فهرست مطالب

مجله متن شناسی ادب فارسی
سال پانزدهم شماره 3 (پیاپی 59، پاییز 1402)

  • تاریخ انتشار: 1402/08/06
  • تعداد عناوین: 6
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  • ابوالفضل محبی، میرجلال الدین کزازی*، خلیل بیگزاده صفحات 1-16
    نقد ادبی واکاوی لایه های معنایی متن برپایه نظریه هایی است که بیشتر، از حوزه های دیگر علوم انسانی گرفته شده است. یکی از تازه ترین نظریه ها در این زمینه تاریخ گرایی نوین است که در اواخر دهه هفتاد و اوایل دهه هشتاد میلادی، استیون گرینبلت آن را پایه گذاری کرد. برخلاف تاریخ گرایی سنتی که از تاثیر یک سویه تاریخ بر ادبیات سخن می گوید، تاریخ گرایی نوین به تاثیر متقابل ادبیات و تاریخ بر یکدیگر باور دارد. این پژوهش داستان فریدون و ضحاک را برپایه تاریخ گرایی نوین و با تکیه بر مطالعات کتابخانه ای و اسنادی، با رویکردی توصیفی تحلیلی بررسی و تحلیل و معنای تازه ای از آن ارایه کرده است. دستاورد پژوهش نشان می دهد که کشمکش گفتمان ایرانی (فریدون و کاوه) با گفتمان انیرانی در این داستان بر سر قدرت است که سرانجام به غلبه گفتمان ایرانی می انجامد. شخصیت های این داستان هریک نماینده گفتمانی در جامعه داستان هستند. در آغاز، گفتمان انیرانی گفتمان مسلط و در قدرت، و گفتمان ایرانی در حاشیه و خارج از قدرت است؛ اما در پایان داستان، وضعیت دگرگون می شود. پیرنگ داستان حاصل کشمکش گفتمان ایرانی و انیرانی بر سر قدرت است.
    کلیدواژگان: گفتمان کاوی، تاریخ گرایی نوین، شاهنامه فردوسی، فریدون، ضحاک
  • مهدی محمدقاسمی، سیده مریم روضاتیان*، سید علی اصغر میرباقری فرد صفحات 17-32
    تذکره الاولیای عطار نیشابوری یکی از متون ادبی عرفانی است که در میان آثار عرفانی فارسی، جایگاه ویژه ای دارد. تردیدی نیست که عطار برای تدوین تذکره الاولیا از آثار عرفانی پیش از خود استفاده کرده؛ اما در نقل اقوال و حکایات از همه منابع، به شیوه یکسان عمل نکرده است. مقایسه بینامتنی تذکره الاولیا با متون پیش از عطار یکی از شیوه هایی است که ازطریق آن می توان هم به منابع اصلی عطار دست یافت و هم جایگاه عطار را، در مرتبه نویسنده متنی ادبی عرفانی، تحلیل کرد. در این مقاله برای تحلیل دقیق تر، اقوال مربوط به «رضا» از تذکره الاولیا با کشف المحجوب و ترجمه رساله قشیریه مقایسه بینامتنی شده است. پرسش اصلی پژوهش این است که «مناسبات بینامتنی تذکره الاولیا با دو اثر عرفانی پیش از خود چگونه است؟». دستاوردهای پژوهش نشان می دهد مناسبات بینامتنی اقوال درباره رضا در این سه اثر، در پنج دسته بینامتنیت مستقیم، کاهشی، افزایشی، چندگانه و تلفیقی قرار می گیرد. بیشترین مناسبت بینامتنی میان تذکره الاولیا و ترجمه رساله قشیریه بینامتنیت مستقیم و میان تذکره الاولیا و کشف المحجوب بینامتنیت کاهشی است. این مقایسه بینامتنی نشان می دهد عطار متناسب با اهدافی که در تالیف تذکره الاولیا داشته و نیز ویژگی های متون پیشین، اقوال را نقل کرده است. حذف عبارت های عربی، توضیح و تفسیر، تغییراتی است که عطار در اقوال ماخوذ از کشف المحجوب ایجاد کرده است؛ درحالی که تغییرات واژگانی، صرفی و نحوی متناسب با زبان فارسی و افزایش عناصر مخیل و تاکیدساز در اقوال برگرفته از ترجمه رساله قشیریه دیده می شود.
    کلیدواژگان: تذکره الاولیا، ترجمه رساله قشیریه، کشف المحجوب، بینامتنیت، رضا
  • رضا روحانی* صفحات 33-51
    بی گمان حافظ شیرازی از بلندآوازه ترین شاعران زبان فارسی است؛ اما هنوز همه راز و رمزها و علل و عوامل این شهرت و مقبولیت، با وجود پژوهش های شایسته و فراوان، کشف و بیان نشده است و همچنان پژوهشگران حوزه های مختلف ادبیات و عرفان، به ویژه با روش ها و رویکردهای جدید نقد ادبی و سبک شناسی در این راه می کوشند. در این مقاله، با شیوه ای توصیفی تحلیلی یکی از خلاقیت ها و ظرایف زبانی و معنایی شعر حافظ بررسی می شود و ابعاد و نکته های ناگفته ای از آن کشف و بازنمایی خواهد شد. نگارنده در این پژوهش می کوشد تعبیر و اصطلاح «آن» را در شعر حافظ کاربردشناسی و منظورشناسی کند و با دو رویکرد صورتگرایی و تاویلی، رفتارها، خلاقیت ها و مقاصد شاعر را از کاربرد «آن» بررسی کند. نگارنده ضمن اشاره به کاربردهای «آن» در دستور زبان (ضمیر و صفت اشاره)، بیشتر به مفاهیم اصطلاحی و عرفانی «آن» در زبان عارفان و به ویژه غزلیات حافظ توجه دارد و به طور خلاصه و در حد توان تبیین می کند که چگونه واژه نشان دار «آن» در شعر حافظ می تواند معانی و کارکردهای مختلف هنری و زیباشناختی ای داشته باشد که پیشتر بیان نشده است. از نتایج عمده این پژوهش آن است که واژه «آن» در شعر حافظ به اغراض مختلفی به کار رفته و با هنر ایهام و ابهام، توسع معنایی یافته است؛ درواقع از این راه، ایجاز و انسجام شعر افزایش یافته و به تفخیم و تعظیم معانی کمک شده است.
    کلیدواژگان: شعر حافظ، ضمیر و صفت اشاره «آن»، «آن» در زبان عرفانی، معنی شناسی «آن»، کاربردشناسی «آن»
  • زینب رضاپور*، راحله کلانتری درونکلا صفحات 53-71
    دلالت ضمنی یکی از رویکردهای نشانه شناسی است که با معناهای پنهان و ژرف ساخت متون به مثابه کلیت های نظام مند سروکار دارد و درپی آن است تا با تکیه بر بافت کاربردی واژه و ویژگی های مخاطب، از ظاهر نظام های نشانه ای عبور کند و به لایه های زیرین متن دست یابد. مثنوی به دلیل ساختار تاویل پذیر و تودرتو، قابلیت بررسی از این دیدگاه را دارد و با واکاوی دلالت های ضمنی آن می توان به انسجام و وحدت اندام وار و نیز مفاهیم پنهان بسیاری پی برد. هدف این پژوهش، تبیین چگونگی دلالت های ضمنی برآمده از تناسب الفاظ در مثنوی است؛ ازاین رو در پژوهش حاضر با روش تحلیل محتوا از دیدگاه نشانه شناسی گفتمانی، برخی از دلالت های ضمنی مثنوی از دو منظر بررسی و تحلیل می شود. یافته های پژوهش بیانگر آن است که دلالت ضمنی برآمده از تناسب الفاظ در مثنوی به دو شکل دیده می شود: در شکل اول، باهم آیی و تناسب واژگان برجسته یک رویداد یا داستان دینی و تاریخی مشهور در محور هم نشینی بیت، تداعی کننده آن رویداد برای مخاطب و القاکننده معنای ضمنی دیگری است که با ظاهر بیت و زمینه اصلی بحث در محور عمودی شعر نیز هماهنگی دارد. در شکل دوم، شاعر، واژگان و فرازهای برجسته از داستانی مشهور و مرتبط را با کلام خود می آمیزد؛ ولی این نشانه های زبانی، معنای ثانویه ای به بیت نمی بخشد؛ بلکه حضور آن واژگان در تعدادی از ابیات متوالی، مخاطب را به دلالت ضمنی موجود در کلیت ابیات رهنمون می کند.
    کلیدواژگان: تناسب واژگان، دلالت ضمنی، مثنوی، مولوی، نشانه شناسی گفتمانی
  • علیرضا شانظری*، قاسم سالاری صفحات 73-88
    ظهیر فاریابی (متوفی 598 ق.) یکی از شاعران بزرگ قصیده سرای ایران در سده ششم هجری است. دیوان او چندین بار در ایران و هند چاپ شده است؛ اما تصحیح یزدگردی از دیوان ظهیر که به همت شاگردش، اصغر دادبه در 1381 خورشیدی منتشر شد، می توانست بهترین و منقح ترین تصحیح دیوان ظهیر به شمار آید؛ ولی به دلیل استفاده نکردن مصحح از نسخه های قدیم تر مانند نسخه کتابخانه نورعثمانیه و نسخه مجموعه حکیم اوغلو و دست نویس سفینه تبریز اشکالاتی در آن راه یافته است. تاکنون محققان بسیاری به این عیب چاپ یزدگردی اشاره کرده اند؛ ازجمله سید علی میرافضلی و شریفی صحی که براساس دست نویس سفینه تبریز و نسخه کتابخانه نورعثمانیه به این اشکالات پرداخته اند. در این مقاله، به روش توصیفی تحلیلی و با مقابله تصحیح مرحوم یزدگردی با نسخه حکیم اوغلو به برخی از این کاستی ها پرداخته ایم. نسخه حکیم اوغلو ازجمله نسخه های به غارت رفته آستانه شیخ صفی در اردبیل است که تاریخ کتابت ندارد و به گواهی نوع خط و محتویات آن احتمالا در قرن هفتم هجری قمری از روی نسخه های اصیل نوشته شده است. پژوهش حاضر نشان می دهد که با گردآوری نسخه های بهتر و مجموعه های دیگری مثل جنگ ها و تذکره ها می توان به چاپی منقح تر از دیوان ظهیر فاریابی دست یافت. همچنین این پژوهش می تواند مرجعی برای پژوهندگان دیوان ظهیر باشد و مانع از کاستی های احتمالی بعدی شود.
    کلیدواژگان: دیوان ظهیر فاریابی، تصحیح یزدگردی، نسخه حکیم اوغلو، دستنویس سفینه تبریز
  • شهرت معرفت* صفحات 89-104
    انیس العارفین (مثنوی ناخدا) منظومه ای داستانی است. این مثنوی سروده آغا محمدحسین صاحب شیرازی، متخلص به «ناخدا»ست. آغا محمدحسین صاحب شیرازی این منظومه را در سال 1293 ق. (در عصر حکومت ناصرالدین شاه) و به گفته خود در روزگار پیری و در زمانی سرود که سفیر ایران در بنگاله هند بود. محور این مقاله، بررسی و تحلیل زبانی منظومه انیس العارفین براساس دو چاپ سنگی موجود از این منظومه است؛ منظومه ای به زبان فارسی از سراینده ای ترک زبان که در شبه قاره آن عصر خوانندگانی داشته است. همچنین این متن افزون بر فواید زبانی، ازنظر ادبی، اطلاعات تاریخی عصر قاجار و حکومتیان، به ویژه فتحعلی شاه و ناصرالدین شاه و برخی از مرزبانان محلی هند و اطلاعات جغرافیایی به ویژه درباره شیراز و هند، زادگاه و زیستگاه شاعر، از دید یک ناظر حاضر در آن عصر، دارای توضیحات و تازگی هایی است. انیس العارفین همچنین ازنظر ادبیات عامیانه، حکایت ها، افسانه ها و تمثیل ها تامل برانگیز، خواندنی و تازه است. این منظومه در حوزه صورخیال و برخی توصیف های شاعرانه نیز تازگی هایی دارد. شاعر این منظومه شخصیتی سیاسی ادبی بوده است. این منظومه در شناخت شاعر، سند منحصری است و با آن می توان به برخی از اطلاعات شخصی و خانوادگی او دست یافت و برخی از شخصیت های سیاسی تاریخی را شناخت که نشانی از آنها در تاریخ نمانده است. همچنین به پیوند این اثر با دیگر آثار، به ویژه خسرو و شیرین نظامی اشاره می شود که سراینده انیس العارفین این منظومه را با توجه به آن سروده است.
    کلیدواژگان: انیس العارفین، آغا محمدحسین شیرازی، نسخه شناسی، متن شناسی، عصر قاجار، شبه قاره
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  • Abolfazl Mohebbi, Mirjalalodin Kazazi *, Khalil Baygzade Pages 1-16
    Abstract
    Literary criticism is the analysis of the text's semantic layers based on theories that are mostly drawn from other fields of the humanities. The new historicism, which was established by Stephen Greenblatt in the late 1970s and early 1980s, is one of the most current theories in this area. Modern historicism holds that literature and history both have an impact on one another, in contrast to conventional historicism, which speaks of the one-sided influence of history on literature. Modern historians contend that literature does more than just reflect history; rather, the link between history and literature is dialectical rather than reflective. Based on current historicism, library, and document studies, and using a descriptive-analytical approach, this study has looked into and analyzed the story of Fereydoun and Zahak, and has offered a new interpretation of it. According to the study's findings, the conflict between the Iranian discourse and the non-Iranian discourse (Fereydoun and Kaveh) in this story is driven by power, which ultimately leads to the dominance of the Iranian discourse. The characters of this story are each representative of discourse in the story community. Iranian discourse is on the margins and out of power at first, while non-Iranian discourse is dominant and in power. However, by the end of the story, the situation has changed. The plot is driven by the conflict between Iranian and non-Iranian discourse on power.
    Introduction
    The story in question was composed as a poem in one of the most sensitive historical situations, that is, the time when the Arab element thought itself superior to Iran and Iranians. The ideological pressures from the Arabic discourse have become more sophisticated throughout this time, and they now want to marginalize the Iranian discourse, which takes the shape of the Shu'ubiyya movement. The space for Shu'ubiyya's Iranian discourse has been constrained by these restrictions from the Baghdad-based authority and its close allies in Iran, notably the Ghaznavid empire. In such a circumstance, Ferdowsi uses the story of Fereydoun and Zahak, which is rich in elements of battle and resistance, to rekindle Iranians' spirit of battle and resistance against the notion of Arab superiority. This story reflects the struggle between Iranian discourse (Feryedoun and Kaveh) and non-Iranian discourse (Zahhak); the struggle that existed during Ferdowsi's period and the Shu’ubiyya movement has been in conflict with what was against Iran and Iranians. Freyedoun, an Iranian aristocrat, is related to Jamshid. Zahak pulled Jamshid down from the kingdom and killed him. Since then, Fereydoun and all other Jamshidis have lost their position in the society and privileges. Fereydon's fight against Zahak is motivated by three different reasons, considering the fact that Zahak also murdered his father Abtin and the Bermaye cow that Fereydon fed on as a child. The reasons were 1) national motivation (saving Iran from the oppressive non-Iranian element), 2) class motivation (restoring the social position and privileges of the Jamshidian class), and 3) personal motivation (taking revenge on Zahhak for murdering Abtin and Barmayeh cow). As a patriotic Iranian, Fereydoun finds Zahak's existence intolerable and feels it is his national responsibility to rebel against the foreign, alien, and oppressive forces that have imposed themselves on Iran.
    Materials and Methods
    In this study, an effort is made to analyze the Fereydoun and Zahhak battle story in Shahnameh using modern historicism and to provide a novel interpretation of it. The research is based on new theories and schools, text analysis, and criticism. By using library and documentary studies, as well as descriptive and analytical approaches, we have attempted to offer a novel interpretation of the text under discussion and respond to the following research questions: 1) What are the dominant (in power) and marginal (outside of power) discourses, and what is their connection to power? 2) Why did Ferdowsi favor a particular discourse? 3) What was the reason for it and how did this favoritism occur? 4) What is the relationship and similarity between the story of Fereydoun and Zahak with the history of Ferdowsi's time? 5) What genre and group are the target audience of the story? And 6) what is the intertextual relationship of this story with other Persian literary texts?
    Research
    Findings
    The study's findings demonstrate that the struggle between the Iranian discourse (represented by Fereydoun and Kaveh) and the non-Iranian discourse in this story is motivated by a desire for power which ultimately leads to the dominance of the Iranian discourse. The characters of this story are each representative of discourse in the story community. Other discourses are on the margins and outside of power, but Zahak's discourse is dominant and in power. The effort and struggle between these marginal discourses to gain power and the center gave rise to the story, and these conflicts between the marginal discourses and the dominant discourse (Zahak) serve as its driving force. The element of conflict in the story is represented through disobedience, rebellion, and war. As a poet, Ferdowsi has clearly taken the side of the marginal discourses centered on Fereydoun. Ferdowsi is inclined toward the usage of positive adjectives and phrases. He sets his supported discourses apart from other discourses in this way.
    Discussion of Results and
    Conclusions
    Instead of focusing on the characters' specific historical actions, this story attempts to explore the universal nature of man by narrating the behavior of the characters in a way that makes the reader think about the historical patterns of the members of their society or even the general nature of mankind. As a result, any autocratic, murderous, and cruel dictator may be likened to Zahhak, and every person fighting for liberation from tyranny can be compared to Kaveh. In addition, there are similarities between the characters in the story and historical figures from Ferdowsi's era that are worthy of consideration and come about as a result of how we interpret the story. For instance, Zahhak and the Abbasid caliphs are comparable in terms of race, autocracy, and animosity toward the Iranian race. In other words, the murder, repression, and brutality of the Abbasid caliphs have been demonstrated in the form of the myth of Zahhak. Additionally, there are similarities between Abu Mansour Abd al-Razzaq and Abtin in the Zahhak stories; both of them were murdered by Iranians and are of Iranian ancestry and royal descent. That is, Abtin was murdered by Zahhak Tazi and Abu Mansour by Abul Hasan Simjur of Arabic descent. Additionally, both of their children seek revenge; Fereydon rises against Zhahak, and Mansour, the son of Abu Mansour Abd al-Razzaq, rises against Simjurians and Samanians, and is murdered in this manner.
    Keywords: Discourse Analysis, modern historicism, Ferdowsi’s Shahnameh, Fereydoun, zahak
  • Mahdi Mohammad Ghasemi, Sayyedeh Maryam Rozatian *, Sayyed Aliasghar Mirbagherifard Pages 17-32
    AbstractAttar Neyshabouri's Tazkirat al-Awliya has a special place among Persian mystical works. Attar has used the mystical works before himself to compile Tazkirat al-Awliya, but he did not act in the same way in using all the sources. The intertextual comparison of Tazkirat al-Awliya with pre-Attar texts is one of the methods through which the main sources of Attar can be accessed. It can be used to analyze Attar's position as the author of a mystical literary text. In the present study, the sayings related to "Reza" from Tazkirat al-Awliya have been intertextually compared with Kashf al-Mahjoob and the translation of the Qushayriyah treatise. The main question of the research is: what is the intertextual relationship of Tazkirat al-Awliya with two mystical works before it? The results of the research show that the intertextual relationships of Reza's sayings in these three works are placed in five categories: direct intertextuality, reductive intertextuality, additive intertextuality, multiple intertextuality, and mixed intertextuality. Most of the intertextual relationships between Tazkirat al-Awliya and the translation of the Qushayriyah treatise are direct intertextuality, and between Tazkirat al-Awliya and Kashf al-Mahjoob are reductive intertextuality. This comparison shows that Attar has quoted the sayings in accordance with the goals he had in writing Tazkirat al-Awliya and also the characteristics of the previous texts. Removal of Arabic phrases, description and interpretation are changes that Attar has made in the sayings taken from Kashf al-Mahjoob.IntroductionWith the emergence of Islamic Sufism in the second century of Hijri, the creation of mystical works gradually began. At first, these works did not have a specialized approach and were mostly written based on Sharia-based topics. But from the 4th century of Hijri, mystical opinions and thoughts were organized and codified so that they could be transferred to others in the form of educational texts (Dehbashi & Mirbagheri Fard, 2004, p. 108). A significant part of the topics of these texts was explained by quoting sayings and anecdotes related to mystics. These sayings and anecdotes that passed from one text to another created an intertextual chain among mystical works. Attar Neyshabouri's Tazkirat al-Awliya is one of the main links in this chain that has transferred the sayings and anecdotes of the previous works, which were mainly Arabic and a few Persian, but with simple and didactic language to the later links with a literary and imaginative expression. Since intertextual studies are considered a suitable platform for analyzing common sayings and anecdotes in mystical texts, in this study, this platform has been used to compare the sayings related to Reza in Tazkirat al-Awliya with two Persian pretexts of this work, in order to explain what method Attar had in quoting the sayings from previous texts and why he chose this method.Materials and MethodsIn the present study, the position of the translation of the Qushayriyah treatise and Hojviri's Kashf al-Mahjoob among Attar's sources (focusing on Reza's sayings) has been explained using a descriptive-analytical method based on the intertextual approach and Genette’s theory of intertextuality.Research FindingsTazkirat al-Awliya has the most direct intertextual relationship with the translation of the Qushayriyah treatise. Also, the most intertextual relationship between Tazkirat al-Awliya and Kashf al-Mahjoob is of a reductive type which includes the removal of description and interpretation and Arabic phrases. The additive intertextuality can be seen only between Tazkirat al-Awliya and the translation of the Qushayriyah treatise where a part has been added to the narration of the pretext to complete the meaning. A quote is also common among all three works and is of multiple intertextuality type. In this type of intertextuality, the narration of Tazkirat al-Awliya has a direct intertextuality with the translation of Qushayriyah treatise, and a reductive intertextuality with Kashf al-Mahjoob in the example found in Reza's sayings.Discussion of Results and ConclusionsConsidering the results of the present study, examples of common sayings with one of the pre-texts can be found in Tazkirat al-Awliya which has been reduced in one part of the narration and increased or changed in another part. This type of intertextuality can be called mixed and according to different examples, sub-categories can be obtained for it. In Reza's common sayings, there are two examples of mixed between Tazkirat al-Awliya and the translation of the Qushayriyah treatise and one example with Kashf al-Mahjoob. This research shows that Attar made changes in Reza's sayings according to his goals. Removal of Arabic phrases and description and interpretation of the pretext, lexical, morphological, and syntactic changes appropriate to the Persian language and the increase of imaginative and emphatic elements are among the changes that Attar has made in quotations.
    Keywords: Tazkirat al-Awliya, Translation of the Qushayriyah treatise, Kashf al-Mahjoob, Intertextuality, Reza
  • Reza Ruhani * Pages 33-51
    Abstract
    Undoubtedly, Hafez Shirazi is one of the most famous poets of the Persian language. Despite the many worthy studies, still, some secrets and the causes and factors of this fame and popularity have not been discovered and explained. In the present study, one of the creative linguistic and semantic subtleties of Hafez's poetry has been examined using a descriptive-analytical method, and its dimensions and unsaid aspects have been discovered and represented. In this research, the author tries to interpret the word "an" (it) in Hafez's poetry and investigates the intentions of the poet for the use of "it" with the two approaches of formalism and interpretation. While referring to the uses of "it" in grammar (pronoun and adjective), the author, to the best of his knowledge, paid more attention to the idiomatic and mystical concepts of "it" in the language of mystics and especially Hafez's sonnets. The marked word "it" in Hafez's poetry can have different artistic and aesthetic meanings and functions that have not been studied before. One of the main results of the study is that the word "it" is used for different purposes in Hafez's poetry, and its meaning has been developed with the art of ambiguity and equivocation. In this way, the brevity and coherence of the poem have increased, and the meanings have been honored and magnified.
    Introduction
    One of Hafez's rare and apparently small artistic creations in the field of individual style is the highlighting of the pronoun "it". In this regard, he has made significant artistic and meaning-creation aspects. This issue is so well known today that in literary discussions, whenever scholars talk about an indescribable and ambiguous phenomenon or subject, they talk about Hafez’s "it". In this study, some of the unspoken artistic-rhetorical dimensions of the word "it" as a pronoun, adjective, or noun in the whole of Hafez’s sonnets have been categorized and analyzed.
    Materials and Methods
    Despite the good efforts of some authors, few, if any, independent and complete study has been done regarding diverse artistic uses of the pronoun "an" in Hafez's poetry and some semantic and aesthetic aspects of this word have been neglected. This study examined "it" in all of Hafez's sonnets and tried to represent all the meanings and purposes of using "it" by Hafez. The research method in this study is descriptive-analytical, which was carried out with the intention of discovering, introducing, and investigating better and more artistic and rhetorical creativity and applications of the word "it". In this research, the Hafez version considered by the author is the Ghani-Qazvini version and in some cases the corrected version of Khanlari.
    Research
    Findings
    The results of this research show that "it" is one of the common and old words that have been taken into consideration in mystical poetry in general, and in Hafez's poetry in particular, and more implicit meanings have been given to it with a kind of defamiliarization. In other words, this word (an: it) has been marked in Hafez’s poetry due to its high frequency of repetition. As a "sign", this word has implicit meanings, i.e. figurative, ironic, and ambiguous.
    In some of his poems, Hafez Shirazi has beautiful references to the artistic-rhetorical uses and functions of "it". Hafez used "it" as a tool and means of expressing unspeakable and often romantic situations and states. He gave "it" a special character in various verses, and used "it" in a high frequency. Hafez, by consciously choosing the word "it" (considering the brevity and ambiguity in the word), caused the audience to hesitate to try to discover its possible and multifaceted references by reflecting on the meaning of "it". This, in addition to defamiliarization and highlighting, has also caused the personalization of the message.
    Discussion of Results and
    Conclusions
    The general conclusions of this research are as follows:1) Examining ancient poetry and especially the elements of Hafez's special art and style, with new methods and approaches of literary criticism (such as discourse analysis and semiotics) along with ancient rhetorical issues still has a lot of room for discussion.
    2) Some apparently unimportant and underused elements and words in the aesthetics of Hafez's poetry are sometimes of great importance, and accuracy in these cases can pave the way for new readings and the creation of multiple and new meanings of his poetry.
    3) It is necessary to make a distinction between the usage and types of roles of the word "it" in Persian grammar and its roles in the grammar of mysticism, especially mystical poetry.
    4) Compared to the poets before him, Hafez used the word "it" in more rhetorical, semantic, and mystical purposes and roles, and with all kinds of literary tricks (especially ambiguity, brevity, and coherence). He has distinguished and highlighted this word in his poetry style and expanded and multiplied its explicit and implicit meanings.
    * Associate Professor, Department of Persian Language and Literature, Kashan University, Kashan, Iran (Corresponding Author Email: [email protected])
    2476-3268© The Author(s).Pulished by University of Isfahan                                                                           
    This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC 4.0 License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0).
    Keywords: Hafez's Poetry, the Pronoun, Adjective it, it in Mystical Language, the Semantics of it, the Pragmatics of it
  • Zeinab Rezapour *, Raheleh Kalantari Darunkola Pages 53-71
    Abstract The connotation (implicit meaning) is one of the approaches of semiotics that deals with the hidden and deep meanings of texts as systematic wholes and seeks to overcome the appearance of sign systems and reach the underlying layers of the text by relying on the context of the word and the characteristics of the audience. Due to its interpretable and nested structure, Masnavi is apt to be analyzed from this point of view. Through analyzing its implicit meanings, one can understand its cohesiveness and unity, as well as many hidden concepts. This study aims to explain how the implied meanings arise from the appropriateness of words in Masnavi. Therefore, in this study, some of the implicit meanings of Masnavi were investigated and analyzed from two perspectives. The findings of the study indicate that the connotations arising from the appropriateness of the words in Masnavi can be seen in two ways: Firstly, the combination and appropriateness of prominent words of a famous religious and historical event or story in the axis of the verse is reminiscent of that event for the audience and induces another implicit meaning that is also in harmony with the appearance of the verse and the main topic of discussion in the vertical axis of the poem. Secondly, from a famous and related story with his own words, these linguistic signs do not give a secondary meaning to the verse; rather, the presence of those words in several consecutive verses guides the audience to the implicit meaning in all the verses.IntroductionImplicit meaning is the second-order meaning that results from the applied context of the word and often has an emotional, situational, social, and cultural load. In some verses of Masnavi, although each of the words separately comes to the meaning of each verse, in proportion to other words and with a connotative meaning association, they connect the different parts of each story and give a body-like coherence to the text. The two research questions of the study are: In what ways are the implied meanings arising from the appropriateness of the words in Masnavi? What are their functions? This study aims to investigate the connotative meanings of Masnavi verses and to introduce and explain one of Rumi's artistic tricks in dealing with this great literary work, which proves more than ever the power of his mind and language for indirect references and presenting multiple meanings. Thus, the reader can understand the depth and layers of his words.Materials and MethodsIn this research, due to the study length, a number of verses of Masnavi were extracted in which the use of appropriate words in the horizontal and vertical axis, based on some evidence and documentation, instilled a connotative meaning into the writes’ mind.  With the help of other internal textual and contextual pieces of evidence and using content analysis based on discourse semiotics, their implicit meanings were explained.Research FindingsThe multi-layeredness and interpretability of Masnavi and its nested structure, clusters, external discreteness, and internal continuity, which are influenced by the language, style, and context of the Qur'an, have kept this wonderful book alive and dynamic, and receiving the indirect meanings and hidden layers of the text, always has opened up new research in this field. The evolution of semiotics has progressed from Saussure's two-dimensional perspective to a multifaceted perspective and a process in which they understand the hidden meanings and deep structures of literary or artistic works beyond the apparent dimensions of symbolic systems. This topic is introduced under the title of connotative meaning.Due to his extensive knowledge and deep understanding and comprehensive coverage of the events, stories, and biographies of prominent religious and historical figures, Molavi associates another similar character or story in the audience's mind and implicitly establishes a similar relationship between those two characters. This method can be considered one of the hidden artistic techniques of Rumi in writing poetry, which has been effective in deepening it, expanding the meaning, and connecting the concepts. This has made Rumi's poems scrutinized from the discourse semiotic point of view, and their implicit meanings can be deduced at different levels. In this way, evaluating and justifying the difference between Masnavi versions regarding some words is also possible.Discussion of Results and ConclusionsThe connotative meanings of words are one of Rumi's hidden artistic tricks in creating brevity, internal order, and coherence in the text, expanding the meaning and connecting concepts. The dynamics of the text lead to the intellectual participation of the audience and a better understanding of Rumi's thoughts. In all these cases, the words chosen by the poet are in harmony with the atmosphere of his poetry and confirm and complete the views expressed by Molavi.Sometimes, the coincidence and appropriateness of some words in the axis of companionship, along with clues such as the semantic context of the discussion, as well as other views and opinions of Molavi in ​​Masnavi, guide the audience to the implied meanings. According to the apparent meaning of the verses and the topic of the speech, the words "ascetic", "six hundred thousand" and "calf" refer to the story of the Samaritan calf. The words "cow", "calf", and "God" refer to the calf worship of Moses' people. "Yar" and "cave" refer to the story of Laila Al-Ambit and the divine protection and concealment of the Prophet (PBUH) and Abu Bakr. Finally, "cow", "color", "red", and "yellow" refer to the story of the yellow cow of the Israelites and inject an implicit meaning into the verse.Rumi sometimes uses important passages from famous stories that somehow have something in common with the subject of his speech in the service of harmonizing verses and choosing words and processing his images. Although these signs often have the same vocabulary and are different in terms of function or example in consecutive verses, in proportion to each other, they evoke another similar story for the audience.An example of the connotation can be seen in the story of Jafar bin Abi Talib. He, who in Masnavi, is an example of the saints of truth and perfect human beings, enjoys divine approval and special strength and steadfastness due to his death in the truth. Based on the idea of ​​repeating the truth of the nature of people, in Maulavi's opinion, like Iskandar Zulqarnain, another manifestation of the perfect man is shown in Masnavi, which, after reaching the knowledge of the sun of truth, shines everywhere like the sun. Inspired by the words and interpretations related to the story of Iskandar, Rumi created various themes and beautiful images in the story of Jafar bin Abi Talib and sometimes made mystical use of those interpretations.
    Keywords: The Appropriateness of the Words, Connotation (Implicit Meaning), Masnavi, Molavi, Discourse Semiotics
  • Alireza Shanazari *, Ghasem Salari Pages 73-88
    Abstract
    Zahir Faryabi (died 1201 AD) is one of the prominent figures and poets of Iran's odes in the 13th century. His Divan has been published several times in Iran and India. The late Yazdgerdi's correction of Zahir Faryabi's Divan, originally published in 2013 by his student Asghar Dadbeh, can be considered the best and most revised correction of Zahir's Divan, but in this version, the corrector did not use older versions, including the version of Noor Usmaniyeh Library, the manuscript of Hakim Oglu, and the manuscript of Safineh Tabriz. We can find some problems in this Divan. To date, many researchers have focused on the late Yazdgerdi's edition and its errors including Seyyed Ali Mirafazli and Sharifi Sahi. They have addressed these problems based on the Safineh Tabriz and the manuscript of the Noor Osmaniye library. In the present study, the authors have addressed some of these shortcomings using the descriptive-analytical method and by comparing the late Yazdgerdi's correction with Hakim Oglu's copy. Hakim Oglu's copy is one of the looted copies of Astana Sheikh Safi in Ardabil, which has no written date, and according to the type of writing and its contents, it was probably written in the 7th century AH from the original copies. The present study shows that by collecting better editions and other collections such as essays and tazkiras, a comprehensive and revised edition of this divan can be available. It can also be used as a reference for researchers.
    Introduction
    Zahir Faryabi is one of the distinguished figures and poets of Iran's odes in the 13th century AD. Zahir was born in Faryab and passed his elementary education there. Then, he went to Neishabur to complete his studies and stayed in this city for six years. Apparently, during this period, he entered the court of the ruler of Neishabur, Taghanshah, but he did not receive favors from him according to his position. After Neishabur, Zahir went to Isfahan and as it appears from his odes, he stayed in Isfahan for a year and a half to two years. In Isfahan, Sadruddin Khojandi did not pay much attention to him. So, he traveled to Mazandaran. In Mazandaran, Hossam al-Daulah Ardeshir visited him and the poet received his blessings.
    Zahir's next destination was Azerbaijan. Before that, he stayed with a person named Safiuddin in Ardabil for two months, but he did not pay attention to him as expected by the poet. Therefore, he left Tabriz by way of Sarab and entered the court of Qezel Arsalan who praised him. Zahir achieved a high position in the court of Qezel Arslan. Finally, he passed away in 1201 AD.
    Zahir Faryabi followed Anvari's method and brought it to perfection. For this reason, some of the critics have exaggerated him and even preferred him to Anvari. Zahir's poetry is like Anvari's fluent and full of precise meanings. In Zahir's poetry, we rarely come across complicated cases, and those cases are not comparable to the poems of his contemporary poets in Iraq and Azerbaijan in terms of ambiguity. At the same time that Zahir commits difficult lines, his poetry is easy and the lines are defeated by his power of expression. Zahir's power is great in the eulogy, and in this field, he creates many meanings (Safa, 1990, p. 757).
    Materials and Methods
    In this study, we have addressed some of the shortcomings of Zahir’s Divan using the descriptive-analytical method and comparing the late Yazdgerdi's correction with Hakim Oglu's version. Hakim Oglu's copy is one of the remarkable copies of Astana Sheikh Safi in Ardabil, which has no written date, and according to the type of script and its contents, it was probably written in the 7th century AH from the original copies.
    Research
    Findings
    The present study shows that by collecting better editions and other collections such as anthology and tazkira, a more revised edition of the so-called divan can be achieved. It can also be used as a reference for Zahir Faryabi’s researchers and prevent future possible shortcomings. The shortcomings and defects of Yazdgerdi's correction, which could be minimized by referring to the two mentioned versions, are as follows:1) Writing two stanzas of two consecutive verses in the form of one verse:By comparing the late Yazdgerdi’s book with the Hakimoglu library's manuscript, it was seen only in one case that the poetic stanzas were moved. In this case, due to the mistake of the scribe, a stanza of a verse that was not in the original version was added to another stanza of another verse.
    2) Gross mistakes:In some cases, the shortcomings of Yazdgerdi's correction are obvious errors that cannot be considered typographical errors.
    3) Incorrect preferences in Yazdgerdi's correction:There are some cases in Yazdgerdi's correction that the recording of Hakimoglu's version is preferable.
    4) Typographical errors:In Yazdgardi's correction, there are many cases that should be considered typographical errors.
    5) Correct recordings in Safine Tabriz and Hakimoglu's copy:In Hakim Oglu's version, there are also recordings that confirm the recording of the Safine Tabriz version. It would have been better if it had been used in Yazdgerdi's correction.
    Discussion of Results and
    Conclusions
    By examining and comparing the proofreads of the late Yazdgerdi and the copies that he did not have access to, the conclusion is reached that despite the hard work of the proofreader, there were shortcomings and confusions in the proofreading of this Divan. Considering the importance of Zahir Faryabi in the history of Persian literature and in the field of odes and praise poems, it is necessary to have access to a revised text in the re-editing of the Divan from all the manuscripts that the editor of the Divan at that time had access to. Therefore, it is necessary to use secondary sources such as Nizheh Majles of Sharvani in the revision.
    Keywords: Zahir Fariyabi&rsquo, Divan, Yazdgerdi', s correction, Hakim Oglu', s copy, Safina Tabriz manuscript
  • Shohrat Marefat * Pages 89-104
    Abstract
    Anis ol-Arefin (Mathnavi of Nakhoda) is a fictional poem. This mathnavi has been written by Agha Mohammad Hosein Sahib Shirazi and is dedicated to Nakhoda. He composed this verse in 1293 A.H. (during the reign of Nasir al-Din Shah) in his old age and when he was the ambassador of Iran in Bengal, India. The purpose of this study is the linguistic analysis of the poem of Anis al-Arefin based on two existing lithographs of this poem. In addition, this text, apart from the linguistic benefits, has explanations and novelties from a literary point of view. This includes historical information about the Qajar era and the rulers, especially Fath Ali Shah and Naser al-Din Shah and some local border guards of India, geographical information, especially about Shiraz and India, and the birthplace and residence of the poet. Anis al-Arefin is noteworthy, readable, and fresh in terms of folk literature, anecdotes, legends, and parables. In addition, the poet of this poem was a political-literary person. This poem is a unique document in knowing the poet and with it you can get some of his personal and family information and get to know some of the political-historical figures that have not been left in history. Since literary works find meaning in a literary system, we also mentioned the connection of this work with other works, especially Khosrow and Shirin of Nizami, with which the poet of Anis al-Arifin wrote this poem.
     
    Introduction 
    Anis al-Arefin (Mathnavi of Nakhda) is a romantic poem mixed with mystical and religious topics and sometimes historical-geographic references. This poem, according to its poet, is a real and romantic narration of an adventure between Farrokh (son of Manouchehr, an Armenian ruler from the Hoshang generation) and Golrokh (daughter of Marzban Circassian from the Hormoz generation). Almost no information about Agha Mohammad Hossein can be obtained from the sources, but from the introduction of the poet, one can understand some of the circumstances and aspects of his life. Agha Mohammad Hossein was one of the government officials during the time of Nasir al-Din Shah Qajar (1275-1210) who sent people as political representatives to other countries. He was also sent by the Iranian government to Bengal in India and became the ambassador there for thirty years. Agha Mohammad Hossein heard the story of Anis al-Arefin in the year 1250 A.H. in his youth, from an Armenian priest who came to Shiraz from Isfahan to teach and added to it the words he had heard from others. By composing this verse, Agha Mohammad Hossein tried to imitate Khosrow and Shirin of Nizami.
      
    Materials and Methods 
    In this analytical-descriptive research, we investigated a folk story in poetry from the Qajar era and discussed various perspectives such as linguistic, historical, geographical, intertextual links, imaginary images, and other side benefits of the book. We had two lithographs of this work with different narratives, based on which we corrected the two editions.
     
    Research
    Findings
    Searching in Qajar era sources reveals new linguistic, literary, cultural, historical, and geographical aspects. Many parts of the works of this era, especially those that were in the Indian subcontinent, have not been corrected and there is no good print of them. The novelties of the work are as follows:Linguistic novelties: Agha Mohammad Hossein was a Persian-speaking Turkish speaker; therefore, there are many Turkish words in this work. Signs of the influence of dialect, composition, morphological and syntactic novelties, and archaism can also be seen in this text. There are Arabic words and signs of the Arabic language in it. In addition, due to the story axis of this poem, which is taken from folk culture and literature, signs of folk language can also be observed in it.
    Literary novelties: Agha Mohammad Hossein was familiar with the works of his predecessors and used them in his poems. Among them are Khosrow and Shirin of Nizami, Golestan and Saadi's sermons, Hafez's Divan, Moluk al-Ajam Hosseini Qazvini’s Al-Mu'jam, and Fayyaz Lahiji’s Sam and Bahram. Another literary novelty of this text is the use of anecdotes, legends, and parables that we did not find elsewhere.
    Imagery novelties: In terms of imagery, this text also has novelties, especially in the illustrations and descriptions in which the poet uses all kinds of similes.
    Side benefits: This system also has benefits in terms of anthropology and sociology.
     
    Discussion of Results and Conclusions 
    In the subcontinent of India and Pakistan, there are many works of Persian language and literature that remain unknown and have not been corrected yet. One of these works is a romantic poem titled Anis al-Arefin (Mathnavi of Nakhoda) by Agha Mohammad Hossein Sahib Shirazi (nicknamed Nakhoda, meaning captain). Agha Mohammad Hossein Sahib Shirazi was Iran's ambassador in Bengal, India, for thirty years. This work has novelties in different aspects that have been mentioned in the previous section. It has also other aspects including 1) Personal information about the personal and political life of the poet and his positions and associates, 2) Historical information, especially about the Qajar kings and local rulers of India and referring to some of the historical events of that era and personalities that have sometimes been removed from the pages of history, and 3) Geographical information, especially from Shiraz and India, from the perspective of an observer of Naser al-Din Shah era.
    Keywords: Anis al-Arefin, Agha Mohammadhossein Shirazi, Codicology, Textology, Qajar era, Subcontinent