فهرست مطالب

نشریه معماری و شهرسازی ایران
پیاپی 25 (بهار و تابستان 1402)

  • تاریخ انتشار: 1402/05/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 24
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  • شبیه سازی و ارزیابی تاثیر سایه بان غشایی بر آسایش حرارتی فضای بیرونی در شهر سمنان
    سپیده جعفریان، الهام سرکرده ئی*، دانیال منصفی پراپری، محمدرضا مجاهدی صفحات 5-19
    نیاز انسان به حضور در فضاهای باز و نقش تاثیرگذار اقلیم در فعالیت ها و رفتارهای شهری، توجه به آسایش حرارتی بیرونی را ضروری می سازد. در فضاهای باز شهری بویژه در اقلیم های گرم، کاربران بارهای حرارتی زیادی را تجربه می کنند، که باعث عدم آسایش حرارتی می شود. با کنترل تابش و سایه اندازی می توان آسایش حرارتی در فضای باز را بهبود بخشید. مسیله، ایجاد سایه و محافظت فضاهای باز از تنش های ناشی از افزایش بیش از حد دمای سطح زمین و محیط است. اهمیت سایه و کاهش تابش در دستیابی به آسایش حرارتی در فضاهای باز شهری جهت افزایش حضور انسان، ایجاد خرد اقلیم و افزایش شرایط آسایش است. با شناخت عوامل ایجاد سایه مانند سایه بان ها می توان فضای باز مطلوبی ایجاد کرد. بدین منظور سازه های پارچه ای جدید برای مناطق با آب و هوای گرم بواسطه ایجاد سایه بان و تهویه طبیعی بسیار مناسبند. پژوهش حاضر با مطالعات کتابخانه ای و شبیه سازی در نرم افزارهای انویمت و انسیس تاثیر سایه بان غشایی سبک بر ایجاد آسایش حرارتی بیرونی در شهر سمنان با اقلیم گرم و خشک را بررسی می کند. طبق یافته ها وجود سایه بان غشایی در تابستان، تا 4.7 درجه سلسیوس اختلاف درجه حرارت ایجاد می کند و شرایط آسایش حرارتی را بهبود می دهد. سایه بان غشایی سبب خنکی فضای زیرین خود شده و از گرمای بیش از حد زمین جلوگیری می کند. نتایج پژوهش نشان می دهد که سایه بان غشایی در اقلیم گرم و خشک سبب ایجاد اختلاف درجه حرارت می شود. از میان چهار مدل سایه بان غشایی ساده، مخروطی، چتری و زین اسبی، سایه بان زین اسبی با 43.15% تاثیرگذاری در محیط دارای عملکرد مناسبی بوده و فضای خنک تری زیر سایه بان ایجاد می کند و مدل مناسب سایه بان غشایی است.
    کلیدواژگان: سازه غشایی، آسایش حرارتی بیرونی، شبیه سازی، نرم افزار انسیس
  • تاثیر بسترهای فرهنگی، اجتماعی و جغرافیایی بر شکل گیری نخستین مکان های دینی اسلام و یهود
    سیده مهسا باقری، سید بهشید حسینی*، محمود ارژمند صفحات 21-39
    ادیان اسلام و یهود در سرزمین های ظهور کردند که دارای بسترهای فرهنگی، اجتماعی و جغرافیایی بوده است. این ادیان برای همراه کردن پیروان و سهولت پذیرش مردم، هر آنچه از این بسترها برآمده بود را به کل مردود ندانستند، بلکه با برخی از آن ها که منافاتی با دین جدید نداشت همراه شدند و حتی به مرور از آن ها تاثیراتی پذیرفتند. مکان های دینی ادیان نیز به تدریج تحت تاثیر بسترهای نامبرده شکل گرفتند. هدف پژوهش حاضر، مطالعه تطبیقی تاثیر بسترهای فرهنگی، اجتماعی و جغرافیایی سرزمین پیدایش ادیان اسلام و یهود، بر شکل گیری نخستین مکان های دینی آنان بوده است. پرسش این است که بسترهای فرهنگی، اجتماعی و جغرافیایی موجود در سرزمین پیدایش ادیان اسلام و یهود چه تاثیری بر شکل گیری نخستین مکان های دینی آن سرزمین داشته است؟ پژوهش از لحاظ راهبرد کیفی و از نظر ماهیت و روش تفسیری-تحلیلی است که با مطالعه و تحلیلی تطبیقی، تاثیر این بسترها را بر شکل گیری نخستین مکان های دینی ادیان اسلام و یهود جستجو کرده است. نمونه مورد مطالعه، نخستین مکان های دینی در دین اسلام یعنی کعبه، مسجد مدینه و نخستین مساجد اسلامی و در دین یهود یعنی خیمه عهد، معبد اورشلیم و کنیسه های نخستین بوده است. پژوهش بسترهای فرهنگی، اجتماعی و جغرافیایی را به عنوان سطوح تبیین و تطبیق این مطالعه تطبیقی برگزیده است و نخست این بسترها را در سرزمین های پیدایش ادیان اسلام و یهود جستجو کرده و سپس به بررسی تاثیر آن ها بر شکل گیری نخستین مکان های دینی در دو دین نامبرده پرداخته است. نتایج پژوهش ضمن تاکید بر اشتراک تاثیرپذیری نخستین مکان های دینی ادیان اسلام و یهود از بسترهای نامبرده موجود در سرزمین پیدایش آنان و تحلیل چگونگی این تاثیر، تحلیلی تطبیقی از تاثیر این بسترها بر شکل گیری نخستین مکان های دینی در ادیان منتخب ارایه داده است.
    کلیدواژگان: دین اسلام، دین یهود، مکان های دینی، بستر فرهنگی، بستر اجتماعی، بستر جغرافیایی
  • سنجش و تحلیل میزان استفاده از ظرفیت های رسانه و تاثیر آن بر برندسازی شهری؛ مطالعه موردی: شهر خلاق خوراک رشت
    علی اکبر سالاری پور*، میترا روشن، عالیه فریدی فشتمی، حمیدرضا یوسفی ماتک صفحات 41-58

    برندسازی شهری از عوامل مهم در دستیابی شهرها به توسعه اقتصادی است که یکی از راه های موثر جهت نیل به این هدف، استفاده از ظرفیت رسانه و وسایل ارتباط جمعی می باشد. پژوهش حاضر با هدف بررسی میزان تحقق برندینگ شهر خلاق خوراک شناسی رشت صورت پذیرفته است. این پژوهش از نوع توصیفی - تحلیلی می باشد. با مطالعات مبانی نظری و پیشینه تحقیق، چهار معیار برندسازی شهری، رسانه های جمعی، رسانه های اجتماعی و کیفیت اطلاعات رسانه ای استخراج شده و پرسش نامه ای بر مبنای آن ها با سوالات طیف لیکرت طراحی شد. تعداد 395 پرسش نامه به صورت آنلاین در میان شهروندان و گردشگران شهر رشت جهت جمع آوری اطلاعات تکمیل شده است. داده های به دست آمده وارد نرم افزار SPSS شد و برای تحلیل داده ها از میانگین و آزمون فریدمن استفاده شد. نتایج رتبه بندی آزمون فریدمن نشان داد به ترتیب معیارهای برندسازی شهری، کیفیت اطلاعات رسانه ای، رسانه های اجتماعی و رسانه های جمعی دارای بیشترین اهمیت هستند. سپس با استفاده از نرم افزار Smart PLS3 به مدل سازی و تحلیل پژوهش پرداخته شده است. ضریب مسیر معیار های رسانه های اجتماعی، کیفیت اطلاعات رسانه ای و رسانه های جمعی به ترتیب با مقادیر 361/0، 279/0 و 124/0 در ارتباط با برندسازی به دست آمدند. نتایج پژوهش نشان داد رسانه های اجتماعی به خصوص تبلیغات به واسطه افراد مشهور و تاثیرگذار در فضای مجازی نقش بسیار پررنگی را در شناساندن برند ایفا می کند و با سرمایه گذاری ها و توسعه زیرساخت های اینترنت می توان به ارتقای برند شهر کمک نمود که نیازمند تعاملات بیشتری با افراد داخل و خارج کشور است. در آخر نیز، تاثیر رسانه های جمعی بر برندسازی از نظر پاسخ دهندگان بسیارکم  بدست آمد که به دلیل عدم فعالیت های موثر در این حوزه و اعتماد کمتر مردم به رسانه های رادیویی و تلویزیون است، با این حال نمی توان تاثیر آن را به طور کامل نادیده گرفت و لزوم فعالیت در هر دو حوزه از رسانه را می طلبد.

    کلیدواژگان: برندسازی شهری، رسانه اجتماعی، رسانه گروهی، تبلیغات
  • بررسی الگوواره های قضاوت ذهنی معماران در تامین حرکت پیاده ساکنین مجموعه های مسکونی؛ نمونه موردی: منطقه 22 تهران
    سیده اشرف سادات، محمدصادق طاهرطلوع دل* صفحات 59-72

    پژوهش حاضر با هدف شناسایی و دسته بندی دیدگاه های متخصصین به منظور تامین حرکت پیاده در مجموعه های مسکونی در منطقه 22 تهران انجام گرفته است. از آنجایی که پژوهشی در رابطه با بررسی تجربی دیدگاه های متخصصین به منظور حرکت پیاده ساکنین در مجموعه های مسکونی در منطقه 22 تهران صورت نگرفته است، تحقیق از نوع اکتشافی و جدید است. بر حسب هدف بنیادی، به لحاظ ماهیت پژوهش اکتشافی و از حیث گردآوری داده ها، توصیفی- پیمایشی است. از روش تحقیق دلفی برای شناسایی دیدگاه های متخصصین و از روش تحلیل عامل کیو برای طبقه بندی دیدگاه های متخصصین استفاده شده است. در پیمایش دلفی، متخصصین به شیوه هدفمند و غیر احتمالی انتخاب گردید که حجم نمونه از طریق اشباع نظری در دستیابی به عوامل به دست آمده است. پرسشنامه ای براساس مقیاس لیکرت طرح شده در میان 20 نفر از متخصصین مربوطه توزیع گردید. داده های بدست آمده از پرسشنامه تحلیل عامل به روش کیو  صورت گرفته است. براساس نتایج به دست آمده، تا میزان 70.77% از عوامل موثر در حرکت پیاده ساکنین در مجموعه های مسکونی در منطقه 22 تهران براساس مصاحبه با متخصصین با قطعیت شناسایی شده است. نتایج پژوهش بیانگر آن است که متخصصین بر اساس دیدگاه‏های فکری‏شان به هفت گروه یا عامل تقسیم می‏شوند که شش عامل آن دارای متغیرها و مفاهیم مشترک بوده است. این شش عامل بر اساس متغیرهای تشکیل دهنده‏شان، نام‏گذاری شده‏اند. که شامل پاسخدهی، قلمروگرایی، پویایی، نشاط، نفوذپذیری و خوانش پذیری در تبیین قضاوت متخصصین به منظور تشخیص وجود حرکت پیاده در فضاهای مسکونی مشاهده شده اند. براساس میزان بزرگی واریانس به ترتیب عامل های موثر عبارتند از: پاسخدهی 56/15%، قلمروگرایی 15.07%، پویایی 13.61%، نشاط بخشی 9.59%، خوانش پذیری 9.45% و نفوذپذیری 7.52% می باشد. براساس این نتیجه گیری، در حرکت پیاده ساکنین مجموعه های مسکونی توجه جدی به این شش عامل موثر خواهد بود.

    کلیدواژگان: تامین حرکت، مجموعه مسکونی، الگوواره ذهنی، تحلیل عامل تخصصی
  • ارزیابی پیامد طرح های جامع شهری بر وضعیت پایداری مناطق با استفاده از روش ردپای اکولوژیک؛ نمونه موردی: شهرستان بروجرد
    سپیده پیمانفر* صفحات 73-86

    افزایش جمعیت و توسعه شهرنشینی، آثار زیست محیطی مخربی به دنبال داشته است. با بروز و تشدید این آثار، رهیافت توسعه پایدار در دستورکار دولت ها و برنامه ریزان قرار گرفت. سابقه برنامه های توسعه فضایی تهیه شده در ایران نشانگر نادیده گرفتن ملاحظات پایداری در اکثر برنامه هاست. هدف پژوهش حاضر، ارزیابی اثرات زیست محیطی «بازنگری طرح جامع شهرستان بروجرد» از طریق بررسی وضعیت پایداری شهر در سال افق (1410) نسبت به سال پایه (1394)، برحسب ردپای اکولوژیک و ظرفیت زیستی آن است. از این رو با پیمایش میدانی به روش پرسشنامه ای به تشخیص میزان ردپای اکولوژیک اقدام شد. سپس براساس مساحت هریک از انواع شش گانه زمین ، ظرفیت زیستی شهرستان در سال افق و پایه طرح محاسبه شد. نتایج نشانگر آن است که بیشترین درصد ردپا هم در سال مبدا و هم در سال افق به ترتیب مربوط به کربن، زمین کشتزاری، زمین جنگلی، زمین ساخته شده، زمین آبی و زمین مرتع می باشد. شهرستان بروجرد در سال 1394 با کسری اکولوژیک در حدود 44/3- هکتار به ازای هر نفر روبه رو بوده است و در صورت اجرای طرح مذکور، وضعیت پایداری با اندکی تغییر تنزل خواهد یافت و کسری اکولوژیک به میزان 67/3- هکتار به ازای هر نفر خواهد رسید. در انتها به ارایه راهکارهایی جهت جبران کسری اکولوژیک و دستیابی به وضعیت پایداری در شهرستان بروجرد پرداخته می شود.

    کلیدواژگان: پایداری، ردپای اکولوژیک، طرح جامع بروجرد، ظرفیت زیستی، کسری اکولوژیک
  • تبیین «ماهیت دانش طراحی» از منظر یادگیری سازنده گرا
    رویا صادقی فرشته، امید دژدار*، سارا جلالیان، حسین اردلانی صفحات 87-102
    طراحی، یکی از پیچیده ترین و درعین حال مهمترین فعالیت خلاقه انسان است که نیازمند توانایی و دانش خاص خود است. در حدود چند دهه از شروع طراحی پژوهی می گذرد، که در این بین پژوهش های اولیه، بیشتر درپی ارایه روش های کاربردی طراحی بوده اند و مطالعات اخیر، بیشتر به پیچیدگی های کار، توصیف فضای مساله و فرآیند طراحی بوده است. بنابراین، نیاز به مطالعه ی شناخت ماهیت دانش طراحی وساختن دانش در یادگیری سازنده گرا، احساس می شود. در این مقاله سعی شد با رویکردی کیفی و به روش نظریه زمینه ای به بررسی ماهیت دانش طراحی از منظر سازنده گرایی پرداخت. این سوال مطرح می شود که، ماهیت دانش طراحی از منظر یادگیری سازنده گرا چگونه است؟ راه های کسب دانش طراحی در یادگیری سازنده گرا چگونه است؟ به نظر می رسد، دانشی که طراحان استفاده می کنند، قابل انطباق به رویکرد تولید دانش از منظر سازنده گرا است، پس سعی می شود، از منظر یادگیری سازنده گرا به بررسی ماهیت دانش طراحی بپردازد. اطلاعات به دست آمده از مستندات برجسته و مصاحبه با اساتید معماری در نرم افزار مکس کیودا وارد شد، ضمن کدگذاری اولیه ، محوری و گزینشی، به استخراج مولفه هایی انجامیده و معطوف به ارایه این شد که، مجموعه عوامل شناختی، عاطفی طراح که نگرش او به موقعیت طراحی و دانش طراحی اش موثرند، همراه طراح به موقعیت طراحی راه می یابند، که می توان از آن به «دانش مختص هر طراح» معرفی شود و محیط یادگیری سازنده گرا مناسب ترین رویکردی است که می توان برای آموزش طراحی اتخاذ نمود.
    کلیدواژگان: دانش طراحی، فرآیندطراحی، تولید دانش، یادگیری سازنده گرا
  • ارزیابی رابطه گونه های همسایگی در مجموعه های مسکونی با شیوه تعاملات اجتماعی؛ مطالعه موردی: آپارتمان سیب و شهرک ساحلی، شهرستان نور
    سید محسن موسوی، روح اله رحیمی*، سوگند وثوقی صفحات 103-116

    پس از انقلاب صنعتی، تغییرات بسیاری در نظام مسکن به وجود آمده است. محله های مسکونی تا حد زیادی منسوخ شده و جای خود را با مجموعه های مسکونی عوض کردند. آنچه که در به وجود آمدن مجموعه های مسکونی و همچنین در فرآیند طراحی آن ها در نظر گرفته می شود غالبا مسایل کلانی مانند شرایط اقتصادی، ارزش اراضی و...، هستند. بدین ترتیب این گونه نیروهای خارجی بر سیاست های کلان مسکن و در نهایت بر کیفیت زندگی انسان تاثیر می گذارند. از آن جا که خانه یکی از مهم ترین و اصلی ترین مکان های حضور انسان است، بیشترین وظیفه را نیز در تامین نیازهای حداقلی فردی و اجتماعی انسان برعهده دارد. پژوهش حاضر قصد دارد که بر اساس نظریه یان گل، به بررسی تفاوت های موجود در میزان و شیوه تعاملات اجتماعی در دو گونه مجموعه مسکونی، یعنی آپارتمان میان مرتبه و شهرک ویلایی بپردازد. نتایج حاصل از این پژوهش می تواند طراحان و برنامه ریزان را در جهت رفع نقایص موجود و کاربران را در جهت انتخاب مسکن متناسب با نیاز های اجتماعی خود سوق دهد. برای انجام پژوهش، اطلاعات موردنیاز از دو طریق کتابخانه ای و میدانی جمع آوری شده است. بدین منظور مصاحبه ای با 14 نفر از ساکنین دو مجموعه صورت گرفت و با روش تحلیل محتوا، تحلیل شده است. نتایج حاکی از آن است که اساسی ترین تفاوت موجود در دو گونه مجموعه مسکونی مذکور، ناشی از فعالیت های ضروری است و نرخ وقوع آن در آپارتمان های میان مرتبه بیشتر از شهرک های ویلایی است. این در حالی است که مجموعه های ویلایی با در اختیار داشتن فضای میانی فراخ تر و محدودیت های کمتر در طراحی آن، می توانند قابلیت محیطی مناسبی جهت افزایش تعاملات اجتماعی ایجاد کنند.

    کلیدواژگان: مجموعه مسکونی، تعاملات اجتماعی، همسایگی، شهرک ویلایی، آپارتمان میان مرتبه
  • سنجش آسایش حرارتی درونی فصل گرم تحت تاثیر گشودگی ها با کمک روش PMV در خانه های سنتی و آپارتمانی شهر شیراز
    زهرا برزگر*، خاطره سجادی صفحات 117-131
    آسایش حرارتی، شرایط ذهنی است که رضایت مندی از محیط حرارتی را بیان می کند. مناسب بودن داخل ساختمان از لحاظ حرارتی، نه تنها آسایش را برای ساکنان فراهم می آورد، بلکه باعث صرفه جویی در مصرف انرژی، سلامت، بالا رفتن میزان بهره وری و بهبود روحیه ساکنان خواهد شد. با توجه به آن که گشودگی یا بازشو به عنوان یکی از شاخص های کنترل شرایط آسایش و جریان هوا در فضای داخلی نقش موثری خواهد داشت، بررسی قابلیت ها و مقایسه آسایش حرارتی درونی ساختمان های مسکونی تحت تاثیر گشودگی های ساختمانی مورد توجه موضوع پژوهش قرار گرفته است. در پژوهش حاضر نحوه تغییرات آسایش حرارتی درونی خانه های سنتی و مدرن شهری تحت تاثیر گشودگی های ساختمانی در فصل گرم بررسی شده، سپس میزان نارضایتی1 PPD در دو حالت گشودگی باز و بسته در خانه های مدرن و سنتی مقایسه شده و در نهایت موثرترین عامل در کاهش میزان نارضایتی PPD برآورد شده است. جهت بررسی عملکرد بازشوها در اقلیم نیمه گرم و خشک شیراز میزان دما، رطوبت و باد با دستگاه دیتالاگر برداشت شد و با کمک سنجش میزان نارضایتی PPD، شاخص متوسط محدوده آسایش حرارتی2 PMV استخراج شد. دو نمونه موردی خانه سنتی صالحی و آپارتمان مدرن نور و تاثیر بازشو در دو حالت باز و بسته مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. نتایج حاکی از آن است که میزان نارضایتی از آسایش حرارتی درونی در فصل گرم در خانه سنتی، حالت گشودگی باز 18% و حالت گشودگی بسته 59% و در آپارتمان با بازشوی باز61% و حالت بازشوی بسته 91% است. گشودگی مورد مطالعه در خانه سنتی پنج دری بوده، بنابراین در ایجاد آسایش حرارتی فضای داخلی نقش موثرتری داشت. به طور کلی می توان چنین برداشت نمود که گشودگی و بازشو نقش موثری در سرمایش و تهویه هوای داخلی خواهد داشت. امری که امروزه در طراحی پایدار بسیار مورد توجه است و در اصول معماری ایرانی با عنوان مردم واری در فضاهای ساختمان نمایان می شود.
    کلیدواژگان: آسایش حرارتی، گشودگی، PMV، خانه سنتی، گرم و خشک
  • سنجش دیدگاه شرکت های مهندسان مشاور درباره مهارت های سخت و نرم در استخدام تازه دانش آموختگان معماری
    پرستو عشرتی*، آناهیتا جم صفحات 133-150
    هدف مقاله حاضر تعیین مهارت های نرم و سخت و میزان اهمیت آن ها برای استخدام تازه دانش آموختگان معماری در شرکت های مهندسان مشاور است. برای دستیابی به این هدف سه پرسش طرح گردید: پرسش نخست در پی یافتن نسبت اهمیت مهارت سخت به نرم، پرسش دوم در پی تعیین مهم ترین و کم اهمیت ترین مهارت ها و پرسش سوم در پی تعیین رابطه بین سطح شرکت (کوچک، متوسط و بزرگ) و میزان اهمیت این مهارت ها است. بدین منظور در گام نخست، مروری بر مبانی و پیشینه موضوع انجام و گویه های دو دسته مهارت نرم و سخت استخراج گردید. در گام دوم، مبتنی بر این گویه ها پرسشنامه ای تدوین و در اختیار نمونه آماری پژوهش متشکل از مدیران شرکت های مهندسان مشاور قرار گرفت. نتایج تحلیل کمی داده ها با نرم افزار SPSS حاکی از آن است که از دید مدیران این شرکت ها برای استخدام تازه دانش آموختگان معماری اهمیت مهارت سخت 38/44% و مهارت نرم 62/55 % است. از بین مهارت های سخت، در شرکت های کوچک نرم افزار بیشترین و قوانین حقوقی کمترین، در شرکت های متوسط سابقه کاری و طراحی به ترتیب بیشترین و نوع مدرک کمترین و در شرکت های بزرگ نرم افزار بیشترین و نوع مدرک کمترین درجه اهمیت را دارد. از بین مهارت های نرم، در شرکت های کوچک اخلاق حرفه ای بیشترین و پژوهش، مدیریت پروژه و مهارت ارتباطی کمترین، در شرکت های متوسط اخلاق حرفه ای بیشترین و مدیریت پروژه کمترین و در شرکت های بزرگ اخلاق حرفه ای بیشترین و پژوهش کمترین اهمیت را دارا هستند. در کل فارغ از سطح شرکت ها و تقسیم بندی مهارت ها، مهم ترین مهارت اخلاق حرفه ای و کم اهمیت ترین نوع مدرک است. مبتنی بر نتایج آزمون کروسکال والیس بین سطح شرکت و میزان اهمیت مهارت های سخت و نرم ارتباطی وجود ندارد. همچنین تحلیل کیفی مصاحبه با مدیران شرکت ها تغییرات مورد نیاز آموزش دانشگاهی برای افزایش توانمندی دانشجویان برای ورود به بازار کار را آشکار و پیشنهاداتی برای دانشجویان ارایه نمود.
    کلیدواژگان: مهارت نرم، مهارت سخت، آموزش معماری، مهارت های استخدامی، فارغ التحصیلان معماری
  • بررسی فاکتورهای ارزیابی کیفیت فضای کالبدی مجموعه مسکونی با توجه به مفاهیم کلیدی روانشناسی محیط
    الهام بهبود، سعید حقیر*، مریم اختیاری صفحات 151-169
    بررسی کیفیت و شرایط مطلوب فضای زندگی در آپارتمان های مسکونی شهرهای بزرگ، یکی از مسایل مهم به شمار می آید. تشخیص کیفیت مانا و کاربردی توسط کاربران در میان فراوانی، تنوع و در بعضی مواقع ظواهر زیبا برای کاربران بسی دشوار می باشد.کیفیت فضا از طریق شناخت کیفیت زندگی در دو بعد ذهنی و عینی قابل بررسی است. مقاله حاضر با هدف بررسی کیفیت فضای کالبدی مجموعه های مسکونی آپارتمانی، در سه مقیاس فضای داخلی واحدهای مسکونی، فضاهای بینابینی و مشاع مجموعه مسکونی و فضای ارتباطی آن با محله وفضای شهری توسط کارشناسان ،پیش از اسکان، به منظور سهولت انتخاب محل زندگی توسط کاربران، شکل گرفته است. از آنجا که احساس مطلوبیت عینی و ذهنی زندگی و فضا به نوع رابطه انسان ومحیط ارتباط دارد، مقاله حاضر به تعیین فاکتورهای ارزیابی و شاخص های کالبدی آپارتمان های مسکونی در هر سه مقیاس فضایی ازدیدگاه روان شناسی محیط براساس نظرکارشناسان پرداخته است. روش تحقیق، توصیفی - تحلیلی، از نوع کاربردی- توسعه ای است. جامعه آماری این پژوهش، کارشناسان ساختمان شهر شیراز می باشند. تحلیل داده ها، به وسیله نرم افزار SPSS انجام گرفت و نتایج ذیل حاصل شد: شاخص های کالبدی با تاثیر بر مفاهیم کلیدی روانشناسی محیطی شامل استرس، قلمرو، فضای شخصی، ازدحام و خلوت به طور غیرمستقیم برکیفیت فضای کالبدی مجموعه های مسکونی تاثیرگذار می باشند. بیش از90درصد از تغییرات کیفیت فضای کالبدی مجموعه های مسکونی توسط تغییرات در متغیرهای شاخص های کالبدی مجموعه های مسکونی و با تاثیرآن ها بر فاکتورهای روانشناسی محیطی قابل توضیح است. لذا، می توان کیفیت فضای کالبدی مجموعه های مسکونی را متاثر از شاخص های کالبدی موثر بر مولفه های روانی و ذهنی روانشناسی محیطی ذکر نمود. همچنین می توان مولفه های روانشناسی محیط موثر بر هر مقیاس را براساس شاخص های موثر برآن ها، اولویت بندی نمود وکیفیت کالبدی یک مجموعه مسکونی آپارتمانی را در سه مقیاس بر اساس شاخص های اولویت بندی شده توسط کارشناسان ارزیابی نمود.
    کلیدواژگان: کیفیت فضا، مجموعه های مسکونی آپارتمانی، فضای کالبدی، شاخص های کالبدی
  • تدوین مولفه های محیطی پاسخده به درمان شناختی- رفتاری اختلالات اضطرابی کودکان برمبنای اصول پایه بازی درمانی اکسلاین
    مهسا دلشاد سیاهکلی*، مرضیه مقیمی صفحات 171-186
    کودکان به دلیل پایین بودن سطح تفکر انتزاعی، قادر به بیان هیجانات و احساسات خود نیستند، سرکوب و عدم مهارت در بیان احساسات، بهداشت روانی کودک را به مخاطره می اندازد. لذا اجرای سیاست گذاری های بهداشتی و روانی دقیق جهت تامین سلامت جسمانی و روانی در دوران کودکی امری ضروری می نماید. بازی ابزاری برای ابراز نیازها، احساسات و افکار در کودکان بوده و ارتباط صحیح کودکان با دنیا از طریق الگو های اجتماعی و بازی های جمعی بدست می آید. طبق مطالعات پیشین در حوزه روانشناسی کودکان، بازی درمانی تکنیکی است برای مقابله با استرس های هیجانی که طراحی محیطی پاسخگو به الزامات این روش از اهمیت بالایی برخوردار است و همچنین در نظریه های مرتبط با شناخت اجتماعی اظهار شده است که در کنار خصوصیات فردی، ویژگی های محیطی در سلامت رفتاری کودکان نقش دارند. از این رو هدف این نوشتار تدوین مولفه های محیطی بازی محوری است که بتواند در راستای درمان شناختی- رفتاری کودکان دارای اختلالات اضطرابی پاسخگو باشد. پژوهش حاضر که با روش تحلیلی- توصیفی انجام گرفته است، به منظور دستیابی به اهداف موردنظر ابتدا به مرور نتایج تحقیقات پیشین درزمینه مذکور و شناسایی عوامل موثر در ارتقاء سلامت روانی کودکان دارای اختلالات اضطرابی بر اساس تکنیک های بازی درمانی، با تکیه بر مطالعات کتابخانه ای و مصاحبه باز با متخصصین روانشناسی در مراکز مشاوره پرداخته و در ادامه بر اساس اصول بازی درمانی اکسلاین ما به ازای صفت های فضایی بازی محور تبیین گردید. جهت تایید ارتباط معنادار اصول و مولفه های فضایی از تحلیل پرسشنامه متخصصین روانشناس به روش تحلیل سلسله مراتبی AHP و برای رتبه بندی میزان تاثیر مولفه های فضایی از تحلیل پرسشنامه متخصصین معمار در نرم افزار SPSS استفاده گردید. طبق نتایج مستخرج، ایجاد حس تعلق به مکان، احساس آزادی در محیط، امنیت ذهنی و ایجاد محیطی ایمن جهت آسایش فیزیکی کودک به ترتیب مهم ترین عوامل تاثیرگذار و در مراتب بعدی عواملی همچون خوانایی، مشارکت پذیری، نفوذپذیری و انعطاف پذیری نیز درصد بالایی را به خود اختصاص دادند.
    کلیدواژگان: محیط های بازی کودکان، بازی درمانی، اختلالات اضطرابی، تحلیل سلسله مراتبی
  • چارچوبی نظری در تعیین آستانه بهینه دگرگونی، پیوستگی و پایایی مفهوم خاطره جمعی در مرکز تاریخی تهران
    مصطفی حسینی کومله، مهران علی الحسابی*، سید عبدالهادی دانشپور صفحات 187-209
    دگرگونی ارزش ها، آداب فکری و زیستی و تغییر رابطه انسان با جهان و طبیعت، مخدوش شدن انسجام دیرینه کالبدی، اجتماعی و فرهنگی از جمله چالش های شهرهای ایرانی در دوران معاصر است که فراموشی خاطرات جمعی و دگرگونی مفهوم شهر را در پی داشته است. هدف از نوشتار حاضر، مطالعه آستانه بهینه دگرگونی، پیوستگی و پایایی در راستای حفاظت از مفهوم شهر و خاطره جمعی در مرکز تاریخی تهران است. پژوهش، از روش کیفی و راهبرد پدیدارشناسانه (پدیدارشناسی توصیفی) استفاده می کند. در این نوشتار، ضمن مرور نوشتگان مرتبط با خاطره جمعی، دگرگونی، پیوستگی و پایایی، یک چارچوب نظری برای انجام مطالعه پدیدارشناسانه تدوین گردیده و بر پایه آن مصاحبه عمیق نیمه ساختاریافته با 41 نفر از اهالی مرکز تاریخی تهران (از متولدین دهه های گوناگون و از اقشار و طیف های اجتماعی متفاوت) به انجام رسیده است. نتایج این پژوهش، علاوه بر گونه بندی خاطرات جمعی (خاطرات خانه و محله، خاطرات فرهنگی-اجتماعی، مذهبی، ملی-سیاسی، طبیعی و شهری)، صورت بندی نظری مفاهیم «دگرگونی»، «پیوستگی» و «پایایی» را دربر می گیرد. صورت بندی نظری مفهوم دگرگونی در مرکز تاریخی تهران، حکایت از چهار سندروم یا نشانگان «دگرگونی متداوم»، «ترک محله پدری»، «آشیانه خالی» و «فراموشی متداوم» دارد. برپایه چارچوب نظری پژوهش، می توان گفت که آستانه بهینه دگرگونی، پیوستگی و پایایی در مرکز تاریخی تهران در حدودی است که در آن، «دگرگونی متداوم» محدوده متوقف گردد و ساختار هویتی آن از طریق غلبه فرهنگ مرمت بر فرهنگ تخریب و نوسازی، حفظ شخصیت مرکز تاریخی و حفظ سبک زندگی و شیوه سکونت اصیل تداوم یابد که این خود متضمن «توقف ترک محله پدری» و «بازگشت به آشیانه های خالی» است. همچنین لنگرگاه های خاطره از طریق حفظ یا یازیابی سرنخ های کالبدی (ابنیه تاریخی)، سرنخ های اجتماعی (بافت اجتماعی) و سرنخ های فرهنگی (قصه ها و ضرب المثل ها و زبان شیرین تهران) تثبیت گردند که این خود منجر به توقف «فراموشی متداوم» و حفظ خاطره جمعی خواهد شد.
    کلیدواژگان: خاطره جمعی، دگرگونی، پیوستگی، پایایی، آستانه بهینه، مرکز تاریخی تهران
  • فرم یابی، ساخت و کنترل هندسه ی سازه های قیچی سان فرم آزاد تطبیقی
    یاسر شهبازی*، حانیه کوچکی صفحات 211-224
    سازه های تطبیقی با یکپارچه سازی سه بخش اصلی حسگر، پردازشگر مرکزی و کنترل گر، خود را با تغییرات محیطی منطبق می سازند. برای مدلی از انطباق با تغییرات محیطی که حرکت کل یا بخشی از سازه را می طلبد می بایست سیستم های سازه ای مناسبی ارایه شده تا قابلت حرکت و گسترش پذیری را فراهم سازند. هدف اصلی مقاله ی حاضر فرم یابی، ساخت و کنترل هندسه ی سازه ی قیچی سان فرم آزاد است که با به کارگیری آن بتوان سایبان تطبیقی نسبت به تغییرات تابش نور روز با قابلیت ایجاد سایه اندازی مطلوب بهنگام برای کاربر تولید نمود. سوال اصلی تحقیق آنست که چگونه می توان با الحاق عناصر جنبی و یا المان های جدید به اجزاء سازه ی قیچی سان متداول که از دیدگاه کنترلی غیرفعال هستند، نحوه ی گسترش پذیری را در پاسخ به تغییر حرکت خورشید کنترل نموده و به یک سازه ی قیچی سان تطبیقی دست یافت؟ از این رو ابتدا سطح فرم آزاد یک سایبان و شرایط تکیه گاهی آن با توجه به نیاز کاربر و شرایط محیطی فرم یابی شده و سپس با استخراج منحنی های همتراز سطح، مدل خطی از مسیرهای گسترش سازه ی قیچی سان فرم آزاد تعیین گردید. سایبان فرم آزاد در افزونه ی پارامتریک گرس هاپر و پلاگین فایرفلای و همچنین به کمک نرم افزار آردوینو جهت برقراری ارتباط بین حسگرهای نوری، کیت آردوینو به عنوان پردازشگر و سرو -موتور به عنوان کنترل گر شبیه سازی شده است. سپس یک مدل آزمایشگاهی در مقیاس 1 به 20 ساخته شده و عملکرد کنترلی مطلوب سازه ی قیچی سان تطبیقی نسبت به حرکت خورشید از طریق تغییر فرم آن به صورت تغییر خیز در دهانه ی ثابت سایبان نشان داده شده است.
    کلیدواژگان: سازه ی تطبیقی، سازه ی قیچی سان، کنترل سازه، حسگر، کنترل گر
  • فضاهای عمومی در بناهای مذهبی و عملکردهای آن ها از منظر نظریه مکان سوم؛ نمونه موردی: فضای جلوخان مسجد جامع قزوین
    صحرا رحمانی، شادی پاکزاد* صفحات 225-239

    فضاهای عمومی معاصر به صورت مناسبی تمامی نیازهای انسان را پاسخ نمی دهند و زندگی اجتماعی در آن ها آن گونه که باید در جریان نیست. تا جایی که این فضاها صرفا به عاملی ارتباط دهنده بین مبدا و مقصد تقلیل یافته اند. پژوهش حاضر بر آن است که به بررسی و شناسایی عوامل تاثیرگذار در جهت تقویت کارکرد این فضاها بپردازد و نگاه ویژه ای دارد تا آموزه ها و اندیشه های معماری و شهرسازی را به بار نشاند. هدف این پژوهش رسیدن به تعیین چارچوب راهبردی جهت دستیابی به فضای جلوخان طبق نظریه مکان سوم و ارایه طرح پیشنهادی جهت ارتقاء فضای جلوخان برای رسیدن به مفهوم مکان سوم در فضای جلوخان مسجد جامع قزوین بوده و به دنبال پاسخ به این پرسش است که اولویت بندی شاخص ها در فضاهای عمومی بناهای مذهبی از منظر نظریه مکان سوم در نمونه موردی جلوخان مسجد جامع قزوین چگونه است. این تحقیق ازنظر ماهیت ترکیبی است و بر اساس مولفه های کمی به دست آمده، استدلال کیفی صورت گرفته و سپس پیشنهاد ها طراحی ارایه شده است. به منظور تبدیل عوامل به شاخص های قابل اثرگذار در طراحی، پرسشنامه ای تنظیم شد که در مرحله ی اول از 24 عامل تاثیرگذار به روش دلفی اطلاعاتی از بین 20 نفر از متخصصین جمع آوری شد و با تحلیل پرسشنامه ها در نرم افزار SPSS مهم ترین عوامل تاثیرگذار استخراج شد. در مرحله ی دوم تحلیل پرسشنامه این عوامل به 14 عامل رسید که مهم ترین شاخص های تاثیرگذار طراحی محسوب می شود و اولویت بندی بین آن ها صورت گرفت. در پایان پس از واکاوی نظریه مکان سوم و بررسی شاخص ها، اولویت های طراحی در جهت ارتقاء کیفیت زندگی اجتماعی در فضای جلوخان مسجد جامع قزوین ارایه شد و قابل تعمیم به سایر فضاهای عمومی با ماهیت فضایی مشابه است؛ در انتها راهکارهای طراحانه در نمونه ی موردی معرفی گردید.

    کلیدواژگان: فضای شهری، مفصل، جلوخان، مکان سوم، جلوخان مسجد جامع قزوین
  • ارائه مدلی برای سنجش میزان خلاقیت اثر معماری بر اساس روش SAPPhIRE ؛ نمونه موردی: بناهای تجاری منتخب شهر تبریز
    حمزه پیربابائی، مینو قره بگلو*، محمدعلی کی نژاد صفحات 241-259

    خلاقیت از دغدغه های همیشگی هنرمندان و معماران در دوره های مختلف تاریخ بوده است. چالش ها و مشکلات معاصر، نیازمند پاسخ های جدید و متناسب با اقتضای زمان هستند. با علم به اینکه هدف نهایی معماری ایجاد مکانی برای زندگی مردم است، خلاقیت در این حوزه نیز باید در خدمت ارتقای کیفیت زندگی انسان و پاسخگوی مسایل جدید هر عصر باشد. از این رو دست یابی به مدلی نظام مند که امکان سنجش میزان خلاقیت اثر معماری را فراهم آورد و مولفه های تاثیرگذار این حوزه را معرفی کند، می تواند گره بسیاری از مشکلات حوزه انسان و محیط را بگشاید و در طراحی آثاری خلاق و ارزشمند نقش آفرینی کند. در این پژوهش ابتدا با رویکرد کیفی و روش استدلال منطقی به ارایه مدلی برای سنجش میزان خلاقیت اثر معماری پرداخته شد. در مرحله بعد با رویکرد کمی و روش پیمایشی، میزان خلاقیت 3 بنای تجاری منتخب شهر تبریز که در دهه اخیر و پس از به وجود آمدن نهضت ساخت مال ها طراحی و اجرا شده اند، محاسبه گردید. طبق یافته های پژوهش، خلاقیت دارای دو بعد اساسی نوآوری و فایده است. فایده معماری در پاسخ بنا به نیازهای انسان از محیط معنا پیدا می کند و نوآوری در میزان تازگی این پاسخ ها نسبت به معماری های حوزه مرتبط سنجیده می شود. در مدل ارایه شده، ابتدا به سنجش میزان رضایت از قابلیت های بنای معماری در پاسخ به نیازهای انسان از محیط پرداخته می شود. در مرحله بعد با تطبیق روش SAPPhIRE با محیط معماری، میزان نوآوری پاسخ های بنای معماری به نیازهای انسان، با استفاده از این مدل سنجیده می شود. نتایج به دست آمده حاکی از این است که در بناهای مورد مطالعه با تمهیداتی چون ایجاد ارتباط بصری بین طبقات، استفاده از فضاهای نیمه باز و ایجاد امکان فعالیت های متنوع برای اقشار مختلف، خلاقیت معماری ارتقاء یافته است. در نهایت میزان خلاقیت مجتمع لاله پارک 0.28، اطلس 0.25 و ستاره باران 0.20 محاسبه شد.

    کلیدواژگان: سنجش خلاقیت، نوآوری، فایده، نیاز
  • مطالعه نشانگان و علل سندروم ساختمان بیمار در خوابگاه های دانشجویی؛ نمونه موردی: خوابگاه های دانشگاه صنعتی شاهرود
    متین باستان فرد* صفحات 261-276

    سندرم ساختمان بیمار یک بیماری ناشی از ساختمان است که افراد حاضر در محیط بسته، وضعیت جسمی و روحی مناسبی را تجربه نکرده، و علایم عصبی، تحریک مخاطی، تنفسی و پوستی را بروز می دهند. چنین وضعیتی می تواند در هر محیط بسته ای که افراد زمان زیادی را در آن حضور دارند، تجربه شود. خوابگاه های دانشجویی یکی از این گونه فضاهاست، که دانشجویان در طول مدت تحصیل، اوقاتی طولانی را در این فضا می گذرانند. از همین رو پژوهش حاضر با هدف تعیین نشانگان و علل این سندورم درخوابگاه های دانشجویی انجام شد. مطالعه حاضر به صورت مقطعی و توصیفی-تحلیلی در بازه ی دو ماهه آبان و آذر 1398 در خوابگاه های دانشگاه صنعتی شاهرود و بین 302 نفر انجام پذیرفت. جهت گردآوری اطلاعات از پرسشنامه استاندارد MM040EA مرتبط با سندروم ساختمان بیمار و کیفیت هوای داخل استفاده شد، که به صورت آنلاین در اختیار دانشجویان قرار گرفت و داده ها جمع آوری گردید. آنالیز داده ها نیز از طریق آزمون دوجمله ای و آزمون مجذور کای انجام شد. بررسی ها حاکی از آن است که از بین علایم سندروم ساختمان، خستگی (64.24%)، مشکل تمرکز (58.28%) و سردرد (53.48%)، از سایر علایم شایع تر است. همچنین موثرترین علل این سندروم به ترتیب شامل سروصدا، هوای سنگین، دمای بسیار بالای اتاق و هوای خشک می باشد. بین میزان شیوع سندروم ساختمان با تمام عوامل مربوط به شرایط آسایشی خوابگاه و محیط فیزیکی و شرایط روانی اجتماعی خوابگاه ارتباط معنادار برقرار است. مطالعه حاضر نشان داد که 80.4% دانشجویان در زمره افراد مبتلا به سندروم ساختمان قرار دارند، که رقم بالا و نگران کننده ای است. از آنجا که این علایم با شرایط فیزیکی اتاق محل اقامت افراد در ارتباط است، لذا بازنگری شرایط حضور دانشجویان در خوابگاه ضروری بوده، که با کاهش تراکم حضور افراد و افزایش سرانه فضای اقامت، شیوع این مساله کاهش یابد.

    کلیدواژگان: سندروم ساختمان بیمار، خوابگاه دانشجویی، معماری، عوامل محیطی
  • مفهوم فناوری در معماری و تبیین مولفه های آن با استفاده از روش دلفی
    سونیا سیلوایه، عباس غفاری*، مازیار آصفی صفحات 277-294
    توجه به ضرورت روزافزون فناوری در پیشرفت هرجامعه ای و علاوه بر آن، نیاز به ایجاد درکی صحیح از مفهوم آن در سوگرفتن مسیری روشن در پیشبرد و ارتقاء معماری، الزامی است تا مفهوم این واژه در مباحث معماری مورد مطالعه قرار گیرد. با بررسی پژوهش ها مشخص می شود که در فرهنگ عامه به فناوری بیشتر به دید ماشین ها نگریسته می شود، اما در نزد صاحب نظران، تعاریف دیگری نیز برای آن مطرح شده است. مقوله فناوری مشتمل بر رویکردهای متفاوتی است و هدف از این مقاله، پالایش فضای مفهومی فناوری و ارایه مفهوم سازی دقیق تر با کمک مولفه های حاصل از آن می باشد. حال سوالاتی که مطرح می گردد آن است که با توجه به کاربردهای متعارض و عدم دیدگاهی واحد برای فناوری، منظور دقیق از این واژه چیست؟ و چه شاخص ها و مولفه هایی را با بررسی نظرسنجی متخصصین معماری می توان برای این مقوله ذکر نمود به نحوی که بتوان، به اولویت بندی این شاخص ها در بحث معماری دست یافت؟ در این راستا، بررسی تعاریف و دیدگاه های صاحب نظران مدنظر می باشد. بدین منظور با استفاده از روش اسنادی و تحلیل مفهومی و با ابزار کتابخانه ای، رویکردهای نظری مرتبط با فناوری، بررسی و تحلیل محتوا شد و سپس با تمرکز بر وجوه مشترک تعاریف موجود، شاخص هایی تبیین گردید، بدین صورت که با تحلیل دیدگاه اندیشمندان، تعداد 10 شاخص بدست آمد که امتیازبندی شدند. از میان این شاخص ها، 6 شاخص بالاترین میانگین را به خود اختصاص دادند که جهت اعتبارسنجی شاخص های با میانگین بالاتر از روش دلفی و از دیدگاه های 23 متخصص معماری، بهره گرفته شد و مشخص شد که از دیدگاه خبرگان، کدام یک از مولفه ها از اهمیت بالاتر و کدام یک از اهمیت پایین تری برخوردار می باشد. یافته ها حاکی از آن است که از میان مولفه های موردنظر، مولفه «ابزار (سخت ابزار و وسیله)» در هر دو دور آزمون دلفی، بالاترین امتیاز را به خود اختصاص داده است.
    کلیدواژگان: فناوری، معماری، رویکردهای نظری، تبیین مولفه فناوری، روش دلفی
  • عوامل کالبدی و محیطی موثر بر کاهش استرس دانش آموزان در فضاهای آموزشی از دیدگاه متخصصان
    فاطمه ایمانی، خسرو موحد*، حمید رضا عظمتی، بهرام صالح صدقپور صفحات 295-309
    روان شناسان در بررسی مسایل آموزشی، معماری یا فضای فیزیکی مدرسه را به عنوان عاملی زنده و پویا در کیفیت فعالیت های آموزشی و تربیتی دانش آموزان موثر می دانند. به علاوه مقطع متوسطه سن بحران رشدی است و همراه با افزایش انواع استرس ها و آسیب پذیری به فشارهای روانی، اجتماعی و زیستی و کاهش مهارت های مقابله ای در برابر این آسیب ها همراه است. لذا بررسی و شناسایی استرس دانش آموزان در این دوره، از اهمیت خاصی برخوردار است. هدف اصلی پژوهش حاضر ارتقا کیفیت فضاهای آموزشی (مدارس مقطع متوسطه دوم متناظر با مقطع تحصیلی دبیرستان در نظام آموزشی قبل) است که با شناسایی متغیرهای کالبدی و محیطی موثر بر کاهش استرس دانش آموزان قابل دستیابی است. در این پژوهش از روش پژوهش ترکیبی (کیفی- کمی) استفاده شده است. جامعه مورد مطالعه متخصصین رشته معماری و روانشناسی بوده که از طریق روش نمونه گیری شبکه ای (گلوله برفی)، نمونه مورد نظر انتخاب گردید و حجم نمونه از طریق اشباع نظری که از عوامل استخراج شده است، به دست آمد. همچنین پس از مصاحبه ی بازپاسخ با متخصصین از تکنیک کدگذاری باز و محوری استفاده شد و از روش اکتشافی دلفی توسط 20 نفر از اساتید معماری و روانشناسی دانشگاه ها در شهر شیراز و تهران بهره گرفته شد. بعد از آن نتایج از طریق جدول هدف محتوا به پرسشنامه تبدیل و طی دو مرحله تکمیل گردید. برای تحلیل داده های جمع آوری شده از پرسشنامه متخصصین، به جهت دسته بندی تفکر آن ها از تحلیل عامل Q که پاسخ دهندگان را دسته بندی می کند، استفاده شد و در نهایت اثرگذارترین عوامل بر کاهش استرس و افزایش سازگاری دانش آموزان در فضاهای آموزشی مشخص شد. نتایج این پژوهش بیانگر آن است که ابعاد اجتماعی، آسایش کالبدی، طراحی معماری، روانشناسی محیط، آسایش محیطی و امنیت محیطی بر کاهش استرس دانش آموزان در فضاهای آموزشی اثرگذار است.
    کلیدواژگان: فضاهای آموزشی، دانش آموزان، استرس، عوامل کالبدی و محیطی
  • اصلاح الگوی جریان هوای داخل گاوداری های شهر سلماس از طریق مداخله در معماری با هدف بهبود وضعیت تهویه
    امید رهایی*، مهری بره یون صفحات 311-326
    مشاهدات نشان می دهند که عمده ی گاوداری های ساخته شده در ایران به صورت سوله بوده و در فرایند طراحی آن ها، چندان توجهی به وضعیت تهویه (با وجود نیاز فراوان) و الگوی گردش جریان هوای داخل سوله ها نمی شود و این امر مشکلات فراوانی در زمینه آسایش دام ها بدنبال خواهد داشت. هدف اصلی مقاله، بهبود وضعیت تهویه داخلی سوله های نگهداری گاو، از طریق معماری است به نحوی که جریان هوای مطلوب و یکنواختی در سراسر محیط گاوداری در تراز دام ها برقرار شود. با توجه به ماهیت موضوع، پژوهش حاضر یک پژوهش میان رشته ای بوده و روش تحقیق آن ترکیبی است و راهبردهای تحقیق تجربی، شبیه سازی و پژوهش موردی را مورد استفاده قرار می دهد. در مرحله اول پس از مشخص شدن جامعه آماری (گاوداری های منطقه سرد)، وضعیت موجود آن ها به صورت تجربی مورد بررسی قرار گرفت و پس از اثبات مسیله و یافتن متغیرهای تحقیق، اقدام به پیشنهاد طرح اولیه (نمونه موردی) و مدل نمودن آن شد. مدل موردنظر، ابتدا با پیش پردازشگر گامبیت (Gambit) شبکه بندی و سپس با استفاده از نرم افزار فلوینت (Fluent) به روش CFD شبیه سازی گردید و مداخلاتی در معماری آن صورت گرفت و سپس اقدام به تحلیل و نتیجه گیری شد. نتایج نشان می دهند که با مداخلاتی مختصر در معماری سوله و موقعیت بازشوها، می توان الگوی جریان هوای داخل آن را چنان بهبود داد تا ضمن برقراری موثر جریان هوای داخلی و کاهش اختلاف دمای میان نقاط مختلف سوله و نیز کاهش نوسانات دمایی، مصرف انرژی را نیز کاهش داد.
    کلیدواژگان: تهویه، گاوداری، معماری سوله، جریان هوای داخل
  • ارزیابی فرا تحلیل مقالات آسیب شناسی طرح های توسعه شهری در ایران
    حجت اله کولیوند، مرتضی طلاچیان*، حمید ماجدی صفحات 327-340
    طرح های توسعه شهری به عنوان مهم ترین و جامع ترین سند توسعه شهرها به لحاظ محتوایی، روش شناسی و اجرایی دوره های مختلفی را پشت سر گذاشته است. این امر از یک طرف ناشی از اهمیت طرح ها در توسعه شهری و از طرف دیگر ناشی از ناکامی در تحقق اهداف آن ها است که زمینه ساز مطالعات و پژوهش های مختلفی توسط متخصصان شده است. در مقاله حاضر با استفاده از روش فرا تحلیل به بررسی شاخصه های روش شناسی مقالات مرتبط با آسیب شناسی طرح های توسعه شهری در بازه زمانی 1371 تا 1399 پرداخته شده است. نتایج حاصله نشان می دهد که روند رشد تعداد مطالعات آسیب شناسی در تناسب با روند رشد تعداد شهرها و دانش آموختگان این حوزه در کشور نیست و از سوی دیگر پراکندگی و توزیع جغرافیایی نشان می دهد که بیش از دو سوم استان های کشور فاقد مطالعه مشخص و یا تنها به یک تحقیق بسنده نموده اند. در زمینه رشته های تخصصی 80 درصد مطالعات توسط دانش آموختگان و پژوهشگران رشته های شهرسازی و علوم جغرافیایی صورت گرفته است و محققین علوم اقتصادی و اجتماعی کمترین توجه را به ورود به حوزه طرح های شهری داشته اند. همچنین نبود روش شناسی مناسب و مرتبط و وابستگی زیاد به شیوه پدیدارشناسی و مطالعه اسنادی به رغم پیمایشی و میدانی بودن حوزه پژوهش و عدم استفاده از روش های ترکیبی را می توان در این مقاله ها مشاهده کرد. در مجموع یافته ها بیانگر آن است که 6 درصد مقالات با بررسی میدانی میزان تحقق اهداف طرح ها به نتایج مملوس رسیده اند و نزدیک به 94 درصد مستقیم و بر اساس تجربیات نگارندگان علل ناکارآمدی طرح های توسعه شهری را مطرح نموده اند که این امر ناشی از تحت تاثیر بودن مطالعات به روش پدیدارشناسی و تقدم شناخت علت بیش از شناخت معلول است.
    کلیدواژگان: مقالات طرح های توسعه شهری، فرا تحلیل، آسیب شناسی
  • تحلیل همبستگی رضایت کالبدی و رضایت شغلی کارکنان اتاق فرمان و تدوین رتبه بندی پارامترهای طراحی فضای باز در نیروگاه های گازی؛ نمونه موردی: نیروگاه های گازی استان کرمانشاه
    صادق کولیوندی، مهدی زندیه*، کریم افشار، ناصر براتی صفحات 341-356

    یکی از چالش های طراحی حوزه های صنعتی، بی توجهی پیرامون دستیابی به طرح بهینه برای واحدهای صنعتی در راستای ارتقای رضایت شغلی کارکنان است. این پژوهش مبین ضعف ادبیات نظری مدون موجود، پیرامون طراحی فضاهای باز در واحدهای نیروگاهی ذیل مباحثی مانند: رضایت کالبدی و رضایت شغلی می باشد. در پژوهش: 1- تحلیل همبستگی رضایت کالبدی و رضایت شغلی،2- تحلیل همبستگی شاخصه های فضای باز و رضایت شغلی ، 3- استخراج و تدوین رتبه بندی پارامترهای موثر طراحی فضاهای باز در راستای رضایت کالبدی، در واحدهای صنعتی نیروگاهی، مورد نظر بوده است. ماهیت پژوهش، توصیفی- تحلیلی و بر اساس هدف، کاربردی بوده و با شناخت و تحلیل واحدهای نیروگاهی موجود(با بهره گیری از مشاهده، مصاحبه عمیق و پرسشنامه)، پارامترهای برجسته در طراحی فضاهای باز نیروگاهی، بازیابی می شود. و رتبه بندی پارامترهای مهم فضای باز و تاثیر آنها در رضایت شغلی کارکنان اتاق فرمان نیروگاه گازی , امکان وصول دستاوردهای «رضایت از محیط کالبدی فضای کار» و «رضایت شغلی» در کارکنان اتاق فرمان نیروگاه گازی، از یافته های پژوهش است. تایید فرضیه پژوهش، که مبتنی بر همبستگی رضایت کالبدی و رضایت شغلی کارکنان اتاق فرمان نیروگاه گازی(ضریب همبستگی (390/0) و سطح معناداری (001/0)) و همبستگی شاخصه های فضای باز و رضایت شغلی کارکنان اتاق فرمان در فضای باز نیروگاه گازی (ضریب همبستگی (393/0) و سطح معناداری(001/0)) است، یکی از نتایج تحقیق می باشد (تحلیل ضریب همبستگی پیرسون، در نرم افزار SPSS  نسخه 26، صورت گرفته است). مهمترین نتیجه این پژوهش، استخراج پارامترهای مهم از نظر کارکنان اتاق فرمان نیروگاه های مورد مطالعه در طراحی فضای باز نیروگاهی در راستای رضایت کالبدی کارکنان اتاق فرمان نیروگاه گازی و تدوین رتبه بندی و اهمیت آنها با استفاده از روش دلفی بصورت تفکیک شده در هر نیروگاه است.

    کلیدواژگان: واحدهای صنعتی نیروگاهی، فضای باز، رضایت کالبدی، رضایت شغلی
  • ارزشیابی ویژگی های محیطی فضاهای تجاری معاصر از منظر جوانان؛ موردپژوهی: مجموعه سیتی سنتر اصفهان
    سارا صادقی، بهرام شاهدی*، بهادر زمانی، سمر حقیقی بروجنی صفحات 357-376
    امروزه فضاهای تجاری معاصر از جمله فضاهای شبه عمومی هستند که تنها کارکرد تجاری خرید ندارند و با چرخشی فرهنگی به مکانی برای تفریح و فراغت جوانان و بستری اجتماعی برای شکل گیری هویت و رفتار آنان تبدیل شده اند. از این رو، جوانان یکی از گروه های با اهمیت در فضاهای عمومی و شبه عمومی هستند که باید به عنوان منبع بزرگی در برنامه ریزی ها لحاظ شوند. عدم توجه به این گروه سنی جوان می تواند پیامدهایی چون افزایش فردیت و هویت زدایی را در پی داشته باشد و حتی در مواردی، آن ها را با طرد از این گونه فضاها مواجه کند. پژوهش حاضر به دنبال دستیابی به ارزشیابی ویژگی های محیطی مراکز خرید معاصر از منظر جوانان با مورد پژوهی مجموعه سیتی سنتر اصفهان است. روش پژوهش در این مقاله توصیفی-ارزیابانه است. این پژوهش همچنین از پژوهش موردی و رویکرد کیفی بهره می گیرد. گردآوری داده های پژوهش در دو بخش کلی انجام شده است. در بخش اول از خودسنجی در قالب مصاحبه نیمه ساختار یافته با سوالات باز و نمونه گیری هدفمند استفاده شده است. همچنین مصاحبه ها تا رسیدن به اشباع نظری، با 20 نفر از جوانان 20 تا 30 سال بازدیدکننده از مجموعه سیتی سنتر اصفهان در چند مرحله ادامه یافته است. به منظور تامین روایی و پایایی پژوهش از سه سویه سازی یعنی استفاده توامان از مطالعات کتابخانه ای و مشاهدات میدانی با شیوه نقشه برداری رفتاری استفاده شده است. تحلیل داده های مصاحبه با تکنیک تحلیل مضمون و نرم افزار اطلس تی آی نسخه 8 و تحلیل داده های حاصل از مشاهدات با آمار توصیفی ساده انجام گرفته است. یافته های این پژوهش نشان می دهد که چهار بعد کالبدی-فضایی، اجتماعی-فرهنگی، کارکردی-فعالیتی و بعد فردی، در چگونگی ارزشیابی جوانان از مجموعه سیتی سنتر اصفهان موثر است.
    کلیدواژگان: تصویر ذهنی ارزیابانه، ویژگی های محیطی، فضاهای تجاری معاصر، جوانان، مجموعه سیتی سنتر اصفهان
  • تدوین سازوکارهای ارتقای توزیع و دسترسی به خدمات تجاری محله ای در شهر تهران
    زهرا آزاد تکچی علیا، کورش آصف وزیری، محمد سعید ایزدی* صفحات 377-399
    آنچه در طرح های توسعه شهر تهران ذیل خدمات محلی بررسی می شود، صرفا محدود به خدماتی است که با عنوان خدمات هفتگانه مستقیما توسط نهادهای عمومی و دولتی تامین می شود. همین امر باعث شده است که در برخی محلات شهر تهران، پراکندگی خدمات تجاری محله ای به درستی صورت نگیرد و بخشی از جمعیت محله دسترسی مناسب به ویژه به صورت پیاده به خدمات تجاری محله ای نداشته باشند. بر این اساس، لازم است مداخلاتی توسط شهرداری در فرآیند توزیع و دسترسی (به ویژه به صورت پیاده) به خدمات تجاری محله ای در سطح محلات شهر تهران صورت گیرد. بر این اساس، این پژوهش با هدف تدوین برنامه راهبردی توزیع مکانی مناسب خدمات محله ای (با تاکید بر خدمات تجاری محله ای) مبتنی بر پیاده مداری در محلات شهر تهران صورت گرفته است. برای انجام این پژوهش که ذیل پژوهش های کاربردی قرار می گیرد، از رویکرد ترکیبی با غلبه روش کیفی استفاده شده است. به منظور جمع آوری داده از روش های اسنادی، داده های ثانویه، مشاهده غیرمشارکتی، مصاحبه عمیق و پرسشنامه استفاده شده است. تحلیل داده ها نیز با استفاده از تحلیل آماری، تحلیل محتوای کیفی و تحلیل تطبیقی صورت گرفته است. مطالعات این پژوهش نشان می دهد که ارتقای توزیع خدمات محله ای مبتنی بر پیاده مداری نیازمند تدوین و اجرای برنامه هایی در سه بازه کوتاه مدت، میان مدت و بلندمدت است. در کوتاه مدت، لازم است دستورالعمل هایی مرتبط با توزیع خدمات تجاری محله ای، دسترسی به خدمات تجاری محله ای و نیازسنجی خدمات تجاری محله ای در برنامه توسعه محلات شهر تهران ذیل اسناد فرادست مربوطه تصویب و ابلاغ شوند. برنامه ها و اقدامات میان مدت جهت ارتقای توزیع خدمات محله ای مبتنی بر تعریف جایگاه شهرداری در فرآیند توزیع خدمات محله ای (از طریق صدور پروانه کسب یا تامین فضای مورد نیاز این خدمات) در نظر گرفته شده است. برنامه ها و اقدامات بلندمدت نیز بر تغییر قوانین فرادست جهت تثبیت شهرداری به عنوان یکی از مراجع صدور پروانه کسب متکی هستند.
    کلیدواژگان: خدمات تجاری محله ای، توزیع خدمات، دسترسی، پیاده مداری، ضوابط و دستورالعمل ها
  • مفهوم شناسی و ارائه الگوی فرآیندی تحقق پذیری طرح های توسعه شهری در ادبیات جهانی
    امیرحسین بخشی، احمد خلیلی* صفحات 401-423
    موضوع عملیاتی سازی و تحقق پذیری طرح های توسعه شهری یکی از مهمترین موضوعات مورد بررسی در ادبیات نوین برنامه ریزی شهری جهانی است. زیرا اگر برنامه ای به بهترین شکل ممکن هم تهیه شود اما اجرا نشود، انگار که اصلا تهیه نشده است. نیاز به این موضوع کاملا حتی برای افراد غیر متخصص در این حوزه مشخص است. در همین راستا در این تحقیق برای ارایه یک نظام پیشنهادی اولیه به مرور ادبیات جهانی این حوزه پرداخته شده است. هدف اصلی این پژوهش بررسی ادبیات جهانی این موضوع و جمع بندی آن تحت ارایه یک الگو عملیاتی سازی و مدیریت اجرای طرح های شهری بر اساس ادبیات جهانی است. این پژوهش یک پژوهش توصیفی - تحلیلی است که در آن با بررسی اسناد و ادبیات جهانی حوزه مورد بررسی عملیاتی سازی و اجرای طرح های شهری به جمع آوری شاخص ها، نظام و ارکان این موضوع در ادبیات جهانی پرداخته شده است و سپس با کمک متخصصان و بررسی ارتباطات اسناد به ارایه یک چهارچوب نهایی پیشنهادی تحت عنوان الگوی فرآیندی مدیریت اجرایی و عملیاتی سازی طرح های شهری بر اساس ادبیات جهانی پرداخته شده است. در نهایت در این مطالعه با بررسی های انجام شده تعداد 74 شاخص، 21 آسیب، 17 رکن و یک الگویی عملیاتی سازی ارایه شده است. یافته اصلی و نهایی این پژوهش شامل یک فرآیند 8 مرحله ای برای پیاده سازی طرح های توسعه شهری است. مراحل اصلی چهارچوب کلی 8 مرحله ای که برای مدیریت اجرایی طرح های توسعه شهری در این پژوهش ارایه شده به ترتیب عبارتند از: بررسی اولیه کلیت اجرا طرح، بررسی شرایط اجرایی، مسیولیت و قوانین، زمان و منابع، برنامه عملیاتی سازی، اثربخشی، اجرا و ارزیابی و اصلاح؛ که تمامی این مراحل خود شامل زیر مجموعه های اجرایی خاص می باشند که به توضیح کامل آن ها در این پژوهش پرداخته شده است.
    کلیدواژگان: طرح های توسعه شهری، تحقق پذیری، اجرا، الگوی فرآیندی
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  • Simulation and evaluation of the effect of membrane canopy on outdoor thermal comfort in Semnan city
    Sepideh Jafarian, Elham Sarkardehee *, Danial Monsefi Parapari, Mohammad Reza Mojahedi Pages 5-19
    Extended Abstract
    Background and Objectives
    Given the significance of human presence in open spaces and the influence of climate on urban activities and behaviors, this study addresses the crucial aspect of outdoor thermal comfort. Urban open spaces, especially in hot climates, make users experience high thermal loads leading to thermal discomfort. Outdoor thermal comfort can be improved by controlling radiation and shading to mitigate stresses induced by surface overheating and environmental factors. This research underscores the importance of shading and radiation reduction to promote human presence, create a micro-climate, and improve comfort conditions in urban open spaces. Recognizing shade-producing factors, such as canopies, can contribute to creating desirable outdoor environments. In this context, fabric membrane structures are suitable solutions for hot climates, offering shade and natural ventilation. In hot and arid climates like Semnan, outdoor thermal comfort is not met due to factors such as intense heat, clear skies, strong sunlight, limited vegetation, and a lack of shade. Consequently, outdoor spaces are usable for only limited hours and only for specific seasons. However, by controlling the temperatures and introducing shading, a key factor in cooling the environment and reducing air temperatures during hot periods, thermal comfort conditions can be provided to some extent. Membrane canopies, with their unique properties, are suitable for outdoor spaces, particularly in hot and arid climates, offering users enhanced thermal comfort.
    Methods
    This study investigates the effect of lightweight membrane canopies on outdoor thermal comfort in Semnan, characterized by a hot and dry climate, through a combination of bibliographic research and simulations using ENVI-met and ANSYS software. The bibliographic research is conducted through scrutinizing the sources and documents and analyzing Persian and non-Persian materials related to outdoor thermal comfort and lightweight membrane structures, employing both descriptive and analytical information analysis methods. Simulations are run using ENVI-met to assess the influence of shade on the environment and ANSYS software to simulate various common shade models, assessing their effects on thermal comfort. The simulation analysis follows a comparative research data analysis and review approach.
    Findings
    The findings indicate that installing a membrane canopy during summer results in a temperature reduction of up to 4.7 °C, substantially improving thermal comfort conditions. Lightweight membrane canopies effectively cool the space beneath them and prevent ground overheating. According to previous researches and considering that there are two factors of high temperature and low humidity in the hot and dry climate of Semnan, the combined use of shade to reduce temperature and vegetation to increase humidity has a significant effect on thermal comfort in the hot and dry climate of the Semnan. This discrepancy is attributed to real-world conditions where wind, surrounding objects, and natural elements around the canopies disperse heat, and the flat plate strongly absorbs heat; however, in real conditions there are other objects around the canopies that reduce the intensity of heat. Although shade does not cool the ground, it effectively mitigates excessive heating. In the current simulations, the ground surrounding the canopy heats up to 70-80 °C, but temperatures are cooler under the canopy. If the lowest temperature under the canopy is the criterion, the saddle canopy is more suitable, and if the cooling capacity of the shade is important, the saddle canopy has performed better.
    Conclusion
    Lightweight membrane canopies cause temperature differences in hot and dry climates. The Ansys simulation results with the aim of investigating the effect of the membrane shade and determining the suitable form for the light membrane shade confirm that the membrane canopy cool the space under and prevent excessive ground overheating. Out of the four membrane canopy models available, namely the Simple, Conical, Umbrella, and Saddle designs, the Saddle canopy stands out with an effectiveness rate of 43.15% in the environment, demonstrating strong performance in creating a cooler space beneath it and can be considered the most suitable choice among the canopy models.
    Keywords: Membrane Structure, outdoor thermal comfort, Simulation, ANSYS Software
  • The influence of cultural, social, and geographical contexts on the emergence of the first religious places in Islam and Judaism
    Seyedeh Mahsa Bagheri, Seyed Behshid Hosseini *, Mahmoud Arzhmand Pages 21-39
    Extended Abstract
    Background and Objectives
    Religions do not develop in isolation; instead, they emerge within cultural, social, and geographical contexts. Islam and Judaism both originated in regions characterized by specific cultural, social, and geographical factors. Rather than rejecting these contexts, these religions often engaged with and, over time, influenced by elements that were compatible with their respective beliefs. This adaptation was driven by the need to foster empathy with the local people and facilitate the acceptance of the new faith. Consequently, religious places gradually took shape, and formed by the existing contexts. This study carries out a comparative analysis of the impact of cultural, social, and geographical factors in the birthplaces of Islam and Judaism on the development of their first religious places. It seeks to investigate the role of cultural, social, and geographical contexts in shaping the first religious places in Islam and Judaism?
    Methods
    This research uses a qualitative, interpretive-analytical approach and utilizes a comparative methodology to investigate how the cultural, social, and geographical contexts in the birthplaces of Islam and Judaism influenced the formation of their early religious places. Data collection relies on extensive library resources. The case studies selected for examination include the Kaaba, the Medina Mosque, and the first Islamic mosques for Islam, and the Tabernacle, the Temple in Jerusalem, and the earliest synagogues for Judaism. The research treats cultural, social, and geographical contexts as interpretive and comparative units. It begins by identifying these contexts in the regions of Islam and Judaism’s origins and then assesses their impact on the formation of the first religious places in these two religions. 
    Findings
    The findings of this study revolve around an analysis of how the cultural, social, and geographical contexts in these regions influenced the development of the first religious places in Islam and Judaism. In the cultural context, aspects such as artistic expressions, beliefs, individual values, and convictions originating from previous or new religious influences were examined. The social context encompassed political, economic aspects, customs, collective habits, societal norms, and values, while the geographical context included the climate and the physical location of the birthplaces of these religions and their relationship with the formation of religious places. Specifically, the study evaluated how these aspects and contexts influenced the creation of the Kaaba, the Prophet’s Mosque in Medina, and the first mosques in Islam, as well as the Tabernacle of the Covenant, the Temple of Jerusalem, and the earliest synagogues in Judaism.. 
    Conclusion
    The results reveal that Islam and Judaism differed in terms of the extent to which each context influenced them. In the comparison of cultural contexts and aspects, including beliefs, individual values, and beliefs derived from previous or new religions, it became evident that both religions were influenced by the preexisting beliefs of the land. For instance, Islam embraced concepts such as the interaction between the present life and the afterlife, monotheism, and the rejection of polytheism, while Judaism adopted beliefs in the sanctity of stones and directions. In the comparison of social contexts and aspects, Islam prioritized collective worship and equal access to religious spaces for all members of society, as seen in the Kaaba and the Medina Mosque. Conversely, Judaism, influenced by beliefs in social hierarchies, exhibited spatial divisions and social hierarchies in accessing inner spaces, as witnessed in the Tabernacle of the Covenant and the Temple of Jerusalem.
    Keywords: Islam, Judaism, Religious Places, cultural context, social context, geographical context
  • Evaluation and analysis of the use of media capacities and its impact on city branding; Case study: The creative gastronomy city of Rasht
    Aliakbar Salaripour *, Mitra Roshan, Alieh Faridi Foshtomi, Hamid Reza Yoosefi Matak Pages 41-58

    Extended Abstract

    Background and Objectives

    Creative urban development not only contributes to social improvement, but also fosters economic development and citizen welfare. Urban branding is a tool to promote cultural and social values, catalyze economic development, and facilitate competition among cities for investment, tourism, and global events. In this increasingly competitive environment, urban branding helps to attract visitors, capital, and residents, various economic benefits, social cohesion, and added value to cities as a whole. By emphasizing a city’s identity and local culture, branding ultimately improves the quality of life for its inhabitants. The Internet and communication technologies has ushered in a new era in the global economy, with media serving as an effective tool for marketing and advertising, significantly elevating a destination’s reputation and brand. Nowadays, the media’s critical task is to create ideas and mental images of facts. Tourism and its brand heavily rely on the relationships between stakeholders, and establishing, maintaining, and developing relationships is the key to success.Gilan province, with many gastronomic capacities, successfully designated Rasht as its Gastronomy Creative City in 2015. While Rasht has held this title as Iran’s sole gastronomy creative city for the past five years, the city image as the center of the country’s gastronomic culture has remained under-promoted both nationally and internationally. This article seeks to evaluate the capacity of various media channels, encompassing both mass and social media, in the context of city branding. Urban management institutions have the opportunity to leverage these media platforms to introduce and promote the brand of Rasht as a creative gastronomic city, thereby accelerating the city’s economic development. This research aims to evaluate and analyze how effectively the creative city of Rasht has used media capacity at the national and international levels to raise awareness about itself and introduce the creative city of Rasht.

    Methods

    This study uses a descriptive approach to address research questions and is applied in terms of its objectives. Data was collected through surveys and document analysis. A questionnaire using a five-point Likert scale was employed to measure the media’s capacity to promote Rasht as a creative gastronomy city. The questionnaire comprises four sections (criteria): branding, social media, mass media, and media information quality (formation of destination image). The research population encompasses all residents, citizens of Rasht, and tourists who have visited the city at least once. A total of 395 online questionnaires were distributed and completed among Rasht’s residents, citizens, and tourists. The online questionnaire featured conditional questions to segment respondents based on their residence or travel status. SPSS software was used for quantitative analysis, and to verify the questionnaire’s reliability and internal validity, Cronbach’s alpha value was calculated, yielding a score of 0.914. Subsequently, Smart PLS3 software was employed to model and analyze the findings. 

    Findings

    The Friedman test was used, to rank and identify the essential criteria.. A significance level below 0.05 in the Friedman test affirms its validity and confirms the ranking of criteria impacting branding. Results reveal that the branding criterion, with an average score of 3.45, claims the top position, followed by media information quality, social media, and mass media with average scores of 2.62, 2.30, and 1.63, respectively. Then, using Smart PLS3 software, the findings were modeled and analyzed. The results highlight that “social media,” with a path coefficient of 0.361, emerges as the most influential factor in branding Rasht as a creative city. Within the social media sector, “endorsement by celebrities and social media influencers” brings in a factor of 0.784, signifying its substantial impact on Rasht’s branding. While the impact of mass media on branding Rasht is less promoted, it is essential to recognize that this criterion still holds potential for branding and promoting the city, provided that effective strategies and activities are implemented. 

    Conclusion

    City branding can only be achieved through the proper use of media and effective advertising. This study distinguishes between social and mass media. Broadcasting is the most important visual and audio mass media, but now social media has a more prominent role and capacity than traditional mass media in city branding. According to citizens and tourists, endorsements by celebrities play a pivotal role in shaping Rasht’s image on social media platforms. In today’s era, also known as the digital age, Internet communications play a significant role in people’s lives, so special attention to the Internet, advertising, and urban management investments in various social media can be a practical step in branding the Rasht city.

    Keywords: City Branding, Social Media, mass media, advertisement
  • Investigating the mental judgment patterns of architects in facilitating pedestrian mobility in residential complexes; Case study: district 22 Tehran
    Seyyedeh Ashraf Sadat, Mohammad Sadegh Taher Tolou Del * Pages 59-72

    Extended Abstract

    Background and Objectives

    The aim of this study is to identify and categorize the views of experts in order to facilitate pedestrian movement in residential complexes in District 22 Tehran. Given the absence of prior studies specifically focusing on empirically investigating expert perspectives on improving pedestrian mobility in residential complexes within District 22, Tehran, this research is deemed exploratory and pioneering.

    Methods

    Due to the absence of established theoretical foundations for identifying key factors influencing pedestrian movement within residential complexes, this research is considered exploratory. The Delphi method was employed to uncover expert viewpoints, and Q-type factor analysis was used for expert opinion categorization. In the initial stage, an open-ended questionnaire was administered to generate ideas. Subsequent stages utilized structured questionnaires where participants rated each item on a Likert scale, quantifying their opinions. A nine-choice Likert scale questionnaire was designed to measure participants’ perspectives in the second and third stages. After collecting data in these stages, Q factor analysis was applied. In the third stage, participants were given the opportunity to review and revise their responses as needed. Following the completion of the Delphi process and Q factor analysis, including factor extraction and rotation, the factors were detailed and interpreted. To interpret each factor, emphasis was placed on variables with exceptionally high or low scores that were common among participants within each factor, indicating strong opinions. The selection of participants was purposeful and non-probabilistic, comprising 20 experts, primarily university professors from prominent institutions such as the Department of Architecture at the University of Science and Technology, Shahid Beheshti University, Tarbiat Modares University, and Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, many of whom have designed renowned residential complexes in the Tehran region. The study’s geographic focus is Zone 22 of Tehran Municipality. Sampling adequacy was assessed using the Kaiser-Mayer-Olkin (KMO) test, which confirmed adequacy with a KMO measure of 0.564. The research tool was developed through an initial phase of document analysis, starting with a review of relevant literature and employing a descriptive-analytical approach and logical reasoning. In the realm of residential architecture, this research introduces a fundamental component that influences the movement and dynamics of residents. 

    Findings

    In the first stage of the Delphi method, a total of 40 physical, functional, and semantic variables were initially identified and presented to experts. Following the results of this initial stage, in addition to the existing variables, two new variables, namely spatial coherence and location, were discovered and incorporated into the variable list. Ultimately, a questionnaire for the second stage of Delphi was formulated and administered, encompassing a total of 42 variables. The second stage data underwent Q factor analysis, revealing the presence of six factors. These factors were derived from 28 common variables that received either notably high or low scores among the experts. Consequently, 14 variables were eliminated during the second stage of Delphi. The remaining six factors are considered acceptable due to the presence of shared variables exhibiting very high or low scores among the experts. These six discerned factors align with the six distinct cognitive patterns. In essence, expert opinions were classified into six clearly interpretable categories. These six patterns, namely legibility, permeability, happiness, mobility, responsiveness, and territoriality, emerged from the theoretical consensus among experts. They collectively influence cognition, meaning generation, and the physical impact on space, forming three interconnected composite patterns, each maintaining its unique identity within the subject matter. This conceptual model not only provides insights into the path of knowledge but also fosters an adaptable insight that shifts from “method within the environment” to “method within research,” possessing the potential for growth and evolution over time. 

    Conclusion

    The data derived from the Delphi process were analyzed by the Q factor, leading to the categorization of architecture experts based on their common views. Notably, 28 variables exhibited commonality, with experts assigning either very high or low scores. In essence, this implies that 14 variables were excluded during the second stage of Delphi. Subsequently, the findings were presented to the experts for controlled feedback. Based on these results, a total of 76.70% of the influential factors pertaining to pedestrian movement within residential complexes in District 22 Tehran could be confidently identified and subsequently interpreted through expert interviews. It is noteworthy that nearly 80% of respondents concurred on this topic. The primary intellectual trend can be attributed to the first group of experts, represented by the first factor, which accounted for 15.56% of the overall variance. In the context of general categorization, these patterns can be divided into responsiveness (15.56%), territoriality (15.00%), mobility (13.60%), happiness (9.60%), legibility (9.45%), and permeability (7.55%).

    Keywords: Mobility Facilitation, Residential Complex, Mental Model, Specialized Factor Analysis
  • Evaluating the effect of master urban plans on the region sustainability using the ecological footprint method; Case study: Boroujerd city
    Sepideh Paymanfar * Pages 73-86

    Extended Abstract

    Background and Objectives

    The increase in population and the development of urbanization have had destructive environmental effects. With the emergence and intensification of these problems, the sustainable development approach was placed on government’s and planners’ agenda. The history of space development programs prepared in Iran shows that sustainability considerations have been ignored in most programs. These programs are often used for research after implementation. However, the evaluation of the future situations resulting from the implementation of developmental interventions in the region is considered a practical step in modifying and revising the development plans in order to achieve sustainablity. The master plan of Boroujerd, located in Lorestan province, was prepared by the Emco consulting engineers and was approved by the Supreme Council of Urban Planning and Architecture in the spring of 2016. To assess the impact of the Boroujerd comprehensive plan on its sustainability, a comparison will be made between the ecological conditions in 2015 and 2031. With this aim, the ecological footprint and biological capacity of Boroujerd have been calculated separately for each year, and finally, after deducting the ecological footprint from the biological capacity, the sustainability of the region will be determined in terms of ecological surplus or deficit.

    Methods

    The Ecological Footprint Index is one of the most important tools for measuring the sustainability status of specific areas or lifestyles, which was proposed by Rees and Wackernagel in the 1990s. This index offers clear insights into regions exerting higher pressure on natural resources. It calculates the ecological footprint based on four consumption categories: food, housing, services, and transportation. Additionally, it categorizes the types of land required to fulfill this consumption and absorb pollution, including forest land, built-up land, fishing land, cropland, grazing land, and carbon. In this study, a combination of a field survey and a questionnaire (the questionnaire was adapted to align with the Iranian-Islamic lifestyle to the greatest extent possible) was employed to determine the ecological footprint in 2020 (the year when the research was conducted). Subsequently, predictions for the ecological footprint in 2015 and 2031 were made. On the other hand, biocapacity pertains to the capacity of water and soil to provide ecological services. Similar to the ecological footprint, biological capacity involves the classification of land types into six groups. Ultimately, Boroujerd’s biological capacity was computed based on the area of each of these six land types, utilizing the following formula:BC= A× YF × EQFBC= Biological Capacity; A=  Area; YF= Yield Factor; EQF= Equivalence Factor

    Findings

    The results reveal that Boroujerd’s biological capacity, both in 2015 and 2031, surpasses the national average due to its abundant natural resources. However, its ecological footprint and deficit are alarmingly higher. The ecological deficit in Boroujerd is predicted to increase further in 2031, due to inappropriate consumption patterns, population growth, and changes in land use outlined in the proposed master plan. In both 2015 and 2031, the highest percentage of the ecological footprint is associated with Carbon, Cropland, Forest land, Built-up land, Fishing land, and Grazing land, respectively. Notably, the reduction in the biological capacity of cropland and the increase in the biological capacity of built-up land demand particular consideration. Due to the proposed plan’s alteration of cropland use, their biological capacity has dwindled to less than half. As a result, the city will face a greater ecological deficit in this type of land compared to other types. Although in the proposed plan, an attempt has been made to compensate for this ecological deficit by creating a green protection axis in the city limit, due to the increase in population and the conversion of cropland into built-up land, there has been no success in compensating the ecological deficit.

    Conclusion

    The ecological deficit of Boroujerd in 2015 was about -44.3 hectares per person, and if the mentioned plan is implemented, sustainability is expected to slightly decline by 2031, and the ecological deficit will reach -67.3 hectares per person. In the end, two categories of solutions in order to compensate for the ecological deficit and achieve a sustainable situation in Boroujerd will be addressed. The first group is solutions to reduce the ecological footprint aiming to lower demand levels and promote sustainability through education and culture for the optimal consumption of each of the indicators used in the calculation of the footprint. The second set of solutions, commonly adopted in developed societies and seek to increase biological capacity through innovative solutions. In this regard, solutions are proposed to reduce carbon emissions and increase the capacity of environmental resources.

    Keywords: Sustainability, Ecological Footprint, Boroujerd Master Plan, Biological Capacity, Ecological Deficit
  • Understanding “the nature of design knowledge” from a constructivist learning perspective
    Roya Sadeghi Fereshteh, Omid Dezhdar *, Sara Jalalian, Hosein Ardalani Pages 87-102
    Extended Abstract
    Background and Objectives
    Design is a complex and vital human creative activity, requiring unique capacities and knowledge. Research in design has been around for several decades in ways. While early studies focused on practical design methods, recent research delves into the intricate aspects of design work, problem-solving, and the design process itself. This article aims to explore the nature of design knowledge and to build knowledge within a constructive learning settings through a constructivist lens, using qualitative methods and theoretical analysis. The central questions are: What is the nature of design knowledge from a constructivist learning perspective, and how can one acquire design knowledge in a constructivist learning environment? It seems the knowledge used by designers is compatible with the knowledge production approach from a constructivist perspective, hence attempts are made to investigate the nature of design knowledge from a constructivist learning perspective.
    Methods
    This study employed a qualitative approach, utilizing the Grounded Theory research technique to gain a deep understanding of “nature of design knowledge from a constructivist learning “perspective. Data collection methods included document reviews of articles from credible international journals (e.g., Design Studies, Architectural Research, Architectural Education), as well as Iranian researchers, interviews with esteemed professors in the field of architecture education, and on-site observations during Architectural Design Workshops 2 and 3 over two semesters. MAXQDA software was used for data analysis. The analysis consisted of three coding phases: one for the literature review, one for interview data, and one for field observations. The field study incorporated an observation method, offering a detailed description of design knowledge based on a model by David William Shaffer (2003) derived from the MIT University design workshop (Shaffer, 2003). 
    Findings
    Design knowledge is not visible, though it can be seen through conduct, as it manifests itself in design workshops via drawing, handwriting, modeling, etc. Professionals also embody their design knowledge through their work, which grows through experience, repetition, and skill acquisition. In a constructivist learning environment, knowledge develops during teacher-student interactions, allowing students to engage with their personal knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes. This approach emphasizes the learning process and the thought processes involved in design, rather than just the final product. In the design process, problems are performed in a process-oriented form. The effective components in constructivism and knowledge building in this style of learning are somewhat similar to the nature of the knowledge applied by designers in their own designs. The constructivist learning approach to knowledge building is very similar to the nature of knowledge, while design training can be very successful for learners based on this approach. Design knowledge is distinct from other bodies of knowledge and can be acquired by specific means. Most of the time, this body of knowledge is unconscious and challenging to articulate. A large part of this body of knowledge is tacit and indescribable. In reality, design is learned through conduct. Because design knowledge is by itself a different body of knowledge, the way knowledge is acquired is obtained by changing the conduct of work. The nature of design knowledge hinges on practical tasks and the individual’s unique capacities, evolving with experience, context, and the stages of its acquisition.
    Conclusion
    The nature of design knowledge, like the pre-determined bodies of knowledge in the education system, is individualized and must be constructed by the learner within the classroom. Thus, each person’s previous knowledge and experience is a prerequisite to building a new body of knowledge. Interaction with peers and dialogue about the design process are essential for building design knowledge. High mental processes in human beings are constructed through social interaction, in which individuals share information and understanding that they have acquired from their previous perspectives, cognition and experiences, thereby helping to raise each other’s knowledge level. In a constructivist approach, the goal of learning is not to transmit knowledge from one source to another. Learning environments avoid imposing restrictions on pre-established knowledge. The constructivist approach to knowledge closely aligns with the essence of design knowledge. Consequently, an improved constructive learning environment can significantly contribute to the development of design knowledge in architectural workshops. An optimal teaching approach for an architectural design workshop involves adopting the constructive method. The activities within these workshops align with the design process, particularly addressing design challenges, where the emphasis lies on the problem-solving journey. Design tasks incorporating constructivist principles should be real and authentic. This entails meeting not only the requirements set by professional designers but also considering the unique abilities of each student. The teacher’s role extends beyond mere knowledge transfer; instead, they act as a mentor and facilitator within the workshop, where the student takes the responsibility of shaping the design process and making solutions. During design process instruction, the teacher can guide students by explaining and interpreting the design, helping them recognize the concepts they have formulated. This is achieved through active dialogue, questioning, and encouragement to reflect on their designs. Consequently, students articulate their plans consciously, with the teacher taking on a supportive role rather than being the primary explainer.
    Keywords: Design Knowledge, Design Process, Build knowledge, constructivist learning
  • Assessing the relationship between neighborhood types and social interaction patterns in villa complexes and mid-rise apartment; Case study: Sib apartment complex and Saheli villas, Noor city
    Seyed Mohsen Moosavi, Rouhollah Rahimi *, Sogand Vosooghi Pages 103-116

    Extended Abstract

    Background and Objectives

    After the industrial revolution, many changes have taken place in the housing system. Residential neighborhoods have become largely obsolete and have been replaced by residential complexes. What is considered in the creation of residential complexes in their design process; often there are big issues such as economic conditions, land value and etc. Thus, such foreign forces affect housing policies and ultimately the quality of human life. Since the house is one of the most important and main places of human presence, it has the most duty in provide the individual and social needs of humans. This study intends to investigate the differences of social interactions in two types of residential complexes, mid-rise apartment and villa complexes, based on Jan Gehl‘s theory. According to this theory, activities that can be performed among residents of residential complexes lead to the creation of social interactions among them. These activities can be categorized into three categories: necessary activities, optional activities, and social activities. Necessary activities which are some kind of activities that residents definitely do, such as entering and leaving the complex. Optional activities are activities that take place if suitable conditions and personal preferences exist, such as children playing or exercising in public spaces of residential complexes. Finally, social activities are activities that depend more than anything else on the presence of other residents in public spaces. Jan Gehl also emphasizes the design process should be: “First life, then spaces, then buildings - the other way around never works.” Therefore, this research discovers the level of social interactions resulting from these activities by examining the possibility of the occurrence of three categories of activities in two types of residential complexes.

    Methods

    Considering the research objective, the desired studies and investigations focus on identifying the factors and activities that lead to social interactions. In this regard, in the first step, through library studies and examining previous research, the activities that lead to the formation of social interaction among individuals were extracted. Then, to investigate the occurrence of these activities with residents of the two residential complexes of “Sib” and “Saheli”, interviews were conducted. To this end, interviews were conducted with 14 residents of the complex, 57% of whom were male and 43% were female. In the next step, the information obtained from the interviews was interpreted using content analysis. In addition to answering the interview questions, the interviewees also expressed their satisfaction or dissatisfaction with interacting with some neighbors. For analysis, the dialogues were carefully examined, and significant points were discovered. Then, the significant points were categorized, and their commonalities were discovered. 

    Findings

    The results indicate that the occurrence of social interactions resulting from necessary activities in middle-class apartments is significantly higher than in villa complexes. The reason for this is the greater dependence of residential units on each other. This dependence is due to common spaces and dealing with common affairs and financial issues. It is worth mentioning that the presence of a guard in villa complexes is one influential factor in increasing social interactions. Regarding optional activities, it can be stated that familiarity and acquaintance among individuals in middle-class apartments occur more frequently, which is due to more face-to-face encounters between residents. This is while villa complexes, with wider central spaces and fewer design constraints compared to apartments, can create a more suitable spatial capacity for social interactions. Social activities also occur to a lesser extent in both types of complexes. Finally, it can be said that the most fundamental difference in creating social interactions in the two types of residential complexes, middle-class apartments and villa complexes, is related to necessary activities. Considering these differences, it is possible to take steps towards optimal design and increasing desirable social interactions in residential complexes. 

    Conclusion

    The The results show that the main difference between the two types of residential complexes is due to the necessary activities and its incidence rate in mid-rise apartment is higher than villa complexes. However, villa complexes with a wider middle space and less limitations in its design can create a suitable environment to increase social interactions. The results of study can lead designers and planners to eliminate existing deficiencies and users to choose housing tailored to their social needs.

    Keywords: Residential Complex, Social Interactions, Neighborhood, Villa complexes, Mid-rise apartment
  • Analogy of thermal comfort with the influence of openings by PMV method in traditional houses and apartments in Shiraz
    Zahra Barzegar *, Khatereh Sajjadi Pages 117-131
    Extended Abstract
    Background and Objectives
    Humans have always tried to build shelters in nature that are compatible with the climate to provide the best conditions for their survival. Exploiting the climate and weather conditions of each region in architecture is one of the important issues that has attracted the attention of Iranian and foreign researchers in architecture and urban planning research, and it has even influenced the quality of domestic architecture. In addition, in today’s science, it is proven that design will be a very costly process without considering the features and climatic factors. One of the most important factors that is effective in improving the quality of the indoor environment is the concept of thermal comfort. Thermal comfort is a mental condition that expresses satisfaction with the thermal environment. According to the important role of the openness as an index of control of comfort conditions and air flow in the interior, it will play an important role. Investigating the capabilities and comparing the internal thermal comfort of residents under the influence of construction openings are studied the present research.
    Methods
    The current research method is quantitative and thermal comfort is calculated by PMV method. At first, the thermal comfort of the traditional and modern houses changed under the influence of construction openings in the hot season is investigated, then the Percentage People Dissatisfied (PPD) was compared in both open and closed openings in modern and traditional houses and ultimately the most effective factor in reducing the amount PPD dissatisfaction is estimated. In order to investigate the performance of openings in the semi-hot and dry climate of Shiraz, temperature, humidity and wind were measured by a data logger and, with the help of estimation of dissatisfaction and PPD, PMV was extracted. Therefore, in the process of research, a comparison was made between the internal thermal comfort of a traditional house and a modern apartment, and the analyzes were made under the influence of openness in two different states; The first opening mode is fully open and the second opening mode is closed. Opening windows has a great effect on thermal comfort as well as reducing energy consumption, so its correct evaluation is important and accordingly, the newly developed opening model is designed based on the activity pattern and density of people.
    Findings
    In examining the results of field observations and comparing internal thermal comfort under the influence of openings in a traditional house and a modern apartment in Shiraz through PMV calculation, the effect of each of the factors of temperature, humidity and wind speed on the amount of PMV was analyzed. The results of the research indicate that the predicted percentage of dissatisfaction with the predicted mean vote in open window mode at traditional house is 18% and close mode is 59%. This index in open window at apartment is 61% and close mode is 91%. The opening studied in the traditional house was the five-door opening; therefore, it played a more significant role in creating indoor thermal comfort. 
    Conclusion
    The thermal suitability of the indoor environment of the building, in addition to providing comfort for the residents, will save energy, enhance health and productivity and also improve the morale of the residents. In the present research, openness and opening of the most important indicators of comfort conditions in the interior space were investigated and functionally evaluated. Therefore, the five-door of the traditional house played an effective role in creating thermal comfort. The analysis of the research shows that the design of the types of openings, the dimensions and sizes of the openings in traditional buildings are such that the opening of the interior spaces are within the comfort range during most of the hot season. The noteworthy point of the opening dimensions is the approximate equality of the opening area with the total area of transparent surfaces, their frequency and repetition, as well as the optimal fit of the opening dimensions with the dimensions of the interior space. In general, it can be assumed that opening will play an effective role in indoor cooling and ventilation. What is so much considered today in sustainable design is featured in the principles of Iranian architecture, which is known as an amenity in building spaces. Subsequently, the quality of the indoor environment depends on other factors, such as the quality of light, visibility and scenery, in addition to thermal comfort.
    Keywords: Thermal Comfort, Openness, PMV, Traditional House, Hot, Dry
  • Assessing the viewpoints of consulting engineering companies on hard and soft skills for employing new architecture graduates employability
    Parastoo Eshrati *, Anahita Jam Pages 133-150
    Extended Abstract
    Background and Objectives
    The demand for employment upon graduation has heightened the significance of essential job market skills more than before. The main skills for entering any profession include soft skills and hard skills. Hard skills include the technical and scientific knowledge. Both skills are necessary for the profession. The purpose of this paper is to determine hard and soft skills required for the employment of new architecture graduates and assess the significance of each skill.
    Methods
    The research questions aim to ascertain the significance ratios of these skills, identify the most and least important skills, and establish a correlation between company size (small, medium, and large) and the importance of these skills. Initially, following a comprehensive literature review, soft skills were classified into seven distinct categories. Simultaneously, the requisite hard skills for architecture graduates were extracted from the Ministry of Science and Technology-approved bachelor’s and master’s degree curricula in architecture, resulting in the presentation of a seven-category list of hard skills. Subsequently, a questionnaire based on the identified soft and hard skills was developed and administered to the study’s sample group, comprising managers from small, medium, and large companies. Companies were categorized based on the number of full-time employees, with “small” companies having 7 or fewer employees, “medium” companies having 7 to 12 employees, and “large” companies having 13 to 50 employees. Non-parametric tests were used for hypothesis testing. Given the nature of the hypotheses, which involve the comparison of three independent groups (small, medium, and large companies), the “Kruskal-Wallis test” was chosen to analyze the data collected from the questionnaires. Based on results of papers in the field of statistical analysis of small populations, a minimum sample size of 9 individuals is required to conduct the Kruskal-Wallis test for three groups. However, in this study, data collection exceeded this minimum requirement to the greatest extent possible for the authors. Subsequently, the data was quantitatively analyzed using SPSS software.
    Findings
    The quantitative analysis conducted using SPSS software reveals that, according to company managers, hard skills hold a 44.38% level of importance, while soft skills account for 55.62%. However, the results of the Kruskal-Wallis test indicate that there is no correlation between the company size and the level of importance of hard and soft skills. Regarding the research findings, the hard skills in order of importance are: software, design, work experience, theoretical knowledge, free-hand drawing, legal regulation, and type of degree. In contrast, the order of importance for soft skills is as follows: professional ethics, analysis and problem-solving, self-management, leadership, project management, communication skills, and research. Furthermore, the study’s results demonstrate a significant relationship between a company size and the specific type of soft and hard skills required by that company. 
    Conclusion
    The findings of this study indicate that soft skills are more important than hard skills for hiring fresh architecture graduates but there is no correlation between the company size and the importance level of hard and soft skills in general. When considering hard skills, software is the most important in small companies, while regulation is the least significant. In medium-sized companies, work experience and design rank highest, whereas the type of degree is considered the least important. In larger companies, software stands out as the most crucial, while university rank is perceived as the least important. Among soft skills, in small companies, the most important skills are professional ethics and three skills including research, project management and communication are the least important ones; in medium size companies the most important skill is professional ethics and the least is project management; and in large companies the most important ones is professional ethics and the least is research. Regardless of the level of companies and the division of skills, the most important skill is professional ethics and the least important one is university rank. Analysis of interviews with company managers conducted in a qualitative manner also reveals the necessary changes required in the architecture education system to enhance students’ employability and offered suggestions for students. In light of the study findings, it is advisable to consider incorporating a course focused on developing soft skills into architecture curricula, particularly at the undergraduate level.
    Keywords: Soft skills, hard skills, architecture education, Employability Skills, Architecture Graduate
  • Evaluation of quality assessment factors in the physical space of residential complexes based on key environmental psychology concepts
    Elham Behbood, Saeed Haghir *, Maryam Ekhtiary Pages 151-169
    Extended Abstract
    Background and Objectives
    Evaluating the suitability of living conditions in urban residential complexes in metropolitan areas is of great importance. Space quality can be investigated by recognizing the quality of life from both mental and physical perspectives. A house serves not just as a place of shelter, but also as an environment where individuals can fulfill their other needs. Given that the housing sector is among the most important development sectors in society, residential building rules and regulations are of utmost importance in all nations. However, construction rules and regulations in most countries involve many limitations for the designers, which leads to problems in creating the necessary quality of and quality of life. Based on numerous studies on the interaction of environmental qualities or the constructed space with the human mind and behavior [Babri Deh-Majnuni, et al., 1400], what is especially important in the definition of space quality is its interaction with the surrounding environment. Space quality is essentially how the environment is manifested and how it is understood. As such, a quality environment cannot be selected and settled-inn by the users, before it is understood. As the variety in metropolitan construction, and the use of stylish elements in the architectural appearance can snatch the thoughts and minds of the general audience during the initial assessment, the evaluation of residential spaces by construction experts and specialists assists users in choosing an appropriate residential environment. Moreover, the evaluation of residential apartments and buildings is considered one of the most complex and fundamental operations in architecture, the quality of which can have numerous drastic effects on the residents and their relationships. Nonetheless, previous studies have neglected the examination of older, more abundant, and less regulated single-block residential apartments, which have had a detrimental impact on the quality of residents’ lives. In contrast to the prescription-based approach to regulation, the performance/productivity-based approach to structure quality control is purpose-oriented, leaving the designers more creative and innovative choices to fulfill the purpose of every structure. Such an assessment needs specialized knowledge regarding open cultural questions and human issues, in contrast to technical expertise. As an up-to-date field of knowledge, concerned with human-environment connection, environmental psychology seeks to achieve quantitative and measurable criteria to evaluate the quality of physical spaces in residential complexes and to achieve desirable productivity in all three scales of residential complexes (i.e., residential units, interstitial and shared spaces, residential complex connection to urban space), with an expert-oriented approach towards cognitive and demonstrable evaluation of physical indices of residential complexes, with an emphasis on environmental psychology concepts and components.
    Methods
    In terms of objective, the present research is a practical study; while in terms of essence and implementation method, it is a descriptive/analytical one. To begin the analysis based on the main research hypothesis, first the Delphi technique as used to extract key qualitative concepts of environmental psychology. An evaluation method based on Pearson and regression correlation coefficients was selected. The data was collected through two methods, namely bibliographic documentation and field research. The statistical population for this research involved 30 experts (architects specializing in environmental psychology) who were selected by the snowball method. In the next stage, several 2nd accredited civil engineers, architects, and city-planers from Shiraz were selected, using the Cochrane sample formula. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was used as the criterion to evaluate the reliability of our research questionnaire. Environmental psychology was used based on the simple Delphi technique and elite consensus. After the data was collected, mean, median, and mode were used to analyze the data by SPSS statistical software package. In order to address the research questions and evaluate the research hypothesis, appropriate questionnaires were developed and underwent reliability and validity testing before giving to respondents. The respondents were selected from the overall population using a random cluster sampling method. After data collection and data summary, variable analysis via the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test (KS) was performed to check the normal distribution of data regarding physical space quality. 
    Findings
    Design knowledge is not visible, though it can be seen through conduct, as it manifests itself in design workshops via drawing, handwriting, modeling, etc. Professionals also embody their design knowledge through their work, which grows through experience, repetition, and skill acquisition. In a constructivist learning environment, knowledge develops during teacher-student interactions, allowing students to engage with their personal knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes. This approach emphasizes the learning process and the thought processes involved in design, rather than just the final product. In the design process, problems are performed in a process-oriented form. The effective components in constructivism and knowledge building in this style of learning are somewhat similar to the nature of the knowledge applied by designers in their own designs. The constructivist learning approach to knowledge building is very similar to the nature of knowledge, while design training can be very successful for learners based on this approach. Design knowledge is distinct from other bodies of knowledge and can be acquired by specific means. Most of the time, this body of knowledge is unconscious and challenging to articulate. A large part of this body of knowledge is tacit and indescribable. In reality, design is learned through conduct. Because design knowledge is by itself a different body of knowledge, the way knowledge is acquired is obtained by changing the conduct of work. The nature of design knowledge hinges on practical tasks and the individual’s unique capacities, evolving with experience, context, and the stages of its acquisition.
    Conclusion
    Changes in the quality of physical spaces within residential units can be explained by emphasizing the key concepts of environmental psychology, such as stress, territory, personal space, congestion, and solitude. Based on key concepts of environmental psychology, the order of effectiveness for residential unit physical index variables, from the highest to the lowest, is as follows: 1. stress, 2. personal space, 3. solitude, 4. territory, 5. congestion. For intermediate and shared spaces, the order is as follows: 1. stress, 2. solitude, 3. personal space, 4. congestion, 5. territory. At the highest scale, concerning the link between residential complex space with urban space, the order is as follows: 1. congestion, 2. stress, 3. personal space, 4. territory, 5. solitude. The emphasis of environmental psychology on the personal space component on the scale of residential unit indices is higher than that of the other two scales, while the emphasis on the solitude component is on interstitial and shared space indices. The emphasis on the congestion component was confirmed to be on the link between residential and urban spaces, as established by prior studies. To improve the quality level in these three scales, indices that support and strengthen the emphasized component should receive attention.
    Keywords: quality of space, Residential Apartment Complexes, Physical space, physical indices
  • Development of environmental components for cognitive-behavioral treatment response to childhood anxiety disorders based on the fundamental principles of Axline’s play therapy
    Mahsa Delshad Siyahkali *, Marzieh Moghimi Pages 171-186
    Extended Abstract
    Background and Objectives
    Because of their limited capacity for abstract thinking, children struggle to articulate their emotions and sentiments effectively. The act of suppressing emotions and lacking the ability to express them poses a potential threat to a child’s mental well-being. Therefore, the implementation of accurate health and mental policies to ensure physical and mental health in childhood is essential. Playing serves as a means for children to communicate their needs, emotions, and thoughts. Establishing a proper connection between children and the world is achieved through social interactions and group activities. According to previous studies in the field of child psychology, play therapy is an approach for addressing emotional stress, and it is of significant importance that the environmental design aligns with the needs of this method. It allows children and adolescents to develop motor skills, test their behavioral (social) skills, simulate different scenarios, and put the various positive and negative consequences of their behaviors in a safe and attractive context. Theories related to social cognition have also suggested that, in addition to individual traits, environmental factors play a role in the behavioral well-being of children. In order to create an integrated process in the development of children with anxiety disorders, therapeutic interventions should be planned with the help of appropriate architectural design, considering the role of environmental variables in meeting the needs of children. Therefore, recognizing the effective playful environmental components and their evaluation and prioritization in architectural design is important.  This article aims to describe the significance of environmental design in the context of play therapy and to create environmental components tailored to design spaces that align with the play therapy approach for children dealing with anxiety. The objective is to establish an environment conducive to the cognitive-behavioral therapy process, facilitating the improved growth and development of children with anxiety disorders.
    Methods
    The present study, which was conducted by descriptive-analytical method, in order to achieve the desired goals, first reviews the results of previous research in this field and identifies effective factors in promoting mental health in children with anxiety disorders based on play therapy techniques, relying on bibliographic studies and open interviews with psychologists in counseling centers. Accordingly, related game-centered spatial attributes were explained based on the principles of Axline game therapy. To validate the important link between spatial principles and the analysis of psychologists’ questionnaire, we utilized the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). AHP is a versatile quantitative decision-making method commonly used to tackle complex multi-criteria problems across various domains. It helps select options and criteria by assessing their relative effectiveness concerning one or more criteria. A pair-wise comparison matrix was distributed among 12 psychologists and occupational therapists for this purpose. In the subsequent phase, the substantial correlation between each principle and the environmental capacity priority identified in the earlier stage was investigated. Additionally, the influence of playful spatial elements were ranked. To achieve this, we analyzed data collected from a questionnaire administered to a sample of 120 individuals using SPSS 21 software. This questionnaire, comprising 21 questions based on components and indicators derived from the initial study phase, explores the relationship between the independent variable (playful environmental capabilities) and the dependent variable (Axline’s play therapy principles).
    Findings
    Based on the research results, the key factors for improving children’s anxiety disorders, following Axline’s eight principles, were identified as part of an efficient child-centered play therapy process within a proposed hierarchical model consisting of eight criteria: a sense of belonging, participation, openness, adaptability, liberty, security, clarity, and safety. The priority of environmental capabilities linked to each of these eight principles was established using a hierarchical analysis method and further substantiated through statistical significance tests validating these associations. 
    Conclusion
    Based on the extracted results, creating a sense of belonging to the place, feeling of freedom in the environment, mental security and creating a safe environment for the physical comfort of the child are the most important influencing factors, followed by factors such as readability, participation, permeability and flexibility. This research is in line with the results of previous studies and the results of the present study show the confirmation of the proposed playful environment capabilities and how the play environment and children’s social-cognitive behavior are related in accordance with related study sources.
    Keywords: Children’s Play Environments, Play therapy, anxiety disorders, hierarchical analysis
  • A theoretical framework for determining the optimal threshold of change, continuity and constancy of collective memory in the historical center of Tehran
    Mostafa Hosseini Koumleh, Mehran Alalhesabi *, Seyed Abdolhadi Daneshpour Pages 187-209
    Extended Abstract
    Background and Objectives
    Change of values, intellectual customs, lifestyles and human relationship with the universe and nature, distortion of long-standing physical, socio-cultural cohesion are among the challenges of contemporary Iranian cities that have led to forgetting collective memories and changing the concept of the city. The research problem begins with the general concept of “collective memory” in Iranian cities. In order to observe the indigenous originality of the research, the research has been defined based on a “problem- oriented” research with a comparative evaluation of existing challenges of collective memory in Iranian cities and identifying the concept of “change” as the key issue of collective memory in Iranian cities. Therefore, while delimiting the scope of the study, the aim of the research is to study change, continuity and constancy of the concept of city and collective memory and determine its optimal threshold in Tehran historical center as a symbol of change in Iranian cities.
    Methods
    The research uses a qualitative method and a phenomenological strategy (descriptive phenomenology). In this article, while reviewing the literature of collective memory, change, continuity and constancy, a theoretical framework for phenomenological study has been developed and accordingly, an in-depth semi-structured interview with 41 residents of the historical center of Tehran (people born in different decades and among various social groups) has been conducted. 
    Findings
    The results of this research encompass not only the categorization of collective memories (home and neighborhood memories such as the culture of acquaintance and neighborhood, courtyard, children’s games in the alley, socio-cultural memories such as the nicknames of people, storytelling, ritual of Pahlavani and peaceful coexistence of religions, religious memories including home prayers, Muharrams and Mid-Sha’ban celebrations, national-political memories such as the coup of August 19, 1953, the Islamic Revolution and the Imposed War, natural memories like the organic relationship of human with nature at home and neighborhood, water supply system and Qanats, and harmony with nature through summer migration to Shemiran and urban memories such as new streets building in Reza Shah reign and the construction of modern urban buildings and facilities such as Plasco Building and electric buses), but also include the theoretical formulation of the concepts of “change”, “continuity” and “constancy” in the historical center of Tehran. In order to explain and analyze the concept of “change” in the historical center of Tehran, the theory of “continuous change” has been proposed, which introduces a kind of repetitive and continuous patterns of radical change in the city. According to this theory, the historical center of Tehran in the contemporary period, after encountering modernity, faces four syndromes including “continuous change syndrome”, “syndrome of leaving the paternal neighborhood”, “Empty Nest Syndrome” and “continuous forgetfulness syndrome”. Also, the analysis of the concept of continuity shows that the “continuity of the identity structure” of the historical center of Tehran in some physical dimension (through the presence of historical buildings and architectural traditions), functional dimension (continuity of religious sites, the continuity of residence in some neighborhoods and functional continuance of Tehran Bazaar) and meaning-memory dimension (continuity of local character of some places and neighborhoods) are relatively still established. However, in terms of ecological structure, this continuity has been distorted over time and therefore needs to be revived by restoring the role of wooded yards in creating a balance between private and public green spaces. Persistence of some historical buildings and urban spaces (such as Golestan Palace, 30th Tir Street), some religious rituals, historical bazaars and some natural elements (such as the continuous shadow of Alborz and the old plane tree of Imamzadeh Yahya) also indicate the constancy of physical, behavioral, subjective and natural anchors of memory in the historical center of Tehran.
    Conclusion
    Based on the theoretical framework of the research, it can be concluded that the optimal threshold of change, continuity and constancy in the historical center of Tehran is achieved when the “continuous change” of the area stops. This should be reached by continuing the identity structure through dominance of restoration culture over culture of demolition and new construction, preserving the character of the historical center, original lifestyles and permanent dwelling, which entails “stopping leaving the paternal neighborhood” and “returning to empty nests”.  Also, the anchors of memory should be stabilized by preserving or finding physical clues (historical buildings), social clues (social context) and cultural clues (stories, proverbs and the sweet language of Tehran), which in turn leads to cessation of “continuous forgetfulness” and preservation of collective memory.
    Keywords: Collective Memory, change, Continuity, constancy, optimal threshold, historical center of Tehran
  • Form finding and construction of 2d and 3d adaptive free-form scissor-like structure
    Yaser Shahbazi *, Hanieh Kouchaki Pages 211-224
    Extended Abstract
    Background and Objectives
    The aim of this study is to explore the design, construction, and control of adaptive free-form shading structures that can react to changes in light levels. The focus is on developing a transformable scissor-like structure capable of changing geometry to achieve controlled forms. The key objective is to create an adaptive shading device for a specific courtyard, considering factors such as human interaction, relaxation, and optimal shading conditions.
    Methods
    The study employed a parametric design approach, utilizing digital tools such as Rhino software and Grasshopper plugin. The design process involved identifying influential environmental factors, defining control objectives, and simulating daylight receiving conditions using the Ladybug plugin. Different forms with varying support points were proposed and evaluated based on aesthetics, shading levels, and site constraints. In this method, the desired free-form surface is initially drawn. Then, the Iso-curves of the surface are extracted along the horizontal and vertical directions to obtain a mesh network of the surface. This mesh network is transformed into a three-dimensional spatial mesh structure, and finally, all the lines of this network are converted into scissor-like modules. It is worth noting that besides using horizontal and vertical Iso-curves, it is also possible to extract inclined, triangular, pentagonal, and multi-sided networks from the free-form surface. Through this approach, various double-layer networks with diverse multi-sided modules can be transformed into scissor-like structures. In the next step, special connections, including rod connections within each scissor-like unit and connections between neighboring units, were designed and labeled for laser cut wood. Control connections were introduced to enable deformation within the fixed span of the structure. The modified scissor-like element model by Akgun was utilized, allowing individual substructures to change independently. Arduino, a microcomputer chip, has gained considerable interest in architecture because of its user-friendly nature and its ability to work seamlessly with a range of sensors and controllers. It facilitates the creation of smart devices by taking input from sensors and switches and producing diverse responses, like modifying light levels, adjusting motor speeds, and controlling other outputs. Arduino can function autonomously or be linked to a computer, and it can be programmed using software such as Arduino’s own IDE or the Grasshopper plugin in Rhino. In terms of controllers, there are various options available, including pneumatic jacks, shape-changing smart materials like shape memory alloys, piezoelectric elements, and electromechanical motors. Servo motors, in particular, are commonly used controllers, especially in small-scale model-making, as they can create rotational motion based on the input voltage received from microcontrollers. 
    Findings
    Through simulations and analysis, it was found that among the alternatives mentioned in this article, a three-support-point canopy offered the most favorable inactive option, delivering the desired shading conditions for more hours throughout the year. This finding validated the effectiveness of the proposed design approach and highlighted the potential for achieving passive shading without relying heavily on active control. The laboratory-scale prototype demonstrated the feasibility of the adaptive shading model. Sixteen servo motors were connected to eight corrective units, allowing for changes in the angle between rods and structural deformation. Light sensors, Arduino kits, and a closed-loop control system facilitated the processing of sensor data and commanded the servo motors. The prototype successfully achieved controlled structural deformation in response to the presence or absence of sunlight.
    Conclusion
    The study presented a comprehensive framework for the design, simulation, and construction of adaptive and controllable free-form scissor-like structures. The research showcased the potential of digital architecture and embedded systems in creating dynamic and responsive solutions. By combining sensors, central processing units, and controllers, the suggested design for a shading system allowed for the adjustment of its shape in response to environmental conditions, particularly the movement of sunlight. The findings underscored the significance of considering both passive and active design strategies. While passive geometry and form optimization played a crucial role in achieving desired shading, active control mechanisms provided flexibility and adaptability to changing conditions. The study emphasized the importance of carefully selecting the form, placement of corrective modules, and incorporating various sensors to enhance the capabilities of such structures. In conclusion, this research contributes to the growing field of digital architecture by providing insights into the design and implementation of adaptive shading device. The proposed framework and the laboratory-scale prototype demonstrate the potential for creating adaptive and responsive architectural solutions that seamlessly integrate with their surrounding environment. Future research can explore additional sensors, materials, and control strategies to further enhance the adaptability and functionality of such structures in diverse architectural contexts.
    Keywords: Adaptive structure, Scissors Structure, Structure Controlling, Sensor, actuator
  • Public spaces in religious buildings and their functions from the perspective of third-place theory and design strategies; Case study: The forecourt of Jameh Mosque in Qazvin
    Sahra Rahmani, Shadi Pakzad * Pages 225-239

    Extended Abstract

    Background and Objectives

    Contemporary public spaces often do not adequately meet all human needs, resulting in a deficiency in their social dynamics. They tend to be reduced to mere origin-destination places. While previous research has identified this issue to some extent, it has not yielded clear solutions. This study aims to identify the key factors for enhancing the functionality of these spaces, drawing inspiration from architectural and urban planning principles and thoughts. It prioritizes these factors within the context of religious public spaces, specifically focusing on the forecourt of Jame’ Mosque in Qazvin, using the third-place theory. The study seeks to establish a strategic framework to transform the forecourt space into a true third-place, proposing solutions to enhance its role within the forecourt of Jameh Mosque in Qazvin.

    Methods

    The study adapts a combination of approaches, starting with quantitative factors and subsequently incorporating qualitative reasoning to offer design recommendations. In order to translate these qualitative factors into quantifiable aspects and ensure their impact on the design process, a questionnaire was developed. This questionnaire was designed based on theoretical findings related to the spatial aspects of the forecourt and the conceptual framework of the third-place. During the initial phase, the most significant components and indicators were gathered from a pool of 24 influential factors identified through the Delphi method, involving 20 experts. After analyzing the questionnaire using SPSS software, the top 14 factors with the most design influence were extracted in the second phase. Following this, by identifying the key components and indicators for evaluating a place according to the third-place concept, the study evaluated the study area (the forecourt of Jameh Mosque in Qazvin). Ultimately, the research offers design solutions aimed at incorporating the qualities of the third-place into the shared entrance area of Jameh Mosque. 

    Findings

    To create a gradual change from one place to another, based on the qualities, criteria and indicators identified in the theory of “third-place” and their prioritization from the architecture and urban design experts’ view, the most important criteria to achieve the quality and nature of the third-place in public places in the theoretical field were defined. These criteria were prioritized for other studies in the field of urban design and architecture. In order to make the forecourt act as a joint according to the theory of the “third-place”, complications arise in ensuring the functionally of the joint, which may result in either chaotic or monotonous designs. In this way, according to the investigations, there are effective indicators which determine the creation and sustenance of a place classified as a “third-place.” Incorporating these characteristics is essential for the continued existence of such spaces within today’s urban public areas.

    Conclusion

    After analyzing the third-place theory and examining the indicators, design priorities were presented to improve the quality of social life in the forecourt of Jameh Mosque in Qazvin. The results can be generalized to other public spaces with a similar spatial nature. Readability, invitingness, proper access, social interactions and maintaining the place efficiency are the requirements of “third-place” according to this research. To enhance the readability within these areas, it is advisable to reduce the density compared to the nearby blocks. This will make it easier to perceive information. Following this, the invitingness will also become more effective. However, the key factor in reinforcing the invitingness within interface spaces lies in the utilization of various elements. Furthermore, indications of the adjacent spaces are present to serve as an initial welcome for users to engage with. In order to achieve a space for establishing social interactions, it is better to use a suitable space for pausing and having a conversation, which is suitable through the selection of urban furniture. Finally, design solutions were introduced in the case study.

    Keywords: urban space, Joints, Forecourt, Third-Place, Forecourt of Jameh Mosque in Qazvin
  • A model for assessing the creativity level of the architectural works based on SAPPhIRE method; Case study: Selected commercial buildings in Tabriz city
    Hamze Pirbabaei, Minou Gharehbaglou *, Mohammadali Kaynejad Pages 241-259

    Extended Abstract

    Background and Objectives

    Creativity has been a constant concern of artists and architects in different periods of history. Contemporary challenges and problems require new solutions that fit the requirements of current period. Knowing that the ultimate goal of architecture is to create a place for people to live, creativity in this field should also be directed towards enhancing the quality of human existence and addressing the evolving challenges of each period. Therefore, achieving a systematic model that allows assessing the creativity of the architectural works that introduces the influential components of this field, can solve many problems related to both human society and the environment. Such a model can also contribute significantly to the design of innovative and valuable architectural creations. In this study, a model for evaluating the creativity of architectural designs has been introduced, utilizing the SAPPhIRE method, adapting it to architectural contexts, and considering the authentic human environmental needs. This model takes into account multiple facets of architectural creativity and its compatibility with human well-being, ultimately quantifying the creativity level of each building with a specific numerical value. The model was applied to assess the creativity of LalehPark, Atlas, and Setarehbaran Commercial Buildings in Tabriz city, and the findings have been deliberated upon.

    Methods

    In this research, two research strategies have been used. At first, with the aim of providing a model to assess the creativity of architectural work, the Delphi research method has been used. The Delphi technique provides a convenient way for experts to reach consensus on a topic without face-to-face interaction. According to this method, in order to adapt and interpret the SAPPhIRE creativity assessment method with the architectural space, an open interview was conducted with architectural elites in the first stage. Next, every participant in the Delphi panel received a questionnaire and ranked and assigned scores to the summarized points derived from the initial phase. By specifying the desired components of the elite panel, the architectural creativity assessment model was completed. Then, with the aim of assessing the level of creativity of selected commercial buildings in Tabriz city, a survey strategy has been used with a quantitative approach. To achieve this objective, the approach involved distributing questionnaires to individuals who had firsthand experience residing in the designated areas, as well as conducting interviews with architects and experts in the field of architecture within the city. Finally, in the present research, after collecting information based on bibliographic studies and understanding the concepts and components of architectural creativity and establishing a logical connection between these components through the Delphi technique and using the opinions of experts, a model was provided for assessing the creativity of architectural works. The authors utilized the provided model to evaluate the creativity levels of LalehPark, Atlas, and Setarehbaran Commercial Buildings in Tabriz city. This assessment involved the completion of questionnaires and conducting interviews, and the subsequent compilation and presentation of the results. 

    Findings

    In most definitions of creativity, two main elements have been introduced for an architectural work to be recognized as creative, innovative and useful. The main benefit and purpose of architecture is to create a suitable environment for human life; therefore, the creativity of architectural works should also be realized in line with attention to human beings and their quality of life. It is not possible to provide human living environment without considering human needs. This is when architecture becomes important – it helps meet those needs in the environment. On the other hand, architectural creativity is valuable when it serves human life and responds to human needs. As a result, architectural creativity should focus on finding fresh and innovative ways to meet human needs in the environment. In this article, we introduced a model to assess the creativity of architectural designs by evaluating their ability to meet human needs within the environment (the benefit of architecture) and measuring the uniqueness of these solutions (architectural innovation). This model was used to assess the creativity of three commercial complexes: LalehPark, Atlas, and Setarehbaran Commercial Buildings. Our findings indicated that LalehPark scored 0.77 in terms of benefit, Atlas scored 0.71, and Setarehbaran scored 0.67. Regarding creativity, LalehPark scored 0.36, Atlas scored 0.35, and Setarehbaran scored 0.30. Consequently, the overall creativity ratings were as follows: LalehPark at 0.28, Atlas at 0.25, and Setarehbaran at 0.20.

    Conclusion

    Based on the test results, the foremost priority for users of commercial complexes is addressing their physical requirements. In these buildings, spiritual needs hold the least significance for users. Over the past decade, especially during the shopping mall trend in Tabriz city, designers and builders have taken these preferences of the public into account. By incorporating elements like spacious lobbies, enhanced spatial transparency, establishing visual connections between levels, and ensuring clear visibility of vertical access points from main areas, they have successfully created an environment contributing to creativity and meeting the physical needs of visitors. Simultaneously, the introduction of diverse amenities such as cinemas, food courts, amusement parks, and coffee shops has attracted a wide range of people from various age groups and societal backgrounds, leading to the prosperity of these complexes.

    Keywords: Assessing Creativity, Innovation, Usefulness, Human Needs
  • Studying the symptoms and causes of sick building syndrome in university dormitories; Case study: The dormitories of Shahrood University of Technology
    Matin Bastanfard * Pages 261-276

    Extended Abstract

    Background and Objectives

    Research has shown that there is a strong connection between people’s health and the physical environment in which they work, live, or treated. Sick building syndrome is an illness caused by the building itself, leading individuals in the environment to suffer from inadequate physical and mental well-being, often resulting in symptoms such as nervousness, mucous membrane irritation, respiratory problems, and skin irritations. This situation can arise from various reasons such as cold air blast, very high or very low room temperature, heavy air, smoke and smell caused by people smoking, static electricity, poor condition of lighting in the room, unpleasant smell, dust, noise, etc. Such a situation can occur in any enclosed space where people spend a significant amount of time. Student dormitories exemplify such environments, as students inhabit them for several years. Hence, this study was carried out to investigate the symptoms and reasons for this sick building syndrome, specifically within student dormitories.

    Methods

    The current investigation is a cross-sectional, descriptive - analytical study carried out over a two-month period, specifically in November and December of 2019. It focused on 325 university students residing in the men’s and women’s dormitories of Shahrood University of Technology, with the exclusion of 3 special patients and 20 incomplete questionnaires from the research sample. For data collection, MM040EA standard questionnaires were administered to the university students in an online form and the required data was subsequently collected. Data was analyzed through binomial test and chi-square test.

    Findings

    According to the surveys, fatigue (64.24%), difficulty concentrating (58.28%), and headaches (53.48%) are the predominant symptoms of sick building syndrome. Additionally, significant contributing factors to this syndrome encompass noise, poor air quality, excessively high room temperatures, and dry air, with the study also highlighting the impact of neuro lighting on its prevalence. Among the various factors outlined in this article, severe weather conditions and exceptionally high room temperatures during the study period in the student dormitory stand out as the primary culprits for inadequate room ventilation. In this research, there is a significant relationship between the prevalence of building syndrome and all the factors related to the comfortable conditions of the dormitory and the physical environment and psychosocial conditions of the dormitory. 

    Conclusion

    The findings from this study suggest that the prevalence of sick building syndrome, at 80%, surpasses both the figures reported in prior research and the author’s initial expectations. This discrepancy is viewed as unfavorable and assessed as concerning. Since these symptoms are related to the physical condition of the room where people stay, it is necessary to review the conditions of students’ presence in the dormitory, to reduce this problem by reducing people’s attendance and increasing the per capita accommodation space. When it is impossible to solve the students’ dissatisfaction completely and eliminate the issue of sick building syndrome, identifying the causes of the problem instead of focusing on the symptoms is essential. Undoubtedly, the interior design of any structure holds significant importance in the overall design process. Consequently, designers and architects should enhance their consideration of interior environment design and increase their awareness of its impact on occupant health, particularly in spaces like student dormitories where occupants spend a substantial amount of time. In a broader effort to reduce the prevalence of sick building syndrome in student dormitories, it should be recognized that the improvement of dormitory facilities and the renovation of older structures will prove highly beneficial in addressing this issue.

    Keywords: sick building syndrome, University Student Dormitory, Architecture, Environmental Factors
  • The concept of technology in architecture and explaining its components using Delphi method
    Sonya Silvayeh, Abbas Ghaffari *, Maziar Asefi Pages 277-294
    Extended Abstract
    Background and Objectives
    Given the increasing significance of technology in the progress and development of every society, along with the need to have a proper understanding of its meaning and concept to promote architecture, it is imperative to conduct a comprehensive study on technology in the architectural context. It is not an overstatement to claim that all scholars of architectural history have somehow addressed the importance and concept of technology in architecture and have considered its role in the emergence of architecture. Meanwhile, research shows that technology in popular culture refers to machines, but there are other definitions for scholars. Consequently, extensive research in recent years has explored this subject, with experts presenting various viewpoints. But sometimes issues such as inappropriate, incomplete and inaccurate conceptualizations cause problems in these studies. Consequently, when referring to “technology in architecture,”, one cannot precisely define technology and its related components, which in its turn poses a big problem. Technology involves different beliefs and approaches and the purpose of this article is to refine the conceptual space of technology and to provide a more precise conceptualization with the help of its components. The questions that emerge are: What precisely is the definition of technology, given the wide range of opinions and the absence of a unified perspective on this term? To achieve a comprehensive definition of technology and address the diverse and occasionally contradictory interpretations, what indicators and components can be mentioned for this category?
    Methods
    To address these questions, we will closely review the etymology of this concept, trace its historical development, explore the growth of theoretical perspectives, scrutinize related definitions, and analyze its associated characteristics. For this purpose, using the bibliographic method and conceptual analysis and, the views and theories of the experts are first examined and analyzed. Then, the indicators were elaborated by focusing on the commonalities of the existing definitions. Thus, through the analysis of scholars’ perspectives, 10 indicators were assessed based on expert definitions and assigned scores. Among these indicators, six had the highest mean scores, implying the need to employ the Delphi method to assess the validity and reliability of these components. Consequently, these components are subjected to evaluation to ascertain their significance as perceived by Iranian scholars, with rankings derived from the perspectives of 23 experts who participated in this study. 
    Findings
    This test was conducted by interviewing the experts in two rounds. In the end, it was determined from the experts’ point of view which components were more important and which were less significant. Finally, one can achieve the highest level of success with these steps and arrive at a comprehensive definition of technology and its associated elements by considering the theoretical approaches put forth by experts. The findings indicate that among the components of “tools (hard tools and devices)”, “scientific knowledge”, “practical-experimental knowledge”, “process-system”, “techno-industry” and “manufacturing-production”, the components of “tools” as well as “techno-industry” scored the highest and the “practical-experimental knowledge” component scored the lowest.
    Conclusion
    In general, it is evident from the scholars’ perspectives presented in the table that their opinions align with those of the Delphi method experts. This means that for both groups, the “tool” component has the highest score. According to a wide range of definitions in terms of different opinions (positive to negative attitude) on the nature of technology, it was observed that some approach it in terms of its use or function, while others focus on its underlying meanings and concepts. In the end, according to the components, technology can be defined as the application of science, experience and human skills to meet human needs. It is a set of tools, skills, knowledge, and information known as technology components. This implies that not only the absence of these components but also the absence of synchronization among them can impact the ineffectiveness of the technology.
    Keywords: technology, Architecture, Theoretical Approaches, Explanation of Technology Component, Delphi method
  • Physical and environmental factors reducing students’ stress in educational spaces from experts’ point of view
    Fatemeh Imani, Khosro Movahed *, Hamidreza Azemati, Bahram Saleh Sedghpoor Pages 295-309
    Extended Abstract
    Background and Objectives
    The problem of stress is one of the most significant research subjects in this century. Schools play an essential role in shaping the quality of life and enhancing the mental well-being of teenagers. The school environment is a crucial aspect of adolescents’ quality of life, particularly in relation to their health. Research indicates that adolescents who share a positive bond with their school environment (even if their familial relationships are less favorable) tend to experience lower rates of behavioral and psychological disorders, including stress. Psychologists consider the architecture and physical layout of a school as dynamic elements that significantly impact the quality of educational experiences for students. Furthermore, the middle school years coincide with a period of growth-related challenges, characterized by heightened stress levels and increased susceptibility to psychological, social, and biological pressures, along with a reduced capacity to cope with these challenges. Therefore, investigating and identifying students’ stress in this course is of particular importance. The primary objective of the current research is to improve the quality of educational spaces (secondary schools corresponding to high school education in the previous educational system), by identifying physical and environmental variables effective in reducing students’ stress. Therefore, the main question of this research is what are the physical and environmental factors that reduce the students’ stress in educational spaces? The target group in this research is the female students aged between 15-17 years. 
    Methods
    A hybrid research method (qualitative-quantitative) was used due to the exploratory nature of the research topic. Three steps were followed in the research process. The first step is to the bibliographic review; the second step is to select the top concepts; and the third step is to use the Delphi method. The purpose of the first step is to collect the list of criteria and concepts related to stress, and lack of student adaptability to the environment, which can affect the educational spaces. Related internet searches that focused on qualitative research were utilized (descriptive-analytical and logical reasoning) to achieve this goal. It was important to select and categorize the criteria and concepts collected from the literature review in the second step. The content analysis method was used in this stage. The aim of this research is to categorize the physical concepts and criteria found in the literature based on their importance. However, as the investigation of the topic’s background revealed a lack of such categorization, the Delphi method was employed to gather expert opinions. To ensure an adequate level of precision, the Delphi process was conducted through three successive rounds. In the first round, an open-ended interview was conducted with experts. In the second round, open coding was done with the answers. In the third round, surveys and continuums were formed through axial coding of both ends of the spectrum of components, and a special title was considered for each continuum. After that, the results were converted into a questionnaire through the content objective table and completed in two stages.
    Findings
    Based on the experts’ questionnaire results, the Q factor was analyzed. This approach relies on categorizing individuals based on their interrelationships rather than focusing on variables. In fact, each factor includes a set of experts who have common thoughts on the subject. The data variance suggests that among the nineteen individuals surveyed, six distinct factors can be discerned. The combined cumulative percentage for these six factors stands at 76.8%, signifying that approximately 76% of the participants shared common perspectives, while the remaining 24% held individual viewpoints. This divergence in opinions could be attributed to personal awareness, inclinations, and individual preferences. It implies that there exists an external reality that managed to resonate with 76% of the experts’ minds, influencing the formation of shared ideas.
    Conclusion
    The research results indicate that students’ stress can increase or decrease under the influence of the environment. The qualities of the environment can influence whether an individual adapts to it or not. Experts consider the shaping of the classroom space, the existence of places for group sitting and rest, the existence of places for conversation, and the existence of places for doing group work in the social dimension category. The experts also consider security (type and materials of stairs, etc.), the flexibility of spatial layouts, solitude, territory, suitable perspective, depth, level of visibility, control over climate, level of light, having a view from inside the classroom to the corridor, openness, and the space around the building in the environmental security category. Furthermore, they consider adequate space, having a view from the classroom to the green space, the amount of vegetation in the educational space, the brightness of all spaces, the shape and form of the classroom, the health status of the school, the complexity and non-mystery of the space, the appropriate density of spatial patterns, the proper orientation, privacy, and color in the physical comfort category. The experts also classified sound pollution (noise), crowding, temperature (heat and cold), ventilation, humidity, unpleasant smells, and light in the environmental comfort category. They recognized clarity and comprehensibility of forms, elements, parts and components of the building, predictability of the environment, no sudden change in size, color and texture, type of floor coverings, and use of appropriate and suitable signs in the architectural category. Finally, the experts categorized the feeling of being comfortable, like being at home, having a sense of belonging to the space, crowding in the educational space, creating a sense of solitude and territory, and having a sense of place as the psychological dimension of the environment.
    Keywords: Educational Spaces, Students, Stress, Physical, Environmental Factors
  • Modifying the air flow pattern in cattle barns of Salmas city through architectural intervention to improve the ventilation
    Omid Rahaei *, Mehri Barehyun Pages 311-326
    Extended Abstract
    Background and Objectives
    Observations show that most of the cattle barns built in Iran are in the form of sheds, and during their design phase, limited consideration is given to ventilation conditions, despite the significant need for it, as well as the air circulation patterns within the barns. This oversight leads to numerous issues in the field, with the well-being of the animals subsequently affected. The main goal of the article is to improve the ventilation of in cattle barns, through architecture, in such a way that the optimal and uniform air flow is established throughout the environment, at the level where animals live. According to the nature of the subject, the current research is an interdisciplinary research and a hybrid research method is applied using experimental research strategies, simulation and case study. In the first stage, after identifying the statistical population (cattle barns in the cold region), their current situation was investigated empirically, and after scrutinizing the problem and finding the research variables, the initial plan (case sample) was proposed and modeled. The desired model was first meshed with Gambit, subsequently undergoing simulation via the FLUENT software employing the CFD methodology. Adjustments were introduced to its architectural design, followed by the analysis and formulation of conclusions. The results show that, by making minimal architectural changes to the barn and the openings, it is feasible to enhance the airflow pattern within it. This can effectively establish internal air circulation, diminish temperature disparities among various barn sections, minimize temperature fluctuations, and lower energy consumption. 
    Methods
    Considering its interdisciplinary nature, the research employs a hybrid approach that combines experimental research, simulation, and case study strategies. The research encompasses all cattle barns in cold climates as the statistical population. The chosen case study focuses on a cattle barn designed for approximately 250 cows in the city of Salmas. The research findings indicate that enhancing the architectural layout and positioning of openings, along with their primary composition, can lead to improved ventilation in cattle barns and a more uniform airflow within them. The research utilizes numerical simulation, specifically in the case of a Salmas city cattle barn, validated previously through Olsen’s experimental methods (Rahaei, 2014, 2013). The validation of this method is well-established and is based on Nagano’s (1990) validated technique, utilizing a zero-equation method and model. The numerical calculations are conducted using the computational fluid dynamics method, employing the Gambit preprocessor for meshing and Fluent software for network analysis.
    Findings
    Considering the research goal of enhancing airflow and subsequently ventilation in cattle barns in climates similar to Salmas city (the cold climate), various scenarios of a common case study were examined in a two-dimensional manner. Initially, longitudinal sections were analyzed, followed by transverse sections of the cattle barn. In all scenarios, the energy equation was activated. The optimal condition involves a smooth and favorable inward airflow through side windows. Afterward, this airflow undergoes conditioning as it passes through the radiators installed in the windows and, if necessary, proper dehumidification is achieved with the assistance of mist sprinklers. Minimal energy is drawn from the lower part of the area occupied by the animals and is expelled through the roof opening.
    Conclusion
    Based on the above-mentioned resources, the following are suggested in the case of longitudinal and transverse ventilation of cold climate cattle farms:1. Unpredicted entry of outside air into the interior of cattle barns should be strictly avoided.2. If the entire space of the barn is used, the use of a longitudinal one-way ventilation mechanism is required, while all the openings are closed. It is recommended to incorporate a temperature control source, such as a radiator, positioned at a height of 3 meters above the main floor level, equipped with both hot and cold water supply, at one side of the barn. Simultaneously, a suction device (jet fan) should be installed at floor level on the opposite side, expelling air outward. In this setup, fresh outdoor air, having passed through the radiator, becomes conducive and enters the enclosure. Following even distribution of this air to achieve a desirable temperature within the environment, it exits through the suction system located on the opposite side. Additionally, a pressure regulating valve should be installed at the lower level of the side housing the radiator, which can be closed during colder seasons.3. If it is possible to change the interior space of the cattle barn, lateral ventilation is suggested from both sides.4. In general, transverse ventilation with a roof valve is more efficient than ventilation along the cattle barn.
    Keywords: Ventilation, cattle breeding, Barn Architecture, indoor air flow
  • Meta-study of pathology articles on urban development plans in Iran
    Hojjatollah Kolivand, Morteza Talachian *, Hamid Majedi Pages 327-340
    Extended Abstract
    Background and Objectives
    Urban development plans, the most important and comprehensive document of the development of cities, have passed different periods in terms of content, methodology and implementation. This is due to the importance of plans in urban development and to the failure to implement them. The experiences of preparing urban development plans show that these plans, despite their positive and constructive aspects, have not always solved urban problems, and may have been an important factor in the formation of problems in some cases. This subject has been the basis of many studies in the form of articles, books and reports by experts or consulting companies, Organization, the Ministry of Roads and Urban Development and the Ministry of Interior. Despite new theoretical concepts, including strategic-structural plans, the ineffectiveness of these plans is still evident. Therefore, any kind of research in order to identify and diagnose urban development plans, considering the complexity of urban issues is necessary. The aim of the article is to analyze urban development plans through the structure of studies and the methodology and content of these plans. 
    Methods
    The dominant methodological approach of articles related to the pathology of urban development plans has been the meta-analysis method. Meta-analysis involves a systematic study of previous research findings pertaining to a particular subject, providing the opportunity to derive conclusions that may not be readily evident from the original data within those prior studies. First, related articles have been collected in the period from 1992 to 2020; then, by selecting the number of 85 articles related to the pathology of urban development plans, using the basics and extracting the investigated indicators in the form of a checklist of related data, including study trends, geographical distribution, research approaches and types, research environment, strategies, the methods of data collection and the general approach of the content have been extracted and analyzed quantitatively.
    Findings
    The trend of studies in the investigated period of time shows the fluctuation of studies by researchers regarding the pathology of urban development plans did not increase in different periods. More than 50% of the studies were conducted without case samples. The geographical distribution of studies shows the lack of proper and uniform distribution in the country. In a large number of provinces, despite the increase in the number of cities, no study has been done. The most researchers are related to the field of urban planning with 41% and the second place is geographical sciences with 38% of all researchers. This shows the lack of attention of other sciences related to the city and urban development plans. Based on the research findings, from a methodological perspective, there is a relatively good balance in prescriptive research, with various approaches (comparative and inductive) being utilized in the applied studies. The majority of studies have a qualitative nature and focus on macro-level urban development schemes. More than three-fourths of the research was conducted in bibliographic method and nearly 65% of the articles were descriptive and phenomenological in terms of research methods. It is clear that pathology studies of urban development plans notably lack the incorporation of alternative research methods, such as parametric and non-parametric approaches. According to the results of this article, more than 75% of studies have been based on documentary methods, which is on the one hand due to the documentation of comprehensive urban plans and the necessity of document review, and on the other hand, it shows the weakness and lack of attention to other methods of data collection in case studies.
    Conclusion
    The findings indicate that the increase in the quantity of pathology studies does not correspond proportionally to the increase in the number of cities and graduates of this field in the country, and on the other hand, the geographical distribution shows that more than two-thirds of the country’s provinces have no specific study or only they are satisfied with one research. In the specialized fields, 80% of studies are done by graduates of urban planning and geographical sciences, and researchers of economic and social sciences have paid the least attention to the field of urban planning. Therefore, it seems necessary that the authorities take measures for the purposeful collaboration of other researchers related to the city. Also, the lack of appropriate and relevant methodology and high dependence on phenomenology and document study, despite the survey and field nature of the research field and the lack of combined methods, can be seen in these articles. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the objective and operational aspects of urban development plans; move more towards mixed (quantitative-qualitative) research. Overall, the findings indicate that studies related to urban development plans have a fundamental weakness in terms of methodology. The methodological content analysis of the studied articles indicates two distinct types of urban development plan pathology studies. The first group, with 6% of the articles, has investigated the level of realization and the reasons for the non-realization of the goals in the samples, and nearly 94% based on the experiences of the authors have raised the causes of the inefficiency of urban development plans, which is due to the influence of studies on the phenomenological method and the priority of knowing the cause is more than the knowing the effect, and it indicates the lack of investigations with an inductive approach in urban development plans. In conclusion, it is suggested that the Supreme Council of Urban Planning and Architecture of Iran, considering its mission in this regard using the capacity of numerous and related scientific centers throughout the provinces of the country, according to the periods of monitoring and revision of plans, provide the field for targeted studies by researchers. This can balance between the time periods of studies, the optimal distribution of studies according to issues and problems and the dispersion of cities and the use of different researchers in this field.
    Keywords: Urban Development Plan Articles, Meta-analysis, Pathology
  • Correlation analysis of physical satisfaction and job satisfaction of control room staff and prioritization of open space design parameters in gas power plants; Case study: Gas power plants in Kermanshah province
    Sadegh Koulivandi, Mahdi Zandieh *, Karim Afshar, Naser Barati Pages 341-356

    Extended Abstract

    Background and Objectives

    Focusing solely on the technical and physical aspects of power plant complexes to meet machine requirements has led to a pattern of repetitive cubic shapes and functional structures. Consequently, the central open areas within these rigid and functional structures have primarily been designated for vehicle access and pedestrian walkways, primarily serving as passageways for employees. Changing the attitude of the designers regarding the responsiveness of the open spaces of the power plant to the other needs of the employees could enhance the overall quality of the workplace, ultimately resulting in greater physical satisfaction among the staff. For this reason, it is essential that the role of open and vacant spaces in power plant complexes becomes bolder, and free from traditional isolation. A noteworthy challenge in designing industrial areas is the lack of attention to achieve the optimal design for industrial units in order to improve the job satisfaction of employees. This research shows the weakness of the existing written theoretical literature about the design of open spaces in power plant units under topics such as physical satisfaction and job satisfaction. In the present research: 1- Correlation analysis of physical satisfaction and job satisfaction, 2- Correlation analysis of open space indicators and job satisfaction, 3- Extraction and compilation of ranking of effective parameters of open space design in line with physical satisfaction in power plant industrial units are studied. In the research, the methods of reviewing texts, sources and documents in the context of bibliographic studies, case research and observation have been used. Also, in this research, the correlation between the sense of physical satisfaction and job satisfaction of the control room employees will be investigated.

    Methods

    Using the Delphi method, quantitative and qualitative indicators of open space have been identified, selected and prioritized, and then field studies (questionnaire tool) have been used. At this stage, using the questionnaire data, the physical satisfaction and job satisfaction of the control room employees are measured and at the end, the correlation coefficient of the research variables is determined (the Pearson correlation coefficient analysis was done in the SPSS version 26 software environment). The nature of the research is descriptive-analytical and based on the purpose, it is practical and by recognizing and analyzing the existing power plant units (using observation, in-depth interviews and questionnaires), prominent parameters in the design of open spaces of power plants are recovered.

    Findings

    The research findings are categorized as follows: 1. Explaining and ranking the important parameters of open space and their impact on the job satisfaction of gas plant control room employees; 2. The possibility of obtaining the achievements of “satisfaction with the physical environment of the workspace” and “job satisfaction” for gas plant control room employees. Confirmation of the research hypothesis, which is based on the correlation of physical satisfaction and job satisfaction of gas plant control room employees (correlation coefficient (0.390) and significance level (0.001)) and the correlation of open space indicators and job satisfaction of control room employees in the open space of gas power plant (correlation coefficient (0.393) and significance level (0.001)) is highlighted in research results (Pearson’s correlation coefficient analysis by SPSS software, version 26). The primary outcome of this study involves the identification of crucial factors, as perceived by control room personnel in the studies gas power plants in the design of the open space of the power plant in line with the physical satisfaction of the gas power plant control room employees and compiling their ranking and importance using the Delphi method separately in each power plant.

    Conclusion

    Therefore, prioritizing the results of this research is effective and decisive in changing the role of open spaces from vacant and unimportant spaces to human-centered places. Due to the anxious and sensitive working conditions, the employees of the control room of the power plant complexes are in a dangerous situation and the physical work environment is effective in adjusting and reducing these dangerous conditions. According to the results of this research (questionnaire and in-depth interview), the existence of a place and the formation of a sense of place in the control room are effective in employees’ satisfaction with the work environment. Therefore, creating or strengthening the sense of place in the control room employees is one of the best ways to create physical satisfaction. Standardization and modulation as well as the use of super scale (large or very large scale) are among the most important complications of power plant construction. These features have a negative impact on the place and prepare the ground for its destruction. Other causes of this destruction, including: disconnection, non-distinctiveness and lack of originality, can be defined under standardization, modulation and use of super scale (large and very large scale). The results of the analysis of the questionnaire items regarding the identification and ranking of the physical parameters of the open space of the gas power plant (based on the total score of each option in the Delphi method), which is the priority of the control room staff (extracted from an in-depth interview with the control room staff and experts and then screening it), Without considering the priority, is as follows: - Architectural design - View and landscape - Vegetation - Facilities and facilities - Access - Furniture - Color and texture of materials - Connection with other spaces - Variety of activities.

    Keywords: Power Plant Industrial Units, Open Space, Physical Satisfaction, Job Satisfaction
  • Evaluating the environmental features of contemporary commercial spaces through youth’s perspective; Case study: Isfahan City Center complex
    Sara Sadeghi, Bahram Shahedi *, Bahador Zamani, Samar Haghighi Boroojeni Pages 357-376
    Extended Abstract
    Background and Objectives
    Contemporary commercial spaces fall under quasi-public spaces, which have long served as the physical platforms of social, economic, and cultural aspects for public life. Today, these spaces are not just confined to commercial functions; rather, they have taken on a cultural turn to turn into places for recreation and leisure of the young people and also social contexts for the formation of their identity and behavior. Also, anthropological developments have changed the man-place and man-man link in the place. In modern society, individual tastes are important, while modernism and change are recognized as the social values of the modern world. Changes made to commercial spaces, on the one hand, and the individual-environment relationship in these spaces, on the other hand, have affected and transformed users’ environmental evaluation criteria of commercial spaces, while creating new challenges and opportunities at the same time. Hence, young people are influential in public and quasi-public spaces, and they should be considered as a large resource in planning processes. The present study aimed to examine the environmental characteristics of contemporary shopping malls from the perspective of the youth by investigating Isfahan City Center Complex as the case study.
    Methods
    The methodology of this study was descriptive-evaluative. Since people’s evaluation of the environment may vary from one individual to another, it is required to adopt a qualitative and exploratory approach to meet this goal. Hence, the present study used case study strategies and qualitative approaches. Data were collected in two general sections. In the first section, a self-evaluation tool was used for the free expression of beliefs and attitudes in the form of semi-structured open-ended interviews. Interview items and propositions were developed based on the conceptual framework of the study, encompassing people’s holistic assessment of locations, the length of time spent in these locations, their preferences within these environments, the driving factors behind their visits, and their suggestions for alterations, reductions, or additions to these places. In the interviews, purposive sampling was used and the interviews with the youth ranging from 20 to 30, who had visited Isfahan City Center Complex, continued in several stages until theoretical saturation was met. As for the validity and reliability of the study, library sources, field observations and two place- and individual-oriented behavior maps or behavior tracking, along with the interviews, were used. These non-interventional field observations were performed in a macro-level behavioral unit, for which behavioral mapping was provided for ten days with the presence of the observer at Isfahan City Center Complex in March 2020.  Also, interview data were analyzed using Theme Analysis Technique and Atlas TI 8 Software, while observation data were analyzed by simple descriptive statistics.
    Findings
    All open codes and categories were extracted from interviews and analyzed, as only the final criteria were provided in the form of findings following the investigation of indicators and field observations. These observations were collected for each behavioral center at three-time intervals, while group movements and behaviors were outlined in the form of lines in separate maps; after this, all tracking maps were outlined in the form of a combined map resulting from an overlap of single tracking. In the next step, the validity of the expressions made within the self-evaluation tools, the indicators resulting from responses and their divergence from and convergence with what occurs in field observations were examined and interpreted. Accordingly, the youths’ evaluation of the Isfahan City Center Complex involves a variety of physical-environmental, functional-activity, social-cultural, and individual-psychological dimensions. Each of these dimensions has indicators that sometimes overlap, and are finally presented in the form of theoretical models.
    Conclusion
    Findings revealed that commercial spaces at Isfahan City Center Complex are affected by the environmental factors across physical, functional-activity, social-cultural, and individual dimensions. Consequently, these factors have reshaped the complex, turning it into a quasi-public space characterized by diverse social and cultural interactions. As a result, new commercial space experiences have emerged, particularly for young individuals. In addition, non-environmental economic factors, marketing and managerial factors, complex maintenance, sales festivals and customer affairs and services affect young peoples’ evaluation. Thus, planners and officials are required to consider physical, functional and social changes to affect the quantity and quality of mandatory, voluntary and social behavioral patterns in spaces. Considering physical structures proportionate to some voluntary behaviors, interactive social behaviors and social partnerships, such as creating spatial diversity, along with intermediary spaces and natural views, creating a system of interactive equipment and furniture to create official and non-official sitting opportunities, creating unofficial and flexible collective spaces using decorations, local elements and symbols for holding ceremonies, and establishing social, religious and national festivals and ceremonies, which conform to our culture in local market samples, could contribute to this goal. In this regard, it is essential to use collaborative approaches between young users and space officials in designing and planning contemporary commercial spaces, such as Isfahan City Center Complex. In the end, concerning commercial spaces planning, it is required to strike a balance between preserving elements from local cultures and historical spaces, as seen in traditional examples, and incorporating these elements into contemporary contexts.
    Keywords: Mental Evaluative Image, environmental features, contemporary commercial spaces, Youth, Isfahan City Center Complex
  • Developing mechanisms for improving the distribution and access to neighborhood commercial services in Tehran
    Zahra Azad Takcho Olia, Kourosh Asefvaziri, Mohammad Saeid Izadi * Pages 377-399
    Extended Abstract
    Background and Objectives
    Commercial services play a significant role in the daily lives of neighborhood residents. However, when we look at the city of Tehran’s development plans regarding local services, they primarily focus on services directly provided by public and government institutions. This has led to an uneven distribution of commercial services in various neighborhoods. As a result, it becomes essential for the municipal authorities to intervene in the distribution and accessibility of neighborhood commercial services. Thus, this research aims to develop a strategic plan for the appropriate distribution and allocation of commercial services within neighborhoods.
    Methods
    This research, considered an applied research, adopts a mixed-method approach, with a qualitative emphasis. It incorporates various data collection methods, including documentary research, secondary data analysis, non-participatory observation, in-depth interviews, and questionnaires. Data analysis encompasses statistical analysis, qualitative content analysis, and comparative analysis. In order to formulate a strategic plan for the spatial distribution of neighborhood services in Tehran, various aspects affecting the access to neighborhood services have been examined through the bibliographic review of global experiences. In addition, the models for evaluating the pedestrian access to neighborhood services have also been reviewed so that the model suitable for the context of Tehran’s neighborhoods is formulated as a model for measuring pedestrian access to services. After developing the relevant conceptual framework, this framework was used to identify neighborhood commercial services and ways of accessing these services in the selected neighborhoods. In addition to this investigation, the current state of access to neighborhood services, the causes of the formation of services in the current situation of neighborhoods and the needs, demand, patterns and tendencies of the people in using services were identified, and the pathology of the distribution of neighborhood services in the sample neighborhoods was made. This pathology, which led to the classification of problems in the field of distribution of neighborhood services, became the basis for developing a strategic plan for the appropriate spatial distribution of neighborhood commercial services in Tehran.
    Findings
    In order to formulate a strategic plan for the spatial distribution of neighborhood services in Tehran, various aspects affecting the access to neighborhood services have been examined through the bibliographic review of global experiences. In addition, the models for evaluating the pedestrian access to neighborhood services have also been reviewed, adapting them to suit the unique context of Tehran’s neighborhoods, thus creating a suitable model for measuring pedestrian access to services. After developing the relevant conceptual framework, this framework was used to identify neighborhood commercial services and ways of accessing these services in the selected neighborhoods. In addition to this investigation, the current state of access to neighborhood services, the causes of the formation of services in the current situation of neighborhoods and the needs, demand, patterns and tendencies of the people in using services were identified, and an assessment and pathology of the distribution of neighborhood services within the chosen neighborhoods was conducted. This pathology, which led to the classification of problems in the field of distribution of neighborhood services, paved the way for developing a strategic plan for the appropriate spatial distribution of neighborhood commercial services in Tehran.
    Conclusion
    The study results show that improving the distribution of pedestrian-based neighborhood services requires formulation and implementation of short-term, medium-term and long-term programs. In the short term, it is necessary to approve and communicate guidelines in relation to the distribution of neighborhood commercial services, access to neighborhood commercial services and needs assessment of neighborhood commercial services in the neighborhood development plan of the city of Tehran, respectively, under the detailed plan of the city of Tehran, the comprehensive plan of integrated transportation of the city of Tehran and the regulations of the neighborhood development plan of Tehran. In order to operationalize the mechanisms related to the promotion of smart access to neighborhood services, it is also necessary to revise the guidelines of Tehran Municipality for the support of startups based on the proposals of this project in the short term. Considering that currently the municipality has no intervention in the process of issuing licenses to commercial services, medium-term plans and measures to promote the distribution of neighborhood services based on the definition of the position of the municipality in the process of distributing neighborhood services (through the issuance of licenses for space acquisition or provision) is considered. In this regard, three scenarios have been proposed. In the first scenario, Tehran Municipality can be added to the process of issuing a business license as one of the permanent authorities for issuing a business license. In other words, the request to set up a commercial business in the neighborhood must be approved by the municipality. In the second scenario, it is not necessary to get an approval from the municipality of the region, but if the license applicants receive documents from the municipality indicating the need for the relevant services, they will be subject to a discount in the four municipal services. In other words, receiving approval from the municipality to obtain a business license will result in taking advantage of the municipality’s incentives. The operationalization of the first and second the scenario requires the revision of the executive regulations on the manner of issuing and extending the business license (the subject of Article “12” of the Trade Union Law) in the medium term. In the third scenario, the municipality does not interfere in issuing a license for local commercial activities. In this particular scenario, the municipality is actively involved in supplying the necessary space for setting up local commercial services, such as fruit and vegetable markets and neighborhood stores. In the medium term, this scenario requires the revision of fruit and vegetable fields services in the statutes of the fruit and vegetable fields management organization of Tehran municipality and the local Shahrvand markets. Long-term plans and measures also rely on the change of the laws in order to grant the municipality the authority to issue business licenses.
    Keywords: neighborhood commercial services, service distribution, accessibility, pedestrianization, Regulations, Guidelines
  • Conceptualization and presentation of a process model for implementation of urban development projects in the global literature
    Amirhousein Bakhshi, Ahmad Khalili * Pages 401-423
    Extended Abstract
    Background and Objectives
    In 1984, Pressman and Wildavsky conducted a study that directly discussed the implementation of urban development plans (Pressman & Wildavsky, 1984). Since then, the implementation of urban development plans has been studied extensively, with different researchers investigating four general categories of key issues in this field. The first category is the conceptual examination of program implementation based on compliance, performance, or a combination of both (Feitelson et al., 2017; Rudolf & Grădinaru, 2017). The second category includes the evaluation and different methods of urban development plans (Alfasi et al., 2012; Lyles et al., 2015). The third category is the identification of effective and influencing factors in the implementation process of urban plans (Loh, 2019; Chu, 2020). Finally, the fourth category, which has received the least attention, is the implementation system of urban plans, which examines implementation systems as a comprehensive and independent process (Suárez-Rocha et al., 2012; Hersperger et al., 2019; Nikolić et al., 2021). While research has been conducted in different sections, such as evaluation, effective factors, performance, and the role of people, the implementation system of urban plans has been limitedly studied. Thus, the main question of this research is “how to model the ideal system of implementation management” in urban development plans to achieve a general concept in the world. The purpose of this article is to identify and introduce an evaluation model and executive management for urban plans, which has not received much attention.
    Methods
    This research is a descriptive-analytical research in which, by reviewing the documents and the global literature of the investigated field of operationalization and implementation of urban plans, the indicators, systems, and elements of this subject in the global literature have been collected. The main method in this research is documentary studies. In the first stage, the indicators, pillars, definitions, and generality of the subject have been identified in the world literature, and then after identifying these indicators from the bibliographic method using text analysis techniques and the help of experts, in a workshop, a proposed system based on Global literature has been discussed for the implementation and operationalization of urban plans.
    Findings
    The research’s main question is “How to model the ideal system of implementation management” in urban development plans to achieve a general concept in the world? By reviewing the global literature on implementation management and operationalization of urban plans, 74 indicators divided into 17 sections have been identified. Based on the totality of urban plans, studies, and documents reviewed in this research, an 8-step general framework for the implementation management of plans for a city has been presented. The eight stages of the proposed model are respectively; “Initial review of the whole,” “Review of implementation conditions,” “Responsibility and rules,” “Time and resources,” “Operationalization program,” “Effectiveness,” “Implementation,” and “Evaluation and correction.” This model provides a comprehensive system for managing urban plans from preparation to final implementation to ensure complete and correct implementation. The eight main stages also have executive subsets that cover all 74 identified indicators and factors. In addition to the eight steps, this model requires 5 groups of implementation, evaluation, monitoring, training, and participation, which form the executive council of this model. The proposed model’s focus is on program implementation, whereas, in most similar studies, implementation is seen within the preparation of the program and alongside it. Hersperger et al. (2019) proposed a framework (SPlaMI) that represents current planning practices based on two stages of implementation and planning, including ten general frameworks. Although the research conducted by Hersperger et al. and the current research both seek to introduce a logical system for the optimal implementation of urban plans, there are some differences between them. Hersperger’s research was limited to a systematic review of the implementation based on specific and limited criteria, while the current research looked at the subject in a more general way.
    Conclusion
    Operationalizing urban plans is a crucial issue in the modern literature of urban planning worldwide. It is understood as a process in which plans are transformed into (urban) space changes to ensure controlled and anticipated change and development (Clifford & Tewdwr-Jones, 2013). If plans are not implemented, no development will take place. This research provides an initially proposed system by reviewing the world literature in this field. While some studies in this field, such as Hersperger et al. (2019), introduce proposed frameworks for the optimal implementation of urban plans, the focus is often on specific and limited criteria. In contrast, this research looks at the implementation process in a general sense. The current research provides an initially proposed system based on global literature to ensure the implementation and operationalization of urban plans. The proposed model provides a comprehensive system for managing urban plans, from preparation to final implementation to ensure complete and correct implementation. The proposed model can help policymakers and urban planners identify the key factors and indicators required for the optimal implementation of urban plans. The proposed model’s focus on program implementation can make it a valuable tool in improving the quality of life in urban areas.
    Keywords: City Development Plans, Implementation, realization, process model