فهرست مطالب

Sistan and Baluchistan Studies - Volume:1 Issue: 1, Jun 2021

Journal of Sistan and Baluchistan Studies
Volume:1 Issue: 1, Jun 2021

  • تاریخ انتشار: 1401/03/08
  • تعداد عناوین: 6
  • Babak Shaikh Baikloo Islam * Pages 1-9
    During the third millennium BC, while most parts of Iran were in cultural decline, the civilizations of the southeast were experiencing a period of prosperity. It was only at the end of this millennium that the stress of the 4.2 ka BP dry event (2200-1900 BCE) was able to lead to the collapse of the Bronze Age civilizations. The Akkadian dynasty, the old Egyptian kingdom, and the Indus Valley civilization were also affected by this great drought. The climatic event was probably due to a decrease in solar energy and, as a result, the cooling of the North Atlantic waters and a drop of westerlies and monsoons related rainfalls. The climate of southeast Iran, which is mainly dominated by monsoons, had been absorbing relatively good humidity for most of the third millennium BCE, but with the occurrence of the 4.2 ka BP event, witnessed a significant drop in rainfall, which led to the gradual decline of civilization in this region. Furthermore, the beginning of the cultural decline of this region from around 2200 BCE could be due to the severe economic recession and the instability of the political system of Mesopotamia due to the pressures of drought, famine, migration, and war that affected the economic system throughout the region. Since then, luxury goods consumers have likely lost their purchasing power due to economic weakness. Besides, the occurrence of severe droughts at the peak of the Mesopotamian population growth no longer allowed the country to export grain. Therefore, the regular customers of Kerman region products decreased sharply, and as a result, these workshops went bankrupt. This article, while reconstructing the climate of southeast Iran in the third millennium BCE based on paleoclimate research of Iran and neighboring regions, tries to explain the direct and indirect effects of climate on the cultural evolution of human societies and the history of ancient civilizations of the Middle East. It seems that unbalanced population growth and socio-economic complexity of societies have been the main reasons for the inability of civilizations of the third millennium BCE to adapt to climate change.
    Keywords: Paleoclimate, the 4.2 ka BP event, third millennium BCE, Southeast Iran
  • Pier Fabbri *, Giorgia Vincenti Pages 11-19
    A common observation in skeletal samples discovered during archaeological excavations is that male adult skeletons significantly outnumber female ones, while in living adult populations, adult sex ratio (m/f) is close to 1. Male biased archaeological sex ratios could partly be due to a rapid degradation of the more delicate female skeletons. In a large sample of necropolises from Southern Mediterranean, Northern Africa and Middle East countries ranging from Neolithic to Middle Ages, we observed a mean sex ratio of 1.40. On the contrary, samples of adult skeletons from the necropolis of Shahr-i Sokhta, sexed by different authors using different methods, constantly show an overrepresentation of females (about 42% males and 58% females), i.e., a sex ratio of 0.72. Similar values have been observed in necropolis from chronologically close sites in the Bactria-Margiana and Indus Valley cultures (Gonur Depe, Mohenjo-Daro, Djarkutan, Rakhigarhi), We speculate that the most likely interpretation of this particular observation could be the uxorilocal settlement pattern in these populations.
    Keywords: Bronze Age, Shahr-i Sokhta, Bactria Margiana Archaeological Complex, Indus Valley, necropolis, adult sex ratio, Mobility, matrilocality
  • Jamshid Davtalab *, Abolfazl Heidari, Zahra Sarabandi Pages 21-30
    The Achaemenid architecture is a prominent example of Achaemenid art. The Achaemenids were very interested in constructing palaces and terraces adorned with columns. The remains of these structures can be seen in Susa and Persepolis. Due to the expanse of the Achaemenid Empire and the extent of their political activities, they established satrapies at every corner of their empire to protect their lands. Dahaneh-e Gholaman (the gateway of slaves) is one of these satrapies, which is believed to have served as a political center in the Achaemenid Empire. Located in Sistan in the east of Iran, Dahaneh-e Gholaman is the only mudbrick city surviving from the Achaemenid era. Traces of the Achaemenid architecture and urban planning can still be observed in the remaining buildings. This study sought to identify the features of the Achaemenid architecture in Dahaneh-e Gholaman using an interpretive-historical methodology. The findings show that, unlike other Achaemenid structures that are generally made of stone, clay was used to construct the buildings of Dahaneh-e Gholaman due to the availability of certain construction materials and the region’s climatic condition. In addition, unlike other Achaemenid structures which have flat roofs, the buildings constructed in Dahaneh-e Gholaman have domed roofs. This shows that the residents were very knowledgeable about the region’s climatic conditions. Other elements of the Achaemenid architecture such as corner towers, apadana, military barracks, and columned halls are also present in Dahaneh-e Gholaman, all of which indicate the influence of the Achaemenid architecture and urban planning on this historic city.
    Keywords: Achaemenid architecture, Dahaneh-e-Gholaman, Mudbrick city, Sistan
  • Michael Jung *, Vincenzo Torrieri Pages 31-48
    Immediately after the disastrous earthquake in 2003, ICHTO, together with UNESCO, ICOMOS and ICCROM, set about planning for the recovery of Bam’s cultural heritage. Italy was involved in the project from the very outset. The Italian Ministry of Cultural Heritage selected as project seismic improvement measures and restoration of the imposing tower n. 1 of its city walls. The assistance of archeologists during the work was of paramount importance to ascertain the very nature of the tower, in order to contribute to a correct methodology for consolidation and restoration. The sondage revealed a complex stratification of the monument, with at least five major building phases and numerous secondary phases due to secondary restoration and routine maintenance works consequent upon earthquakes and wars. Once the restoration was concluded, a new project was inaugurated in 2017, involving excavation of Shator Galu/ or Tower n° 46. We supposed that the ruins of one ancient city gate were to be found beneath the debris of the fortifications that had collapsed during the earthquake. The preliminary findings of the new excavation and the stratigraphic analysis undertaken in collaboration with the Iranian team under the direction of Joodaki Azizi and Leila Fazel identified some important architectural elements of the ancient settlement. Starting from our supposition, discovery of the northern and southern wing of the city gate in its last phase constitutes definitive proof of its existence. Other important discoveries include the partial excavation of a conduit, possibly part of the Shotor Galu mentioned in written sources. Resumption of the interrupted excavation, much to be desired, could shed new light on the ancient history of Arg-e Bam.
    Keywords: Bam Post-Earthquake restoration, Italian -Iranian mission, excavation- tower n° 1- western bastion, City gate
  • Francois Desset *, Meysam Shahsavari, Massimo Vidale Pages 49-85
    This paper discusses a truncated chlorite vessel currently held in the Miho Museum, Japan. It was probably produced around 2300-2200 BCE in the Halil Rud Valley or Jiroft region and comes perhaps from a grave. This vessel displays a fascinating iconography, including the depiction of a hybrid character combining bovine, human, lion and bird features. After discussing the hybrid characters which are observed on chlorite artefacts and glyptics in third millennium BCE south-eastern Iran, available textual data are considered for a narrative interpretation of the possible religious landscape of the polity designated Marḫaši or Paraḫšum in Mesopotamian sources. It is also suggested that the so-called ‘Treaty of Naram-Sin’ might provide additional insights on the pantheon worshipped in Marḫaši around 2250 BCE.
    Keywords: Iran, Bronze Age, Jiroft, Halil Rud Valley civilization, Marḫaši, religion, Iconography, chlorite artifacts
  • Zohreh Oveisi, Hosseinali Kavosh * Pages 87-93
    Sistan Region in the East of Iran with more than 900 villages and a history of five thousand years is one of most important area in Iran. Since pre-historic (Shahr-i Sokhta) so far, as well as specific climatic conditions; economic and social structure governing it, Sistan has led to the formation of unique kinds of architecture within. However, so far, little research and scientific studies have been done on the architecture of the Sistan Region, which are mostly done by archaeologists who study other aspects of human civilization, such as pottery, effigy and dozens of other human hand works, and the Sistan architecture has been just introduced and mentioned. However, during the study by the authors on this structure, it became evident that the architecture of Sistan has a structural discontinuity and chaos before and after Islam. In this study, a brief study was done on the historical evolution of architecture in Sistan from prehistory to the Qajar era based on the remaining buildings. Sistan pre-Islamic architecture includes the architecture of Shahr-i Sokhta, Dahan-e Gholaman and Khajeh Mount are great glory. They have remained steadfast and shining. Also, in the writings of Islamic historians and foreign travelers, a lot of Islamic places and cities in Sistan have been named that a large part of them are gone, and currently, examples of these architecture, such as the old city of Zahedan, Rostam Castle, Sekoheh Castle, have remained in the Sistan area, Iran. The result shows that during pre-historic and history periods, Sistan had great architecture site, such as Shahr-i Sokhta, Dahan-e Ghulaman and Khajeh Mount, which can influence the all territory of Iran.
    Keywords: Sistan, architectural history, Castle, City, Helmand River