فهرست مطالب

برنامه ریزی فضایی (جغرافیا) - سال دوازدهم شماره 1 (پیاپی 44، بهار 1401)
  • سال دوازدهم شماره 1 (پیاپی 44، بهار 1401)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1401/04/15
  • تعداد عناوین: 6
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  • احمد حجاریان، حمید برقی* صفحات 1-16
    طرح مسئله

    بحث مشارکت در دهه های اخیر در ارتباط با مسایلی مانند دموکراسی، توسعه و... اهمیت بسیاری یافته است. مشارکت و توسعه روستایی به مثابه دو عنصر مرتبط و مکمل یکدیگر مطرح و افزایش میزان مشارکت در میان روستاییان نشانه و وسیله ای برای توسعه روستا در نظر گرفته شده است. این امر می تواند در سیاست گذاری ها و برنامه ریزی های آتی برای مناطق روستایی مفید باشد.

    هدف

    مشارکت اجتماعی، مفهومی کلان دربرگیرنده ابعادی مانند اعتماد اجتماعی، توانمندی و هنجارهاست که امروزه در تحلیل های اجتماعی اقتصادی درباره توسعه روستایی مطرح است. هدف از این مقاله، نشان دادن نقش مشارکت اجتماعی در توسعه روستایی است.

    روش شناسی پژوهش

    جامعه آماری پژوهش را 4200 نفر از روستاییان 15 سال به بالای شهرستان فریدون شهر تشکیل می دهد و حجم نمونه با استفاده فرمول کوکران 240 نفر تعیین شد.

    یافته ها

    تجزیه و تحلیل داده ها با استفاده از نرم افزار SPSS و مدل سازی معادلات ساختاری (SEM) انجام شده است. در این پژوهش متغیرهای مشاهده شده برای دو مولفه توانمندی و اعتماد اجتماعی به دست آمد. دو مدل تحلیل عاملی مرتبه اول برای اندازه گیری دو زیرمقیاس مشارکت اجتماعی تدوین و اعتبارسنجی شد. درنهایت چگونگی تاثیر متغیرهای مشاهده شده و مولفه های دوگانه حاصل از آنها بر مشارکت اجتماعی به مثابه متغیر وابسته پنهان اصلی و روابط بین آنها به کمک یک مدل ساختاری تحلیل عاملی تاییدی (CFA) دو عاملی مرتبه دوم تحلیل شد.

    نتایج

    نتایج نشان از برازش و اعتبار قابل قبول هر دو مدل اندازه گیری مشارکت اجتماعی و تحقق اهداف و نیز مدل سه عاملی مرتبه دوم برای بررسی مشارکت اجتماعی براساس داده های گردآوری شده دارد؛ همچنین توانمندی و اعتماد اجتماعی به ترتیب به میزان 65/0 و 76/0 بر مشارکت اجتماعی تاثیر داشته است.

    نوآوری

    در پژوهش حاضر برای نخستین بار مسیله مشارکت و توسعه روستایی با بهره گیری از دو مقوله اعتماد اجتماعی و توانمندی اجتماعی با استفاده از تحلیل ساختاری در یکی از شهرستان های کم برخوردار استان اصفهان بررسی شده است.

    کلیدواژگان: مشارکت اجتماعی، اعتماد اجتماعی، توانمندی اجتماعی، مناطق روستایی، شهرستان فریدون شهر
  • احمدرضا شیخی*، مرتضیj کوثری صفحات 17-31

    انتخاب مقصد گردشگری، فرایندی پیچیده ای است که عوامل مختلفی در این انتخاب نقش دارند. گروهی از این عوامل به مقصد و ویژگی های آن وابسته اند و دستیابی به اینکه مقصد چه ویژگی هایی دارد، به ذی نفعان این صنعت گردشگری کمک می کند تا دید بهتری به بازارهای هدف پیدا و مطابق با ذایقه گردشگران بازار هدف برنامه ریزی کنند. در پژوهش حاضر مطالعه ای میدانی با هدف شناسایی عواملی بررسی شد که بر انتخاب ایران به عنوان مقصد گردشگری موثر بوده است. این پژوهش از دیدگاه گردشگران فرانسوی ورودی به ایران در سال 1397 است که با انگیزه فرهنگی وارد شدند. از میان این جمعیت با استفاده از فرمول کوکران 385 نفر برگزیده و پرسشنامه آنلاین، طراحی و برای گردشگران ارسال شد. نتایج به دست آمده از آزمون t حاکی از آن بود که گردشگران فرانسوی بیش از هر چیز تمایل دارند با مردم محلی در حین سفر ارتباط برقرار کنند و از تعامل با جامعه محلی، تجربه آشنایی فرهنگی کیفی برای خود رقم بزنند. همچنین نشان داده شد که نرخ ارز و هزینه های مناسب سفر نیز در کنار مهمان نوازی جذاب نقش اساسی داشته است. از سوی دیگر، مشکلات بین المللی ناشی از اخذ ویزای ایران، نبود بهداشت کافی خدمات جاده ای و اطراف جاذبه ها و محدودیت های فرهنگی و مذهبی نیز از عوامل دافعه قلمداد شده است. درنهایت با آزمون کاندال مشخص شد که تغییر نگرش گردشگران بعد از سفر، همبستگی معناداری در تشویق دوستانشان و میل به سفر مجدد به ایران دارد.

    کلیدواژگان: انگیزش، عوامل جاذبه، عوامل دافعه، مقصد، گردشگران فرانسوی
  • اصغر نوروزی*، فریده یداللهی صفحات 33-50
    طرح مسئله

    در دهه های اخیر افزایش فاجعه آمیز تخریب محیط زیست در ابعاد مختلف آن، موردتوجه جامعه جهانی قرار گرفته است. در زمینه این نابسامانی های محیطی، نباید بسیاری از رفتارهای نامناسب را که نتیجه ناآگاهی و نداشتن دانش زیست محیطی بوده است، نادیده گرفت و نواحی روستایی به دلیل ارتباط نزدیک تر با محیط، اثرات دوچندانی در این خصوص دارند.

    هدف

    سنجش و ارزیابی میزان آگاهی و دانش زیست محیطی روستاییان در ناحیه روستایی چغاخور است.

    روش

    نوع پژوهش کاربردی و از حیث روش توصیفی- تحلیلی و مبتنی بر پیمایش است. جامعه آماری شامل روستاییان در ناحیه چغاخور از توابع شهرستان بروجن است. بدین منظور به صورت نمونه گیری تصادفی تعداد 251 نمونه از 2065 خانوار انتخاب و بررسی شد.

    نتایج

    میانگین نمره میزان دانش زیست محیطی در گروه نمونه 27/140 بوده و بالاتر از نمره برش است؛ بنابراین میزان آگاهی و دانش زیست محیطی روستاییان در سطحی بالاتر از حد متوسط است. همچنین نتایج آزمون خی دو و ضریب همبستگی اتا نشان دهنده آن است که بین جنسیت و تاهل با سطح «آگاهی و دانش زیست محیطی» رابطه مثبت و متوسط وجود دارد. برای متغیرهای سن و تحصیلات نیز با توجه به مقدار ضریب تی.بی کندال 179/0- و 401/0 این رابطه به ترتیب منفی- ضعیف و مثبت- متوسط است؛ اما برای متغیرهای وضعیت فعالیت و نوع اشتغال روستاییان رابطه ای وجود ندارد. برعکس این رابطه، برای متغیر درآمد به صورت ضعیف وجود دارد. نتایج تحلیل واریانس یک طرفه با مقدار F (248/1) معنی دار نیست و این امر حاکی از آن است که تفاوت مکانی درخصوص میزان آگاهی و دانش زیست محیطی وجود ندارد.نوآوری پژوهش در کاربرد شاخص های متناسب با شرایط محلی، نوع آزمون ها و مکان پژوهش است.

    کلیدواژگان: روستا، توسعه پایدار روستایی، آگاهی و دانش زیست محیطی، ناحیه چغاخور
  • مسعود تقوایی*، مرجان شفیعی صفحات 51-80
    طرح مسئله

    با ادامه تسلط جمعیت شهری در سطح جهانی، افزایش روندهای تغییر اوضاع و پیش بینی های سازمان ملل، برنامه ریزان شهر، مبتکران و محققان شهری به طور فزاینده ای در حال کار بر روی ابتکارات مشترک برای بررسی جنبه های فیزیکی، فناوری، اجتماعی، سیاسی و زندگی هماهنگ شهری هستند و هدف، ایجاد شهرهایی با عملکرد خوب، مرفه، پایدار، مقاوم و قابل زندگی است. در راستای گسترش کلان شهرها و فشارهایی که بر زیرساخت های شهری وارد می شود، به تحقق رویکردهایی مانند هوشمندسازی شهری توجه شده است که باعث بهبود کیفیت زندگی و عملکرد شهر می شود.

    هدف

    بررسی مولفه های موثر در تحقق هوشمندسازی شهر اصفهان است.روش پژوهش: رویکرد حاکم بر پژوهش از نظر هدف، کاربردی - توسعه ای و روش آن توصیفی - تحلیلی است. اطلاعات لازم با به کارگیری منابع اسنادی-کتابخانه ای و مطالعات میدانی جمع آوری شد. جامعه آماری پژوهش را مسیولان و مدیران شهری تشکیل می دهد که براساس روش نمونه گیری گلوله برفی، 60 نفر برای نمونه مدنظر انتخاب شد. تحلیل پژوهش با استفاده از روش تحلیل عاملی و SWOT صورت گرفت.

    نتایج

    نتایج یافته های روش تحلیل عاملی نشان دهنده آن است که چهار عامل، اقتصادی/ مدیریتی (مقدار ویژه: 69/7 و درصد واریانس کل: 78/20 درصد)، اقتصادی/ محیطی (مقدار ویژه: 86/5 و درصد واریانس کل: 85/15 درصد)، کالبدی (مقدار ویژه: 67/5 و درصد واریانس کل: 32/15 درصد) و اجتماعی (مقدار ویژه: 56/4 و درصد واریانس کل: 34/12 درصد) مهم ترین عوامل در هوشمندسازی شهر اصفهان است؛ همچنین یافته های حاصل از روش SWOT نشان دهنده نقاط قوت و ضعف، فرصت ها و تهدیدهای تحقق هوشمندسازی در شهر اصفهان است.

    نوآوری

    هوشمندسازی شهری، شکل نهایی رویکردهایی مانند شهر پراکنده، شهر فشرده، رشد هوشمند، شهر الکترونیک و هوشمند است که در طول زمان شکل گرفته و تکمیل کننده یکدیگر بوده اند. در پژوهش حاضر از شاخص های مشترک این نظریه ها، در راستای تحقق هوشمندسازی در شهر اصفهان استفاده شده است.

    کلیدواژگان: هوشمندسازی، تحلیل عاملی، SWOT، شهر اصفهان
  • غلامحسن جعفری*، کژال غفوری صفحات 81-98

    افزایش رتبه آبراهه های حوضه ای آبریز بر کانتکست های مختلف ژیومورفولوژیکی، ژیولوژیکی، کلیماتولوژی، اکولوژیکی و... اثر می گذارد. به طور معمول، محققان در بررسی سیستم های باز، فرض را بر اثرگذاری بردارهای مشخص و در دسترس قرار می دهند و رفتار سیستم را در ارتباط با آ نها ارزیابی می کنند. در این پژوهش، افزایش رتبه آبراهه های حوضه های آبریز ایران در غالب 984 زیر حوضه در ارتباط با نسبت انشعاب، طول و میانگین کل آبراهه ها و مساحت حوضه بررسی شده است. به این منظور، ابتدا لایه رودخانه‏های اصلی و آبراهه‏ها از 30*30 DEM مستخرج از ماهواره SRTM تهیه شد. پس از استخراج آبراهه در نرم افزار ArcGIS 10.3، براساس نظریه هورتن-استرالر رتبه بندی شد. رابطه بین رتبه برابر آبراهه با مساحت حوضه آبریز و همچنین ارتباط بین ثابت نگهداشت ویژه با شیب و تراکم زهکشی، به عنوان خصوصیات فیزیوگرافی حوضه آبریز ارزیابی شد. بین دو پارامتر، مجموع رتبه آبراهه ها و مساحت حوضه آبریز، رابطه مستقیمی وجود دارد؛ به گونه ای که در بیشتر حوضه های آبریز، ضریب تبیین این دو پارامتر 99 درصد برآورد شده است. در حوضه های آبریز ایران مقدار ضریب، تبیین نسبت انشعاب و افزایش رتبه رودخانه ها از 35 درصد در حوضه کویر سیاه کوه تا 82 درصد در حوضه آبریز سفیدرود متغیر است. مساحت حوضه آبریز امکان دارد بر نسبت انشعاب با ضریب تبیین 99 درصد اثر بگذارد. در برخی از حوضه های آبریز ایران، که تکتونیک فعال دارند یا رودخانه ها منحرف شده اند، گاه طول جریان در رتبه های پایین کمتر از رتبه های بالاتر است؛ به شرط آنکه توپوگرافی حوضه طی زمان، متعادل شده باشد. با افزایش رتبه آبراهه ها، میانگین طول جریان در همان رتبه افزایش می یابد. این فرض که هرچه ثابت نگهداشت حوضه بیشتر شود تراکم زهکشی حوضه کاهش می یابد، در بیشتر حوضه های آبریز ایران با ضریب تبیین بیشتر از 90 درصد قابل تعمیم است.

    کلیدواژگان: فیزیوگرافی، نگهداشت ویژه، رده بندی رودخانه، حوضه آبریز
  • اصغر صالحی*، پریسا کرباسی صفحات 99-120
    تعیین و اجرای برنامه های توسعه ای، به دلیل ضعف و ناکارآمدی ارتباط سیستماتیک بین بخش های مختلف تولیدات کشاورزی و دام پروری با ظرفیت منابع طبیعی (آب و مراتع)، صنایع فرآوری، نهادهای مالی، توزیع نهاده و محصولات دامی در کشور، نیازمند تمرکز و توجه ویژه برای شناسایی ظرفیت ها، پتانسیل ها و تعاملات اثرگذار بر صنعت دام پروری است. ارتباط سیستماتیک بین بخش های مختلف تولید و عرضه در سایر کشورها با بهره گیری از اتصال جریان های تولید، صادرات و پایانه های وارداتی با همکاری بخش های خصوصی قدرتمند برقرار شده است. در حال حاضر، در استان بالغ بر 5/6 میلیون واحد دامی وجود دارد و یکی از بزرگ ترین استان های تولیدکننده محصولات دام، طیور و آبزیان است؛ به طوری که در زمینه مرغ گوشتی، مرغ تخم گذار و شترمرغ رتبه دوم، شیر خام و ماهیان زینتی رتبه اول، عسل رتبه سوم و گوشت قرمز رتبه پنجم کشور را به خود اختصاص داده است. در همین راستا، تدوین برنامه توسعه پایدار صنعت دام پروری استان اصفهان به منظور شناسایی و بومی کردن ارتباطات سیستماتیک برای بهبود و ایجاد توسعه پایدار در صنعت دام پروری استان ضروری است.
    هدف
    هدف کلی این تحقیق، برنامه ریزی مناسب و علمی برای بهبود و توسعه تولیدات دامی در راستای افزایش بهره وری تولیدات دامی و صنایع مرتبط همسو با استفاده بهینه از پتانسیل ها، قابلیت ها و ظرفیت های موجود است.
    روش
    این پژوهش از نوع پیمایشی است و برای دستیابی به اهداف پژوهش متناسب با جامعه آماری طرح، پرسشنامه هایی طراحی شد. علاوه بر این، برای کسب اطلاعات بیشتر، از روش های مصاحبه نیمه باز و مشاهده نیز استفاده شد. برای تجزیه وتحلیل داده ها و اطلاعات، از روش های مختلف تحلیل آماری توصیفی و استنباطی و تحلیل شبکه دست اندرکاران به کمک نرم افزار SPSS/PC+  استفاده شد.
    نتایج
    برنامه ریزی مناسب و علمی برای بهبود و توسعه تولیدات دامی در راستای افزایش بهره وری تولیدات دام، طیور، سایر ماکیان و زنبورعسل براساس اسناد بالادستی موجود، سیاست های کلان اقتصاد مقاومتی کشور و جامع نگری از الزامات برنامه های توسعه پایدار صنعت دام پروری استان هاست.
    کلیدواژگان: توسعه پایدار، دام پروری، عوامل موثر، پتانسیل، استان اصفهان
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  • Ahmad Hajarian, Hamid Barghi * Pages 1-16
    Problem definition

    The issue of participation has become very important in recent decades in relation to such issues as democracy, development, etc. Participation and rural development have been proposed as two related and complementary elements and increasing the level of participation among villagers is considered as a sign and means of rural development. This can be useful for future policies and planning for rural areas.

    Purpose

    Social participation is a broad concept that includes dimensions, such as social trust, empowerment, and norms, which are discussed today in socio-economic analyses of rural development. The purpose of this article was to show the role of social participation in rural development.

    Methodology

    The statistical population of the study consisted of 4200 rural women aged 15 years and older in Fereydunshahr City and the sample size was determined to be 240 people by using Cochran's formula.

    Results

    Data analysis was performed using SPSS software and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). In this study, the observed variables for the two components of empowerment and social trust were obtained. Two first-order factor analysis models were developed and validated to measure two subscales of social participation. Finally, the roles and effects of the observed variables and their dual components on social participation as the main latent dependent variable, as well as the relationships between them were analyzed by using a two-factor structural model of Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). The results showed the acceptable fit and validity of both models of measuring social participation and achieving goals, as well as the second-order three-factor model for examining social participation, based on the collected data. Also, social empowerment (0.65) and trust (0.78) had an effect on social participation.Innovation: In the present study, for the first time, the issues of participation and rural development were investigated by performing the structural analyses of the two categories of social trust and social empowerment. Keywords: Social Participation, Social Trust, Social Empowerment, Rural Areas, Fereydunshahr IntroductionEach rural settlement consists of various economic, social, cultural, and political spheres, each of which represents one aspect of social life. Accordingly, rural space has a certain structure with regard to its environmental and ecological characteristics and socio-economic features, which indicate its basic capabilities and actual talents (Saeedi, 1998: 19). Reaching the all-round developments and peaks of growth and excellence has been one of the human aspirations throughout history. To achieve this aspiration, human beings have always tried different ways to test the plants and accelerate achievement of development through this process. The development of a region is not only possible by relying on natural resources, but also one of the necessary and basic items of social participation. Social participation of a city and village expresses a part of the human potential of that city and village. To develop any programs, it is necessary that social participation of the area be thoroughly examined. Social participation can be considered in a broad and macro level based on a set of moral virtues and social relations in line with developments that are influenced by both economic and political performances and the constructions of power and governance commensurate with it at the same time affect these two performances (Dini Turkmani, 2006: 171-147). Development has a concept beyond growth and requires qualitative and structural changes different from the previous routine (Sarafi, 2003: 98-74). Social participation for achieving rural development has been the growing subject of many studies in recent years. The necessary condition for the development of any society, especially rural communities, is reaching a comprehensive development by building warm relations, expanding social cohesion, and developing social empowerment and most importantly mutual trust at the individual, society, and government levels. These structures are components of social participation. Although this research field has been considered for a long time, scientific studies of villages have been of special interest only in recent decades (Saeedi, 2005: 1). Rural development includes a set of national developments. It encompasses a wide range of activities and human mobilization that enable people to stand on their own feet and eliminate structural disabilities. Considering the concept of social participation, development can be regarded as the enrichment of social actions due to the increase in the desire for empowerment and social trust. In this case, the transition to development through the creation of institutions, beliefs, value balances, norms, and productive structures, as well as the structures that encourage social participation, will be possible. According to various definitions, social participation includes concepts, such as trust, empowerment, and interaction between the members of a group. In a way, social participation causes the group to take steps towards values ​​and norms that are positive and admired in the society (Renani et al., 2006: 151-133). In addition to modeling social participation in rural development in the two dimensions of trust and social empowerment, the purpose of this article was to evaluate the levels of social participation of the studied villages. By examining these two dimensions of social participation, we could find out how much the residents of the sample villages cared about the components of social trust and empowerment among themselves and to what extent they participated in their rural development in general. Given the importance of the issue and other issues raised, this study sought to examine two important components of social participation, namely social trust and social empowerment, in the rural areas of Fereydunshahr City.Research MethodsThe present study was an applied research in terms of purpose and a descriptive-analytical research in nature. The study population included all rural households in Fereydunshahr. According to the statistics of 2016, the total number of households in Fereydunshahr was 9275, of which 4383 households were located in rural areas. To determine the sample size, Cochran's general order was used. Due to time and economic constraints and especially the size of the statistical population specified through the corrected order, the sample questionnaires were reduced to 240ones. Villages were selected as a sample in the study area and the numbers of the samples and villages were determined systematically.The sample areas of Milagardo Chogha, Kloseh and Masir, Racheh and Islamabad, Choghiwart and Nehzatabad, and Darreh Sib and Midanak Bozorg from Barf Anbar, Poshtkuh Mogoi, Pishkuh Mogoi, Cheshmeh Negan, and Ashayer villages were selected. FindingsMeasurement models were based on Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) and validation of scales.First, two models of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) indicating a factor for creating and measuring the two subscales of trust and social empowerment as components of social participation were drawn and analyzed in the AmosGraphic software environment. A measurement model is part of a structural equation model that defines how to measure a latent variable by using two or more observable variables. Here, the variable of social participation was a hidden variable, which had to be drawn in an oval form in the software. A hidden variable is a variable that is not measured directly, but is measured by using two or more observed variables (e.g., empowerment and social trust in this article) as a representative. The obvious variables have the same roles as the questions of the questionnaire shown in a graph with the letter of q. The hidden variable can be measured by using them. The measurement error for the obvious variable is represented by the letter of e (Ghasemi, 2010).The strength of the relationship between the factor (hidden variable) and the observable variable is indicated by the factor load, which is a value between 0 and 1. If the factor load is less than 0.3, it is ignored for having a weak relationship. A factor load of between 0.3 and 0.6 is acceptable and larger than 0.6 is highly desirable. According to Table 3, all the observed variables have positive and significant regression coefficients with their scales. As can be seen, the magnitudes of these coefficients are relatively high for all the studied cases (all the factor loads are at the significant level of 0.001). In this table, no significant levels are reported for the factor loads or the standard regression coefficients of the two observed variables. This is because these variables are considered as the reference or representative variables for the two variables of social empowerment and social trust, respectively, so as to eliminate these hidden variables without a scale, i.e, without their root and unit of measurements (Ghasemi, 1389). That is why the initial path diagrams have been considered for the arrows related to the paths between these observed variables with the hidden variable corresponding to the values ​​of 1. The Average Variance Extracted (AVE) criterion represents the average variance shared between each structure and its own indicators. Simply put, AVE is used to validate convergence and shows a high correlation between the indices of one structure compared to the correlation of the indices of other structures.The coefficient ranges from 0 to 1 and the values ​​above 0.5 are accepted (Fornell & Lacker, 1981: 39-50). In this research, the convergent validities or means of AVE for social empowerment and social trust it were 0.60 and 0.71, respectively. The coefficient value of structural reliability or Combined Reliability (CR) ranges from 0 to 1one variable and the values ​​of higher than 0.7 are accepted. These values were obtained to be 0.77 and 0.74 for social empowerment and social trust, respectively, which indicated appropriateness of these subscales (Werts, 1974: 28).

    Keywords: Social Participation, Social Trust, social empowerment, Rural Areas, Fereydunshahr
  • Ahmadreza Sheikhi *, Morteza Kowsari Pages 17-31

    Choosing a tourist destination is a complex process and could be affected by various factors. Some of these factors depend on the destination and its characteristics. Recognizing the characteristics of the destination can guide stakeholders in the tourism industry to have a better view of the target markets and plan according to the tastes of the target market tourists. The present field study aimed at identifying the factors influencing the choice of Iran as a tourist destination from the perspective of French tourists who traveled to Iran in 2018. From this population, 385 tourists were selected using Cochran's formula. Their viewpoints were gathered using an online questionnaire. The results of the t-test showed that French tourists were more willing to communicate with the local community. It has also been shown that exchange rates and reasonable costs have played a major role alongside attractive Iranian hospitality. On the other hand, international problems arising from obtaining Iranian visas, inadequate roadside services, and cultural and religious restrictions were among the repulsive factors. Finally, using the Kendall test, we showed that the change in the attitude of tourists after the trip and encouraging their friends to travel to Iran have a significant correlation. 

    Methodology

    The statistical population of this study was French tourists who traveled to Iran in 2018 for the purpose of cultural tourism. According to the statistical data of the Ministry of Cultural Heritage, Tourism, and Handicrafts (MCTH), the number of these tourists in that year was 43,216. To determine the sample size, Cochran's formula with an error coefficient of 0.05 was used. Then, 385 tourists were selected as the sample size. Some support has also been received from two travel agencies, Clio and Intermed in France, which are active in the field of cultural tourism. Contact with French cultural tourists was not difficult since one of the researchers was a French-language cultural tourism guide. Due to his 10-years of experience with French cultural tourists, he has been in contact with many tourists who have traveled to Iran for cultural purposes. For this reason, the researcher had contact with around 100 tourists who had traveled to Iran in 2018. The rest of the sample members were introduced to the researcher through the two above-mentioned agencies. To collect the data for this study, a survey method was used. As shown in the theoretical foundations of the research, the motivation for traveling to Iran as a tourist destination was considered. In addition, the metrics of contextual variables including characteristics such as age, gender, education, occupation, religion, and the destination image were considered as the potential factors affecting tourists’ behaviors. All these measures have been studied through a research questionnaire. It was used to collect the data online. 

    Discussion

    French tourists incoming to Iran have some difficulties in terms of obeying religious laws and observing the hijab. Therefore, the factor of religion is a strong repulsive factor for young tourists and less repulsive for older tourists because older tourists have accepted it as an Islamic norm. More than half of the tourists were women. Thus, gender also acted as a repulsive factor in terms of observing the hijab, especially for younger women. On the other hand, the high average age of tourists necessitates the improvement of infrastructures and facilities for older tourists. For example, the welfare services around the attractions roads were considered a repulsive factor, which caused many problems for the tourists of any age. For this reason, service complexes of high quality should be provided around all tourist attractions. Most of the tourists surveyed also stated that they earn more than 25,000 euros a year. Most of them have stayed in 4- or 5-star hotels and showed a high degree of satisfaction, which is partially in line with international standards. 

    Conclusion

    In summary, the results showed that despite the negative effect of sanctions, hotels have been able to provide services to tourists with high quality in Iran's tourist destinations. In addition, tourists tend to communicate with the local community and enjoy cultural diversity. Indeed, by providing some training courses to the Iranian local communities, they can be prepared for better interaction with tourists. Working on their language level is also a determining factor. Another repulsive factor was inactivity in the field of advertising. This issue, which has different types and forms, can be less expensive, easier, and more effective to improve today than in the past. One of the advertising types that can be easily done today is awareness through websites and virtual networks. Most tourists use websites for gathering relevant information. However, Iran has not been able to have a standard tourism database. Social media can also attract and reassure many tourists by shortening the relationship between consumers and suppliers of various goods and services and eliminating negative images such as insecurity. The mental image of tourists towards the destination before the trip was not very clear and desirable, while they have stated that their mental image of Iran after the trip has changed dramatically.Keywords: Motivation, Attraction and Repulsion Factors, Iran Tourism Destination, French Tourists. 

    Keywords: Motivation, Attraction, Repulsion Factors, Iran Tourism Destination, French Tourists
  • Asghar Norouzi *, Farideh Yadollahi Pages 33-50
    Problem Definition

    In recent decades, the catastrophic increase in environmental degradation in its various dimensions has been considered by the international community. In the context of these environmental disorders, many inappropriate behaviors that are the result of ignorance and lack of environmental knowledge should not be ignored and rural areas can have a double impact in this regard due to their closer relationship with the environment.

    Purpose

    The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the level of environmental knowledge and awareness of the villagers in the rural area of Choghakhor.

    Methodology

    This research is applied and descriptive-analytical (based on survey) in terms of type and method, respectively. The statistical population includes villagers in the Choghakhor area of Boroujen County. Accordingly, 251 samples from 2065 households were selected by random sampling and questioned.

    Results

    The results of the study show that the average score of environmental knowledge in the sample group is 140.27 which is higher than the cut-off score; therefore, the level of villagers’ environmental awareness and knowledge is above average. The results of the chi-square test and ETA correlation coefficient show that there is a positive and moderate relationship between gender and marital status with the level of awareness and environmental knowledge. For the variables of age and education, according to the value of Kendall's tau-b correlation coefficient -0.179 and 0.401, this relationship is negative-weak and positive-average, respectively. But, there is no relationship between the level of environmental awareness and knowledge and the villagers’ employment status or occupation. Conversely, this relationship exists weakly for the income variable. The results of one-way analysis of variance with the F value (1.248) are not significant and this shows that the spatial difference is not significant with respect to environmental awareness and knowledge.Innovation: The innovation of research lies in the application of indicators appropriate to local conditions, type of tests, and research location. 

    Keywords: village, Sustainable Rural Development, Environmental Awareness, Knowledge, Choghakhor Area
  • Masoud Taghvaei *, Marjan Shafiei Pages 51-80
    Problem Definition

    Urbanization is now happening at an unprecedented rate. Continued population growth and urbanization are projected to add 2.5 billion to the world's urban population by 2050. Along with the physical progress in the cities of the world, finding solutions to problems in urban areas is very important. In response to inefficient and unsustainable patterns of urban growth, concepts such as urban intelligence have emerged forcing many planners to seek new ways to understand and pursue regional and large-scale spatial planning (Sciara, 2020, p. 1). It aims to improve the quality of life for residents in terms of personal, social, cultural, economic, environmental, and physiological aspects. In recent years, Iran’s metropolises, including Isfahan, have faced new challenges in terms of environmental sustainability, economic growth, population, and technological progress. As a result, today’s cities need integrated policies and innovative new methods to manage and improve the complexity of urban living conditions. It should be noted that the metropolis of Isfahan is facing many changes in the economic, social, managerial, etc. areas. The realization of intelligence can be provided by presenting appropriate solutions to reduce the cost of infrastructure and urban services, excessive use of cars, air pollution, water, etc. that helped managers and city officials. Therefore, in order to improve the city and its public services, there is a need for measures and tools that increase urban efficiency and performance. Urban planners need to implement smart solutions to strengthen the city’s competitiveness, improve environmental and economic efficiency, facilitate resilience, and emphasize this approach to energy production and distribution, transportation, waste management, and pollution control.

    Purpose

    This study aims to investigate the effective components in smartening the city of Isfahan.

    Methodology

    This research is applied-developmental in terms of purpose, and descriptive-analytical and survey in terms of method. Data collection was done using both library and field methods and referring to documentary sources, articles, and related theories. After extracting and comparing the indicators in the approaches of scattered cities, compact cities, smart growth, electronic cities, and smart cities, important and common indicators for smartening in the form of 5 dimensions were developed including physical-spatial (8 items), environmental-ecological (5 items), economic (8 items), social (8 items), and managerial-political (8 items). Each of these dimensions has sub-criteria that form the basis of the present research. To achieve the objectives of the research (i.e. analysis of the main components of intelligence approaches and analysis of weaknesses, strengths, threats and opportunities to achieve intelligence in Isfahan), factor analysis and the SWOT model have been used. The statistical population of the study includes experts and trustees of Isfahan municipality, urban planning, intelligence, urban planning, and university professors. The sample size was selected based on the snowball sampling method of 60 people and a questionnaire was distributed among them.

    Results

    Analysis of the main components of smartening approaches in IsfahanThe factor analysis method was used to identify the underlying dimensions of the research. By summarizing the variables in the form of new factors, their importance was categorized in order of importance and the main components in terms of smartening the city of Isfahan were prioritized over the research variables based on the opinions of experts and trustees. Finally, that managerial-economic, environmental-economic, physical, and social factors were recognized as the most important factors in the development of intelligence in Isfahan, and these factors explain 64% of the total variance.Analysis of strengths and weaknesses, opportunities and threats of smartening in Isfahan metropolis and ways to improve itRegarding the existing weaknesses in order to achieve intelligence in the city of Isfahan, the lack of management in waste and urban recycling with a score of 0.656, is the most important weakness in the system that needs improvement in terms of planning.Analysis of external factors affecting the realization of intelligence in IsfahanOrganizing public transportation with a score of 0.602 is an opportunity to realize the intelligence of the city of Isfahan. The unavailability of quality facilities and services with a score of 0.634, is considered the most important threat to the realization of intelligence.Urban planners emphasize that the importance of cities in the regional, national, or global economy is increasing. In this regard, with the aim of improving aspects such as quality of life and empowerment of citizens, urban intelligence is considered a conceptual scenario and urban planners are widely encouraged to implement smart solutions. The metropolis of Isfahan, the third most popular city in Iran and the fourteenth most popular city in the Middle East, needs to create perspectives to create a safe and sustainable environment for living and working in urban programs. Therefore, the present study was conducted with the aim of analyzing the main components of smartening approaches in Isfahan. The results of factor analysis based on the 37 variables show that the four factors of economic-managerial, economic-environmental, physical, and social aspects have the highest variance and are the most important components in the development of intelligence in Isfahan. Using the SWOT model, the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of smartening in Isfahan were identified and relevant strategies were presented.Innovation: The concept of ‘Smartening cities’ is the ultimate form of approaches such as scattered cities, compact cities, smart growth, electronic cities, and smart cities which form and complement each other over time. In the present study, the common indicators of these theories were used to smarten Isfahan city.

    Keywords: Smartening Cities, Factor Analysis, SWOT, Isfahan
  • Gholam Hassan Jafari *, Kazhal Qafoori Pages 81-98
    Introduction

    Physiography is a part of earth science studies in which the physical characteristics of the drainage basin such as area, perimeter and relief, slope, direction, etc. are studied. The studies that examine the physical characteristics and shape of a basin are called Physiography. Knowledge of the physiographic characteristics of a basin along with information about the climatic conditions of the region can provide us with a relatively accurate image of the quantitative and qualitative function of the hydrological system of that basin (Pitlick, 1994). The increase in the rank of waterways in a drainage basin is under the influence of various geomorphological, geological, and climatological ecosystems and contexts. In dealing with open systems, the researchers’ assumption is usually on the effectiveness of specific and accessible vectors and the evaluation of the system's behavior in relation to those vectors. The area of study in this research includes Iran. Iran with an area of about 1648195 square kilometers is approximately located between 25-40 degrees north latitude and 44-64 degrees east longitude. 

    Materials and Methods

    In this study, the accuracy of physiographic relationships in the basins was discussed. The existing relationships and the connection between them represent the relation of physiographic characteristics of the basin. In dealing with open systems, the researchers’ assumption is usually on the effectiveness of specific and accessible vectors and the evaluation of the system's behavior in relation to those vectors. Accordingly, in this study, the increase in the rank of the waterways drainage basin of Iran in the form of 984 sub-basins was investigated in terms of the bifurcation ratio, total length of waterways, the total average of waterways, and basin area. The relation between the equal rank of waterway and drainage basin area and also the relation between specific retention constant and slope and drainage density are among the physiographic characteristics of the drainage basin that were evaluated in this study. For this purpose, first, the layer of main rivers and waterways was prepared from DEM 30*30 extracted from the SRTM satellite. After extraction of the waterway in Arc GIS 10.3 software, Iran's rivers were ranked based on the Horton-Strahler theory. The relation between the equal rank of waterway and drainage basin area and also the relation between specific retention constant and slope and drainage density are among the physiographic characteristics of the drainage basin that were evaluated in this essay.

     Discussion

    In the drainage basin of Iran, a regression equation was established between the ‘area’ as an independent variable and the sum of flow ranks as a dependent variable, and the obtained equation responded positively to this hypothesis with a favorable level of significance. The amount of the explanation coefficient of most sub-basins is more than 0.99, which indicates the great effectiveness of the expanse of the basins on the sum of the ranks of rivers flow. The lowest explanation coefficient is in the Abarkooh-Sirjan basin (0.89) and then in Dar-Anjir Desert sub-basins (0.92) (probably due to the basins being dry and playa), Aras (due to having just one bank) And Haraz-Qarah Su (0.96), and Sefidrud-Haraz (0.97) (due to the different climate of the basins), respectively. The bifurcation ratio has an inverse relationship with the ranks so that as the waterway rank increases, the bifurcation ratio coefficient decreases.The highest percentage belongs to the Sefidrud-Haraz (82%), Gavkhouni 72%), and Namak Lake (62%) basins. The common feature of the three basins is that their final drain is located in a corner of the basin and not in the center. Siahkuh Desert sub-basins (35%), Bandar Abbas-Sadich (36%), Karkheh and Abarkooh-Sirjan (37%) have the lowest frequency percentage of high ranks. In the drainage basin, a regression equation was established between the area and equal ranks according to their frequency. In this equation, the area was the independent variable and the bifurcation ratio was the dependent variable and according to the level of significance obtained from the equation, the drainage basin responded positively to the hypothesis. Basins with smaller areas also had smaller bifurcation ratios. The highest explanation coefficients belong to Qarah-Su- Gorganrood (99%) and Dur-Anjir Desert (98%) sub-basins, and the lowest explanation coefficients belong to Sefidrud and Hamun-e Jaz-Murian (50%), Hamun-e Mashekl (54%), Urmia (59), and Helleh (62%) sub-basins.The flow length of each rank is measured and categorized in all basins. The prevailing result is the existence of a negative relationship between total flow length and rank. A regression equation was established between retention constant and slope, and regression equations were estimated with a positive procedure. In this examination, the slope was considered the independent variable and the retention constant was considered the dependent variable. Some basins were excluded from the examination, most likely due to the topographic and lithological effects of the basins that have changed the specific retention constant. Basins may be more expanded in the mound area, reducing drainage density in these areas. Even among the basins where acceptable regression equations have been obtained, the explanations coefficient varied between 50% (Hamun-Helmand, Abarkooh-Sirjan, Sefidrud) up to a maximum of 79% (Gavkhouni) and most of them had been between 50% and 60%. ConclusionThere is a direct relationship between the two parameters that is, the sum of the rank of waterways in a drainage basin and the area of the drainage basin of Iran so that in most drainage basins the explanation coefficient of these two parameters is estimated to be 99%. In the drainage basin of Iran, the amount of the explanation coefficient of the bifurcation ratio and increasing the rank of rivers varies from 35% in the Siahkuh Desert basin to 82% in the Sefidrud drainage basin. The area of the basin with a 99% explanation coefficient may affect the bifurcation ratio. In some basins of Iran that have active tectonics or rivers are captured or diverted, sometimes the flow length is fewer in the lower ranks than in the higher ranks. Provided that the topography of the basin is balanced over time, by increasing the rank of waterways, the flow length average increases in the same rank. The assumption that as much as the retention constant of the basin increases then the drainage density of the basin decreases, can be generalized in most of the drainage basins of Iran with an explanation coefficient higher than 90%.

    Keywords: Physiography, Specific retention, River ranking, Drainage Basin
  • Asghar Salehi *, Parisa Karbasi Pages 99-120
    AbstractDetermining and implementing development programs, due to the weakness and inefficiency of systematic communication between different sectors of agricultural and livestock production with the capacity of natural resources (water and rangelands), processing industries, financial institutions, and distribution of inputs and livestock products in the country needs special focus and attention in order to identify the capacities, potentials, and interactions affecting the livestock industry. A systematic relationship between different sectors of production and supply in other countries has been established by using the connection of production flows, exports, and import terminals with the cooperation of powerful private sectors. The systematic localization of communication is essential for improving and creating sustainable development in the livestock industry of the province. IntroductionFollowing the United Nations' declaration of decades of development in the early 1960s, the issue of development in developing countries has been at the forefront of the agenda of UN agencies and international development institutions. The concept of sustainable development reflects the undeniable fact that ecological considerations can and should be applied to economic activities. These considerations include the idea of ​​creating a rational environment in which the claim of development to advance the quality of all aspects of life is challenged. Initially, several definitions of development were proposed to mean the improvement of social life. Thus, one of the major development challenges of the 1970s was tackling malnutrition and global hunger.There has not been much study in Iran regarding the structural and institutional factors affecting the sustainable development of the livestock industry. The situation is the same abroad. The studies have been mostly on the factors affecting the sustainable development of other sectors such as tourism, sustainable rural development, and so on. To fill the gap, this study aims to explain the sustainability of the Isfahan livestock industry. The general aim of the present study is to design appropriate and scientific planning for the improvement and development of livestock production in order to increase the productivity of livestock production and related industries in line with the optimal use of existing potentials and capabilities.Materials and MethodsThis research is survey research and questionnaires were designed to achieve the research objectives appropriate to the statistical population of the project. In addition, observational interview methods were used to obtain more information. To analyze the data and information, various methods of descriptive and inferential statistical analyses and network analysis of stakeholders using SPSS / PC+ software have been used. Results and DiscussionDeveloping a sustainable development plan for the Isfahan livestock industry is a key step toward achieving the goals of livestock sub-sector development. This program with a comprehensive view and a special view of animal husbandry in the province with the headline of general land management policies, while emphasizing the growth of competitive production based on knowledge and productivity in the framework of a resilient economy and constructive interaction with the world, has been developed as the first sustainable development program.The results of the study indicated appropriate and scientific planning to improve and develop livestock production in order to increase the productivity of livestock, poultry, other poultry and bees based on existing upstream documents, macroeconomic policies of the country, and a comprehensive view of the requirements of sustainable development programs in the livestock industry Provinces. It can be concluded that the capacity of users to successfully adapt to various conditions, including financial resources, participatory networks, knowledge and information, infrastructure and technology, is currently weak Keywords: Sustainable Development, Animal Husbandry, Effective Factors, Potential, Isfahan Province. References- Anonymous (2010). Basic plan of Isfahan province. Isfahan: University of Science and Technology Press.- Anonymous  (2014). Land use planning studies and strategic development document of Isfahan province Agriculture. Isfahan: University of Isfahan Publication.- Anonymous (2017). The plan of compiling the development documents of the cities of Isfahan province with the model of resistance economy–agriculture. Isfahan: University of Isfahan Publication.- Consulting Engineers (2001). Provincial Synthesis Studies of the Comprehensive Agricultural Development Plan of Isfahan Province. 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    Keywords: Sustainable Development, Animal Husbandry, effective factors, Potential, Isfahan province