فهرست مطالب

مطالعات امنیت اجتماعی - سال سیزدهم شماره 1 (پیاپی 69، بهار 1401)
  • سال سیزدهم شماره 1 (پیاپی 69، بهار 1401)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1401/03/18
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
|
|
  • Mohammad Bostaki, Ahmad Mahmoodi Pages 1-28
    Aim and Background

    Violent behavior of football spectators is one of the basic problems that in addition to economic losses, also leads to cultural, moral, social and political harms. Therefore, the present study is aimed at exploring the human factors contributing the occurrence of spectators’ violence with a security-disciplinary approach in the popular teams of the Iranian Football Premier League.

    Method

    The present research method is qualitative and field-based. First, library studies were conducted to prepare a list of factors contributing to the occurrence of violence and then through in-depth and semi-structured interviews with 17 experts. Also, the sampling method was theoretical, purposeful and non-random, and the opinions of university professors and football elites were used, and Max QDA 2020 was utilized to analyze the qualitative data of the research.

    Findings and Conclusion

    A total of 34 human indicators contributing to the occurrence of spectator violence were identified. They are divided into two fundamental factors and include seven factors: referee, technical staff, our players, the rival team players, spectators’ conditions, club management and the organizers of the match. Paying attention to each of these cases could contribute to the reduction of spectators’ violence and could help calm the spectators watching the match, which requires establishing a proper culture on the part of spectators via training them through the media and press, as well as monitoring and controlling spectators in stadiums and dealing with cases violating law.

    Keywords: Security, Police, Spectators, Violence, Football, Premier League
  • Alireza Karimi, Majid Rezaeian Pages 29-51
    Background and Aim

    Security feeling is one of the most prominent aspects of the growth of societies and the bedrock of growth, development and stability in that society. The unique situation of district 3, zone 4 of Tehran, has made the study of the security feeling in this district an important issue. In addition to studying security feeling in this zone, the present study aims at investigating the various dimensions of security feeling in the neighborhoods of District 3 and comparing them with each other.

    Method

    A researcher-made questionnaire was used to conduct the survey. Given the sensitivity of the issue and the respondents at home not being interested in taking part in the survey, therefore, the respondents were selected in public spaces. The sample size is 500 respondents that were distributed in the studied neighborhoods. Based on the Cronbach's alpha value, the reliability of the spectra is in the range of 0.72 to 0.88.

    Findings

    There is a significant difference in the security feeling, as the central variable of the research, in the 6 neighborhoods studied in District 3. This situation is repeated in most aspects of the security feeling with slight discrepancies in different neighborhoods. Men also feel significantly more secure than women. The security feeling also differs significantly with respect to the level of education. The highest average rank of security feeling belongs to the illiterate people and those with elementary level education, and the lowest security feeling belongs to the respondents holding master’s degree and PhD. Also, the older the people, the higher their security feeling, and vice versa. Conclusion and Suggestions: In neighborhoods with a dense population space in District 3, wherein a large number of people not knowing each other, and strangers live side by side, provides a favorable environment for violating the rules and norms of the neighborhood and the city, enhancing crime rate and consequently creating a sense of insecurity. The under study zone has reduced the scope of social monitoring through collective conscience due to the rapid expansion of construction in the last decade, which has led to a dense zone accommodating immigrants and strangers. In order to promote security feeling in the neighborhoods of District 3, it is recommended to monitor the constructions and respect for privacy, and strengthen the monitoring method of "street eyes" and also to pay attention to the cultural commonalities of the immigrants and the host community in order to provide ground for their participation in strengthening the security feeling of the zone.

    Keywords: Security feeling, District 3, Neighborhood, DignitySecurity, Life Security, Financial Security
  • Gholamreza Tajbakhsh, Mohsen Niazi, Seyed Abdul JabbarGhodratian, Mohammadreza Hosseini, Amin Goodarzi Pages 53-74
    Background and Aim

    Violence is one of the most important factors which is considered a serious threat to health, order, development, social capital, security and rights of individuals in the society and has irreparable negative consequences. Based on this, the present study seeks to provide a structural model of the factors contributing to social violence.

    Method

    The present research method is of quantitative type, and questionnaire is the tool used in it. The technique utilized in the present study is Dimatel technique, which according to this technique, it is based on pairwise comparisons, using the opinions of experts in extracting the factors in the system, systematically structuring them and applying the principles of graph theory, provides a hierarchical structure of existing factors in the system along with the mutual relationships of influence of the above- mentioned elements. In this way, the intensity of the above- mentioned relationships is identified in a quantitative way. The statistical population consisted of 15 specialists and experts who mainly conducted studies on social violence and dealt with social pathology, were selected.

    Findings

    The findings indicated that social violence was the most affected by the variable of ethnicity with 0.972, followed by the variables of religious beliefs with 0.863, media with 0.547, deprivation with 0.304, fatefulness with 0.203 and finally traditionalism with 0.151 respectively impacted social violence. Conclusions and Recommendations: Given the research findings, the higher the level of ethnic and tribal prejudices and the more deprived the society in terms of access to social opportunities, the greater the tendency to social violence. The research strategy is to try to correct and replace marginal and delinquent subcultures such as some tribal ethnic beliefs and ethnic prejudices that justify individual violence. This is also possible through public education, and it is noteworthy that coercive forces are not able to suppress and eliminate it.

    Keywords: Violence, Ethnicism, Traditionalism, Social Harm, Dimatel Technique
  • Vahid al-Din Jahanian, Reza Abdolrahmani, Ali Alaei Pages 75-94
    Background and Aim

    The present study is aimed at investigating the role of the death penalty in combating drug trafficking.

    Method

    The method of conducting this research is descriptive-analytical, and of survey type. The statistical population of the study is all elites, experts, judges, lawyers, university professors, some criminals, and provincial police involved in combating drugs, including the provinces of Sistan and Baluchestan, Khorasan Razavi, South Khorasan, Kerman, Fars, Hormozgan and expertsin Tehran. The statistical sample size was about 188 people, which according to Morgan table, 127 people were selected by proportional stratified sampling method. The method of data collection, field and its tools was a researcher-made questionnaire with 24 items, based on a five-point Likert scale. The validity of the questionnaire was obtained through the logical method, i.e. questions from ten elites and methodologists, and the reliability of the questionnaires was obtained through the Cronbach's alpha coefficient, which had an alpha coefficient of 0.721 for the dependent variable and for the independent variables, were estimated respectively 0.77 , 0.79, 0.83, 0.89, 0.91.

    Findings and Conclusion

    The analysis of the findings showed that petty offenders in drug crimes should not be sentenced to life imprisonment, but the best punishment is temporary imprisonment and parole, given changes in their past behavior. In addition, the results indicate that the death penalty has not been so effective in combating drug trafficking.

    Keywords: Criminology, Deterrence, Death penalty, Drugtrafficking
  • Hojjat Madahi Shahkhali, Ali Baseri, Seyed Mohammad SaghafiNejad Pages 95-123
    Background and Aim

    Recently, various virtual networks have become very popular and every day many young people become members of these social networks. Among these young people are university students who spend a lot of time and time in these networks. The use of cyberspace creates many changes in their lifestyles and may establish high-risk lifestyles. The present study is aimed at explaining the impact of social networks on the high-risk lifestyle of Damavand university students.

    Methodology

    The present study, in terms of approach, is conducted quantitatively and qualitatively, and in terms of type and nature, it is descriptive-analytical documentary-survey type. Data collection tool is the standard questionnaire of Walker lifestyle and virtual world Lee et al. (2005), and statistical population of Damavand University students in 2020. The sample size was 385 people who were selected by stratified random sampling method using Cochran's formula.

    Findings

    The findings indicate that social networks affect lifestyle directly and indirectly and cause social harms (economic, social, political, and cultural) and reduce social security level. It also reduces the adherence of individuals and institutions of society to the values and norms accepted in culture and consequently makes social security shaky, in such a way that their presence in the cyberspace and its use paves the ground for young people and university students to separate from other family members, and leads to indifference in the family, and they challenge social security. Whereas the growth and elevation of any society requires the establishment of order and security, paying attention to this area in the society may have a prominent place in establishing security in the society.

    Conclusion

    The results showed that social networks did not affect the self-fulfillment of Damavand University students and social networks impact cultural consumption, leisure, doing exercises, body management, symbolic capital, social capital, consumerism of Damavand University students. Among the other outcomes of the study is that there is no difference between the extent of using social networks by male and female university students, but there is difference between male and female students’ lifestyle.

    Keywords: Social networks, Lifestyle, Social harms
  • Azad Omidvar, Mohsen Niazi, Ayub Sakhaei, Neda Khodakaramian Gilan, Fatemeh Hami Kargar Pages 125-152
    Background and Aim

    The present study is aimed at using meta- analysis method to analyze and combine the results of previous studies conducted on the relationship between security feeling and social health.

    Method

    The statistical population of this study consisted of all studies conducted in the years 2010 to 2020. Finally 22 studies that had the appropriate characteristics to enter the meta-analysis were selected via referring to and searching in internal sites and through targeted sampling. In order to analyze the information, the second version of the comprehensive meta-analysis software (CMA2) was used and due to the heterogeneity of the studies, the stochastic impacts model was used to combine the results and achieve the impact size.

    Findings & conclusion

    In the first step of evaluation of selected researches, homogeneity and publication error assumptions were examined, and the relevant findings indicated heterogeneity of the size of the work and also showed the studies were not biased. In the second stage, the impact size coefficient and the moderating role of the variables in terms of geographical dispersion of the studies were evaluated. The results of the studies indicated that the magnitude of the impact or coefficient of impact of the social security feeling on social health is (0.409), which is assessed to be a moderate impact according to Cohen's interpretive system. In order to examine source of heterogeneity, the modifier variable of “geographical dispersion" has been used. The results showed that the calculation of the impact size varies based on the geographical dispersion between different regions. For instance, the combined effect size of the east and west are (0.195) and (0.270) which is considered weak according to Cohen's interpretive system. In other words, choosing provinces or cities in these areas significantly reduces the relationship between security feeling and social health.

    Keywords: Meta-analysis, Social security feeling, Social health, impact size, publication bias
  • Mohammadhassan Yazdani, Maryam Jami Odolou Pages 153-174
    Background and Aim

    Social harms are among the main pivots and topics of urban pathology studies in most cities and security is the prerequisite of a healthy community, and security feeling is the basis for the development of human societies. The presence of people in the public places of the city requires some sort of security feeling on their part. Due to the outbreak of the Corona virus and the dramatic enhancement of social harms, the disease became a serious threat to cities and communities. Accordingly, the present study was conducted to evaluate the social harms of COVID-19 on the social security feeling in public spaces in the city of Ardabil with emphasis on the criteria of social harm and their prioritization for future planning.

    Method

    This research is of applied type in terms of purpose; and in terms of nature is descriptive and analytical. The required data were obtained through survey and a researcher-made questionnaire was used to collect information. The statistical population of the study consists of citizens of Ardabil, where 383 people were estimated as the sample size based on the Cochran's formula. Whereas simple random sampling method was used, 383 questionnaires were distributed and completed in public spaces of Ardabil (parks, squares in the city center and commercial areas). To measure the social harms emanated from corona in public spaces, the relevant indicators are weighted using entropy method and social harms are ranked using multi-criteria decision-making techniques (TOPSIS, SAV, VICOR) and ultimately Copland merger technique was used to achieve final prioritization.

    Findings

    Based on the criteria used, and the results of the implementation of these techniques, the criterion of reducing social interactions and individualism and social isolation with the lowest score (-14) is in the first place; and the criterion of wickedness in public places with the highest score (12) is in the last rank in terms of social harms in the public places.

    Conclusion

    According to the respondents, the outbreak of COVID- 19 virus and adhering to health protocols such as "staying at home" and "quarantine", has enhanced social harms, which is more prominent and visible in public places. Finally, according to the research findings, some suggestions are presented for improving the security status of public spaces.

    Keywords: Social harm, Security feeling, Public place, COVID-19, Ardabil city