evaluated and receive supportive education on time, but people with severe disabilities need serious treatment throughout elementary, high school, and even college. Germano, Gagliano, Arena et al., 2020). Given that the most common assessment methods in the field of dyslexia include informal techniques and informal tests (Karimi, 2005), this necessitates that formal tests in the field of dyslexia be designed and implemented for teachers. And specialists in diagnostic test results are more useful in determining writing problems, for which restorative training should be applied (Kai, 2017). At the same time, considering that writing is the most tangible skill among the basic skills, and also considering the increasing complexities of life, writing disorders in different ways can cause problems for a person. Repeated failures in writing undermine the student's self-esteem and if no solution is found for it, in the long run it will lead to academic failure or even dropout, the adverse social and personal consequences of which will affect the individual, family and society. it is possible. Also, teachers 'attitudes and perceptions towards students are greatly affected by students' ability to write and spell. Severe problems in writing words correctly cause great concern to parents and teachers. Children and adolescents have many incorrect problems. Suffering writing that repetitive spelling of misspelled words is not the only solution. Rather, students' input behaviors for writing can be reinforced, including: reinforcement with auditory perception and memory of sounds, reinforcement of visual perception and memory of letters, reinforcement of motor skills, or reinforcement of sensory, visual, auditory, motor and tactile pathways. This important goal was achieved. The most important causes of educational spelling problems in elementary children who have natural intelligence and even higher, are the problems of spelling words with consonant letters. True, this can be bypassed-but not unless you're a techie who knows what he's doing

    Keywords: Specific learning disorders, dyslexia, spelling, diagnostic test validation, diagnostic test content validity
  • Mohamad Reza Yosefzadeh * Pages 121-134
    There is different way and strategy for creative writing including replacing method , brain storming, simulation, narration, making question, free style writing , metaphor, analogy, comparison and assessment and conflict meaning method. The main purpose of this research was to study the impact of conflict meaning instruction method on students creative writing skills. The main hypothesis was Is there any significant differences between creative writing of student who instructed by conflict meaning method with their creative writing skills comparison to students who instructed through traditional or current methods. In this research also there was three specific hypothesis.1-Is there any significant differences between students selecting main concept, selecting main branches and selecting main clusters skills who instructed by conflict meaning method with their creative writing skills comparison to students who instructed through traditional or current methods.2-Is there any significant differences between students creating mental atmosphere skills who instructed by conflict meaning method with their creative writing skills comparison to students who instructed through traditional or current methods.3-Is there any significant differences between students designing meaning web skills who instructed by conflict meaning method with their creative writing skills comparison to students who instructed through traditional or current methods. A quasi experiential research method with pretest-post test design with group control was used. The statistical population(N=1021) were included all first grade boy students of senior school of Hamedan city at 98-97 school year. Based on multi staged clustered method at first all boy senior school of hamedan city were selected .At the second stage between these school, randomly one school were selected .The selected school had nine first grade classrooms in different fields including mathematics experiential sciences and humanities.. At next stage From nine grade l classroom, one class randomly selected as study sample and its number of student were 32 students. These 32 students randomly divided into control and experimental group. The experiential group were instructed by conflict meaning method about eight session and each session included about 45 minutes. The control group didn’t receive any new instruction and instructed by current method. The instructor (one of teachers ) received three session instruction (each session included 90 minutes ) by researcher .The content of instruction were included selecting main concepts skills, branches selecting skills , clusters selecting skills. Selecting conflict main concepts skills, conflict branches selecting skills , conflict clusters selecting skills. creating mental status skills, web depicting skills, creative writing, creative writing skills creative writing strategies, the criteria of creative writing evaluation. After instruction two group tested by researcher made test. Then The data gathering instrument was researcher made test and included 20 questions .The validity of instrument computed by experts and CVR method. According to this method the test presented to 12 literature teacher who have more than five years teaching experience and at 98-97 school year teaching the first grade senior school writing one courses. Based on lawshe method the test content validity computed about ./79 that according lawshe coefficient take advantaged of necessary validity .The test reliability using Cronbach Alpha coefficient computed about ./81.The gathered data were analyzed using descriptive statistic indexes including table, frequency ,percent, mean, standard deviation and Kalmogrov-Smironov and Levin test and covariance analysis. The research finding showed that there is significant differences between control and experimental group students selecting main concepts skills, branches selecting skills , clusters selecting skills with their creative writing skills Also research finding showed there is significant differences between control and experimental group students creating mental status skills with their creative writing skills. More over finding showed there is significant differences between control and experimental group students meaning web depicting skills and with their creative writing skills. Finally research finding showed that the conflict meaning method increased students creative writing skills. It should be noted because in conflict meaning instruction method the student for choosing the main concept ,the branches and clusters simultaneously use different method including brain storming, simulation, narration, making question, metaphor, free style writing , replacing method , analogy, comparison and assessment and conflict meaning method , their writing are always unique. The students according this method think unique and this character lead to producing new writings and avoid from stereo type works. Also creating mental position in writing give artistic aspect to writing and create emotional atmosphere in writing .it reduce mental freezing, makes dynamic ,give life and sense to works, convey affective message , make affective aspect more important than cognitive aspect. This skills follow synectics strategy that in this method the affective method in creativity and creative writing is more important than cognitive aspect and creativity isn’t limited to specific subject area and all subject area can encourage creativity. Designing of web meaning integrate writing to cognitive and meta cognitive map strategy.in this skills the student go beyond the given information and makes perceptional distance. Finding the relation and fitness between main concept ,main branches ,main cluster and main conflict concept ,conflict branches and conflict clutters lead to improvement of mental rotation skills that encourage student to see phenomena from different aspect and views .mental rotation is one of the most component of imagination . the meaning net designing encourages the aesthetic domain of work and give attractive to writes. In sum it should be noted that because the conflict meaning method simultaneously make emphasis on cognitive, affective and metacognitive aspect ,then it is the effective method and strategy for teaching creative writing .according to research finding because the conflict meaning instruction method increased the students creative writing skills it suggest that all teachers of writing one course through different method before school year to be familiar with character, process and structure of conflict meaning method more over with creative writing, the skills of creative writing, the strategies of creative writing and the criteria of assessment and evaluation of creative writing. Also it suggest that in senior secondary school curriculum especially in first grade of senior school provide different opportunity for student to practice writing with conflict method and through this improve their creative writing skills.
    Keywords: conflict meaning, mental status, meaning web, creative writing
  • Rahman Badri, Firooz Mahmodi *, Ali Imanzadeh, Yosef Adib Pages 135-153
    Multi-grade classrooms are organizations in which students of different ages are in the same class together. Some multi-grade teachers may teach two grades, but some teach three, four, or five, and in the new national curriculum, six grades; In other words, a multi-grade class is a situation in which a teacher teaches multiple grades simultaneously or separately in one session. Given the increasing trend of rural-urban migration, as well as the slowdown in population growth in these areas and the lack of a quorum for independent classes in these areas, an increase in the number of these classes will be inevitable in the future. A number of researches shows that, in most countries, including Iran, multi-grade classes have a long history, however, in some countries this issue has been ignored and in some cases has decreased; While in other countries such as Indonesia and the Philippines, positive steps have been taken in this regard, which has led to a new period in the history of teaching multi-grade classes in these countries; Because the researches show that, the category of multi-grade classes is not a temporary thing that will not be needed in the future. But according to the statistics, in our country, multi-grade classes and the number of students studying in these classes, are increasing; while in the educational system of the country, basic principles have not been developed for the effective administration of these classes. On the other hand, due to the fact that these classes face many problems, they also have many strengths that if the desired model of the curriculum of multi-grade classes is designed, it can be provided that such a challenging situation becomes a valuable educational opportunity. According to the UN Charter of Human Rights, access to basic education remains an inalienable human right; therefore, a qualitative move towards optimal and efficient education in the education system is obvious and necessary. Also one of the important factors is the development of any society of resources and manpower and how to train them according to the realities of multi-grade classrooms, such as lack of flexible curriculum, disproportionate national curriculum content, lack of flexible schedule, classroom management problems from many subjects and etc. trying to find shortcuts in addition to the quality of performance of multi-grade classes is mandatory. On the other hand, the Iranian education system, following the decentralization of planning as well as structurally, has considered decentralized educational planning. The multi-level educational approach, despite its opportunities, always faces challenges that by covering and minimizing those the lofty goals of education as well as multi-level classes are achievable. One of the most important challenges that has occupied the minds of many researchers is the adaptation of the multi-level curriculum. In multi-level teaching, the teacher must use two or more educational programs in different grades and at the same time; for this reason, multi-grade classes are not desirable for teachers and educational officials, but in certain circumstances, the use of these classes seems necessary and reasonable. Consider multi-grade classes the educational system faces various challenges in achieving its goals for various reasons, including the existence of a significant number of schools and multi-grade classes in the country. Diversity of educational levels, small classroom environment, lack of teaching materials, and educational equipment are among the problems that prevail in such educational environments. Also take multilevel education, is a symbol of educational, training, and administrative programs of education system in the form of providing services in these areas. The experiences of countries such as Ghana and Sudan confirm their extensive attention to the curricula of multi-grade classes and planning for the optimal use of these classes. Experience gained in Australia, Bangladesh, People's Republic of China, India, Indonesia, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Thailand, etc. show that, elementary education scheduling and list of minimum educational abilities are not designed and prepared for multi-grade classes. According to research, multigrade classes are associated with problems. In conclusion, issues such as rural migration, ethnic prejudices, increasing the age of marriage, declining population, dispersal of villages, lack of skilled manpower, increasing the base repetition rate, etc. have expanded multi-grade classes in rural areas of the country.The present study was conducted in the 98-99 academic year with a qualitative approach, phenomenological type, purposeful sampling, and in-depth semi-structured interviews with 19 primary school teachers in East Azerbaijan province. Each interview lasted 90 minutes. By listing the researchers' assumptions that were the result of experience and study, their impact on the research outcome was prevented before data collection and during the work. Data validation strategies were performed using multidimensionality, member review, and the researcher's long-term involvement during the interview. Training participants were asked in different ways. Since the data collection method in this study was in-depth interview method, it was tried to conduct the interviews accurately and without bias in order to ask sufficient contents about the questions. Also, to ensure the reliability of the researcher's data analysis, they consulted with each of the experts and asked their opinion on whether the comprehensive and final description of the findings reflects their experience or not. The main method of maintaining the validity and reliability of the data in this study was to record interviews and confirm the final descriptions by experts. The argumentative approach to data analysis and interpretation in this section has also been inductive-deductive. This means that first open and partial codes are identified and by putting them together based on the relationships between them, central and more general codes are created. After this inductive process, open codes are re-identified. Below are the pivotal concepts created or pivotal concepts that were later created and integrated. The text of the interviews was analyzed manually using the Colaizzi model. Findings showed that the main challenge of multi-grade classrooms are lack of specialized teachers of multi-grade classrooms, lack of management system of compensation for proper teacher services, side challenges of multi-grade classrooms and the advantages and disadvantages of multi-grade classrooms. According to the findings, it can be concluded that most of the challenges of multi-grade classes can be overcome by designing an appropriate model of education in multi-grade classes and using an appropriate service compensation system.
    Keywords: Curriculum Challenges, Multi-Grade Classes, Multi-Grade Teacher Experiences
  • Reza Masouminejad *, Ghulam Hussain Mikailo, Amin Sheikhkanlavi Milan, Kimia Sheikh Pages 154-173
    Aim

    The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristics of narrative research as a teacher-centered activity that promotes the professional development of student-teachers in primary schools.

    Method

    The qualitative research approach was thematic analysis with emphasis on data-driven. The statistical population included all students working at Farhangian University of Shahid Motahari Khoy in the academic year 1399-1400, 18 of whom were studied by homogeneous sampling. In this regard, semi-organized interviews were conducted and sampling continued until data saturation. Researcher self-review method, member control technique and rich data description were used to validate the findings. In data analysis, a combined three-step process consisting of King and Harrock(2010), Brown and Clark(2006) and Atrid-Sterling(2001) methods was used.

    Findings

    Findings showed that in the network of themes, the components of practical identity, self-research, teacher awareness and educational exploration are comprehensive themes that with 17 organizing themes and 161 basic themes can realize the professional competencies and capability of student-teachers. The results showed that narrative research is an innovative educational framework that can develop the capabilities of teachers in various scientific fields and provide the desired response to them in dealing with educational issues.

    Aim

    The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristics of narrative research as a teacher-centered activity that promotes the professional development of student-teachers in primary schools.

    Method

    The qualitative research approach was thematic analysis with emphasis on data-driven. The statistical population included all students working at Farhangian University of Shahid Motahari Khoy in the academic year 1399-1400, 18 of whom were studied by homogeneous sampling. In this regard, semi-organized interviews were conducted and sampling continued until data saturation. Researcher self-review method, member control technique and rich data description were used to validate the findings. In data analysis, a combined three-step process consisting of King and Harrock(2010), Brown and Clark(2006) and Atrid-Sterling(2001) methods was used.

    Findings

    Findings showed that in the network of themes, the components of practical identity, self-research, teacher awareness and educational exploration are comprehensive themes that with 17 organizing themes and 161 basic themes can realize the professional competencies and capability of student-teachers. The results showed that narrative research is an innovative educational framework that can develop the capabilities of teachers in various scientific fields and provide the desired response to them in dealing with educational issues.

    Aim

    The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristics of narrative research as a teacher-centered activity that promotes the professional development of student-teachers in primary schools.

    Method

    The qualitative research approach was thematic analysis with emphasis on data-driven. The statistical population included all students working at Farhangian University of Shahid Motahari Khoy in the academic year 1399-1400, 18 of whom were studied by homogeneous sampling. In this regard, semi-organized interviews were conducted and sampling continued until data saturation. Researcher self-review method, member control technique and rich data description were used to validate the findings. In data analysis, a combined three-step process consisting of King and Harrock(2010), Brown and Clark(2006) and Atrid-Sterling(2001) methods was used.

    Findings

    Findings showed that in the network of themes, the components of practical identity, self-research, teacher awareness and educational exploration are comprehensive themes that with 17 organizing themes and 161 basic themes can realize the professional competencies and capability of student-teachers. The results showed that narrative research is an innovative educational framework that can develop the capabilities of teachers in various scientific fields and provide the desired response to them in dealing with educational issues.

    Aim

    The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristics of narrative research as a teacher-centered activity that promotes the professional development of student-teachers in primary schools.

    Method

    The qualitative research approach was thematic analysis with emphasis on data-driven. The statistical population included all students working at Farhangian University of Shahid Motahari Khoy in the academic year 1399-1400, 18 of whom were studied by homogeneous sampling. In this regard, semi-organized interviews were conducted and sampling continued until data saturation. Researcher self-review method, member control technique and rich data description were used to validate the findings. In data analysis, a combined three-step process consisting of King and Harrock(2010), Brown and Clark(2006) and Atrid-Sterling(2001) methods was used.

    Findings

    Findings showed that in the network of themes, the components of practical identity, self-research, teacher awareness and educational exploration are comprehensive themes that with 17 organizing themes and 161 basic themes can realize the professional competencies and capability of student-teachers. The results showed that narrative research is an innovative educational framework that can develop the capabilities of teachers in various scientific fields and provide the desired response to them in dealing with educational issues.

    Aim

    The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristics of narrative research as a teacher-centered activity that promotes the professional development of student-teachers in primary schools.

    Method

    The qualitative research approach was thematic analysis with emphasis on data-driven. The statistical population included all students working at Farhangian University of Shahid Motahari Khoy in the academic year 1399-1400, 18 of whom were studied by homogeneous sampling. In this regard, semi-organized interviews were conducted and sampling continued until data saturation. Researcher self-review method, member control technique and rich data description were used to validate the findings. In data analysis, a combined three-step process consisting of King and Harrock(2010), Brown and Clark(2006) and Atrid-Sterling(2001) methods was used.

    Findings

    Findings showed that in the network of themes, the components of practical identity, self-research, teacher awareness and educational exploration are comprehensive themes that with 17 organizing themes and 161 basic themes can realize the professional competencies and capability of student-teachers. The results showed that narrative research is an innovative educational framework that can develop the capabilities of teachers in various scientific fields and provide the desired response to them in dealing with educational issues.

    Aim

    The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristics of narrative research as a teacher-centered activity that promotes the professional development of student-teachers in primary schools.

    Method

    The qualitative research approach was thematic analysis with emphasis on data-driven. The statistical population included all students working at Farhangian University of Shahid Motahari Khoy in the academic year 1399-1400, 18 of whom were studied by homogeneous sampling. In this regard, semi-organized interviews were conducted and sampling continued until data saturation. Researcher self-review method, member control technique and rich data description were used to validate the findings. In data analysis, a combined three-step process consisting of King and Harrock(2010), Brown and Clark(2006) and Atrid-Sterling(2001) methods was used.

    Keywords: Narrative research, professional development, Student-Teachers
  • Anvar Hajizadeh *, Ghader Azizi, Gavad Keyhan Pages 174-204
    AbstractThe aim of this study was to analyze the opportunities and challenges of e-learning in the corona: an approach to the development of e-learning in post-corona. The research method in terms of purpose, application-development and research approach is qualitatively phenomenological and has been done using exploratory strategy. The research population included all primary school teachers in Mahabad city in the academic year 1400/1399, in which 31 people were purposefully selected by observing the rule of theoretical data saturation. The data collection tool was a semi-structured interview. And after obtaining the consent of the teachers, the interviews were recorded and recorded anonymously. The criterion for entering the samples was at least a bachelor's degree and teaching experience over 5 years. Based on the model of qualitative interviews and observing its criteria, in a period of approximately 30 to 50 minutes, it was collected in person, by telephone and virtually in the context of social networks. At the beginning of the interview, the purpose of the research was generally mentioned and it was emphasized that the interviews will be used only for research purposes and the identities of individuals will not be specified in any way in research reports and published articles. Six questions were considered as the main questions and due to its semi-structured nature, other questions were asked as follow-up questions in order to clarify the meaning of the answers provided. Data analysis was performed based on thematic analysis and interpretive approach. In order to validate the collected information, the technique of feedback to the interviewees, researcher review, alignment with research sources and written documents were used. The findings of the content analysis showed that 262 basic themes, 37organizing themes and 4 comprehensive themes were identified. In this regard, the existing problems and threats of e-learning including 18 organizing themes, including:1- Decreasing mental health 2- Expressing and promoting values Immorality 3- Incidence of social harms 4- Increase in physical injuries 5- Decrease in the quality of education 6- Occurrence of family disputes 7-Increase in students' unproductive behavior 8- Students' academic and educational decline 9- Teachers' burnout 10-Lack of educational justice 11- Weakness Objective and practical evaluation 12- Inefficient technical support of the network 13- Inadequacy of home environment for education 14- Lack of strategic plan for virtual education 15- Family economic problems 16-Restriction of human interactions 17-Lack of knowledge and technological acceptance 18-Inadequacy Virtual education content andTraining opportunities include:1. No limitation of time and place in reading and teaching educational content2. The possibility of developing effective evaluation of virtual education3. Increase parental participation in education4. Communicating faster and easier stakeholders with each other,Training outcomes include:1. Development of students' skills and learning experience2. Increase teachers' teaching skills and creativity3. Environmental effectiveness4. Identify the valuable role of school in education5. Increase educational productivity; And strategies for the development of virtual education, including 10 organizing themes, including: 1- Removing restrictions and developing happy educational software 2- Predicting the requirements and needs of virtual education 3- Continuous improvement of education quality 4- Developing academic enthusiasm and well-being 5- Creating culture Proper use of technology 6- Development of professional and doctrinal ethics of teachers 7- Ethical strategy for the development of virtual education 8- Planning and policy-making with emphasis on emergencies 9- Designing and compiling appropriate content and curriculum 10- Serious review of human resources, Financial and support. According to the results of the research, it can be said that the corona pandemic on the one hand has increased the skills and educational experience of all stakeholders and on the other hand has caused physical, psychological, academic failure, burnout and .... Overall, it can be said that e-learning in Iran, because it was not seriously pursued before the Corona crisis and its infrastructure was not available, has faced major challenges in design and implementation, which reduces its success. . To make the best use of e-learning facilities, the culture of using this method should be promoted and hardware and software infrastructure should be provided. Capable manpower and production of valuable and standard electronic content are other infrastructural factors of this type of training. On the other hand, the corona crisis can be an opportunity to identify weaknesses, deficiencies and shortcomings in infrastructure in this area and show the imbalance in the distribution of the required infrastructure in the Internet and television networks, especially in remote and deprived areas. Identify these shortcomings and try to eliminate them. And this has emerged as growth and excellence in this field and the positive aspect of the situation, and it is the starting point for the continuation and improvement of the quality of e-learning in the future. Given the opportunities and threats of cyberspace in education, recognizing the disadvantages and challenges of e-learning in the field of education and training of students and how it works should not lead to retreat and take a defensive stance against these new and technological tools; Therefore, in the face of cultural attacks and one-sided information monitoring of virtual networks, the cultural community must be equipped with knowledge, skills and the use of this technology. Of course, not all social responsibility for dealing with cultural attacks and possible threats from students rests with teachers, and those in charge must protect the harms and immoralities of cyberspace as well as real space by regulating and effectively monitoring society, and instead of clearing the issue, Seek to solve the problem by recognizing and exploiting opportunities. According to the findings in this field, it seems that if the infrastructure of virtual education is provided, the correct culture of using technology and other necessary conditions together, virtual education can be modern and appropriate methods and sometimes an alternative to traditional education or Be a basic complement to it. Also, due to the problems expressed in the field of e-learning, the supervisory role of parents in the family environment becomes more colorful and it is necessary to form orientation classes to increase the level of awareness and cooperation of families so that the school's efforts in e-learning Be combined and lead to positive and satisfactory results. In the end, it is suggested that the strategies and strategies identified in the present study be carefully considered by educational officials and with the cooperation and coordination of all educational stakeholders including parents, students, teachers, principals and assistants (schools and offices) education needs and requirements. Satisfy the virtual and develop virtual education so that in the future it can be considered as an effective complement to traditional (face-to-face) education and cause growth, development of capabilities and training of more students.
    Keywords: Virtual Education, Virtual Education Opportunities, Virtual Learning Challenges, Virtual Education Content
  • Amirali Boroumand, Mahdi Kolahi * Pages 205-233
    It is necessary to teach students water consumption responsibility because of the water crisis in Iran. This paper aims to evaluate the content of water education in the course of “Man and the Environment” in the eleventh grade, second year of highschool, and to improve the quality of its concepts, by mixed quantitative and qualitative approaches. This study is quantitative based on the type of data and qualitative in terms of the type of approach to the problem. The quantitative part is surveyed with the descriptive-survey approach and the qualitative part with the analytical approach. In the quantitative part, a researcher-made questionnaire was conducted to collect data. The concepts of the questionnaire were organized with an emphasis on Bloom's classification, general objectives defined for water education in the book of the “Man and the Environment”, and semi-structured interviews with experts in the two sections of cognitive and emotional in the format of a five-point Likert scale. The validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by face and content-related validities, and its reliability with Cronbach's Alpha coefficient (0.75). A sample of 384 out of 429,175 students of the 11th grade was surveyed according to the Cochran's formula. In the qualitative part of the research, a Delphi specialized panel was also formed to find the root of the problem, and finally, the solutions were suggested and explained in the six topics by the experts. However, the results showed that although water education of the book has occurred at low levels of learning in both cognitive and emotional domains, it has failed at the intermediate and final levels of both domains. Afkhami, H. (2008). Images of Water in School Textbooks: A Content Analysis. Global Media Journal-Persian Edition, 2 (3): 1-30. [In persian].Akerblom, A.; Souckova, D.; Pramling, N. (2019). Preschool children’s conceptions of water, molecule, and chemistry before and after participating in a playfully dramatized early childhood education activity. Cult. Stud. Sci. Educ. 14: 1–17.Alawi, M. (1392). Content Analysis of Fourth and Fifth Grade Science Textbooks in the Academic Year 90-91 in Relation to Environmental Education and its Protection and Appropriate Strategies for Planners in this Field. The first national conference on environment, energy and bio-defense in Tehran. [In persian].Amahmid, O.; El Guamri, Y.; Yazidi, M.; Razoki, B.; Kaid Rassou, K.; Rakibi, Y.; Knini, G. & El Ouardi, T. (2019). Water education in school curricula: Impact on children knowledge, attitudes and behaviours towards water use. Int. Res. Geogr. Environ. Educ. 2019, 28: 178–193. Amiri Esfahdah, H. (2011). Analysis and study of educational needs of environmental issues of high school teachers in Mashhad, educational year 89-90. Master Thesis. Payam Noor University. Tehran Payame Noor Center. [In persian].Angulo, F.; Zapata, L.; Soto, C.A. & Quintero, S. (2012). Contribuyen los talleres en el museo de ciencias a fomentar actitudes hacia la conservación del ambiente? Enseñanza Las Ciencias Revista Investigación Experiencias Didácticas 2012, 30: 53–70. Assadollahzadeh Mousavi, M. (2011). Study of social factors affecting water consumption pattern in Babol. Mazandaran University. [In persian].Badrian, A. (2016). Investigating the perceptions and misconceptions of third grade elementary students about the phenomena of evaporation and condensation. Journal of Education. 32 (2): 87-112. [In persian].Bagoly-Simó, P. (2013). Tracing sustainability: An international comparison of ESD implementation into lower secondary education. J. Educ. Sustain. Dev. 7: 95–112. Bagoly-Simó, P. (2014). Tracing sustainability: Education for Sustainable Development in the lower secondary geography curricula of Germany, Romania, and Mexico. Int. Res. Geog. Environ. Educ. 23: 126–141. Bagoly-Simó, P.; Hemmer, I.. & Reinke, V. (2018). Training ESD change agents through geography: Designing the curriculum of a master’s program with emphasis on Education for Sustainable Development (ESD). J. Geog. Higher Educ. 42: 174–191. Ballew, M.T.; Omoto, A.M. & Winter, P.L. (2015). Using Web 2.0 and social media technologies to foster proenvironmental action. Sustainability. 7: 10620–10648. Beiswenger, R.; Sturges, E.L.; Jones, R. (1991). Water education in Wyoming: Assessing educator’s knowledge of water topics and their use in the elementary curriculum. J. Environ. Educ. 23: 24–30. Benedict, F. (1999). A systemic approach to sustainable environmental education. Cambridge Journal of Education, 29(3), 433-446.‏Bjørndal, B., & Lieberg, S. (1975). Environmental education in primary school. A presentation of a Norwegian curriculum development project. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 19(1), 131-151.‏Bloom, B.S. (1956). Taxonomy of Educational
    Objectives
    The Classification of Educational Goals; David McKay Company: New York, NY, USA. Boroumand, A. A. & Tabatabai Yazdi, F. (2019). The placment of environmental education in academic culture. The Second National Conference on academic Culture. Publications of the Research Institute for Cultural and Social Studies. (2): 1031-1040.Brody, M. (1995). Development of a curriculum framework for water education for educators, scientists and resource managers. J. Environ. Educ. 26, 18–29. Brundtland, G.H.; Khalid, M.; Agnelli, S.; Al-Athel, S.; Chidzero, B. (1987). Our Common Future; Brundtland Comission: Nueva York, NY, USA. Chatzifotiou, A. (2006). Environmental education, national curriculum and primary school teachers. Findings of a research study in England and possible implications upon education for sustainable development. Curric. J. 17, 367–381. Chrobak, R.; Prieto, R.M.; Prieto, A.B.; Gaido, L. & Rotella, A. (2006). Una aproximación a las motivaciones y actitudes del profesorado de enseñanza media de la provin cia de Neuquén sobre temas de Educación Ambiental. Revista Electrónica Enseñanza Las Ciencias. 5: 31–50. Dadfer, m. (2012). Investigating the role and impact of environmental education in the formal education of Hediyehayeasemani and Olom-e-tajrobi in elementary school (from the perspective of Damavand teachers). Master Thesis. Payam Noor University. Tehran Payame Noor Center. [In persian].Davis, J. (2009). Revealing the research ‘hole’ of early childhood education for sustainability: A preliminary survey of the literatura. Environmental Education Research. 15: 227–241. Dehghan, H., Pourreza Karinsara, N. (2017). Socialization of Water Consumption Reflected in Social Sciences Textbooks. Social Sciences, 24(77), 285-312. [In persian].Dibai, Sh., & Lahijanian, A. (2009). Review of middle school curricula with emphasis on environmental education. Environmental Sciences. 6 (3): 177-184. [In persian].Dieser, O. & Bogner, F.X. (2016). Young people’s cognitive achievement as fostered by hands-on-centred environmental education. Environmental Education Research. 22: 943–957. Ebrahimzadeh Shiraz, Z. & Maleki, H. (2010). Evaluating the content of textbooks in the first year of high school based on environmental education criteria from the perspective of teachers and students in Sabzevar in the academic year 89-90. Master Thesis. Allameh Tabatabaei University. [In persian].Educational Research and Planning Organization of Iran. (2017). Human and the environment, 11th grade of the second year of high school, 111268. Iran Textbook Publishing Company. First Edition. 122. [In persian].Educational Research and Planning Organization of Iran. (2017). Human and Environmental Teacher's Guide, 11th grade of the second year of high school, 111268. Iran Textbook Publishing
    Keywords: Environmental Education, Curriculum, sustainable development, Water Resources Management
  • Faredeh Goudarzi *, Hassan Maleki, Mahboubeh Khosravi, Abbas Abbaspour Pages 234-254
    Purpose
    The main purpose of this study was to determine the characteristics and requirements of the elements of the secondary social education curriculum based on the Tyler model
    Method
    The research approach was qualitative and using phenomenological method. The criterion for selecting participants in this method was influenced by the design and purpose of the research. Since the purpose of this study was to explore and discover the main elements of the social education curriculum, the statistical population of the study was experts in the field of social education and curriculum planning that was selected through snowball sampling. One of the two conditions was required to select participants: Scientific specialization: People who have sufficient knowledge in the field of social education. And practical experience: People with sufficient experience in the field of curriculum planning. A total of 15 people were interviewed. Semi-structured interviews were used to collect data, Data collection continued until theoretical saturation was achieved, and finally the number of participants to 15 people. The data from interviews were analyzed through Theme analysis method, the validity of the analyzes was ensured by using the consistency of the findings and the feedback method of the participants and non-participating experts.
    Result
    Findings show that characteristics of social education curriculum consists of categories such as: Purpose (cognitive, emotional and psychomotor), Content (selection and organization), Purpose (cognitive, emotional and psychomotor), content (selection and organization), teaching - learning Methods and evaluation are formed. The most important sub-components identified in relation to the target element are: A: The principles of goal setting include balanced attention to the three levels of cognition, attitude and behavior, Development and identification of basic social values, Proportion of goals to the level of developmental needs of the period, Emphasis on more evolved goals, Convergence of goals. B: Cognitive goals including the development of social identity, the development of indigenous and Islamic identity, the development of cultural and social values, deepen understanding of the needs of the students of the course, paying attention to strengthening thinking at the highest level, teaching the recognition of social harms. C: Emotional goals include strengthening attention to the rights of oneself and others, creating interest in the realization of competencies, creating and strengthening attitudes towards the analysis of social harms, creating interest and motivation in the concepts of religion and spirituality and self-knowledge, creating interest in desirable values such as Identity, freedom, justice, non-racial discrimination, peace, friendship .... D: Skill goals include strengthening the skills for lifelong learning (critical thinking, problem solving skills, abstract thinking ...) Skill and attitude necessary to play an effective role in local and national community, creating social analytics skill. In determining the goals and destinations, attention should be paid to the dimension of comprehensiveness and refrain from focusing solely on cognitive goals and rotated with a balanced and coordinated attention to the three dimensions of knowledge, insight and skill. In relation to the content element the results showed the first thing to be expected from any content. In addition to proper appearance, the content fits in well with the goals The characteristics of this element are: A: Principles of content selection including content matching with goals, content fit with the needs of learners and their level of interest and level of understanding, variety in content presentation forms, increasing the role of learners in determining content, emphasis on teaching aids Instead of focusing solely on textbooks, Paying attention to people's behavior as content, B: Principles of organizing and presenting content, which includes paying attention to the principle of continuity and emphasizing the spiral pattern, emphasizing the balance between predetermined content and Enriching content, vertical and horizontal arrangement of high social content, integrated content. According to the purpose of social education, which is to prepare people for social life by using appropriate methods to transfer and cultivate the required knowledge, skills and competencies, care should be taken in using teaching-learning methods appropriate to the goals. And used methods so that learners can analyze and accept social issues with a creative and dynamic mind and become responsible and law-abiding. The most important sub-components identified in relation to the training method are: A: Principles of selection of teaching-learning methods, which include emphasis on active and student-centered teaching methods, compatibility of teaching and learning methods with goals and content, providing a suitable platform in education to share experience, High social status, high importance of indirect education for social education. B: Types of teaching-learning approaches and methods, including the use of role-playing and storytelling, exploration, identifying joint projects with problem-solving methods, emphasizing dynamic and active methods to strengthen thinking skills, class discussion and questioning, collaboration and collaboration The most important sub-components identified in relation to the element of assessment and evaluation are: A: Principles of evaluation methods including attention and importance to diagnostic evaluation, attention to capabilities and differences of learners, attention to process and continuous evaluation, diverse and The combination of quantitative and qualitative evaluation, the appropriateness of evaluation with objectives, content and methods. B: Assessment methods include: using self-assessment questionnaire, multidisciplinary assessment by teachers, school authorities and parents, skill and operational assessments, use of qualitative tools (observation, checklist, interview) self-assessment by students and having a workbook evaluating educators from each other, increasing the share of learners in evaluation. The element of assessment and evaluation, like other elements of the social education curriculum, should be designed in accordance with the teacher's logic and with the aim of acquiring competencies and skills in three dimensions: cognition, attitude and skill. The findings also showed that the characteristics of the elements of the social education curriculum have an active role in the model of the social education curriculum and if these factors are not provided, the implementation of the social education curriculum will face serious risks. And Identifying the characteristics of the elements of the social education curriculum can be a framework and guidelines for determining the path and strategy in the field of goal setting, content production, teaching methods and evaluation of learning activities in the secondary education system. Based on that, curriculum designers should take appropriate measures to develop the characteristics of the elements of the social education curriculum and improve the quality of education.
    Keywords: curriculum, social education, Secondary School
  • Zhila Mahnam, Amirhosin Mehdizadeh *, Hasan Shabanigilchalan, Jamal Salimi, Alireza Araghiah Pages 255-274
    The content of textbooks in high school should be able to meet the needs of students based on the structure of society, and this is not possible unless the content of textbooks can change the way students think. Therefore, in this research, an attempt has been made to provide a new method for learning textbooks by presenting the content model of the curriculum of the first year of high school based on critical thinking. This study was carried out by exploratory mixed method in two qualitative and quantitative phases. In the qualitative stage, the participants had semi-structured interview planning specialists and study tools. In the quantitative stage, the statistical population was junior high school teachers and the available random sampling method (320 people) and the study tool was a questionnaire based on the components obtained in the previous stage with a reliability of 0.81. 22 codes were identified and content for the development of high school critical thinking as follows (questionable and problem-oriented content, appropriate structure in the compilation, multifaceted learning of the relevance of the content to the real life of students and student-centered); is. A junior high school student has a reasonable understanding of the propositions he hears or sees, with a clear understanding of his abilities, given his purpose in life, and without comparing himself to ideal and unattainable conditions with a belief in doubt. Updates.The content of textbooks in high school should be able to meet the needs of students based on the structure of society, and this is not possible unless the content of textbooks can change the way students think. Therefore, in this research, an attempt has been made to provide a new method for learning textbooks by presenting the content model of the curriculum of the first year of high school based on critical thinking. This study was carried out by exploratory mixed method in two qualitative and quantitative phases. In the qualitative stage, the participants had semi-structured interview planning specialists and study tools. In the quantitative stage, the statistical population was junior high school teachers and the available random sampling method (320 people) and the study tool was a questionnaire based on the components obtained in the previous stage with a reliability of 0.81. 22 codes were identified and content for the development of high school critical thinking as follows (questionable and problem-oriented content, appropriate structure in the compilation, multifaceted learning of the relevance of the content to the real life of students and student-centered); is. A junior high school student has a reasonable understanding of the propositions he hears or sees, with a clear understanding of his abilities, given his purpose in life, and without comparing himself to ideal and unattainable conditions with a belief in doubt. Updates.The content of textbooks in high school should be able to meet the needs of students based on the structure of society, and this is not possible unless the content of textbooks can change the way students think. Therefore, in this research, an attempt has been made to provide a new method for learning textbooks by presenting the content model of the curriculum of the first year of high school based on critical thinking. This study was carried out by exploratory mixed method in two qualitative and quantitative phases. In the qualitative stage, the participants had semi-structured interview planning specialists and study tools. In the quantitative stage, the statistical population was junior high school teachers and the available random sampling method (320 people) and the study tool was a questionnaire based on the components obtained in the previous stage with a reliability of 0.81. 22 codes were identified and content for the development of high school critical thinking as follows (questionable and problem-oriented content, appropriate structure in the compilation, multifaceted learning of the relevance of the content to the real life of students and student-centered); is. A junior high school student has a reasonable understanding of the propositions he hears or sees, with a clear understanding of his abilities, given his purpose in life, and without comparing himself to ideal and unattainable conditions with a belief in doubt. Updates.The content of textbooks in high school should be able to meet the needs of students based on the structure of society, and this is not possible unless the content of textbooks can change the way students think. Therefore, in this research, an attempt has been made to provide a new method for learning textbooks by presenting the content model of the curriculum of the first year of high school based on critical thinking. This study was carried out by exploratory mixed method in two qualitative and quantitative phases. In the qualitative stage, the participants had semi-structured interview planning specialists and study tools. In the quantitative stage, the statistical population was junior high school teachers and the available random sampling method (320 people) and the study tool was a questionnaire based on the components obtained in the previous stage with a reliability of 0.81. 22 codes were identified and content for the development of high school critical thinking as follows (questionable and problem-oriented content, appropriate structure in the compilation, multifaceted learning of the relevance of the content to the real life of students and student-centered); is. A junior high school student has a reasonable understanding of the propositions he hears or sees, with a clear understanding of his abilities, given his purpose in life, and without comparing himself to ideal and unattainable conditions with a belief in doubt. Updates. The content of textbooks in high school should be able to meet the needs of students based on the structure of society, and this is not possible unless the content of textbooks can change the way students think. Therefore, in this research, an attempt has been made to provide a new method for learning textbooks by presenting the content model of the curriculum of the first year of high school based on critical thinking. This study was carried out by exploratory mixed method in two qualitative and quantitative phases. In the qualitative stage, the participants had semi-structured interview planning specialists and study tools. In the quantitative stage, the statistical population was junior high school teachers and the available random sampling method (320 people) and the study tool was a questionnaire based on the components obtained in the previous stage with a reliability of 0.81. 22 codes were identified and content for the development of high school critical thinking as follows (questionable and problem-oriented content, appropriate structure in the compilation, multifaceted learning of the relevance of the content to the real life of student
    Keywords: Critical Thinking, curriculum content, junior high school students