فهرست مطالب

Chemical Health Risks - Volume:13 Issue: 3, Summer 2023

Journal of Chemical Health Risks
Volume:13 Issue: 3, Summer 2023

  • تاریخ انتشار: 1402/06/10
  • تعداد عناوین: 20
  • Nastaran Tabari Shahandasht, Marzieh Bolandi *, Majid Rahmati, Moslem Jafarisani Pages 401-409

    Since osteoarthritis is the most common musculoskeletal inflammation that causes people to be unable to move with age, a proper diet can be effective in treating it. Therefore, understanding the impact of non-pharmacological nutritional supplements may provide guidelines for the prevention of this disease thereby reducing the costs of medical care. The purpose of this study was to review the effect of various non-pharmacological dietary supplements containing nutrients and micronutrients in the prevention and treatment of osteoarthritis. Taking these non-pharmacological nutritional supplements over a short to medium term reduced pain and inflammation, and improved patients' quality of life. However, their impact was low to moderate. To achieve the best treatment results in patients with osteoarthritis, it is recommended that these dietary supplements be taken along with medication and adopt a healthier lifestyle.

    Keywords: Inflammation, Nutritional supplements, Non-pharmacological methods, Osteoarthritis
  • Mehrnoosh Sedighi, Mehrdad Namdari, Payam Mahmoudi, Afshin Khani, Aliasghar Manouchehri *, Milad Anvari Pages 411-422

    Angiogenesis refers to the formation of new blood vessels from existing ones, which can occur in both physiologic and pathologic conditions. Lack of tissue oxygen is the main stimulator of angiogenesis accompanied by increasing in HIF-1α-(hypoxia-inducible factor-1α) expression as a nuclear transcription factor. Other factors such as VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor), FGF2 (fibroblast growth factor2), and TGF (transforming growth factor) are involved in angiogenesis, too. To control diabetes and tumoral disease, abnormal angiogenesis inhibition can be useful besides stimulation that can be helpful in cardiovascular disease. In this study, we have reviewed the mechanisms and stimulators of angiogenesis and its influential factors. The most important angiogenic factors are MMP, Ang, FGF, and VEGF. Ang is not directly involved in the process of angiogenesis but sometimes destabilize the arteries. In contrast to angiostatin, endostatin TIMP and TSP1 act as the most important angiostatic factors. Many attempts have been made to identify the mechanisms and factors involved in this process but angiogenic inhibitors that inhibit the growth of cancerous masses or tumors in the body have not yet been adequately investigated

    Keywords: HEART, angiogenesis, Angiogenic factors, VEGF, TGF
  • Princewill Udodi *, Tobechi ANONYE, Damian Ezejindu, Joshua ABUGU, Chizubelu OMILE, Ifechukwu Obiesie, Roseline OGWO, Chukwudumebi Abattam, Darlington AKUKWU, Godwin Uloneme, Charles Oyinbo Pages 423-439
    To evaluate the effect of cypermethrin (CP) and dichlorvos (2,2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate, DDVP) on the striatum of adult Wistar rats. Thirty-two animals were grouped into 4; group A (control) inhaled fresh air, and groups B, C, and D were exposed to a formulation of 5 mm-1 (4.4 ppm) of dichlorvos and 10 mm-1 (8.7 ppm) of cypermethrin insecticide for 2hrs/day, 3hrs/day and 4hrs/day respectively. We utilized the wire suspension test to demonstrate the neurobehavioral changes across the four groups of animals to identify the animal groups that have lost their motor function. Following the neurobehavioral test, the animals were weighed, anesthesized and dissected for brain tissue harvesting. Half of the brain tissue was frozen for biochemical analysis while the other part was fixed in 10% Neutral Buffered Formalin for two days and grossed to isolate the brain tissue of interest for histopathology. The results from the neurobehavioral studies show a significant decrease in motor function of the experimental groups. There was a significant elevation in the malondialdehyde and glucose levels of all the exposed groups, while their various antioxidant levels decreased significantly (p<0.05). Histopathological features were observed across the exposed groups ranging from the presence of vacuolated neuronal cells, neuronal cell shrinkage, and chromatolysis, which characterize the neurodegenerative effect of cypermethrin and dichlorvos on the striatum. This study indicates that a combined administration of cypermethrin and dichlorvos exerts a neurodegenerative effect on the striatum of adult Wistar rats.
    Keywords: Cypermethrin, Dichlorvos, Pyrethroid, Histopathology, Chromatolysis, Malondialdehyde
  • Sivachandran Ramachandran, Navaneetha Lakshmi Krishnan, Priya Ponmudi * Pages 441-447
    Tannery effluents add pollutants to the aquatic environment. The characterization of responses to toxic exposure at the molecular level of biological systems is a major challenge in ecotoxicology because it enables the unraveling of mechanisms of toxicity, the discovery of novel biochemical markers, and early diagnoses of exposure and effects. The three major classes of antioxidant enzymes viz. superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (Gpx) were analyzed in the liver, testes, and ovary of Channa striatus to delineate the impact of tannery effluents on these enzymes. The oxidative stress biomarkers showed a significant reduction (p<0.05) in their activities among the control and experimental groups exposed to both 10 and 1 % concentrations of the tannery effluents. The SOD activity was reduced to 96.13 % in the ovary compared to the liver (60.73 %) and testes (47.89 %) after 30 days of exposure to a 10 % concentration of the tannery effluents. However, the activities of catalase and glutathione peroxidase decreased to 58.59 % and 43.64 % in the testes when compared to the liver and ovary.
    Keywords: Tannery effluents, Channa striatus, Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), Glutathione peroxidase (Gpx)
  • Zahra Rahimi, Razzagh Mahmoudi *, Peyman Ghajarbeyg, Shaghayegh Mosavi, Ali Mehrabi Pages 449-456
    Salmonella serotypes are considered as one of the most important foodborne pathogens. Eggs are a main source of the contamination caused by these pathogens and diseases in humans and the prevalence of the salmonellosis. This study was aimed to isolate Salmonella enteritidis from industrial eggs collected from different areas of Qazvin city, Iran in the year 2020.In this cross-sectional study, 200 eggs were collected randomly (including 100 industrial packaged eggs and 100 industrial tray eggs) from the retail and stores located in Qazvin city, Iran. After culturing of eggshells and egg contents according to the classic methods, suspected colonies were confirmed by PCR assay. Salmonella was detected in 10% (4/40) among the egg samples. Salmonella was isolated from 0% (0/40) and 10% (4/40) of eggshells and egg contents, respectively. Isolates from positive egg samples were characterized as S. Typhimurium.Salmonella Typhimurium is the most prevalent serotype of egg contamination in Qazvin city, Iran. It can be regarded as the risk evaluation of possible human foodborne diseases associated with the consumption of contaminated eggs.
    Keywords: Salmonella, Eggs, PCR
  • Yasser El-Amier *, Hala Fakhry, El-Sayed F. El-Halawany, Hatem K. Adday Pages 457-467
    Wetlands sediments could be critical indicators to control contamination in the aquatic ecosystem. Qarun Lake is regarded as the third biggest lake in Egypt that is not related to any sea. Twelve georeferenced sediment samples were gathered in September, 2020 from the different locations. Five heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, and Co) were measures in the sediments estimated by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Grain size and content of organic matters in the sediment were estimated on the basis of standard assays, as well as the contamination factor, geoaccumulation index, ecological risk factor, contamination degree and potential ecological risk index in the sediment. Data revealed that the average concentration could be arranged as Ni (27.36 mg k g-1) > Pb (18.28 mg k g-1) > Cr (15.31 mg k g-1) > Co (11.16 mg k g-1) > Cd (23.31 mg k g-1). Cd, Co and Pb were estimated to be in the range of EU (2002) and the US EPA (1999), while Co and Ni in the range of EU (2002). The ecological risk index (Er) of the studied elements in sediments of lake could be arranged as: Ni > Pb > Co > Cd > Cr. In addition, the highest-integrated potential ecological risk was on the south side of the lake, which is subjected to huge amounts of drainage water composed of organic and inorganic pollutants.
    Keywords: Qarun Lake, Pollution indices, Heavy metals, Ecological risk
  • MohammadSaeed Jadgal, Moradali Zareipour *, Saeedeh Sadeghi, Hadi Alizadeh Seiuoki, Tahmineh Salehian Pages 469-476

    Smokeless tobacco consumption is one of the serious health-threatening factors in society, especially among adolescents. Due to the high usage of these products in the southeastern regions of Iran, this survey was conducted to investigate the prevalence of smokeless tobacco products and related factors among high school students in Chabahar city. This study was a cross-sectional (descriptive-analytical) study, in which 330 high school students were selected by a simple multi-stage random sampling method. Data were collected via a researcher-made questionnaire and was filled using an in-person method. Data were then analyzed using descriptive and analytical tests by SPSS v.21 software. In this study, the mean age of the students was 16.3±1.14 years. Results showed that the prevalence of smokeless tobacco products was 45.8% among students, 43.3% among close friends, and 38.8% in families, where the predominant form of smokeless tobacco products was Pan-Prague (62.2%). Furthermore, the results of logistic regression revealed that addiction of close friends (OR=3.8, p=0.001), addiction of family members (OR=2.1, p=0.03), addiction of males (OR=2.2, p=0.001), low awareness (OR=3.9, p=0.001), and low attitude (OR=2.7, p=0.001) can significantly increase the likelihood of smokeless tobacco usage in students. Altogether, the findings of this study showed that the prevalence of smokeless tobacco usage among high school students in Chabahar is high, and thus, appropriate, effective, and preventive interventions should be taken into account regarding the influential factors.

    Keywords: Smokeless Tobacco, Students, Teenagers, Chabahar
  • Zahraa K. Mijbel, Hussain A. Mhouse Alsaady * Pages 477-484
    The current study was conducted in Maysan province, Southern Iraq. Blood samples were collected from 174 individuals (male and female), from December 2020 to May 2021. ELISA was used to calculate the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii by determining the levels of anti-toxoplasma IgM and IgG, as well as the levels of dopamine and adrenaline in the participants' blood. The overall seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in Amarah city is 52.3%. In regards to the seropositive cases, there is 32.97% positive to IgM, 38.46% is positive IgG, and 28.57% is positive to both IgM + IgG. The level mean of dopamine in toxoplasmosis-seropositive cases is 2.9543x10-2 mg ml-1, which is higher than that of negative cases (1.8086x10-2 mg ml-1). There are statistically significant differences (p<0.05) between the levels of dopamine in toxoplasmosis-seropositive and negative cases. The mean level of adrenaline in toxoplasmosis-seropositive cases is 2.8752x10-2 mg ml-1. Which is higher than that of negative cases (1.3670x10-2 mg ml-1), there is a statistically significant difference (p<0.05) between its levels in toxoplasmosis-seropositive and negative cases.
    Keywords: Seroprevalence IgG, IgM, Dopamine, Adrenaline, Toxoplasmosis, Maysan’ Iraq
  • Tahereh Sadeghi, MohammadMehdi Marvizadeh *, Fateme Ebrahimi, Shahrzad Mafi, Omid Foughani, Abdorreza Mohammadi Nafchi Pages 485-496

    In this study, a sports drink was prepared with the addition of different concentrations of Spirulina platensis (0.05%, 0.125%, and 0.25% w/w). Spirulina biomass was extracted by ethanol, ethanol/water, and water and added to a sports drink. During storage time (21 days, 4°C), the chemical properties of these drinks such as antioxidant activity, ascorbic acid, and total sugar were evaluated. The lowest and highest amount of total sugar also was observed in the control sample, and sports drink containing 0.25% aqueous extract, respectively. After 21 days of storage, total sugar decreased by 40%, 27.25% and 38% for samples containing 0.25% alcoholic, water and hydroalcoholic extracts. The ascorbic acid content of sports drinks was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the treatment sample in the comparison with control sample. Content of ascorbic acid was highest in sports drinks containing 0.25% aqueous extract and decreased (up to 1.3mg/100cc) with storage. The addition of spirulina increased the antioxidant activity of the sports drink. Among the sports drinks containing alcoholic, water and hydroalcoholic extracts, minimum control of free radicals, respectively pertained to the samples containing 0.05% of Spirulina extract (18.31, 23.33 and 22.11) after 21 days of storage. Also, the antioxidant properties of the sports drink samples decreased during storage time. According to the findings of this research, the addition of spirulina extract to sports drinks improves their nutritional and antioxidant characteristics.

    Keywords: AAntioxidant activity, Aqueous, alcoholic extracts, Ascorbic acid, Chemical Properties, algae
  • Joy Uba *, Eugene N. Onyeike, Charity U. Ogunka-Nnoka, Catherine C. Ikewuchi Pages 497-509
    Volatile organic compounds found in petrol include benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX). Extract of Camellia sinensis (tea plant) leaf contains some secondary metabolites such as flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids saponins, anthraquinones, and tannins. Polyphenols in Camellia sinensis possess anti-atherosclerosis and cardioprotective, neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic, antibacterial, anti-diabetic, anti-tumor, anti-hypertensive, and hepato-protective effects. The study aimed to investigate the potential of Camellia sinensis in ameliorating lung damage, oxidative stress, and inflammation caused by petrol fumes. Forty-eight Wistar albino rats weighing between 140g-230g  were randomized into 8 groups of 6 rats each consisting of control, petrol fumes only group, three aqueous drink groups of different doses, and three methanol extract groups of different doses respectively. The oxido-inflammatory responses and histopathological alterations in rat lungs following 6 hours of daily exposure for 30 and 60 days were recorded. Oxidative stress (superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT)) and inflammatory biomarkers namely: Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6) were evaluated. The biochemical analyses showed that petrol fumes exposure resulted in significant (P<.05) increases in biomarkers of oxidative stress, pro-inflammation cytokines, and reduced GSH levels in rats as well histopathological alteration in lungs. The treated groups showed anti-oxidant properties by the elevation of antioxidant enzymes (CAT, SOD) and non-enzymatic antioxidant (gluthathione) and reduction of MDA levels as well as reversal of alterations in the lungs after histopathological analysis. This study showed that Camellia sinensis leaf aqueous and methanol extract have the potential to attenuate petrol fumes-induced oxidative stress due to its natural bioactive constituents.
    Keywords: Inhalation, Inflammation, Aqueous, Methanol
  • Malihe Hashemi Khah, Nazila Arbab Soleymani *, MohammadMahdi Forghanifard, Omid Gholami, Saba Taheri Pages 511-519

    One of the top causes of cancer-related deaths globally is esophageal cancer. In investigations of cell toxicity, the MTT test is one of the most often used cell viability/cytotoxicity assays for cellular metabolic activity. Nowadays, lactobacilli with probiotic effectiveness are now acknowledged as a prophylactic agent against cancer. The anti-tumor product of these bacteria have been designated in numerous studies. This investigation examined the probiotic Lactobacillus casei's in vivo impact on esophageal cancer. The MTT technique was used in this work to evaluate the cytotoxicity of L. casei (supernatant and full cell culture) to 5fu on the cancer cell line Kyse30. L. casei was able to decrease cell survival in supernatant and full cell culture (Kyse30). The possible impact of L. casei, particularly their supernatant, on esophageal cancer was initially evaluated in this research. As a result, lactobacilli species show promise for future research and development as cancer treatments.

    Keywords: Probiotic, L.casei, Esophageal cancer, Viability assay
  • Lekaa Hussain Khadim * Pages 521-530
    This study initiates an experimental and theoretical investigation to evaluate the selective and competitive adsorption of two dyes, sulforhodamine B and Brilliant Green, on coal from pomegranate seeds. For this purpose, the effects of numerous parameters like initial dye concentration, initial pH, adsorbent dose and solution temperature were examined and studied in batch mode. The experimental results indicate that the adsorption is fast and fits better with the quasi-second order kinetic model than the quasi-first order kinetics. Adsorption data were studied using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The obtained results showed that the Freundlich model provided a better correlation of the experimental data. The geometries of sulforodamine B and Brilliant Green were optimized using Gaussian 09W software through the density functional theory (DFT) at the theoretical level B3LYP / LanL2DZ, and the calculations (link length and connection angle) were well matched with experimental data at both levels.
    Keywords: Dyes, Activated charcoal, DFT, Adsorption, Isotherms, adsorption kinetic
  • Maryam Nasiri, Asieh Abbassi Daloii *, Alireza Barari, Ayoub Saeidi Pages 531-537
    MicroRNAs and heat shock proteins are important factors in heart function. However, the response of these factors to exercise in the heart tissue is unclear. Here, we evaluated the impact of endurance training on the expression of MIR-1 and HSP-60 genes in heart tissue of rats. In this study, 10 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 2 groups control and endurance training. The aerobic exercise program included running on the treadmill at speed of 25 m min-1, 5 days a week for 12 weeks. After anesthesia, we performed an autopsy to collect the heart. The expression level of MIR-1 and HSP60 were measured by Real-Time PCR. An Independent t-test was used to determine significant changes (P<0.05). After the intervention period, the expression level of the MIR-1 gene showed a significant decrease in the aerobic exercise group thank in the control group (P=0.001). However, aerobic training had no significant effect on the expression level of HSP60 in the heart (P<0.05). It seems that twelve weeks of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise can probably improve heart function.
    Keywords: Exercise, MIR-1, HSP60, Heart tissue, Rats
  • Dyussupov Altay Akhmetkalievich *, Ali Taha, Salah Hassan Zain Al-Abdeen, Sarah Qutayba Badraldin, Hayder Tariq, Ali B. Roomi, Nesrin Hamadeh Alkhalil Pages 539-546
    Herbal medicines are natural remedies derived from plants or plant extracts. They have been used for thousands of years in traditional medicine and are still widely used today as alternative treatments for various health conditions. In this study, the antiviral effects of the volatile oils of Thymus vulgaris and Lavandula angustifolia were examined separately after identifying the constituents of the volatile oils of these two plants. Two plants, Thymus vulgaris and Lavandula angustifolia, grown in the open air, were collected from the surrounding plains of Mirny and Ust-Ilimsk cities in Russia, respectively. Using a Clevenger apparatus, the oil was independently extracted from each plant by distillation with water. By using gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS), the obtained volatile oil was examined. The antiviral effects of these two plants' essential oils were then studied independently on herpes simplex virus (HSV-1). These viruses can quickly multiply on HeLa or HEp-2 cancer cells and produce effects that specifically cause cytopathic effect. In the essential oil of the Lavandula angustifolia, 24 compounds including thymol, carvacrol, p-Cymene and caryophyllene were identified. In the essential oil of Thymus vulgaris, 27 substances including terpenin-4-L, p-cymene, γ-terpinene and sabinene were identified. Also, the antiviral effects of the volatile oil of these two plants were investigated separately with a concentration of 10-4 on HeLa cells infected with HSV-1, and the result was negative.
    Keywords: Herbal medicines, lavandula angustifolia, Thymus vulgaris
  • Mojtaba Darvishkhadem, Tahereh Bagherpour *, Nematollah Nemati Pages 547-555
    In this study, concentrations of some blood biochemical factors in male powerlifting athletes were compared through 6 weeks of weight training with combined beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) and creatinine (Cr) supplements and 2 weeks of non-training. Thirty-two male athletes aged 21-30 years were randomly divided into four groups of eight individuals: Cr, HMB, HMB + Cr, and weight training. The training program was designed for 6 weeks and four sessions per week. The HMB group consumed 3 g of the supplement on training days and 1g on  non-training days, the Cr group  consumed  three servings of  5 g on  training days and 5 g  on non-training days, and the HMB +Cr group consumed the same amount of HMB and Cr supplements as the HMB and Cr groups.  During 2 weeks of non-training, the HMB, Cr, and HMB + Cr groups received daily 1 g, 5 g, and 1 g of HMB + 5 g of Cr, respectively. The hypotheses were tested by two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA).
    There were no significant differences in Cholesterol (Chol.), Triglyceride (TG), and Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL) levels after the post-test and 2 weeks of non-training. There were significant differences in High-Density Lipoprotein (HDL) in post-test between groups of weight training and HMB (p = 0.000), weight training and HMB + Cr (p = 0.002), Cr and HMB (p = 0.000), and Cr and HMB + Cr (P = 0.001). The weight training and HMB (p = 0.000), weight training and HMB + Cr (p = 0.003), Cr and HMB (p 0.000) =), and Cr and HMB + Cr groups (p = 0.001) were significantly different in 2 weeks of non-training.
    Six-week weight training with combined HMB and Cr supplement and 2 weeks of non-training can significantly change the concentrations of some blood biochemical factors in male powerlifting athletes.
    Keywords: Creatinine supplement, Beta-hydroxymethyl Butyrate, High-Density Lipoprotein, Low-Density Lipoprotein, Cholesterol, Triglyceride
  • Thair Aljawahiry *, Mohaned Adil, Mohammed Abdulkadhim Sayah, Abed J. Kadhim, Mazin Abdullateef Alzubaidi, Ahmed S. Abed, Naseer Mehdi Mohammed Pages 557-564
    Utilizing mathematical modeling of drug release is one method for accelerating the rate of drug diffusion and penetration in hydrogel-based systems. This method facilitates a greater comprehension of drug control mechanisms and their release. Hydrogels are expanding biomaterials that necessitate regulation for use in drug release. The current study's objective is to model drug release in swelling hydrogels containing combinations of chitosan and gelatin polymers; with the aid of this simulation, the release time and concentration of the drug can be predicted. This modeling examined changes in the concentration of drugs in various hydrogels. For this simulation, the governing equations of the drug release system in Python and the numerical solution method were utilized to determine the drug release mechanism in the hydrogel. Then, the graphs of the changes in drug concentration in each hydrogel were examined to evaluate the performance of hydrogels in drug release. Observations revealed that the swelling rate of the hydrogel increases as the concentration of chitosan relative to gelatin in the hydrogel composition rises and that the drug release rate in hydrogels with more significant swelling was also accelerated. Compared to Cs-Gel (1:4) hydrogel, the drug release time in Cs-Gel (4:1), Cs-Gel (3:2), Cs-Gel (2.5:2.5) and Cs-Gel (2:3) hydrogels decreased by 52, 44, 37, and 18%, respectively. In hydrogels with a high swelling rate, the drug concentration decreased rapidly, whereas in hydrogels with a low swelling rate, the duration of drug release increased. This is due to the significance of mass transfer via mass movement and inflation rate.
    Keywords: Drug release, Expanding hydrogels, Chitosan, Gelatin
  • Hadiza Muhammad *, Rahinat Garba, Abubakar Abdullah, Hussaini Makun, Musa Busari, Funmilola Adefolalu Pages 565-575
    Leptadenia hastata leaf extracts are used in the folkloric treatment of hypertension and its attendant complications. Sub-chronic toxicological study of the methanol and n-hexane leaf extracts of L. hastata was carried out orally on Swiss albino rats for 28 days. Doses of 100, 300, and 600 mg kg-1 bodyweights of both extracts were administered through the oral route once daily to the rats in respectively labeled test groups while the control group with normal saline (0.5 ml). L. hastata methanol extract showed a moderate presence of alkaloids (0.92±0.14) and cardiac glycosides. The LD50 of both extracts is >5000 mg kg-1 bodyweight. ALT, AST, ALP, and total protein were all significantly high in 600 mg kg-1 bodyweight of the extract (n-hexane)-treated group by a 2% reduction in bodyweight on the 12th day. Lipids in both extract-treated groups were reduced with a concomitant increase in HDL of the methanol extract-treated groups and a decrease in the extract (n-hexane)-treated groups. PCV and RBC significantly increased (p<0.05) and decreased (p>0.05) in the methanol and n-hexane extract-treated groups respectively, while the WBC significantly increased in the extract (n-hexane)-treated groups. Only 600 mg kg-1 bodyweight of the extract (n-hexane)-treated group showed a decrease in liver and kidney weights with an increase in the weight of the heart. Electrolytes were significantly reduced in 600 mg kg-1 bodyweight of the extract (n-hexane)-treated group while urea, creatinine, direct, and total bilirubin increased in the extract (n-hexane)-treated groups. L. hastata extracts at 600 mg kg-1 bodyweight may be toxic.
    Keywords: Toxicity, Extract, Phytochemical
  • Elham Safarpoor, Esmaeil Mahmoudi, Alireza Jalali Zand * Pages 577-585
    Effect of refrigeration and different harvesting times were investigated to remove residue of pyridaben from strawberry.  Transplants of Strawberry were grown in greenhouse and fruit samples were taken at 1, 4, 24, 48 and 72 hours and 7, 14 and 21 days after spraying of pyridaben (Sanmite® 20% WP) at the recommended and twice the recommended doses (0.4 and 0.8lit ha-1 respectively). For cooling treatment, fruit samples were refrigerated for 48 hours at 4°C. The study was done as factorial experiment in a completely randomized design (pyridaben doses and harvesting times after spraying) with three replications. Gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD) method was used to determine pyridaben residues in strawberry fruits. The recovery rate of acaricide was 98-105% in this method and detection limit of machine was 50µg kg-1. The results revealed that the maximum residual concentrations of pyridaben acaricide in strawberry fruits were observed with an average of 0.42 mg kg-1 for the recommended dose and 0.71mg kg-1 for twice the recommended dose at 4 and 24 h after application, respectively, which in twice the recommended dose was higher than the MRL (5mg kg-1). Storing fruits in refrigerator for 48 hours had little effect on reducing pyridaben residues in them, and at twice the recommended dose, the concentration of pesticide in fruits was higher than that of Codex standard level.
    Keywords: Sanmite, Pesticide, Maximum residue level, Electron capture detector
  • Kuanysh Syman *, Rauza Turpanova, Raissa Utegaliyeva, Nazym Bekenova, Demeuova Lyazat Pages 587-598
    The research on how phytohormones and light affect the morphogenetic responses of potatoes in culture conditions is presented in this article. Researchers looked at how growth promoters affect the regulation of potato morphogenesis in in vitro cultures of different potato varieties. They also looked at how light quality affects this regulation. Research has been conducted on Kazakh selection potatoes, which are commonly grown in Northern and Central Kazakhstan. In the course of the research, various variants of phytohormones and light quality were used for the growing and developing of micro-gears in vitro. The light quality has a different action on the potatoes' speed of growth. For example, rhizogenesis for the Tamyr variety has increased because of red light use. For the Aksor, Orbitaa, and Nerli varieties the best results were got in case the white light has been used. The concentration of the phytohormones has an influence on the potatoes growing. So, the most effective leafiness of shoots of all considered potato varieties has been gotten by auxin use in the concentration of 0.1 and 0.5 μM.
    Keywords: Light spectrum, Morphogenesis, phytohormones, Potato, rhizogenesis
  • Masoumeh Gholaman, Maryam Khodabakhsh Nokola, Zahra Ghorbani Ganjeh, Shokoufeh Sokhanvardastjerdi, Mandana Gholami *, Maryam Kasiri Pages 599-607
    Quercetin could modulate the oxidative stress and inflammation, but its effects on exercise related oxidative stress and inflammation has attracted little attention. The present study conducted aimed to identify the effect of quercetin supplementation on oxidative stress and inflammatory mediator’s response following the acute swimming session. In semi-experimental study, the 20 trained swimmer girls (15.1±0.21 yrs old and BMI, 21.05±2.3 kg m-2) randomly allocated in two equal groups including quercetin (n= 10) and placebo (n= 10) groups. Subjects in quercetin group received 1000 mg quercetin daily for two weeks. Subsequently, participants completed the high intensity (>85% MHR) exhausting swimming session. In order to measurement the inflammatory (IL-6, CRP) and oxidative stress related markers, blood samples collected at the baseline, pre (after two-week quercetin supplementation) and immediately after completing the swimming session. Repeated-measures ANOVA test used for data analysis and significant levels considered at p<0.05. IL-6 significantly increased immediately after exercise in both groups (p<0.001), but IL-6 response to exercise in quercetin group was significantly less than placebo group (p<0.05). However, CRP don’t show significant changes (p>0.05). TAC doesn’t change, but significant increase in MDA, SOD, GPx and Catalase were observed in placebo and quercetin group immediately after swimming session (p<0.05) and MDA response to exercise session in quercetin group was significantly lower compared to placebo group (p<0.05). Quercetin modulated the IL-6 and MDA response after exhausting exercise and Quercetin can be considered as supplement for combating exercise induced inflammation and oxidative stress.
    Keywords: Quercetin, Oxidative stress, Inflammation