فهرست مطالب

Research on Crop Ecophysiology - Volume:18 Issue: 1, Winter 2023

Journal of Research on Crop Ecophysiology
Volume:18 Issue: 1, Winter 2023

  • تاریخ انتشار: 1402/11/24
  • تعداد عناوین: 6
|
  • ELMIRA ZIYA MOTALEBIPOUR, AKBAR PIRESTANI PIRESTANI Pages 1-7

    Wide variety of medicinal plants showed the high amount of secondary metabolites. Flavonoids are a class of important secondary metabolites with medicinal benefits. One of the well-known traditional medicinal herb is Salvia genus with a broad diversity of flavonoids. Flavonol synthase (FLS) is one of the flavonoid biosynthesis-related gene were identified in some medicinal plant of Lamiacea family. However, flavonol synthase (FLS) have not been phylogeny and evolutionary divergence analyzed in different Saliva species. In this study, Arabidopsis thaliana FLS gene (NCBI accession NM_120951) was select and used as a query sequence for performing a BLASTN search. Six sequences query which was found by NCBI platform was selected for further analysis. Phylogenetic trees of full length sequences of different FLS gene of Salvia genus were constructed by the Maximum Likelihood method using MEGA software. This study may be the reference value for the genetic relationship among different FLS gene in Salvia genus species. This variation provides us the possibility the design the primer to achieve us to find the exact FLS gene and also showed the evolutionary divergence between salvia species.

    Keywords: Medicinal Plant, Salvia genus, phylogeny, Evolutionary Divergence
  • NASRIN SAFIAN, MOHAMMADREZA NADERIDARBAGHSHAHI *, HAMID REZA SALEMI, MASSOUD TORABI, ALI SOLEIMANI Pages 9-23

    Drought stress is the most important abiotic factor which limits the growth and production of plants in arid and semi-arid regions. In order to investigate the effects of irrigation regimes (100, 80 and 60% of the plant's water requirement based on the Penman-Monteith method) on grain yield of sorghum (Payam and Kimia) and corn (704 and Maxima) cultivars under the hot and dry climate of Isfahan, a split plots experiment was carried out in the years 2018-2019 in randomized complete blocks design with three replications. Results showed that the highest index of chlorophyll and grain fat was obtained from cultivar 704 and in 100% of irrigation. Cultivar 704 produced the highest grain lignin under 60% and 80% irrigation regimes. Kimia cultivar produced more lignin compared to Payam cultivar. Payam cultivar produced the most yield and the highest plants under irrigation regimes of 100 and 80. Compared to Payam cultivar, Kimia showed more 1000 grains weight under different irrigation regimes. The harvest indices of Kimia and Payam cultivars showed significant decreases by increasing the drought. Different cultivars have different mechanisms to tolerate drought stress. As a drought tolerant plant, Sorghum was less damaged by stress than corn. Biochemical traits of plants can be used as stress resistance indicators in breeding programs and the selection of resistant cultivars.

    Keywords: Grain fat, harvest index, Drought stress, Grain yield, Grain lignin
  • AHMAD REZA GOLPARVAR *, AMIN HADIPANAH Pages 25-51

    The genus Thymus from the Lamiaceae family has more than 300 species distributed worldwide, including in Europe and Asia. 18 Thymus species have been identified in Iran's flora, of which 4 are endemic to Iran. Thymus species are known as medicinal plants due to their biological and medicinal properties. Thyme has many biological activities, including antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, Thymus species interest many pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic industries. Throughout the evolution of plants, essential oils have played a crucial part in the direct and indirect defenses of plants against possible predators and pathogens, as well as in the processes of plant reproduction by attracting pollinators and disseminators to the seeds The present study was conducted to investigate the chemical composition of essential oils of Thymus species in Iran. The information and findings in this review were obtained from scientific databases and search engines, including Web of Knowledge, PubMed, ScienceDirect, Medline, Reaxys and Google Scholar. In this research, we investigated different species of Thymus collected wild and cultivated in different parts of Iran. The results showed that the main composition of thyme included thymol, carvacrol, geraniol, γ-terpinene and linalool. The conclusion of this review shows that plant compounds are a promising source of bioactive compounds that can be explored for development against diseases and complications associated with its chemical drugs.

    Keywords: Thymus species, chemical composition, Essential oils, Thymol, Carvacrol, Antimicrobial Activity
  • AHMED ALI HANI AL-HAIDERI, HOSSEIN ALI ASADI-GHARNEH *, YASAMEEN FADHIL SALLOOM Pages 52-66

    Soil fertility management plays a crucial role in agricultural production. Vermicompost and moringa extract are organic compounds that can enhance soil conditions and improve the productivity and efficiency of crops. This study aimed to examine the impact of vermicomposting and foliar application of moringa extract on the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of red and white cabbage under field conditions. Before transplanting, vermicompost was added to the soil at rates of 0, 0.5, and 1 kg/m2. Moringa extract was sprayed on the plants every 14 days at concentrations of 0, 10, and 20 g/l. The growth characteristics and bioactive compound content of cabbage were evaluated at the commercial maturity stage. The results showed that applying 1 kg/m2 of vermicompost resulted in an 8% increase in head diameter, a 28% increase in cabbage weight, and a 39% increase in crop yield. Additionally, using 20 g/l of moringa extract led to a 2% increase in head diameter and a 12% increase in weight and yield of cabbage. The use of vermicompost and moringa extract also increased the flavonoid content in red cabbage. The highest levels of bioactive compounds were achieved with the application of 1 kg/m2 of vermicompost and 20 g/l of moringa extract. These treatments are recommended as effective strategies for promoting cabbage growth and enhancing bioactive compound content, particularly in hot and dry conditions.

    Keywords: Flavonoids, phenolic compound, Soluble carbohydrates, vitamin C, Yield
  • MOHAMMAD HASHEM AZIZI, ALI SOLEYMANI, Ali Soleymani, HAMID REZA JAVANMARD Pages 68-80
    Plant Growth Regulators Improve Yield and Yield Components of Wheat under Deficit Irrigation Treatments With Considering the Productive Capacity Mohammad Hashem Azizi 1 , Ali Soleymani 1,2* , and Hamid Reza Javanmard 11- Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad University,Isfahan, Iran 2- Plant Improvement and Seed Production Research Center, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch,Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran  *Corresponding email address: [email protected]   Received:  15 November October 2022                                Accepted: 28  January  2023   Abstract Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the major crop plants, which is an important source of various compounds such as carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nutrients. Several methods have been used so far to improve wheat growth, seed yield and yield competition under drought stress, and one of the most important one is application of different plant growth regulators (PGRs). In order to determine the effects of different PGRs on the grain yield and yield components of wheat under water shortage treatments, an experiment was designed as a split plot on the basis of a complete randomized block design with three replications in two different experimental locations, namely Abarkuh and Faragheh in 2018-2019. Main plots were the evaporation from the pan class A, namely control treatment (80 mm), 100 mm, and 120 mm evaporation from pan class A, and subplots were control treat (water), foliar application of PGRs of gibberellic acid (GA3 at 100 mgL-1), salicylic acid (SA at 1.5 mM), benzyl adenine (BA at 60 mgL-1), GA3+SA, as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD at 5 gL-1). In this experiment the effects of irrigation treatments and foliar application of PGRs were significant on all experimental characteristics, such as plant height, spike length, the number of tillers per plant, and peduncle length. The highest values of plant height (68.06 cm), spike length (8.81 cm), the number of tillers per plant (3.37), and peduncle length (9.55 cm) was related to 80 mm evaporation from pan class A, and combined application of gibberellic acid and salicylic acid also had obtained the maximum plant height (69.47 cm), spike length (9.23 cm), the number of tillers per plant (3.93), and peduncle length (10.40 cm). The maximum value of plant height (71.27 cm), spike length (10.53 cm), the number of tillers per plant (5.47), and peduncle length (11.69 cm) was related to interaction between 80 mm evaporation from pan class A, and combined application of gibberellic acid and salicylic acid. Other experimental characteristics such as leaf area index (LAI), the number of grains per spike, one thousand grain weight, grain yield, biological yield and harvest index (HI) were significantly affected by irrigation treatments and different PGRs. The highest values of LAI at anthesis stage (187.71), the number of grains per spike (28.53), one thousand grain weight (32.35 g), grain yield (555.18 ton/ha), biological yield (1178.92 ton/ha), and harvest index (47.11 %) were obtained for interaction between 80 mm evaporation from pan class A and combined application of gibberellic acid and salicylic acid. According to the findings, the combined application of gibberellic acid and salicylic acid was the most effective treatments followed by usage of superoxide and benzyl adenine which reveal the importance of application of plant hormones for wheat growth under drought conditions. To sum up, it is important to use tested PGRs to increase wheat yield and yield components particularly under drought stress condition.
    Keywords: Benzyl adenine, Gibberellic acid, grain protein, Irrigation, Salicylic acid, superoxide dismutase, Wheat.
  • ABOUZAR ASADI Pages 81-88
    In Vitro Callogenesis and Regeneration of Cucumber Plants from Hypocotyl and Cotyledon
     
    Abouzar Asadi1*
    1- Assistant Professor, Plant Improvement and Seed Production Center and Department of Plant Genetic and Production Engineering, Azad University, Isfahan, Iran.
     
    *Corresponding email address: [email protected]
     
    Received: 5 November October 2022                                Accepted: 18 January  2023
     
     
    Abstract
    In vitro culturing of cotyledon and hypocotyl can serve various purposes such as gene transfer and asexual reproduction. This study aimed to regenerate plants from cotyledon and hypocotyl explants of cucumber cultivars, the Iranian landrace Isfahan and Beta Alpha F1 hybrid. The experiment was carried out in the tissue culture laboratory of Azad University of Isfahan in 2023. It employed a factorial completely randomized design with two genotypes and 10 media in the three replicate dishes. The media consisted of MS supplemented with BAP (1, 2, 3, and 4 mg/l) combined with NAA (0.05, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.5 mg/l). The results showed that callus was successfully induced in both cotyledon and hypocotyl explants in both genotypes. The highest percentages of regeneration from cotyledons were observed in 3 mg/l BAP and 0.5 mg/l NAA and 4 mg/l BAP and 0.1 mg/l NAA, with 65% and 60%, respectively, for the Isfahan genotype and in 1 mg/l BAP and 0.2 mg/l NAA and 1 mg/l BAP and 0.5 mg/l NAA, both exhibiting a 60% regeneration rate for Beta Alpha.  Furthermore, when Isfahani and Beta-alpha’s hypocotyl explants were cultured in MS supplemented with 2 mg/l BAP and 0.1 mg/l NAA, and 1 mg/L BAP and 0.2 mg/L NAA had 30% and 55% rate of regeneration, respectively. The present findings indicate that induced callus or shoot regeneration depended on genotype and explants. Each genotype requires specific callogenesis and regenerated media to achieve desirable results. Overall, the results suggest that cotyledons in the Isfahan genotype and hypocotyls in the Beta-alpha variety exhibited better regeneration when tested with these plant growth regulators.
    Keywords: Cucumis sativus, tissue culture, plant growth regulators, BAP, NAA