فهرست مطالب

برنامه ریزی فضایی (جغرافیا) - سال سیزدهم شماره 4 (پیاپی 51، زمستان 1402)

فصلنامه برنامه ریزی فضایی (جغرافیا)
سال سیزدهم شماره 4 (پیاپی 51، زمستان 1402)

  • تاریخ انتشار: 1402/12/20
  • تعداد عناوین: 6
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  • حجت الله صادقی* صفحات 1-22

    گردشگری به عنوان یک بخش مهم اقتصادی نیازمند توسعه خدمات است. در این زمینه اماکن اقامتی-گردشگری از مهم ترین خدمات توسعه دهنده این بخش است که باتوجه به شاخص ها و ظرفیت های مختلف هر منطقه نیاز به مکان یابی بهینه دارد. هدف از پژوهش حاضر آن است که پهنه های مستعد ایجاد اماکن اقامتی-گردشگری در منطقه دزپارت استان خوزستان مشخص و در همین زمینه، میان مدل های هم پوشانی فازی از لحاظ نتایج نیز مقایسه تطبیقی انجام شود. روش پژوهش توصیفی-تحلیلی و مبتنی بر داده های مکانی است که در آن تجزیه و تحلیل داده ها به روش فازی در نرم افزار Arc GIS انجام و سپس در محیط نرم افزار استاندار دسازی و با الگوریتم های موجود فازی سازی شد. همچنین، در این پژوهش از مدل AHP برای استخراج وزن نهایی معیار ها و از روش های هم پوشانی فازی برای تعیین نقشه نهایی استفاده شد. نتیجه پژوهش نشان داد که دو معیار فاصله از منابع گرشگری با وزن نهایی 290/0 و فاصله از گسل با وزن 192/0بیشترین اهمیت را در تعیین پهنه های مستعد ایجاد اماکن اقامتی-گردشگری دارند. همچنین، در تحلیل نتایج هم پوشانی فازی تایید شد که مدل Gamma نسبت به مدل Sum بدبینانه تر است؛ به گونه ای که بر اساس مدل فازی Sum بیش از 41/39 درصد منطقه مستعد و بر اساس مدل Gamma تنها 10/3 درصد برای ایجاد خدمات اقامتی-گردشگری مناسب شناخته شده است. در روش مجموع کیفیت نیز تایید شد که برای تعیین پهنه های مستعد خدمات اقامتی-گردشگری مدل Sum بهتر از مدل Gamma است. بررسی توزیع فضایی نقشه های نهایی نیز نشان دهنده این است که پهنه های مستعد در محدوده جغرافیایی مرکز و شمال منطقه بیشتر توزیع شده است.

    کلیدواژگان: اماکن اقامتی-گردشگری، مدلهای هم پوشانی، فازی، منطقه دزپارت
  • رسا نوبهار قزلجه میدان، هادی حکیمی* صفحات 23-46

    افزایش جمعیت و ابعاد شهرنشینی در دنیای امروزی منجر به آشفتگی در فضاهای شهری، کاهش کارایی کاربری ها، گسترش مشکلات حمل و نقلی و اختلال در برنامه ریزی های میان مدت و بلند مدت برای دستیابی به توسعه پایدار شهری شده است؛ از این رو مشکلات فوق سیاست گذاران و برنامه ریزان عرصه مدیریت شهری را بر آن داشته است تا با تدبیر ها و رویکردهای متناسب، گامی در راستای پاسخگویی به این مشکلات بردارند. رویکرد توسعه حمل و نقل محور (TOD) در پژوهش حاضر (Transit-Oriented Development) به عنوان یکی از راه حل های موجود برای پاسخگویی به آشفتگی ها ارایه شده است. در این رویکرد کوشش می شود تا با ایجاد تغییراتی در مجاورت سیستم های حمل و نقل عمومی بر عواملی چون بازآفرینی کاربری های اراضی پیرامون و جابه جایی کالا و خدمات اثر گذار باشد. ایستگاه مترو میدان ساعت (خط یک) در منطقه دو شهرداری تبریز به دلیل مشکلات عدیده، بافت فرسوده و تراکم زیاد، پتانسیل مناسبی را برای تبدیل شدن به مرکز TOD دارد. هدف از پژوهش حاضر آن است که نقش توسعه حمل و نقل در بازآفرینی کاربری اراضی پیرامون ایستگاه مترو شهر تبریز بررسی شود تا به دنبال آن محیطی دوستانه براساس معیارهای TOD ایجاد شود. پژوهش حاضر از نظر روش شناسی توصیفی_تحلیلی با هدف های کاربردی بوده که به صورت تهیه پرسشنامه و داده های استخراج شده از نرم افزار GIS (Geographic Information System) انجام و نیز برای بررسی نتایج از روش تحلیل سلسله مراتبی (AHP) (Analytical Hierarchy Process) استفاده شده است. نتایج پژوهش برمبنای تحلیل 4 معیار اصلی و 9 زیر معیار اثرگذار نشان دهنده اهمیت گزینه های افزایش بازده اقتصادی، افزایش کارایی سیستم حمل و نقل عمومی است که این عوامل به همراه افزایش تراکم به ترتیب با امتیاز های 25/0، 183/0 و 161/0 و برحسب اولویت انتخاب و سپس براساس آنها برنامه ریزی کاربری زمین پیشنهاد شده است.

    کلیدواژگان: توسعه حملونقل محور، TOD، بازآفرینی کاربری اراضی شهری، ایستگاه مترو، میدان ساعت، خط یک
  • مجید گودرزی*، فهیمه فدایی جزی، زهرا سلطانی صفحات 47-69

    شاهین شهر در 19 کیلومتری شمال اصفهان به تازگی به یکی از شهرهای مهاجرپذیر در استان تبدیل شده است. ارزیابی توان طبیعی، یک ضرورت برای توسعه پایدار و به خصوص مراکز شهری است. هدف از پژوهش حاضر بررسی توان اکولوژیک پهنه شاهین شهر برای توسعه شهری بر اساس اصول آمایش سرزمین با استفاده از سامانه اطلاعات جغرافیایی است. پژوهش حاضر از حیث ماهیت و روش از نوع پژوهش های توصیفی-تحلیلی و از حیث هدف کاربردی است. برای رسیدن به هدف پژوهش از داده های مکانی استفاده و سپس این داده ها در نرم افزار GIS با استفاده از مدل های تصمیم گیری چندمعیاره SAW و ANPتحلیل شد. بر این اساس، ابتدا مطالعات پایه انجام و نقشه های موضوعی منطقه تهیه و رقومی سازی شد. سپس با استفاده از روش های ANP و SAW نقشه های ارتفاع، شیب، جهت، خاک، پوشش گیاهی، زمین شناسی و اقلیم هم پوشانی و درنهایت، نقشه توان اکولوژیکی توسعه شهری در محیطArc GIS10.8 تهیه شد. در میان پژوهش های صورت گرفته در شاهین شهر تاکنون پژوهشی که در آن همزمان از داده های مکانی و تکنیک های تصمیم گیری استفاده شده باشد، صورت نگرفته است که این خود دلیلی بر نوآوری پژوهش حاضر است. درنهایت، نتایج پژوهش حاکی از مطلوب بودن قسمت شمالی شهر برای توسعه است. همچنین، بنا به شرایط اقلیمی و توپوگرافی محدوده در صورت وقوع بارندگی ممکن است سیلاب رخ دهد که برای مقابله با این مسئله، تدبیر های لازم مانند وجود مسیلی که می تواند این مشکل را حل کند از قبل انجام شده است. قسمت های جنوب و شرق این منطقه به دلیل پیوستگی به شهرهای اصفهان، گز و گرگاب و قسمت غربی به دلیل نزدیکی به صنایع بزرگ نظیر پالایشگاه و پتروشیمی اصفهان غیرعلمی و توسعه قسمت جنوبی نیز به دلیل وجود تاسیسات فاضلاب و اراضی کشاورزی غیراصولی و نامناسب است.

    کلیدواژگان: توان اکولوژیکی، توسعه شهری، توسعه پایدار، سامانه اطلاعات جغرافیایی، شهر شاهینشهر
  • علی اکبر عنابستانی*، محسن کلانتری، نسیم نیکنامی صفحات 71-96

    شهر هوشمند یک اکوسیستم پیچیده فشرده از فناوری اطلاعات و ارتباطات است که در آن هدف جذاب تر و پایدارتر کردن شهرها و مکان های بی نظیر برای نوآوری و کارآفرینی است. فراگیر شدن حسگرهای دیجیتال و سیستم های کنترل دیجیتال برای مدیریت زیرساخت های شهری کاربردهایی متعددی را ممکن کرده است که در این میان، اینترنت اشیا به عنوان راهکاری برای ارایه خدمات جدید و افزایش سطح تعاملات تجلی یافته است که با پیشرفت و توسعه این فناوری مادر همه جوانب زندگی بشر متحول خواهد شد. هدف از پژوهش حاضر تحلیل فضایی شاخص های شهر هوشمند مبتنی بر اینترنت اشیا در سطح منطقه های سیزده گانه کلا نشهر مشهد است. پژوهش حاضر به لحاظ هدف، کاربردی، به لحاظ ماهیت و روش، توصیفی_تحلیلی و روش گردآوری اطلاعات در آن اسنادی (کتابخانه ای) و میدانی (پرسشنامه) است. حجم نمونه آماری شامل شهروندان ساکن منطقه های سیزده گانه کلانشهر مشهد است که با توجه به جمعیت 3062242 نفر در سال 1395، 171 پرسشنامه برآورد و به دنبال آن پرسشنامه ها با توجه به جمعیت هر منطقه به روش تصادفی توزیع شده است. برای تجزیه وتحلیل داده ها و اطلاعات از نرم افزار SPSS، روش های تصمیم گیری چند معیاره مانند MEREC وCOCOSO و روش معادله های ساختاری (Smart PLS) بهره گرفته شده است. نتایج پژوهش نشان می دهد که منطقه های 9، 1 و 4 به ترتیب بالاترین و منطقه های 3، 12 و 10 پایین ترین سطح برخورداری از شاخص های شهر هوشمند مبتنی بر اینترنت اشیا را در شهر مشهد دارند. بر اساس نتایج آزمون معادله های ساختاری PLS متغیر دولت هوشمند با ضریب تاثیر کل (523/1) بیشترین تاثیر را بر شهر هوشمند مبتنی بر اینترنت اشیا داشته است و سپس به ترتیب مولفه های اقتصاد هوشمند (256/1)، شهروند هوشمند (895/0)، محیط هوشمند (687/0)، تحرک هوشمند (622/0) و زندگی هوشمند (160/0) بر شهر هوشمند مبتنی بر اینترنت اشیا موثر بوده است.

    کلیدواژگان: شهر هوشمند، اینترنت اشیا، فناوری اطلاعات و ارتباطات، کلانشهر مشهد
  • محبوبه نوری، محمد رضا رضایی* صفحات 97-114

    بهره گیری فراتر از ظرفیت قابل تحمل منابع طبیعی و محیط زیست در فرآیند توسعه شهرها زمینه ساز چالش های متعدد در محیط شهرهاست. در این زمینه، بوم شهر اسفنجی به عنوان رویکردی نوظهور در برنامه ریزی شهری می تواند به کاهش تخریب های اکولوژیکی انسان در محیط های شهری و تحقق توسعه پایدار منجر شود؛ از این رو محققان در پژوهش حاضر درصدد شناسایی معیارهای موثر در ایجاد روسازی های بوم شهر اسفنجی با رویکرد فناوری های زیست محیطی، تعیین میزان اهمیت و عملکرد هر یک از این معیارها در شهر شیراز و ترسیم ماتریس اهمیت عملکرد آنها هستند. پژوهش حاضر از نظر هدف، کاربردی و از حیث ماهیت و روش، توصیفی از نوع پیمایشی است. در این مطالعه ابتدا اعضای پنل خبرگان مطالعه دلفی به تعداد 30 نفر به روش گلوله برفی انتخاب شدند و پس از چندین جلسه، معیارهای با بیشترین امتیاز به عنوان معیار نهایی با روش تحلیل اهمیت-عملکرد تجزیه و تحلیل شد. یافته های پژوهش نشان داد که از نظر اهمیت، نفوذپذیری و مقرون به صرفه بودن با مقدار 78/3 و 30/3 به ترتیب بیشترین و کمترین اهمیت و از بعد عملکرد نیز ظرفیت تحمل بار و ظرفیت ذخیره آب با مقدار 16/3 و 04/3 بیشترین و کمترین عملکرد را دارند. همچنین، از نظر موقعیت قرارگیری هر یک از مولفه ها در ماتریس IP نفوذپذیری و ظرفیت ذخیره آب در ربع اول، پایداری و ظرفیت تحمل بار در ربع دوم، تقویت اکوسیستم زیرزمینی در ربع سوم و مقرون به صرفه بودن در ربع چهارم واقع شده است. در نهایت، دو مولفه نفوذپذیری و ظرفیت ذخیره آب از لحاظ وزن دهی بیشترین وزن (646/2، 442/2) را دارند و از نظر اولویت بندی جزء اولویت های اصلی هستند که باید در زمینه ایجاد روسازی های شهر شیراز به آنها توجه شود.

    کلیدواژگان: بوم شهر، شهر اسفنجی، رویکرد اکولوژیک، روسازی، شهر شیراز
  • اسماعیل عیسی زاده، طاهر پریزادی*، موسی کمانرودی کجوری صفحات 115-148

    مسکن یکی از عناصر مهم در برآورده کردن نیازهای زیستی، اقتصادی و اجتماعی هر خانوار است. رشد شهرنشینی و افزایش جمعیت شهرها، مهاجرت از روستا به شهر، استهلاک ساختمان های قدیمی و تخریب آنها، کوچک شدن بعد خانوارها و مسایلی از این قبیل تامین مسکن را به یکی از مشکلات بیشتر شهرها (تهران-بمبیی) به خصوص در کشورهای جهان سوم ازجمله کشور ایران و هندوستان تبدیل کرده است. در پژوهش حاضر به ارزش مبادله ای مسکن در منطقه 10 تهران توجه شده است. پژوهش حاضر از نظر هدف، کاربردی و از نظر روش، توصیفی-تحلیلی است که به روش کمی انجام شده است. برای بررسی های مرتبط با پژوهش حاضر از روش های رگرسیون و موران استفاده شده که در آن قیمت مسکن (ویلایی، آپارتمانی) به عنوان متغیر وابسته و تعداد 14 شاخص به عنوان متغیرهای مستقل تحقیق در نظر گرفته شده است. در این پژوهش برای تحلیل های فضایی از نرم افزار Gis Arc استفاده شده است. باتوجه به نتایج تحلیل رگرسیون چند متغیره در بین عوامل اثرگذار  اصلی بر نوسان قیمت، عامل درآمد با 17 درصد، عامل تراکم با 77 درصد، قدمت سازه با 63 درصد و نوع سازه با 31 درصد به ترتیب بیشترین تاثیر معکوس را بر نوسان های قیمت مسکن در منطقه 10 تهران دارند.  دسترسی به فضای درمانی بیشترین تاثیر معکوس را بر تعیین قیمت مسکن در جنوب منطقه 10 دارد؛ در حالی که شاخص دسترسی به مراکز تجاری بیشترین تاثیر مستقیم را بر تبیین ارزش مبادلاتی مسکن در منطقه 10 تهران داشته است؛ از این رو بیشترین تمرکز لکه های داغ (بیشترین مبادله مسکن) در قسمت های شمالی و برخی از قسمت های مرکزی منطقه 10 تهران دیده می شود.

    کلیدواژگان: ارزش مبادلاتی، مسکن، تغییرات آتی، تله فضایی، منطقه 10 تهران
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  • Hojatollah Sadeghi * Pages 1-22
    Background

    Tourism as a vital economic sector necessitates infrastructure development. Within this context, provision of tourist accommodation stands out as a crucial service for sectoral growth, requiring optimal siting based on diverse regional indicators and capacities.

    Purpose

    This study aimed to identify potential areas for establishing tourist accommodation in Dezpart Region in Khuzestan Province. Additionally, it conducted a comparative analysis of fuzzy overlay models to assess their respective outcomes.

    Research Method

    The research employed a descriptive-analytical approach based on spatial data. Fuzzy logic analysis was conducted using ArcGIS software, involving data standardization, fuzzification using established algorithms, and application of the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) model to derive criteria weights. The fuzzy overlay methods were then utilized to generate the final map.

    Findings

    The results indicated that, among the 9 criteria examined, the distance from tourism sources (with a final weight of 0.290) and the distance from fault lines (with a weight of 0.192) were the most influential in identifying areas suitable for tourist accommodation. Furthermore, analysis of the fuzzy overlay models confirmed that the Gamma model was more stringent and pessimistic compared to the Sum model. According to the Sum fuzzy model, over 39.41% of the area was deemed suitable, whereas the Gamma model identified only 10.3% as suitable for accommodating tourism services. The overall quality assessment also supported the superiority of the Sum model in delineating potential areas for tourist accommodation. Examination of the spatial distribution of the final maps revealed a greater concentration of suitable areas in the central and northern regions.

    Introduction

    Establishment of tourist accommodation facilities at the regional level is an indisputably significant matter. However, determining the optimal siting of these services necessitates the utilization of various methods and amalgamation of diverse criteria, a task well-suited for the capabilities of a Geographic Information System (GIS) environment. Dezpart Region in Khuzestan Province, which was designated as a new city in 1401, possessed multifaceted potential for tourism development, alongside its agricultural sector. The region boasts a rich array of tourism resources and attractions, encompassing historical, natural, rural, and cultural elements and thus underscoring the imperative for strategic planning in this area. A pivotal aspect of this planning involves identifying the most suitable locations for establishing tourist accommodation centers. This endeavor not only contributes to the fundamental advancement of tourism, but also aids in attracting tourists over the medium and long terms. Consequently, this research aimed to identify potential areas for establishing tourist accommodation in Dezpart Region in Khuzestan Province, while also conducting a comparative assessment of fuzzy overlay models to discern the most effective approach. 

    Materials & Methods

    The research methodology employed in this study was descriptive-analytical and practical in nature. Data collection and analysis were conducted using documentary and organizational methods. The primary data utilized for map preparation consisted of the spatial data obtained from the country's mapping organization. To process the spatial data, operations, such as equalization, data formatting, ground referencing, and data adaptation, were performed. The criteria considered in this research encompassed elevation, slope, land use, distance from communication roads, distance from urban and rural settlements, proximity to tourism attractions, proximity to water sources (rivers), and distance from fault lines. Subsequently, the data underwent standardization and fuzzy logic analysis within the ArcGIS software. Weighting the criteria was done by using Expert Choice software and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method. Consequently, the weights of the influential criteria for locating tourist accommodation centers were established. Finally, employing various fuzzy models or operators, including Gamma and Sum, a map was generated to identify potential areas for establishing accommodation-tourism centers. 

    Research Findings

    In this study, the criteria of distance from communication roads, rural and urban settlements, and proximity to tourism sources were assigned a value and membership of 1 for locations with shorter distances. This was because, for instance, closer proximity to communication roads or tourism resources signified greater suitability for accommodation-tourism services, making closer areas more pertinent for the research objective. A linear function was employed to fuzzify the map for these criteria.Utilizing the Gaussian function, a threshold limit was established such that any deviation beyond this threshold, whether an increase or decrease, would result in a value of zero for the areas or locations. For instance, a threshold limit of 3 km was set to assess the distance from water sources with values approaching zero for deviations from this threshold.Additionally, a small function was utilized to fuzzify the elevation and slope criteria with respective threshold limits of 1700 m and 25%. Consequently, areas with lower slope or elevation were assigned a membership grade of 1. Conversely, a large function was employed to fuzzify the distance from fault lines (with a threshold limit of 10 km) and land use (with a threshold limit of 4), resulting in areas with greater distance or value being assigned a membership grade of 1, thus denoting their suitability.The results revealed that among the 9 criteria examined, the distance from tourism sources (with a final weight of 0.290) and the distance from fault lines (with a weight of 0.192) were the most influential in identifying areas suitable for accommodation-tourism services. A comparison of the proposed maps indicated that the Sum overlay method identified more potential areas for accommodation-tourism services in the region compared to the Gamma method. Furthermore, the Sum method encompassed the central, western, and eastern areas, while the Gamma method suggested a narrow line in the central area for tourist accommodation. Notably, the proposed area deemed highly suitable for creating accommodation-tourism places covering 39.27 km2, which was equivalent to over 3.10% of the region's area, in the Gamma overlay method. In contrast, the Sum method identified 499.72 km2, representing 39.41% of the region's area as highly suitable for accommodation-tourism services. 

    Discussion of Results & Conclusion

    Analyses of the fuzzy overlay models revealed that the Gamma model was more stringent and pessimistic compared to the Sum model. According to the Sum fuzzy model, over 39.41% of the area was deemed suitable for creating accommodation-tourism services, whereas the Gamma model identified only 10.3% as suitable. The overall quality assessment also confirmed the superiority of the Sum model in delineating potential areas for accommodation-tourism services. Examination of the spatial distribution of the final maps further indicated that the susceptible areas were more prevalent in the central and northern geographical regions.

    Keywords: Accommodation-Tourism Places, Overlap Models, fuzzy, Dezpart Region
  • Rasa Nobahar Ghezeljeh Meydan, Hadi Hakimi * Pages 23-46
    Background

    The rapid growth of global population and urbanization has resulted in disorder in urban spaces, diminishing their effectiveness and exacerbating transportation issues. Furthermore, the lack of foresight by urban managers in long-term planning has hindered sustainable urban development. Consequently, policymakers and urban planners have been compelled to address these challenges through appropriate measures and strategies. The Transit-Oriented Development (TOD) approach has been presented as a viable solution to these disruptions. This approach aims to revitalize surrounding land uses and improve the movement of goods and services by making adjustments in the vicinity of public transportation systems. The metro station of Meydan Sā'at (Line 1) in the two-municipality area of Tabriz City holds significant potential to evolve into a TOD center due to its numerous challenges.

    Objective

    The research endeavored to foster sustainable development, cultivate a welcoming environment, and restructure land use in accordance with TOD criteria.Research

    Method

    The methodology employed was descriptive-analytical with practical objectives and the research was conducted through the preparation of a questionnaire, data extraction from GIS software, and the use of the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP).

    Findings

    Upon analyzing 4 primary criteria and 9 influential sub-criteria, the results underscored the significance of options, such as enhancing economic efficiency, improving the public transportation system's effectiveness, and increasing density with the selection priority scores of 0.25, 0.183, and 0.161, respectively.

    Introduction

    Contemporary urban transportation system design involves formulating comprehensive urban plans to maximize the alignment between urban development policies and the need to reevaluate land use in accordance with urban network characteristics. Coordinated and simultaneous planning for transportation and other influential urban factors, such as land use and density, can reduce citizens' time and cost in utilizing urban spaces to fulfill their needs. However, the lack of attention to this issue and continuation of separate planning for individual elements hinder the achievement of an optimal city shape and structure, particularly given the escalating population and traffic trends in cities. This situation leads to increased costs for citizens to access different parts of the city and transforms traffic problems into formidable challenges for city managers. Consequently, utilization and spatial distribution of urban lands play a crucial role in optimizing urban space usage. In general, defining land use encompasses various types of land use, density, land use per parcel, building height, architectural appearance, and integration of commercial, residential, and healthcare facilities within each neighborhood. In response to emerging urban issues, such as traffic congestion, air pollution, and haphazard city expansion, Transit-Oriented Development (TOD) has been proposed as an advanced perspective. Sustainable development, through the interconnectedness of transportation and urban development within the framework of smart growth and new urbanism movements, emphasizes public transportation to foster healthier societies and a more dynamic economy. By integrating transportation planning and land use, this approach aims to curb the scattered expansion of physical development and marginalization of cities. 

    Materials & Methods

    In line with the research objectives, a descriptive-analytical research method based on document analysis and library studies was employed with a practical orientation. Consequently, data collection involved a synthesis of global experiences, the structure and principles of Transit-Oriented Development (TOD), and the information extracted from GIS software to elucidate the research theoretical foundations. Field observations were also conducted to gather the necessary data and information within the study scope. The Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) technique and Expert Choice software were utilized to analyze and evaluate the data derived from the completed field reports. In this context, the criteria and sub-criteria for regenerating the land use of Meydan Sā'at Station (Line 1) were selected based on an investigation of the study area and relevant fundamentals. Subsequently, expert opinions were incorporated through the creation of questionnaires to facilitate pairwise comparisons.

    Research Findings

    Evaluation of the sub-criteria revealed that "increasing economic efficiency" held the highest importance with a score of 0.232 in the economic criterion followed by "increasing the efficiency of the public transportation system" at 0.183 in the traffic criterion and "increasing density" at 0.161 in the economic criterion. Consequently, revisions were made based on the priority of the criteria and sub-criteria. Conversely, "increasing social interactions" scored 0.058 in the social criterion, "expansion of green space" scored 0.044 in the environmental criterion, and "increasing the safety of pedestrians" scored 0.064 in the traffic criterion indicated their relatively minor roles in achieving the research goals. Additionally, "increasing public services" scored 0.095 in the economic criterion, "expanding green space" scored 0.044 in the environmental criterion, "reducing biological pollution" scored 0.077 in the environmental criterion, and "reducing parking" scored 0.086 in the traffic criteria were identified as next in priority. 

    Discussion of Results & Conclusion

    Successful development of Transit-Oriented Developments (TODs) hinges on the convergence of numerous intricate factors, including social conditions, demographics, economic conditions, political support, and promotion of alternative transportation among others. However, without a solid foundation, these factors become inconsequential. Therefore, the researchers’ objective in this study, based on the conducted research and theoretical concepts, was to assess the influential elements in integrating the efficiency of public transportation systems and land use according to TOD criteria with a focus on land use intensification within a city. To this end, analysis, evaluation, and prioritization of the research criteria and sub-criteria were conducted by using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) technique and Expert Choice software. The results obtained from the AHP technique indicated that the "economic," "social," and "environmental" criteria held the weights of 0.48, 0.27, and 0.15, respectively. Furthermore, the sub-criteria of "increasing economic efficiency," "enhancing transportation system efficiency," and "general transportation" followed by "increasing density" emerged as the most significant factors with the respective weights of 0.232, 0.183, and 0.161. These findings aligned with the results of previous studies by Rafiyan et al. (2011), Saatian et al. (2010), Faramarzi Asli et al. (2021), and Mirfatahi et al. (2021).

    Keywords: Transit-Oriented Development (TOD), Regeneration of Urban land Use, Metro Station, Meydan Sā'at, Line 1
  • Majid Goodarzi *, Fahime Fadaei Jazi, Zahra Soltani Pages 47-69
    Background

     Shahinshahr, located 19 kilometers north of Isfahan, has recently transformed into one of the immigration-accepting cities in the province. Assessing natural potential is vital for achieving sustainable development, particularly in urban centers.

    Objective

    This research aims to investigate the ecological potential of Shahinshahr for urban development based on land use principles, utilizing geographic information systems.

    Research Methods

    The research uses a descriptive-analytical approach and falls under the category of applied research. To achieve the research goal, spatial data and relevant analyses were conducted in GIS, along with the multi-criteria decision-making models ANP and SAW. The process involved conducting fundamental studies and preparing digitized thematic maps of the region. By overlaying elevation, slope, direction, soil types, vegetation, geology, and climate maps and using ANP and SAW methods, an ecological power map for urban development was created in Arc GIS 10.8 environment.
    Research Innovation: This study represents a novel approach in Shahinshahr, where spatial data and decision-making techniques are simultaneously utilized to pursue the primary research objective.
    Research

    Results

    The results indicate that the northern part of the city is favorable for development. In addition, depending on the climatic conditions and topography of the area, floods may occur in case of rain. In order to deal with this issue, the necessary measures have already been taken. There is a connector in this range that can solve this problem. On the other hand, the southern and eastern parts are non-scientific due to their connection to the cities of Isfahan, Gaz, and Gorgab, and the western part due to their proximity to large industries such as Isfahan Refinery and petrochemicals. Also, the development of the southern part is unprincipled and inappropriate due to the existence of sewage facilities and agricultural lands.

    Keywords: Ecological Capacity, Urban Development, Sustainable Development, GIS, Shahin Shahr City
  • Aliakbar Anabestani *, Mohsen Kalantari, Nasim Niknami Pages 71-96

    The concept of a smart city involves utilizing information and communication technology to improve the livability and sustainability of urban areas and unique locations, thereby promoting innovation and entrepreneurship. The extensive use of digital sensors and control systems for managing urban infrastructure has led to the development of various applications with the Internet of Things (IoT) playing a crucial role in enabling new services and enhancing interaction levels. As this technology continues to progress, it holds the potential to transform every aspect of human life. This research aimed to conduct a spatial analysis of smart city indicators, particularly those related to the IoT across 13 regions of Mashhad metropolis. This study took an applied approach with a descriptive-analytical nature by utilizing both documentary (library) and field (questionnaire) data collection methods. The sample consisted of residents from 13 regions within Mashhad metropolis with a sample size of 171 questionnaires determined based on the 2016 population of 3,062,242. The questionnaires were distributed proportionately across each region. The data analysis was conducted by using SPSS software and decision-making methods, such as MEREC and COCOSO. Furthermore, the structural equation modeling approach (Smart PLS) was employed for a comprehensive analysis. The research findings indicated that Regions 9, 1, and 4 showed the highest levels of smart city indicators based on IoT in Mashhad, while Regions 3, 12, and 10 exhibited the lowest levels. According to the results of the PLS structural equation modeling test, the variable of smart governance showed the highest overall impact coefficient (1.523) on the IoT-based smart city followed by smart economy (1.256), smart citizen (0.895), smart environment (0.687), smart mobility (0.622), and smart living (0.160).

    Introduction

    A smart city is a sophisticated ecosystem that leverages advanced information and communication technologies to enhance the appeal and sustainability of urban areas and distinctive locations, fostering innovation and entrepreneurship. The widespread adoption of digital sensors and control systems for managing urban infrastructure has facilitated various applications with the Internet of Things (IoT) emerging as a solution for delivering new services and enhancing interactive experiences. In recent years, the concept of smart cities has gained traction in Iran with cities, such as Urmia, Isfahan, Tehran, Mashhad, and Tabriz, being recognized as smart cities. Due to its rapid growth and development, as well as social, economic, and environmental changes in line with new needs, Mashhad City needs to provide services that are suitable and deserving for its residents, especially considering the significant number of domestic and foreign pilgrims, who visit the holy shrine of Imam Reza annually. Therefore, the indigenous capacities of the city alone are not sufficient for its development and the collaboration of various sectors, especially the communication and IT sectors, is necessary to elevate and progress it in new areas. Hence, this paper aimed to examine the distribution status of IoT-based smart city indicators in 13 districts of Mashhad municipality and answer the question of how the current status of IoT-based smart city indicators was in the mentioned districts. 

    Materials and Methods

    This research was applied in terms of its objective and descriptive-analytical in terms of its nature and method. The data collection method included both documentary (library) and field (questionnaire) researches. The sample consisted of residents from the 13 districts of Mashhad metropolis. Cochran formula was used to determine the sample size for each district, resulting in a total of 171 questionnaires based on a coefficient of 0.075 and population of 3,062,242 in 2016. The questionnaire was designed in a 5-point Likert scale format and distributed and completed across the districts of Mashhad. The questionnaire was validated based on the input from university professors and the necessary modifications were implemented. After collecting the questionnaires and assessing their reliability using the Cronbach's alpha method, the gathered data were analyzed by using descriptive and inferential statistics, including the Chi-square test, skewness and kurtosis tests, and one-sample t-test, within the SPSS software environment. Additionally, decision-making methods, such as MEREC and COCOSO, were utilized for data and information analysis. Finally, the Smart PLS software was employed to construct the structural equation model and determine the impact levels of the desired indicators on the IoT-based smart city. 

    Research Findings

    Upon confirming the normal distribution of the data through skewness and kurtosis tests, the results of the one-sample t-test indicated that all the indicators were significant. Among the IoT-based smart growth indicators, the first factor (smart mobility) exhibited the highest mean of 2.7154, while the component of smart citizen had the lowest score of 2.1287 compared to the other components. Following the weighting of the indicators by using the MEREC method and application of the COCOSO technique for ranking the districts, the results revealed that District 9 secured the 1st rank with a score of 3.412 and District 1 showed the 2nd rank with a score of 3.349 with the remaining districts following in subsequent ranks. Furthermore, the results of the structural equation modeling by using SMART PLS indicated that the variable of smart government exhibited the highest overall influence coefficient of 1.523 followed by smart economy (1.256), smart citizen (0.895), smart environment (0.687), smart mobility (0.622), and smart living (0.160), showcasing their influences in the IoT-based smart city. 

    Discussion of Results & Conclusion

    A smart city represents a comprehensive framework that assesses various facets of intelligent initiatives, empowering cities to leverage urban networks, bolster their economic prowess, and establish more efficient systems. This network relies on wireless networks, broadcasting networks, internet networks, telecommunication networks, and sensor networks with the Internet of Things (IoT) at its core. The research findings were consistent with the conclusions of other researchers, such as Mafi and Gholizadeh (2015), Amelifar et al. (2022), and Sudeep et al. (2018), highlighting the impact of IoT in urban settings, resulting in savings in time, cost, energy, materials, and human resources, and ultimately enhancing the quality of urban life. The high rankings of Regions 9 and 1 in Mashhad metropolis in terms of smart city indicators validated this assertion as evidenced by the high quality of urban life in these areas and the residents' preference to live there.

    Keywords: Smart city, Internet of Things (IoT), information, communication technology, Mashhad Metropolis
  • Mahboobeh Noori, Mohammad Reza Rezaei * Pages 97-114

    Overexploitation of natural resources and the environment during urban development has led to numerous environmental challenges in cities. This study aimed to identify the key criteria for establishing sponge eco-city pavements using environmental technologies and assess the importance and performance of these criteria in Shiraz. The research adopted an applied approach and utilized a descriptive survey method to analyze the importance-performance of environmental technology components in sponge eco-city pavements. Initially, a Delphi study was conducted, involving 30 expert panel members selected through a snowball sampling method. Following multiple sessions, the criteria with the highest scores were identified through an importance-performance analysis. The findings revealed that permeability and cost-effectiveness were the most and least important criteria with values of 3.78 and 3.30, respectively. In terms of performance, load bearing capacity and water storage capacity scored the highest and lowest with values of 3.16 and 3.04, respectively. The importance-performance matrix positioned permeability and water storage capacity in the 1st quarter, stability and load bearing capacity in the 2nd quarter, strengthening the underground ecosystem in the 3rd quarter, and affordability in the 4th quarter. Ultimately, the study emphasized the prioritization of permeability and water storage capacity, which held the highest weights of 2.646 and 2.442, respectively. thus, they should receive primary attention in the development of pavements in Shiraz.

    Introduction

    Rapid urbanization, unplanned urban development, and recent climate changes have had detrimental effects on human settlements and the environment. Consequently, adoption of environmental technologies to achieve a balance between environmental protection and mitigation of the adverse impacts of development has gained significant global importance in creating sustainable societies. In response to water challenges and environmental degradation, the concept of the sponge eco-city initially proposed in China holds promise in addressing environmental issues, enhancing human well-being, fostering growth and development, and achieving sustainability within communities. The sponge eco-city emphasizes the integration of environmental considerations into all physical structures within urban spaces, aiming to harmonize city development with the natural environment and advance the principle of sustainability by aligning human and ecological processes in urban settings. In light of this, the present research endeavored to analyze the importance-performance of fundamental environmental technology components in the pavements of the sponge city of Shiraz with an ecological approach. 

    Methodology

    This study focused on Shiraz, a prominent city in Iran and the capital of Fars Province. It was an applied research with a descriptive nature, employing a survey method through a questionnaire. The documentary section involved gathering theoretical data related to environmental biotechnology, urban ecological approach, sponge city, etc., from articles, books, statistical reports, and relevant documents. In the field section, a questionnaire was used to collect additional data. The Delphi panel comprised 30 experts, including professors specializing in urban planning and management, crisis management, natural resources, and urban environment. They were selected through the snowball sampling method. The identified criteria were presented to the expert panel. Following multiple sessions, the criteria with the highest scores were analyzed using the importance-performance analysis method. 

    Research Findings

    The study revealed that the permeability component held the highest importance with a value of 3.78, while the cost-effectiveness component had the lowest importance at 3.30. Regarding performance, the load-bearing capacity component scored the highest at 3.16, whereas the water storage capacity component had the lowest score at 3.04. Additionally, the positioning of each component in the importance-performance matrix indicated that the components of permeability and water storage capacity were situated in the 1st quadrant, signifying high importance but low performance. This presented a significant weakness in Shiraz City system, necessitating immediate attention and implementation of improvement strategies. Sustainability and load-bearing capacity positioned in the 2nd quadrant demonstrated desirable performance in these areas and recommended maintaining and preserving this situation. The component of underground ecosystem enhancement fell in the 3rd quadrant, indicating low importance and low performance and suggesting a relatively negligible role in the system's efficiency and resilience. The component of cost-effectiveness placed in the 4th quadrant, represented nonessential strengths that could be better utilized by reallocating resources to strengthen other components. Ultimately, based on the weighted prioritization, permeability and water storage capacity with the highest values of respectively 2.646 and 2.442 had to be earnestly considered as fundamental priorities for improving the pavement system in Shiraz City.

    Discussion of Results and Conclusion

    The findings suggested that the pavements in Shiraz should be constructed or reconstructed based on the principles of sponge eco-city structures. This type of pavement allows rainwater to be stored in the lower layers during rainy days and released as water vapor on sunny days. Essentially, rainwater is stored in an underlying sand layer, creating favorable conditions for the growth of tree roots and microorganisms and leading to the decomposition of absorbed pollutants and enrichment of the ecological system with nutrients, thereby promoting flourishing and diversification of the underground ecosystem and urban biology. Permeable pavement presents a viable alternative to traditional impervious pavements, mitigating adverse environmental impacts across various city areas. Rapid urbanization and unplanned urban development in Shiraz have altered land use patterns, leading to conversion of land into urban construction, expansion of roads, increased impervious surfaces, loss of valuable environmental resources, diminished agricultural lands, reduced and polluted water resources, intensified heat island effect, habitat destruction, and decreased biodiversity. Consequently, decision-making institutions, planners, and urban managers in Shiraz should prioritize the sponge eco-city approach in future development plans as a necessity to address the myriad challenges of urbanization and achieve sustainable development goals.

    Keywords: Eco-City, Sponge City, Ecological Approach, Pavement, Shiraz City
  • Esmail Isazadeh, Taher Prizadi *, Mousa Kamanroudi Kojouri Pages 115-148

    Housing is a fundamental component in fulfilling the biological, economic, and social requirements of every household. The rapid urbanization, burgeoning urban populations, rural-to-urban migration, degradation and demolition of aging structures, diminishing household sizes, and housing supply challenges are prevalent issues in many cities, particularly in developing nations, such as Iran and India. This study focused on the housing exchange values in the 10th district of Tehran. The research was purpose-driven and employed a descriptive-analytical approach with a quantitative methodology. Regression and Moran methods were utilized for the investigation with housing prices for villas and apartments as dependent variables and 14 indicators as independent research variables. Spatial analysis was conducted using ArcGIS software. The results of the multivariate regression analysis indicated that household income had a direct impact of 17% among economic factors, while density had a direct effect of 77% among social factors. Additionally, structure age and type accounted for 63% and 31% of the most significant negative impact on housing price fluctuations in the 10th district of Tehran, respectively. Access to medical facilities had the most adverse effect on housing prices in the southern part of District 10, whereas access to commercial centers had the most substantial direct impact on housing exchange values in the district. Consequently, the highest concentration of hot spots indicating the highest housing exchange was observed in the northern and central parts of the 10th district of Tehran.

    Introduction

    In recent years, the housing sector of Iran as a developing country has experienced significant fluctuations, resulting in widespread adverse effects on households, other economic sectors, and even the banking system. Consequently, the impact of monetary policy on the performance of housing market has become a primary concern for policymakers, necessitating appropriate responses from monetary and financial authorities due to the sector's pivotal role in the country. Housing and its market have been the subject of extensive urban studies, particularly in urban economics, over the past 4 decades. The municipality of District 10 of Tehran has undergone rapid physical and economic expansion in the last two decades accompanied by increased investment in construction. Urban management initiatives have further exacerbated this situation, leading to unbalanced spatial developments at the regional level. Weaknesses in the housing sector within the municipality of the 10th district of Tehran include the housing supply-demand gap, particularly among low-income groups, a high number of households requiring assistance, a low proportion of durable residential units, a high prevalence of non-professional constructions, and the greater profitability of land transactions compared to housing construction. Additionally, there has been a surge in trading activities, a disproportionate increase in land prices compared to construction, and an intensified expansion in recent years. Therefore, this research conducted a spatial analysis of urban housing exchange values over a 1-year period (2022). By examining the spatial analysis of housing prices and exchange values, variations in income, culture, urban infrastructures, and perceived social and environmental comfort across different areas and localities could be observed. Consequently, the findings of this study could offer valuable insights for urban planners, managers, and housing investors. 

    Materials and Methods

    This study was applied in its purpose and employed a descriptive-analytical method using a quantitative approach. Multivariable regression analysis was utilized to explore the relationship between factors influencing the exchange value of housing from both consumer and producer perspectives, identifying key determinants affecting housing prices. The research findings were presented through descriptive tables, explanatory tables, and numerous maps created by the researcher. The results highlighted the components and factors with the greatest and least impact on the land and housing market in the neighborhoods of District 10 of Tehran. The study drew on documentary sources, statistical data, censuses, official information from relevant organizations, internal and external information databases, as well as comprehensive and detailed urban development maps and plans to collect theoretical foundations and extract data. Given the significance of direct observation in geographical research, the researchers’ observational method and familiarity with the study area served as the primary research tools supplemented by a researcher-designed questionnaire. The questionnaire primarily focused on gathering land and housing prices from real estate consultants for 2022. The research methodology integrated both quantitative and qualitative approaches. The theoretical framework was developed based on the subject under study and the study employed statistical description and analysis, image processing, and analysis using spatial databases and geographic information systems. Additionally, Excel, SPSS, and ArcGIS software were utilized for data preparation and processing. 

    Research Findings

    One of the most notable and distinctive aspects of this study in comparison to others was the spatial analysis of housing prices in District 10. This involved the integration of geographic information system software and quantitative models, such as hot and cold spot models, Moran, Vansim, and vector map conversion to raster. These were recalculated at the level of study units (statistical blocks of the 10th district of Tehran) revealing the spatial analysis of independent (economic, social, and physical) variables. Despite the highest density of apartment buildings being in the neighborhoods of Hashemi, South Karun, South Salisbil, and North Salisbil in Tehran's 10th district, it appeared that the value of multi-story buildings in the neighborhood of South Zanjan was more influenced by land prices, household income, and employment rates. Three spatial autocorrelation patterns (clustered, scattered, and random) were observed with Moran's coefficient indicating a clustered pattern in relation to the price of villa buildings at the level of North Salisbil, South Karun, and South Karun localities. The economic factors influencing housing prices in 2022 at the level of residential blocks in Tehran's 10th district included land prices, household income, mortgages, and rents. The regression analysis conducted in Excel software revealed a 0.64% correlation between economic indicators and housing prices. The highest correlation between socio-cultural indicators and housing prices in the southern areas of Tehran's 10th district was observed in Imam Khomeini, Hashemi, Karoun, and Kimel streets, the beginning of Nematullah Shah Parori Street, and the end of Malik Ashtar Street. According to Moran's spatial autocorrelation model, the coefficient for the correlation of the indicators of access to uses and services and housing prices was 0.050658%. The highest correlation to all factors was observed in District 10 (north of the region) corresponding to Karun and North Salisbil localities. Access to urban services, military uses, and facilities like airport had led to a significant decrease in prices, while access to commercial, medical, and educational centers had a positive effect on increasing housing prices. 

    Discussion of Results & Conclusion

    Housing stands as a fundamental necessity within any society and fluctuations within this sector exert a profound impact on the broader economy. Therefore, precise forecasting of housing prices holds significant importance for homeowners, investors, and other stakeholders in the housing sector. The presence of a reliable method for predicting housing prices can enhance efficiency of the housing market. The surge in urban population over recent decades coupled with limited access to resources, services, and essential infrastructure has transformed housing into a scarce and invaluable commodity. The housing predicament is a consequence of the industrial revolution and subsequent developments leading to a detachment of its exchange value from its consumption value. Its significance has continued to escalate across diverse societies. This study leveraged spatial descriptions and analyses available in geographic information systems (ArcGIS software) complemented by statistical analyses conducted using Excel and SPSS software.

    Keywords: exchange value, Housing, future changes, Space Trap, 10th district of Tehran