فهرست مطالب

Journal of Geoconservation Research
Volume:6 Issue: 1, Winter-Spring 2023

  • تاریخ انتشار: 1402/03/11
  • تعداد عناوین: 14
  • João Carlos Nunes, Michael Benton * Page 0

    In this Special Issue, we present 11 of the 15 geoparks that show key aspects of the past and current volcanic development of Europe. The sites include currently active locations along the mid-Atlantic ridge, from the Canary Islands and the Azores in the south to Iceland in the north. Other sites in continental Europe, from Portugal and Spain in the west to Hungary, Slovakia, and the Czech Republic in the east, document the volcanic history of the continent over the past 500 million years.

    Keywords: Volcanology, Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Geoeducation, Geoconservation
  • Dražen Balen, Petra Schneider *, Zorica Petrinec, Goran Radonić, Goran Pavić Pages 1-17
    Research over decades confirms the geological values of the Papuk UNESCO Global Geopark (Croatia) as a unique place in the regional frame where several orogenic events left their traces through the formation of diverse lithologies. The important part of the geological mosaic, at least in the western part of the Geopark, is the variety of igneous (sub)volcanic rocks. Albite rhyolite at Rupnica and Trešnjevica geosites formed in the Late Cretaceous (~81 Ma), recording the geological event(s) associated with the closure of the Neotethys Ocean. At that time, acidic silicate melt rose fast from the deep crustal levels to the near surface, where cooling caused regular cracking and the development of columnar jointing. Today, these geosites attract the attention of visitors and therefore they are important landmarks that contribute to local (geo)tourism. They are also used as educational sites for both higher education and schoolchildren with Rupko’s Geological School, in which the development of columnar jointing is explained popularly, further enhancing public awareness of the geodiversity and geoheritage of the Mt. Papuk area. The recently opened Geo-info Center in Voćin significantly enhances the geoheritage presentation at the Geopark.
    Keywords: Papuk UNESCO Global Geopark, Rupnica, Trešnjevica, Albite rhyolite, Columnar Jointing
  • Gloria García Del Hoyo *, Teodosio Donaire Romero Pages 18-28

    Cabo de Gata-Níjar geopark is an exceptional volcanic zone in the western Mediterranean because of the submarine effusive volcanism and the large volume of subaerial pyroclastic deposits; volcanism developed between land and sea. Its extensive outcrops attract students and researchers from all over Europe to have a better and more precise understanding of the processes behind this volcanism. The compositional range of the outcrops and climatic conditions have generated amazingly well exposed areas, where a wide range of volcanic deposits can be observed and studied. Its current position makes the whole complex an outstanding area for research and education in geology and volcanology. All this led to the designation of the area as a UNESCO Global Geopark in 2015 and the development of a strategy to highlight the value of the geological heritage of the area, developing diverse tools in the form of brochures, maps, a geosite inventory and a legal framework to make conservation and research main objectives of the management team.

    Keywords: Cabo de Gata-Níjar, Geopark, Submarine volcanism, Pyroclastic deposit, Geoconservation, Geoheritage, Betic-Rif Orogen
  • Karoly Nemeth *, Mohammed Moufti, Mahmoud Ashor, Abdulrahman Sowaigh, Turki Hablil, Khalid Abdulhafez, Turki Sehli Pages 29-52
    Four small scoria cones in the western outskirts of Al Madinah City, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, form a distinct young volcanic landmark. These volcanoes, despite their very small size, provide one of the most fundamental sources of information about the early eruption mechanism of rising mafic magma in the context of an active volcanic field located next to a city with over one million people. An initial study of the area in 2012–2013 confirmed that these sites had a significant phreatomagmatic phase in their opening stage, leaving behind characteristic pyroclastic successions likely to be covered by subsequent eruptive products. The fact that in this location, unequivocal evidence emerged to show that explosive magma-water interaction driven eruptions occurred in the largely magmatic (“dry”) explosive style, and volcanic field evolution confirmed that this site has high geoheritage value. Since the first research was 20 years ago, a restudy of the present-day condition of the scoria cone was conducted. Applying satellite imagery, remote sensing and direct site visit, we find that about a third of the cone surface area has been modified and at least a quarter of its volume has vanished. Further excavation for cone material however opened the entire western side of the cone, exposing a nearly 5-m-thick succession of accidental lithic pyroclast-dominated lapilli tuff and tuff breccia, confirming that this location had a significant phreatomagmatic phase in its opening eruptions. This location shows graphically the need for geoconservation to preserve such sites that are potentially the only, or best locations to show the potential eruptive styles and scenarios of future eruptions if they occur in similar environments.
    Keywords: pyroclastic, Volcaniclastic, Volcanic geoheritage, Scoria, Degradation, Urban expansion, Hazard resilience
  • Johannes Johannesson *, Berglind Sigmundsdóttir, Sigurdur Sigursveinsson Pages 53-69
    Katla UNESCO Global Geopark is one of the most active volcanic areas in Iceland where the Eastern Volcanic Zone and the Iceland Mantle Plume control the activity. The interaction of ice and fire has dominated the eruption styles and formations from the central volcanoes while large fissure eruptions have occurred on the fissure swarms of the systems, often forming vast lava fields that stretch from the highlands to the ocean. Eruptions have formed and molded the landscape of the geopark, and among the most remarkable features are the central volcano of Katla, Eldgjá fissure eruption and the rootless cone fields of Álftaver and Landbrot, Eyjafjallajökull central volcano, Lakagígar crater row and Eldhraun lava field, and the hyaloclastite ridges of Kattarhryggir, Grænifjallgarður and Fögrufjöll. Each of these sites is a geosite in the geopark and represents different volcanic geoforms and specific geological features characteristic of specific volcanic processes. One of the fundamental roles of the geopark has been to inform people about the geology and formation history of these sites so they can better understand and appreciate these sites. The geosites have become popular tourist sites which are protected due to their uniqueness and value for research and preservation.
    Keywords: Iceland, Katla Geopark, Eyjafjallajökull, Geotourism, Lakagígar
  • Szabolcs Harangi *, Barnabás Korbély Pages 70-97
    As a part of the long-standing volcanism of the Carpathian–Pannonian Region, a basaltic monogenetic volcanic field developed here from 8–2.3 Ma. This is a specific type of volcanism, when mostly a small volume of magma erupts intermittently and always in a new place. The Bakony–Balaton Uplands area is an excellent natural laboratory, where several unique volcanological features can be observed and which provides an insight into how such volcanism is taking place. This volcanic field consists of more than 50 volcanic centers and almost all volcanic eruption types characterizing basalt volcanism can be recognized here, such as hydrovolcanic (phreatic to phreatomagmatic) eruptions and magmatic (Strombolian and Hawaiian) explosive eruptions with proximal and distal pyroclastic deposits, clastogenetic lava, valley-channeled lava flow, lava lake and vent-filling basalts. Since significant uplift and erosion occurred after the volcanism, the original volcanic edifices have been variously eroded, enabling the unique exposure even of the vent and conduit sections. The lava lake and valley-filled basalts were resistant to erosion that resulted in an inverted morphology landscape. Building on scientific results gained from petrological and volcanological studies for more than a century, the Bakony–Balaton UNESCO Global Geopark makes a great effort to transfer this knowledge to geoeducation and geotourism development. This includes volcanological nature trails over 40 km in length and visitor centers with exhibitions designed not only to unravel the nature of volcanic processes, but also to serve as entertainment and recreation. This is accomplished by regular guided outdoor activities led by certified local partners, who successfully passed the geopark geotour-guide training courses.
    Keywords: Bakony–Balaton UNESCO Global Geopark, Monogenetic volcanic field, basalt, Nature Trail, Geoeducation
  • Vaclav Mencl *, Jan Bubal, Marcela Starkova Pages 98-113
    Central Europe and the area of the UNESCO Global Geopark Bohemian Paradise have been affected by global tectonic events, especially during the last 500 million years. Volcanic phenomena are the most striking traces today of such past tectonic events. At the end of the Paleozoic, there were a number of volcanic eruptions connected to the waxing and waning of the Variscan Orogeny. Further volcanic activity came in the Neogene as a distal reaction to Alpine Orogenic processes.  All volcanic phases show the variability of volcanic processes and have been studied intensively. In addition, these volcanic events and the production of various volcanic products enabled the emergence of local world-famous mineral deposits. The extraordinarily varied geology and the large number of volcanic features is a great tourist attraction and an excellent opportunity for a vivid interpretation of the geoheritage of Central Europe.
    Keywords: Central Europe, UNESCO Global Geopark Bohemian Paradise, Late Paleozoic, Neogene, Volcanic activity, Jičín Volcanic Field, Mineral assemblages, Middle Ages Castles, Collecting, Geoheritage Interpretation
  • Eva Lima *, Salomé Meneses Pages 114-127
    The Azores UNESCO Global Geopark, located in the North Atlantic Ocean is a volcanic archipelago with several non-inhabited islets and nine inhabited islands. The 27 volcanic systems with polygenetic central volcanoes and volcanic ridges, most of them active but dormant, represent an exuberant geological heritage, most of which (77% of geosites) is protected. The quantity and quality of the Azorean geosites, their international relevance, and high range of geodiversity, together with the rich biodiversity and the notable cultural heritage of the archipelago sustain the Azores UNESCO Global Geopark through the motto “Nine Islands - One Geopark”. The Azores Geopark, the first archipelagic geopark in the world, is established on the basis of 121 geosites distributed across the nine islands and surrounding marine area. The unique geological and geographical setting of the archipelago allowed the development of outstanding landscapes and a culture that is deeply linked to volcanic eruptions and earthquakes. One of the priorities of the geopark is to provide the tools and knowledge for sustainable use of this heritage e through geotourism. Here, we review the Geopark, and introduce a new geosite, the Ponta da Ajuda, the largest and best outcrop of columnar jointing on São Miguel island.
    Keywords: Sustainability, archipelago, Geotourism, Environmental Education, Geoconservation
  • Ramón Casillas Ruiz *, Yurena Pérez Candelario, Cristina Ferro Fernández Pages 128-138
    El Hierro UNESCO Global Geopark, the first declared in the Canary Islands, treasures an impressive geological heritage, represented by its Geological Interesting Places (GIPs or geosites) has as foremost exponents those related to the formation of mega-landslides and the formation of extensive fields of pahoehoe lava-flows associated with the historical or prehistoric fissure vulcanism that occurred concerning the activity of its three ridges. This interesting geological heritage has been made available to the island's human community, embodied in an incipient geological tourism as a complement and continuity to the sustainable growth policy initiated by the local authorities decades ago.
    Keywords: geodiversity, Megalandslides, Pahoehoe lava-flows
  • Ahmet Aytaç, Tuncer DERMİR * Pages 139-160
    The Kula-Salihli UNESCO Global Geopark includes evidence of geological history spanning 600 million years, from Palaeozoic metamorphic rocks to late prehistoric volcanic eruptions. It can function as a field laboratory for geosciences, demonstrating a variety of graben and fault structures and fluvial, volcanic, and karstic landscapes, in addition to rocks from various geological eras, evidence of fluvial processes, and topographic inversions caused by differential erosion. The topography and landscape elements also exhibit the qualities of a natural monument. The majority of the most recent basaltic lava eruptions, linked to the development of scoria cones, took place in the western Anatolian Kula-Salihli UNESCO Geopark during the Pleistocene and Holocene epochs. In this unique volcanic province, there is also much earlier volcanism, such as a few older lavas that overlie mesa-style uplands, conserving underneath them sediments that are loosely bound but otherwise would have been lost to erosion. Because of its rich and diverse geoheritage value, the geopark is emerging as a location for academic studies, teaching, and investigation of natural events. This study aims to introduce the volcanism-related geosites of the Kula Salihli UNESCO Global Geopark. In this context, we present the results of geomorphological research that we have been conducting in the region with an international team for many years, as well as field observations and relevant literature.
    Keywords: Geosite, Geoheritage, Volcanic Landforms, Kula–Salihli Geopark, Anatolia, Türkiye
  • Cayetano Guillén Martín *, Elena Mateo Mederos Pages 161-177
    The island of Lanzarote represents a fragile insular space of high environmental value, where coexistence between conservation and the controlled and responsible use of local heritage has been achieved. Since April 2015, Lanzarote and the set of islands and islets of the Chinijo Islands, have been part of the UNESCO Global Geopark Network. Among its unique features is a global geosite of international relevance, the historic basaltic eruption of Timanfaya, as well as the forms and materials derived from the interaction of volcanic and erosive-sedimentary processes over more than 15 million years. The Geopark preserves key geological heritage for the islands that has been respectfully used to contribute to sustanible socioeconomic development. The recognition of Lanzarote, the Chinijo Archipelago as a Geopark, has been a fundamental tool to strengthen local strategies and value the local geological and geomorphological heritage. In addition, it has also been key in continuing to contribute to the traditional and sustainable use of these fragile insular spaces, favoring lasting models of coexistence. Here, we explore the different lines of work that the Geopark is currently developing to achieve its objectives in terms of geoconservation, responsible use of the territory, and sustainability.The recognition of Lanzarote, the Chinijo Archipelago as a Geopark, has been a fundamental tool to strengthen local strategies and value the local geological and geomorphological heritage. In addition, it has also been key in continuing to contribute to the traditional and sustainable use of these fragile insular spaces, favoring lasting models of coexistence.This document tries to expose the different lines of work that the Geopark is currently developing to achieve its essential objectives in terms of geoconservation, responsible use of the territory and sustainability.
    Keywords: Macaronesia, Lanzarote, volcanic Landscape, geodiversity, Geoconservation, Public participation
  • Szabolcs Harangi *, Imre Szarvas, Réka Lukács Pages 178-206
    The Novohrad–Nógrád UNESCO Global Geopark is the first cross-border geopark located between Slovakia and Hungary, Eastern–Central Europe. “Ancient world without borders” – its motto reflects both the remarkable geodiversity and the strong link between people living on either side of the state border. In this relatively small area, almost all types of eruption products can be found from basaltic through andesitic to rhyolitic, reflecting the wide-ranging volcanism of the Pannonian Basin over the last 20 million years, which were the largest eruptions in Europe at the time. The Ipolytarnóc Site, the gateway of the geopark and possessor of a European- Diploma for Protected Areas, documents when one of these devastating eruption events buried a subtropical-forested area with thick pyroclastic deposits and preserved vertebrate footprints. On the other hand, relatively young eruptions of basaltic magmas occurred in this area that give another specific atmosphere to the geopark. Columnar jointing with concave and convex curvilinear shapes shown both by basalts and andesites is another peculiar natural value. Due to the regional uplift and the associated erosion, most of the volcanic edifices were removed and the root zones of the volcanoes were revealed, giving a special character. The volcanic heritage meets specific cultural and historical heritage, which makes this geopark a particular tourist destination. There are four visitor centers and several nature trails with explanation panels showing concise summaries of the volcanological features in three languages (Hungarian, Slovakian and English). Among the rich indoor and outdoor activities, the annual Volcano Day program in Ipolytarnóc with an interactive volcano show attracts many people. This is an evolving geopark, where continuously renewing attractions serve the geoeducation and geotourism purposes in parallel with geoheritage conservation management.
    Keywords: Novohrad-Nógrád UNESCO Global Geopark, monogenetic basalt volcanic field, ignimbrite, Columnar Jointing, volcanic root zones, Geoeducation, Geotourism
  • Jean-Paul Raynal, Emmanuelle DEFIVE, Nicolas Klee *, Roxane Buso, Didier Laporte Pages 207-232
    The Regional Natural Park of the Monts d'Ardèche, located in south-eastern France, became the Monts d’Ardèche UNESCO Global Geopark in September 2014. This territory possesses significant volcanic features dating from the Miocene to the late Pleistocene. The UNESCO Global Geopark label helped to formalize a long-standing partnership with the University of Clermont Auvergne which includes support for scientific research, establishing conservation and protection priorities, establishing geosites for the public and involvement of local people and communities in geotouristic initiatives. Here we focus on some peculiar geosites that allow us to question magmatic processes, eruptive dynamics, morphological evolution of landscapes, the chronology of eruptions, relationships between humans and volcanoes during the Pleistocene, and highlight the delicate alliance between economic pressures, heritage conservation, and scientific tourism.
    Keywords: UNESCO Global Geopark, Ardèche, Haute-Loire, Velay oriental, Bas-Vivarais, volcanism, Magmas, chronology
  • Dmitry Ruban * Pages 233-235
    The new book edited by Dóniz-Páez & Pérez presents the experience and the findings of the multi-aspect research undertaken in the El Hierro UNESCO Global Geopark (UGGp) established in the Canary Islands of Spain for about a decade. Taking into account the general importance and the diversity of the topics considered in this book, the latter deserves the attention of the international research community. It should be highlighted that this geopark represents chiefly volcanic geoheritage, and, thus, the volume bears a lot of information about volcanism.
    Keywords: Geopark, Geotourism, Geoheritage