فهرست مطالب

Pollution - Volume:9 Issue: 4, Autumn 2023

Volume:9 Issue: 4, Autumn 2023

  • تاریخ انتشار: 1402/07/09
  • تعداد عناوین: 47
  • Sama Tajasosi *, Mehdi Shirzad-Siboni, Ramazan Vagheei, Jalil Barandoust Pages 1295-1308
    Effective denitrification of water using photocatalytic reaction of active TiO2 particles doped with different oxides and metals has been the subject of numerous studies. For a particular research area, the potential of silica bond and its silicate based matrices with titanium dioxide and improving the photocatalytic performance using more economic methods is still challenging, and research in this field is attractive and ongoing. In this study, the effect of cement matrix and its complex bonds with industrial grade TiO2 particles was evaluated on the rate of water denitrification in a fixed bed circulating flow photoreactor. For this purpose, silica fume was substituted for cement in constant percent of 10 as a rich source of amorphous silica. Industrial grade TiO2 was added to the mix as5, 10 and 15 percent weight of cementitious materials (CM). Nano TiO2 was considered as a supplementary photocatalytic material with a constant 1% weight of CM in two mix designs. The results implied that the addition of 5% TiO2 increased the rate of nitrate concentration reduction by up to 10 times. Also, the specimen including 10% TiO2 increased denitrification rate by 107% compared to the previous content, which had much less impact. Also, the addition of nanoTiO2 increased denitrification rate up 113%.
    Keywords: Nitrate, Denitrification Cement composite Photocatalyst, Water treatment
  • Pujiono Pujiono, Teguh Budi Prijanto, Ati Nurhayati, Salma Aripin * Pages 1309-1316
    A potential hazard is anything that could potentially cause damage, accident, injury, loss, or even death due to the system or work processes. Hazards in the work environment are due to physical, biological, chemical, and psychosocial factors. One of the chemical factors hazards in the work environment that require control is the level of dust in the air environment at work. High levels of dust can cause health problems for workers. These health problems can cause dust allergies, impaired lung function, and other lung function disorders due to the dust that can eventually reduce worker productivity. Out of all industries, the manufacturing industries are usually high in dust content. During the manufacturing process, it is crucial to maintain efforts in controlling risk factors. This research aims to develop a tool that can reduce the air dust level in the industrial environment. Therefore, this study tries to apply an electrostatic precipitator with electrode distance variations to reduce dust levels in the manufacturing industry. The results of this study are the dust content reduction percentage, an electrode distance of 4 cm resulted in 52.3% to 64.9%, electrode distance of 6 cm is 35.5% to 46.7%, while an electrode distance of 8 cm is 16.6% to 26.7%. There is a difference in the electrodes effect of 4 cm, 6 cm, and 8 cm with a decrease in dust levels in the air. The most effective electrode distance in decreasing the air dust level is a 4 cm distance.
    Keywords: Dust Levels, Electrode, Electrostatic precipitator, Manufacturing Industry
  • Emmanuel Olusegun Olatunji *, Luckey Abubokhai Elakhame, Ekikhalo Catherine Osimen, Augustine Ovie Edegbene Pages 1317-1332
    Aquatic macroinvertebrates play significant roles in the benthic zone of the aquatic ecosystem and they have different tolerance level to pollution. Globally, macroinvertebrates are usedas bioindicators in determining the ecological health and water quality status of aquatic ecosystem. Therefore, this study focused on the community structure of benthic macroinvertebrates in River Ugbalo, south-south Nigeria. Macroinvertebrates and physicochemical parameters were sampled in three marked out stations between March 2018 and February 2020. Physicochemical parameters were analyzed following standard procedures, while macroinvertebrates were collected with Kick net and Van Veen grab. Physicochemical parameters showed that the water quality of the three stations sampled were fair considering the values of pH, turbidity, sulphate, nitrate, phosphate, DO, BOD, and EC which were within the World Health Organization and Federal Environmental Protection Agency of Nigeria. Cluster analysis based on Bray- Curtis similarity showed that macroinvertebrates were clustered by stations rather than seasons. A total of 5,580 macroinvertebrates individuals were recorded showing high biodiversity in the river. Diptera was the most abundant Order with 2,488 individuals followed by Odonata with 697 individuals. The least represented Order was Lepidoptera with 13 individuals. The diversity indices showed that Margalef index (5.93), Simpson diversity (0.95), Evenness (0.63), and Shannon-Weiner index (3.30) were highest in Station 1. This research work showed that the water quality of the studied stations was fair and station 3 was the most perturbed station.  We recommend the enactment and enforcement of policies that will lead to aquatic ecosystem restoration.
    Keywords: River Ugbalo, macroinvertebrate community structure, biomonitoring, ecological health status, Water quality
  • Zinah Saleem Al-Ankaz *, Ruaa Issa Muslim, Maitham Salman. Amana Pages 1333-1344
    A geochemical evaluation was performed to determine the occurrences of many heavy metals as well as their natural activities, in the southeast-Baghdad.  For this purpose, seventeen subsurface soil samples from the cited location were collected at a depth of 50-100 cm. Samples collection included many types of land uses such as open space, roadside, green land, industrial and commercial samples. The samples were characterized systematically using XRF and gamma-ray spectrometry with NaI (Tl) scintillation detector. The total average concentrations of heavy metals Ag, Sn, Sb, I, Hf, W, Th and U in the soil were 1.94, 3.13, 3.01, 2.82, 1.70, 72,5.66 and 0.85 ppm respectively. Heavy metals Sn, I and W appeared with high concentrations among the others as shown in total average, compared with the standard. The enrichment with Sn elements strictly appeared in green and commercial lands with an average 3.63 ppm, whereas I and W concentrated in industrial land 3.0 and 0.95 ppm respectively, indicating anthropogenic rather than autogenic. It was asserted that the observed elements can be used as pollution indicators to discover the state of the contamination. The EF values of the soils in some sites displayed enrichment with Sb and moderate with Ag reflected mild enrichment (EF > 2), confirming their level of pollution by the hazardous heavy metals. The contents of 238U, 232Th and 40K in the samples varied from 34.64-48.54, 47.22-67.73, and 323.27-585.11 Bq/kg, respectively. The mean activities of 238U, 232Th and 40K in the dry weight samples were correspondingly 41.25, 56.89, and 424.12 Bq/kg, which were higher than the global averages of 35, 30 and 400 Bq/kg, respectively. The radium equivalent levels in all samples were much lower than the global average (370 Bq/kg). In addition, all external and internal hazard indices were within the recommended limit. The average dose rate and gamma index levels were greater than the global average value.
    Keywords: enrichment factor, natural activity, geochemical assessment, Anthropogenic activity
  • Smily Vishwakarma *, Dharmendra Dharmendra, Rohit Singh, Bharti Bharti, Ankita Ankita Pages 1345-1354
    Substrates play a major role to filter, adsorb, sediment, flocculate, precipitate, and exchange ions. In CW (Constructed wetland), selecting substrate or bed materials is not difficult, as locally accessible, cost-effective, and environment-friendly materials can be used based on size, hydraulic conductivity, texture, porosity, etc. CW substrates undergo a multitude of purification processes, including physical filtration and sedimentation, sorption, ion exchange and microbial degradation, precipitation, and bio-immobilization in the substrate, in addition to uptake and metabolism by macrophytes. With constructed wetlands, treatment facilities with well-defined substrates, vegetation species, and flow patterns can be built with greater control than with natural systems. This report details investigations of some of the locally available substrates that all fit the requirements. Based on analysis of parameters which are pH, water absorption capacity, hydraulic conductivity, porosity, surface area, bulk density, particle size distribution, D10 particle diameter, D60 uniformity coefficient, permeability and specific gravity, a comparison of four materials is presented in this paper. The study found that the construction waste materials evaluated showed satisfactory physical properties for use as filler media in constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment.
    Keywords: Wastewater, Pollution, Recycle, Reuse, sustainability
  • Mohadeseh Zarnegar, Hanieh Khalili, Abooali Golzary * Pages 1355-1373

    Improper management of wet waste in cities located in temperate, humid regions with abundant rainfall leads to the production and spread of leachate across ecosystems. This not only pollutes soil and surface water but also contributes to the emission of greenhouse gases, negatively impacting both ecosystem and human health. Effective waste management can transform these wastes into valuable products, such as fertilizer and biogas, while also preventing environmental damage. In this study, we focus on a region with moderate weather conditions, which offers the potential for efficient waste management at a reasonable cost. By evaluating various technologies and methods, as well as considering global implementation approaches, anaerobic digestion emerges as a more suitable solution for waste management compared to conventional methods like burying and burning. Apart from waste reduction, anaerobic digestion offers several advantages, including reduced greenhouse gas emissions, prevention of soil, air, and water pollution, decreased toxicity and heavy metal contamination, and eradication of pathogenic organisms. Numerous types of digesters have been developed to date, and factors such as geographical location, substrate availability, construction materials, climatic conditions, cost and capital requirements, and energy consumption influence the design of these digesters. In this study, we estimate the design, construction, and management of a small-scale digester for a town with a population of 2000 people. By providing reliable information, this research aims to assist executive officials of towns and villages in establishing such units within their communities, promoting sustainable rural development.

    Keywords: leachate, Waste management Anaerobic igestion, Sustainable Rural Development, Environmental Pollution
  • Tri Retnaningsih Soeprobowati *, Jumari Jumari, Jafron Wasiq Hidayat, Fuad Muhammad, Mirza Hanif Al Falah, Ni Kadek Dita Cahyani, Peter Gell Pages 1374-1385
    Mangrove ecosystems have many functions for coastal areas, including ecological, social, and economic services. These functions have a systemic impact on the environment of other coastal ecosystems and human life. The mangrove ecosystem covering an area of 197.92 ha in Bedono, Demak Regency, Central Java was threatened due to the wave abrasion and high tides. Some parts of Bedono Village had become inundated and flooded permanently, zink as part of the ocean. This research was conducted to quantify water pollution in the mangrove ecosystem of Bedono Village using the Storage and Retrieval (STORET) method and the pollution index (PI). The fieldwork was conducted June 2022, by collecting water samples for laboratory analysis tests and in-situ water quality measurement. The parameter of the water quality that exceeded threshold of the Government Regulation of the Republic of Indonesia Number 22 of 2021 are the dissolved oxygen (DO) ranges between 4.39-8.78 mg L-1, BOD ranges between 30-32.4 mg L-1, phosphate ranges between 0.063-0.074 mg L-1, ammonia ranges between 0.148-0.48 mg L-1, Cr ranges between 0.071-0.21 mg L-1, and Pb ranges between 0.071-0.21 mg L-1. Based on the STORET method, the water quality in the mangrove ecosystem was found to be in the category of moderately (-16, for harbor function) – heavily polluted (-80, for tourism and -90, marine biota), whereas based on the PI index it was lightly polluted (1.77-4.12, for harbor function) – moderately polluted (11.06-13.83for tourism, and 9.96-11.85, marine biota).
    Keywords: Mangrove ecosystem Bedono Demak pollution index
  • Naamane Ayoub *, Lamraouhi Nawal, Rafii Soumaya, Iounes Nadia, El Amrani Souad Pages 1386-1395
    Tractor 10E is an Alpha-cypermethrin based insecticide. It is one of the commonly used insecticides. The toxic effect of this product was assessed using the Lens culinaris (edible lentil) and Lepidium sativum (watercress) test. The seeds of Lens culinaris and Lepidium sativum were subjected to 6 increasing concentrations of Tractor 10E (25, 50, 100, 200, 400 and 800mg/l) and the control (distilled water). After 7 days, weight, root and stem development were measured.The results of the statistical study revealed the notable effect of this toxic product on growth, especially at high concentrations for the two species which are the subject of plant toxicity tests. Stem length growth is the most sensitive parameter. IC50 is equal to 136.99mg/l for lentil and 136.42mg/l for watercress. The results of this study reveal that this alpha-cypermethrin insecticide has the ability to alter the growth of plants as non-target organisms, which imposes the effective use and management of these toxicants and even replacing them with biopesticides to preserve human health and the environment.
    Keywords: phytotoxicity insecticide, Alpha-cypermethrin Lens culinaris Lepidium sativum
  • Tuti Handayani, Emriadi Emriadi, Deswati Deswati, Putri Ramadhani, Rahmiana Zein * Pages 1396-1413
    Acid-activated corn husk waste (CHW) was used to investigate the adsorption mechanism of Indigo Carmine (IC) dye from an aqueous solution. The effect of different operating parameters such as pH (1-7), initial IC dye concentration (40-400 mg/L), contact time (5-75 min), and heating temperature (25–200 °C) was measured on the removal of IC dye by the CHW. The maximum uptake of IC dye was observed at an initial pH of 2. The maximum capacity of 13.57 mg/g and the maximum dye removal of 89.01 % in wastewater. The adsorbents were characterized using Fourier Transforms Infrared Spectrophotometry (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analysis, X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), and Thermogravimetry Analysis. The characterization process reveals the differences in adsorbent characteristics before and after the adsorption processes. The Langmuir showed the best fitting (R2 = 0.977) and described multilayer adsorption on diverse surfaces. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model best correlated with the experimental data (R2 = 0.981). Thermodynamics revealed that adsorption was favorable spontaneous and exotherm. The study's results indicated that using CHW as a low-cost adsorbent to treat IC dye was efficient and beneficial to the environment.
    Keywords: Adsorption, Corn husk, Indigo Carmine, Low-cost, waste
  • Putipong Lakachaiworakun, Panya Dangwilailux, Visit Eakvanich, Wachara Kalasee * Pages 1414-1427
    The total particle mass concentration, size distribution, pH form, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) value, the concentration of total Benzo[a]pyrene Toxic Equivalence (BaPTE) and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) of smoke particles from the rubber sheets processing sewage sludge biochar burning were studied. In this work, the temperature was measured at 500 mm above the fire base by using K-type thermocouples and a continuously data logger. The result showed that the measured temperature value increased when decreasing the biochar moisture content. The highest average total smoke particle mass concentration values at the initial burning time was found to be 17.53 to 35.27 mg/m3 and then it was persistently reduced until the 60th minute, when the burning was stopped. The pH of biochar's smoke particles was higher than it was before combustion. The total smoke particle mass concentration, the mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) and PAHs values decreased with increasing burning period and decreased the biochar moisture content. The largest BaPTE emission was observed at the highest moisture content, which was within the range of the greatest particle mass (less than 0.43 micron) in an initial combustion period. This value was about 60% that of a given the total value of BaPTE concentration. Meanwhile, the amount of PAHs, the BaPTE concentration and WSOC were depended on the smoke particle number, moisture content and combustion period.
    Keywords: smoke particles, water-soluble organic carbon, PAHs, Benzo[a]pyrene Toxic Equivalence, bio-char combustion
  • Omotola Dada *, Adeola Bada, Emmanuel Okorodo Pages 1428-1438
    The biodegradation rates of single-use blended bioplastic packaging nylon, nylon 6, and cellulose polymer were assessed in aquatic environments in an attempt to identify real biodegradable bioplastics (RBB). The natural biodegradation rates of the test samples in freshwater and marine water were assessed by respirometric method following the procedure of the American Standard Testing and Materials. The experimental design was arranged thrice in a completely randomized design of 2x4x3. The physicochemical parameters were obtained using the standard methods while the rates of biodegradation were obtained by titration method. Data obtained were analyzed using descriptive statistical method. At the end of 120 days, there were steady increase in the rates of biodegradation of cellulose and bioplastic samples across the fourth month in both freshwater and marine water. However, the rate of biodegradation in marine water were higher than in freshwater following the trend cellulose in marine (342 %) > cellulose in freshwater (259%) > bioplastics packaging nylon in marine (193%) > bioplastics packaging nylon in freshwater (175%). For nylon 6, the rate (-14) of retardation in the biodegradation process in Nylon 6 soaked in marine water is greater than that of Nylon 6 soaked in freshwater (-13). Consequently, nylon 6 was recalcitrant to biodegradation both in freshwater and marine water. The study concluded that the blended bioplastic packaging nylon is a real biodegradable bioplastic and could be suggested as a feasible and environmentally-friendly option to replace traditional plastics in the society.
    Keywords: Biodegradation Bioplastic, Nylon, Freshwater, Marine water
  • Parvathy Narayanankutty *, Sulekha Balakrishnan Thamarakshi, Sheeba Sasidharan Pages 1439-1449
    As a RAMSAR site (no.1204), Ashtamudi Lake has very productive and significant ecosystem services. Currently, the lake is being threatened by severe pollution stress, especially with heavy metals. Heavy metal pollution is a great concern of matter as it enters in the bioaccumulation and  bio-magnification processes of the aquatic food chain. The present study seasonally investigated the bioaccumulation   of seven heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Fe, Cu, Cr, Cd and Co) in the body tissues of an edible bivalve, Marcia recens, from three sampling stations (viz. Neendakara, Kureepuzha and Asramam) of the lake during the study period in 2019. The results showed that, as per the standard permissible limits (FAO/USEPA, 1989), some of the metal accumulations  were extremely high in the bivalve tissues. Highest Metal Pollution Index was observed in station Ⅱ. There were significant spatial and temporal variations in the accumulation of heavy metals in the the examined bivalve. Two way ANOVA analysis also reveals a statistically significant differences (p<0.5), in the heavy metal accumulation in the bivalve,  among the stations as well as seasons. The continual exposure to even a relatively low levels of these metals by regular consumption of contaminated bivalves, may entail adverse health issues. Implementation of appropriate scientific and sustainable conservation strategies will ensure the health of the estuaries and the sustainability of bio-resources.
    Keywords: Biomagnification Metal Pollution Index, Neendakara Kureepuzha, Asramam
  • Abdolmajid Fadaei * Pages 1450-1474
    Contamination of ground and surface water resources with Nitrate (NO3), Fluoride (F), Trihalomethanes (THMs), radon, and heavy metals is the most important global concern due to its possible health risks to people. This study reviews the drinking water contaminants and their health outcomes examined in Iran. A review search was conducted using Scopus, Web of Knowledge, PubMed, and Embase databases for associated released articles from 2014 to 2023, resulting in 86 articles relevant to the objective of this study. According to the results of this review, different emerging contaminants were found in potable water, including THMs, NO3, F, radon and heavy elements (i.e., As,  Pb, Ni, Cd, Zn, Cu, and Cr). Health outcomes of exposure to radon, F, NO3, THMs, and heavy metals in potable water have been expressed in various epidemiological research studies. More than 65% of the studies reported hazard index (HI) or hazard quotient (HQ) of heavy elements to be greater than one in potable water in Iran for infants, children, teenagers, and adults. Children and infants are at higher health risk than adults in these areas. The level of Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead, Nickel, Zinc, and Chromium, in 26, 26, 17.39, 13.04, 8.69, and 4.3% of the papers was more than the allowable limits, respectively. Various groups of emerging pollutants have been found in potable water in Iran, while epidemiological research studies on their health outcomes are still insufficient.
    Keywords: Drinking water contamination Carcinogenic risk Nitrate, Heavy metal, Health Impacts
  • Lobat Zebardast *, Jahanbakhsh Balist, Hazhir Karimi Pages 1475-1495

    River basins perform the crucial role of providing water resources, especially in arid regions. Due to the nature of interconnection, human interventions and natural events will cause cumulative impacts on the downstream parts of river basins. The aim of this research is to identify and evaluate the impacts of interventions and changes occurring in the upstream of the Tigris-Euphrates River Basin on the downstream parts and provide strategies to reduce and control those effects. To achieve this purpose, multi-scaled investigation of the changes and dynamics of the land cover was performed and the causes and consequences of these changes were investigated using the Driving force-Pressure-Sate-Impact-Response (DPSIR) framework. The results displayed an increase in the area of artificial lakes and agricultural lands and a decline in the area of rangelands and natural wetlands, especially in the downstream of the basin. The state of the ecosystem was under the influence of Driving forces such as population and industrial growth and political competitions of the littoral states, which led to pressure on the limited water resources and development of water management and control projects. The overall trends of changes in the state of the environment had created impacts on the ecosystem and communities that required urgent responses from the riparian countries. Finally, to foster water cooperation instead of non-constructive completions in this region, a framework was developed with an emphasis on creating a union of riparian countries and using their scientific potentials to provide effective and impartial solutions.

    Keywords: Water resource allocation, Tigris-Euphrates River Basin (TERB), Water-based collaborations, DPSIR Framework
  • Evgeny Aleksandrovich Gladkov *, Olga Nikolaevna Gladkova Pages 1496-1500
    Environmental pollution with heavy metals has a negative impact on lawn grasses. Heavy metals are one of the priority pollutants of anthropogenic ecosystems. Earlier, plants Agrostis stolonifera, resistant to cadmium, were obtained using biotechnological method. Plants that are resistant to one heavy metal may be cross-resistant to another. The assessment of the resistance of plants obtained by biotechnological methods to other heavy metals is of practical value. The object of our study was to lawn grass - Agrostis stolonifera L. The aim of this work was to assess the tolerance of the next generation descendants  of the regenerant  Agrostis stolonifera, resistant to cadmium, to one of the most phytotoxic heavy metals - copper. Cadmium -tolerant plants were more resistant to copper. The tolerance of cadmium – resistant plants to copper is associated with  nonspecific mechanisms.  However, the increase in plant resistance was not very significant. Therefore, it is more expedient to obtain plants that are resistant to copper.
    Keywords: Cadmium, cell selection, Copper, grasses, Pollution
  • Rafid R. Arraq, Angham G. Hadi, Dina S. Ahmed, Khalid Zainulabdeen, Hassan Hashim, Ahmed A. Ahmed, Rahimi M. Yusop, Ali H. Jawad, Salam A. Mohammed, Ahmed Al-Amiery, Emad Yousif * Pages 1501-1514
    When exposed to UV light at ambient temperature, three tri organotin (IV) complexes with tyrosine as a ligand (85–97% yields) were utilized as additives to prevent the photo-degradation of PVC films (40 μm thickness). The compounds were described using NMR (1H, 13C and 119Sn), IR, and elemental analysis. The compounds formed were assigned trigonal bipyramidal geometry depending on the spectrum data. Several Triorganotin (IV) tyrosine complexes were synthesized and mixed with polymers to form thin films (vinyl chloride). Up to 300 hours of UV light (wavelength: 313 nm) exposure was given to these films. A microscope, atomic force microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy were used to examine the surface morphology of the PVC films. Rapid UV-weathering was employed to determine weight loss and the production of certain functional groups, including carbonyl and polyene. Compared to pure PVC film, the films with manufactured complexes showed less undesired alterations. By absorbing UV light and scavenging peroxides, hydrochlorides and radicals. The polymer was photo stabilized by the triorganotin (IV)-tyrosine complexes (vinyl chloride). It was discovered that Ph3SnL has the fastest rate of PVC photostabilization.
    Keywords: Triorganotin(IV) Tyrosine, PVC Photostabilizer, Uv-light, Complexes, SEM, AFM
  • Murtadha Alkhalidi *, Mundher Al-Shakban, Ahmed Kalifa, Hamzah A. Abdul Ridha Pages 1515-1524
    People’s growing anxiety, and fear of the issue of a large number of mobile phone towers, as well as the lack of studies dealing with this issue at the level of the country in general, and the governorate in particular. All these reasons led to the issue of non-ionizing rays given off by mobile telephone masts on the table of worries about how this radioactivity will affect people's health. Non-ionized radiation emissions were measured by taking 280 readings for the three frequency packets 900, 1800, and 1840 MHz, which are sequential-Global System Mobile (GSM), of 20 cell phone towers in the Al-Amara, the city center of Misan prefecture. Four readings were collected for each frequency, with the highest value for overlap between electromagnetic field and frequency being chosen. A selective Radiation Meter (SRM-3006) was the device used in this study. It was found that the amount of non-ionizing radiation emitted by the towers taken in the study, and for the frequencies (900, 1800, and 1840 MHz) was, in a successive manner (309 × 10-8, 7 ×10-8, and 1109×10-7 MHz). Thus, the measured values of radiation were less than the surveyed limit (4×10-1 μW/cm2) provided for by the law of Iraq’s Determinants for Non-ionized Radiation Emissions (IDNREs).
    Keywords: Electromagnetic field Pollution, Selective Radiation Meter (SRM-3006) Misan province
  • Nihalani Seema * Pages 1525-1537

    Air Quality Index (AQI) is derived from a series of observations of different air pollutants for reporting air quality. The severity of air pollution and its impacts on the general public are typically reported using the air quality index. Different methods have been developed by various regulatory agencies and scientists, to calculate the AQI using aggregation methods involving critical pollutants. This paper presents a comparison between conventional AQI and Fuzzy AQI. 20 sampling locations were chosen for Vadodara city in order to investigate the effects of urban air pollution, and ambient air quality was measured twice a week from October 2017 to February 2018. The Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) method formulas were used to calculate the traditional Air Quality Index using the measured values of Coarse particulate matter (PM10), Sulphur dioxide  (SO2), and Oxides of nitrogen (NOX).  Additionally, the membership functions were provided as input to the Mamdani fuzzy inference system (FIS) for the fuzzy logic system, and the fuzzy air quality index (FAQI) was calculated. The computed conventional AQI values were compared with FAQI values. A close co-relation was observed between conventional AQI and fuzzy AQI values. The application of the fuzzy inference system demonstrates its capability to manage difficult issues including data ambiguity. The findings clearly show that the FIS is capable of resolving inherent discrepancies and interpreting complex conditions.

    Keywords: Air quality index, Fuzzy logic, Membership function, fuzzy inference system Introduction
  • Shiva Dehghan Abkenar *, Nazanin Khakipour, MohammadReza Ganjali Pages 1538-1553

    Diazinon is an organophosphorus insecticide that was widely used in agriculture to control pests on crops. It acts as an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, which means that it interferes with the normal functioning of the nervous system of insects, leading to their death. Diazinon can also have an impact on human health and the environment, as it can contaminate water and soil and pose a risk to non-target species, including humans and animals. This review paper shows the progress made in the last years in analytical methods applied for the purpose of extraction, detection and degradation of Diazinon as an important environmental pollutant. A variety of sampling and analytical methods have been developed to measure diazinon and its metabolites in different media. The most popular methods for the identification and analysis of Diazinon are liquid and gas chromatography, liquid-liquid extraction, and solid-phase extraction (SPE). The focus of this review is on the identification, measurement, and elimination of diazinon as a major soil pollutant. It begins with a discussion of analytical techniques, followed by an examination of methods for removing diazinon from soil.

    Keywords: diazinon, soil, Degradation, organophosphate pesticides
  • Gabriel Ankomah Baah *, Igor Savin, Olga Rogova Pages 1554-1566
    The present investigation examined the impact of highways on the global dispersion patterns of metallic elements present in dust and snow. A total of 18 mixed snow samples were collected from both sides of the Moscow-Tambo-Astrakhan Caspian Highway by the end of the winter season. The analysis of the samples indicated the presence of 35 distinct chemical elements, where Al, Ba, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na, and Zn were identified as the primary contaminants. The primary area of pollution on the windward side originating from the road spans a distance of 20-40 meters, while on the leeward side, it extends to 10 meters. The data presented suggests that the metals found in highways exhibited variability in terms of their solubility in water and concentration. Our findings demonstrate that the predominant wind directions affect the dispersion of pollutants. Furthermore, it was observed that the region with a higher concentration of metal on the side of the road facing the wind had a thickness that was 2-3 times less than that of the opposite side. It is advisable to conduct a subsequent inquiry within the ensuing five years to obtain dependable data regarding the extent of metal pollution.
    Keywords: road dust, metal contamination snow cover, Pollution, particulates
  • Arvind Kumar Swarnakar *, Samir Bajpai, Ishtiyaq Ahmad Pages 1567-1578
    Constructed wetland systems (CWs) are low-cost natural treatment systems for various types of influents. Although mainly the natural wetlands are soil-based, the constructed wetlands have been traditionally built using aggregate media. The performance of four types of available soils in Chhattisgarh was studied as the filter media in the horizontal subsurface flow-constructed wetland (HSFCW). Fourteen pilot-scale CW units with different soil types (entisol, vertisol, alfisol, inceptisol, and stone aggregate) and plant types (Canna indica and Typha latifolia) were used to treat domestic wastewater (WW). One set of each soil base reactor was planted with Canna indica and Typha latifolia, and one was kept blank (unplanted). All soils and plants are easily available.The reactors received primary wastewater in batch loads with WW loading for six hours to maintain aerobic conditions. The residence time of WW was 48 hours, and the applied hydraulic loading rate (HLR) was based on soil and aggregate. According to the findings, the planted HSFCW was more effective than the unplanted system. The results show that the wetland constructed on the treatment efficiency of the soil base has excellent potential to treat WW, with both plants.
    Keywords: constructed wetland, soil, Filter media Wastewater, Performance Evaluation
  • Alireza Pardakhti, Hosein Baheeraei, Sam Dehhaghi * Pages 1579-1588
    In this study, a multitude of statistical tools were used to examine PM10 concentration trends and their seasonal behavior from 2015 to 2021 in Tehran. The results of the integrated analysis have led to a better understanding of current PM10 trends which may be useful for future management policies. The Kruskal – Wallis test indicated the significant impact of atmospheric phenomena on the seasonal fluctuations of PM10. The seasonal decomposition of PM10 time series was conducted for better analysis of trends and seasonal oscillations. The seasonal Mann-Kendall test illustrated the significant possibility of a monotonic seasonal trend of PM10 (p = 0.026) while showing its negative slope simultaneously (Sen = -1.496). The forecasting procedure of PM10 until 2024 comprised 15 time series models which were validated by means of 8 statistical criteria. The model validation results indicated that ARIMA (0,1,2) was the most satisfactory case for predicting the future trend of PM10. This model estimated the concentration of PM10 to reach approximately 79.04 (µg/m3) by the end of 2023 with a 95% confidence interval of 51.38 – 107.42 (µg/m3). Overall, it was concluded that the use of the aforementioned analytical tools may help decision-makers gain a better insight into future forecasts of ambient airborne particulate matter.
    Keywords: Air pollution, Tehran, particulate matter, Time Series Analysis
  • Hamed Fallah Haghighi, Jamshid Khorshidi *, Taleb Zarei, Younes Bakhshan Pages 1589-1608
    Today, the application of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) has been the focus of many researchers in various industries due to suitable operating conditions, environmental friendliness (no use of organic solvents) and high efficiency. In this process, a solvent is used for separation in supercritical conditions. Pharmaceutical, oil extraction, and oil and gas industries have conducted extensive research in this field. Electronic and electric devices are constantly being upgraded and updated due to the rapid advancement of science and technology, which creates a number of issues with handling electric and electronic waste (e-waste). The most significant issue is that it is challenging to safely dispose of halogen flame retardants and refractory polymers in e-waste. Supercritical fluid (SCF) techniques provide significant environmental benefits over previous disposal methods like pyrolysis and acid leaching since they pose no dangers for air or water contamination. This study discusses and provides a summary of the basic concepts and appropriate factors of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). SCF methods were claimed to have recovered precious metals, base metals, and other inorganic minerals from e-waste with a recovery efficiency of further 93%. This study reviews the recent advances in supercritical water (SCW) and supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) extraction technologies for metal recovery from e-wastes. On the other hand, hybrid technologies are significantly improving in this field which could be considered for future studies.
    Keywords: Supercritical fluid extraction, electric, electronic waste, metal recovery, Supercritical CO2, Supercritical water
  • Ahmad Nohegar *, Mina Alavi Naeini, Ali Alavi Naeini Pages 1609-1623
    In recent years, increasing in energy demand and the importance of using energy with minimum green- house gas emission (GHG) leads researchers to study about renewable energy resources such as biomasses. Biomasses can be converted to biofuels by applying the appropriate technologies. In this study, a hybrid group fuzzy multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) approach based on step-wise weight assessment ratio analysis (SWARA), technique for order preference by similarity to ideal Solution (TOPSIS), additive ratio assessment (ARAS), weighted aggregated sum product assessment (WASPAS) and simple additive weighting (SAW) in the fuzzy environment is applied to rank biomasses in the case of Hormozgan province in Iran, because of being a coastal area and the access to different types of first, second and third generation resources of biofuel. After ranking these resources by mentioned methods, two aggregated multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) methods (mean rank method and Copeland method) are employed to prioritize these biomasses.  Results of mean rank show that municipal solid wastes (MSW), fish wastes and microalgae have the minimum average rank, respectively and the results of Copeland method show that MSW, fish wastes and microalgae have the maximum (wins-loses), respectively. So, these biomasses are the most suitable ones in biofuel production in this province.
    Keywords: renewable energy, Greenhouse Gas, Mean rank, Copeland method, Wastes
  • Hassan Darabi *, Parisa Rasouli Dehkharghani, AmirHoushang Ehsani, Hadis Kordani Pages 1624-1637

    As natural corridors, urban rivers are often under ecological pressures disturbing their environmental functions, and services over time and space. The landscape services (LS) has been accordingly introduced as an alternative method to evaluate such functions at the landscape scale. In this regard, public perceptions can seriously shape landscape changes, with potentially consistent or inconsistent implications for ecosystem sustainability over time and space. To shed light on this issue, the present study aimed to evaluate the LS of the Mehranrood River running through the city of Tabriz, Iran, from local users' perspective. For this purpose, approximately 365 questionnaires (with the Cronbach's alpha coefficient equal to 0.97) were developed based on the LS indicators and completed by the stakeholders. To analyze the results, structural equation modeling was applied. Afterward, the accuracy of the given model was checked by applying the root-mean-square error of approximation (RMSEA). The results showed that the service provision accounted for the largest number of factors. The cultural services were completely dependent on the presence of production/supply and regulation/maintenance services. The study results demonstrated that, the river had no efficient structures and functions from the stakeholders' perspective. They even believed that the ecological restoration of the Mehranrood River could deliver the potential ability to enhance its LS. Moreover, the respondents were willing to be in close contact with the river if it could be ecologically rehabilitated. Generally, ecological restoration could help boost urban resilience over time through the regeneration of ecological infrastructure, which required a transition from mechanical to ecological thought.

    Keywords: Provision services, Regulation services, Cultural Services, Structural Equation Modeling, Stakeholder perception, urban landscape
  • Tamara Kawther Hussein * Pages 1638-1652
    This article presents that the coagulation-flocculation process is one of the water treatment processes that mainly removes dyes from aqua solution by using chemical and natural coagulants. This research was conducted to evaluate the use of chemical coagulants (ferric chloride (FeCl3), aluminum chloride (AlCl3) and natural coagulant (okra pods) to remove Vat Green 3 (VG 3) dye from aqua solution by the coagulation-flocculation process. Various experimental parameters were studied by jar test experiments such as pH, coagulant dosages, initial VG 3 dye concentration, mixing speed, and settling time. The results showed that the maximum removal efficiency of VG 3 dye was for FeCl3 97.261%, AlCl3 94.466% and okra pods 92.572% at optimum conditions pH 6 for FeCl3 and okra pods, pH 7 for AlCl3, coagulant dosage 400 mg/L for FeCl3 and AlCl3, 200 mg/L for okra pods dosage, concentration of dye 80 mg/L, mixing speed 150 rpm, and settling time 60 min for FeCl3 and AlCl3, 70 min for okra pods at room temperature 25 ± 2 oC. The maximum volume of sludge at optimum conditions was 33 mL/L, 20 mL/L, 3 mL/L for FeCl3, AlCl3, okra pods, respectively. The kinetics of the coagulation-flocculation process was obeying pseudo first order kinetics more than pseudo second order kinetics. These results indicated that the natural coagulant (okra pods) could be an alternative to chemical coagulants for removal of VG 3 dye from textile effluent due to its low cost, biodegradable, non-polluting and lower sludge production.
    Keywords: Aluminum chloride, Ferric chloride, kinetics, Okra pods, Vat Green 3 dye
  • Davies, Ibienebo Chris Davies *, Emeka Anyanwu Pages 1653-1665
    The heavy metal concentrations of water and shrimp (Penaeus monodon) from Isaka Bundu swamp, Niger Delta were evaluated between January and June 2022. The non-carcinogenic health risk assessment was used to assess the water's suitability for recreation and the shrimps for consumption. Five heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Cd, Ni, and Zn) were assessed in both media using standard methods and compared with national and international standards. The Chronic daily intake (CDI) for Cd and Cu (in children) exceeded their respective reference doses while hazard quotients (HQs) for Cd and Cu (in children) and all the hazard indices were greater than 1 in the water. All the target hazard quotients (THQs) and total hazard index (THIs) were lower than 1 in the shrimps. The heavy metal concentrations, CDIs, HQ/THQs and HI/THIs were higher in the more impacted stations 1 and 3. Based on the heavy metal concentrations and health risk assessment, the waters of the Isaka Bundu swamp are unsafe for recreational purposes. However, shrimps are safe for human consumption. The high concentrations of heavy metals in the water influenced the concentrations in the shrimps. Anthropogenic activities in the area contributed to the heavy metal concentrations in the environment. The results also showed that the children were more prone to adverse health impacts.
    Keywords: limits, Heavy metal, Water quality, Anthropogenic, Shrimp
  • Pimprapa Chaijak *, Panisa Michu, Junjira Thipraksa, Alisa Kongthong Pages 1666-1675
    Pyrolysis is a promising thermochemical conversion process that transforms biomass into biochar, a carbon-rich solid material, in an oxygen-limited environment. This study focuses on the utilization of rice byproducts, namely rice straw and rice husk as feedstock for biochar production through low-temperature pyrolysis. The aim is to explore the potential of these biochars as cost-effective adsorbents for removing metal contaminants from aqueous solutions, with a particular emphasis on Pb(II) removal. Physicochemical properties of the biochars produced at a low temperature of 300 °C were thoroughly investigated, including surface morphology and their adsorption capacity for Pb(II). Remarkably, the rice straw biochar (RSB) produced at 300 °C exhibited exceptional Pb(II) adsorption capacity, with a value of 390.10±0.30 mg/g, and demonstrated a high Pb(II) removal efficiency of 96.10±0.30% when modified with 30% w/w H2O2. A crucial aspect of this study lies in the evaluation of the cost-effectiveness of the biochar production process, particularly when compared to commercially available adsorbents. By demonstrating the potential of rice byproduct-derived biochar as an efficient Pb(II) biosorbent in aqueous environments, this work not only provides new insights into the preparation of biochar using low-temperature pyrolysis but also offers a viable and economical solution for metal-contaminated water treatment. The findings of this research contribute to the field of sustainable waste utilization and highlight the significant potential of rice byproduct-based biochar as an environmentally friendly adsorbent for heavy metal removal.
    Keywords: Biochar, Biomass, biosorption, lead removal, rice straw
  • Shailu Guin, Surinder Deswal * Pages 1676-1705
    The annual global generation of e-waste is estimated to be 59.08 million tonnes (7.37 kg per capita), out of which the major chunk is being processed in informal sector using primitive and hazardous methods in developing countries due to cheap labour, less stringent laws and regulatory policies. Despite the fact the annual global value of e-waste industry being about USD 62.5 billion that provides employment to millions in developing countries, the unstructured/informal operations in e-waste sector had and have been causing hazardous health issues in human and environment along with unlawful activities. Many studies have been reported on wide array of interrelated aspects and issues of e-waste, but only few studies have reviewed potential remediation techniques that can take care of the increasing e-waste and its sustainable management.  Therefore, disposal and remediation techniques for polluted sites have been the key concerns in the field of environmentally sustainable management (ESM) of e-waste. The present review revealed that of all the classic and hybrid remediation techniques, the biological remediation techniques being eco-friendly and cost effective needs to be explored for metal removing from contaminated environment.  The review also concludes the imminent necessity of ESM by framing and implementing regulations and laws essentially incorporating Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) in developing countries. The review of Indian scenario suggests the scope of startups for the sustainable recycling of e-waste to achieve healthy environment, employment and economic opportunities.
    Keywords: E-waste, Biological remediation techniques, Environmentally sustainable management, Extended Producer Responsibility
  • Fagbohun Adebisi *, Mary Dauda, Toba Anjorin Pages 1706-1730
    Pesticide application has increased globally with increasing demand for food, and modernized Agriculture as a result of an explosion in the world’s population growth, especially in developing nations in Africa, Asia, and South America. However, pesticides have helped to improve productivity, protect the nutritive integrity of food crops, and ensure year-round food supplies worldwide. The production and consumption of pesticides persisted from one decade to another until the ecosystem started to suffer from its adverse effects on the environment and human health. Previous investigations revealed that pesticides found entry into the human food chain. In response to these problems, researchers all over the world have conducted several kinds of research on pesticide applications, and their residual contamination in food. This review crosses from the past to present researches on the usage of pesticides, their accumulation in food, and possible methods of their reduction as highlighted by researchers over many years. There is a need for continuous monitoring of pesticide residue profile in soil, crop produce, and animal products in developing countries so that it will not exceed maximum residue limits (MRLs).
    Keywords: Agriculture, Africa, contamination pesticide residue, Food safety, Maximum Residual Limits, residue
  • Hanan Ahmed Said AL Riyami, Salam Kadhim Al Dawery, Sreedhar Reddy *, Anwar Ahmed Pages 1731-1740
    This research article compares the efficacy of using alum and poly aluminum chloride (PAM) for the treatment of fish processing wastewater. This study aims to determine the effectiveness of each treatment method in reducing turbidity, COD), BOD, and altering the rheological properties of the wastewater.  Batch mode coagulation and flocculation experiments were conducted using lab scale jar test apparatus. The findings indicate that both alum and PAM can significantly reduce turbidity and COD. The highest turbidity removal efficiency of 93% was achieved with alum at a dose of 200 mg/L, while PAM achieved a maximum turbidity removal efficiency of 86% at a dose of 100 mg/L. Alum and PAM achieved the highest BOD5 and COD removal efficiencies at a dosage of 200 mg/L and pH 7.0. However, the removal efficiencies varied at different pH values and dosages. Alum and PAM have significant effect on the rheological properties of fish processing wastewater. The viscosity of settled residual sludge after chemical coagulation is more compared to untreated fish processing wastewater due to aggregation of suspended particles to form larger flocs. This would improve the settling properties of the coagulated sludge. The study concludes that both alum and PAM can be viable options for treating fish processing wastewater, with Alum showing a slight edge over PAM in certain aspects.
    Keywords: Alum, PAM, Fish Processing Wastewater, Rheological properties
  • Reagan Bessong Agbor *, Ndem Eyogor Edu, Eno Ndarake Asuquo, Etta Akpang Ivon, Simon Alain Inah, Obase-Etta Bebia Pages 1741-1753
    Bioremediation has become a trending and developing field in environmental restoration through the use of micro-organisms to utilize and reduced the concentration and toxicity of various chemical pollutants. This study is on bioremediation of hydrocarbon-polluted soils using some agricultural wastes. Ninety (90) plastic buckets were filled with 4kg each of the composite soil. The soil contained in the plastic buckets was spiked with 250ml crude oil, except in the unpolluted plastic buckets (0%) crude oil. The agro-wastes (plantain stem sap, bush mango peels, and fruited pumpkin husk powder) in single and combined forms were applied after 14 days soil pollution. The amendments were applied as follows: Pristine control (0% agro-wastes), crude-oil control (0% agro-wastes), 150g, 250g, and 350g of the agro-wastes. Soil samples were collected at 90 days for soil microbial counts and the total hydrocarbon content of the soil. Data collected were subjected to 2-way ANOVA. The result showed that the microbial population in the crude-oil polluted soil amended with different agricultural wastes significantly increased (p<0.05) the total heterotrophic and crude oil utilizing bacterial and fungal counts in the soils and the increase in microbial population result in a significant reduction in total hydrocarbon content (THC) of the soils. The reduction in the THC of the soil was treatment dependent. It is, therefore concluded that based on the efficiency of these agro-wastes in enhancing microbial degradation, further studies should be carried out on the enzyme activities and production of bio-surfactant from the wastes to shorten the degradation time.
    Keywords: Contamination, Amendment, bioremediation, fungi, Bacteria
  • Meghdad Kazemi, Saba Kalantari, AliReza Abbasi, Abbas Rahimi Foroushani, Farideh Golbabaei * Pages 1754-1765

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework-8 (ZIF-8) were used to investigate the feasibility of producing electrospun PET/ZIF-8 polymer media in removing particles from the air stream to compare with the HEPA filter. To make PET/ZIF-8 media, concentrations of 0.5, 1, 2.5, and 5 wt.% of ZIF-8 were dissolved in PET20% solutions, and dispersed for 10 min. Then, PET/ZIF-8 media was produced with an ESDP30 model electrospinning device. The efficiency and pressure drop of nanofiber media were measured with a respiratory mask and filter test device. The FTIR, XRD and SEM analysis were carried out to obtain the characteristics of nanofibers. The overall XRD pattern and its peaks were in reasonable agreement with previous findings that confirmed the structure of ZIF-8. The FTIR spectra of the obtained materials confirm that the chemical bond structure corresponds to that reported for ZIF-8. In total, The PET/ZIF-8(1%) media efficiency, pressure drop, the average diameter of nanofibers, and the quality factor were 100%, 320 Pa, 171.18±37.91 nm and 0.0143 Pa-1, respectively, which was better than other electrospun PET/ZIF-8 media and HEPA filters. According to the results, with an increase in the weight percentage of Zif-8 (>5 wt.%) in the structure of PET/Zif-8 media, due to the increase in the viscosity of the solution jet, the diameter of the produced nanofibers increased and the efficiency of the electrospinning medium decreased.

    Keywords: PET, Zif-8 MOFs, HEPA, Electrospinning Polymer
  • Leila Tayebi, Rahmatollah Rahimi, AliReza Akbarzadeh * Pages 1766-1775

    Due to the increase in carbon dioxide emission, there is a need for achieving efficient ways to reduce CO2 harmful effects. There are several strategies to mitigate atmospheric CO2 concentration. The catalytic cycloaddition of carbon dioxide with epoxides to provide cyclic carbonates employing metal-organic frameworks is a promising method for this purpose. Herein the application of two porous porphyrinic MOFs (Co-PMOF and Cu-PMOF) as catalysts in CO2 conversion was investigated. These MOFs demonstrated good crystallinity and porosity, providing them with two promising platforms to study CO2 conversion reactions. These heterogeneous porphyrin-based MOFs are catalytically efficient towards the chemical conversion of CO2 under moderate conditions because these MOF matrices contain a high density of active Lewis acidic and basic sites for activating CO2 and epoxide compounds. These MOFs exhibited high catalytic efficiency for the chemical fixation of CO2 at ambient temperature and solvent-free conditions. The reactions formed the proportionate cyclic carbonates in good yields. These products are valuable compounds in a variety of chemical fields.

    Keywords: carbon dioxide, metal-organic frameworks, CO2 cycloaddition, Heterogeneous catalysis, Green chemistry
  • Mahsa Tamjidi, Madjid Abbaspour *, Yousef Rashidi, Alireza Mirzahosseini Pages 1776-1795
    Dust is an important atmospheric phenomena that occurs in spring and summer in many regions, including Iran and its neighboring countries. Considered one of the most important challenges of the last century, this phenomenon occurs on a global scale in arid and semi-arid regions. Because of changes in climate and vegetation as well as progressive processes of soil erosion and the disturbances resulting from them, the sensitivity of regions to rapid erosion will have important reactions on the region's climate and desertification. Therefore, the current research investigated the concentration and distribution of fine dust under the influence of meteorological parameters using the GCM climate model and attempted to determine the effect of climate change on the concentration of the relevant pollutant in the coming years. In this study, the CALPUFF model considered the temporal and spatial effects of weather conditions on the transfer, transformation, and removal of atmospheric pollutants. The emission rate of the PM10 pollutant was estimated. The results indicated that the increase in greenhouse gas emissions and changes in climate variables in the near future will cause the distribution of suspended particles one of the important pollutants to increase significantly. The results also revealed a significant relationship between the degradation of air quality and the trend of air warming during the period 2046-2065.
    Keywords: GCM model CALPUFF model PM10 emission vegetation change
  • Herlina Fitrihidajati *, Tarzan Purnomo, Fida Rachmadiarti, Reni Ambarwati, Rofiza Yolanda Pages 1796-1807
    The water quality in the western part of Madura Island is currently faced with a severe threat due to pollution. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the water quality from Bancaran and Kwanyar estuaries, Madura Island, using the physicochemical approaches. A total of eight physiochemical parameters such as salinity, temperature, pH, DO, CO2, BOD, Pb, and Cd were investigated at three sampling stations of each estuary on 15 June 2022 and 19 December 2022 to identify the potential environmental factors controlling the water quality for effective monitoring and management of these estuaries. The results showed that temperature (25–29.5ºC), pH (7.47–7.8), DO (2.45–4.57 ppm), CO2 (0.5–10.4 ppm), BOD (1.86–9.99 mg.L-1) and Pb (–0.55 to –0.31 mg.L-1) differed significantly (P < 0.01), while salinity (0.2–2.90‰) and Cd (0.02–0.05 mg.L-1) did not exhibit significant differences (P > 0.05). Pearson’s correlation indicated significant positive correlations between salinity and Pb, as well as Cd and Pb. According to the principal component analysis (PCA), salinity and BOD were related to the Kwanyar estuary, while the other parameters were associated with the Bancaran estuary. This preliminary investigation showed a decline in the water quality of these estuaries, specifically from DO measurement. Although low DO levels occur naturally, the continuous occurrence will affect the living organisms in the water that plays an important role in the aquatic environment. Therefore, continuous monitoring of these estuaries is needed to provide better information and for protection as well as sustainable use of water resources.
    Keywords: monitoring, estuary, PCA, Bancaran, Kwanyar
  • Seyed Erfan Hoseinifar, Majid Shafiepour Motlagh *, Khosro Ashrafi, MohammadReza Ahadi Pages 1808-1818

    This article provides an overview of the main findings of a survey on the effects of ambient temperature and humidity on vehicular emissions of criteria pollutants and greenhouse gases. The present study is focused on the emissions of Carbon Monoxide (CO), Nitrogen Oxides (NOX), Sulfur Oxides (SOX), Particulate Matters (PM), Carbon Dioxide (CO2), Nitrous Oxide (N2O), and Methane (CH4) from gasoline engine passenger cars. In this analytical research, the International Vehicle Emissions (IVE) model was operated, using long-term meteorological data to determine the effects of various ambient temperature and humidity levels on exhaust pipe pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions. The results of present study indicated that as the ambient temperature increases from -7.5 °C to 20 °C, CO, NOX, and CH4 emissions decrease by 35.8%, 6.46%, and 21.44%, respectively, while SOX, PM, CO2, and N2O emissions remain constant. In contrast, increasing the ambient temperature from 20 °C to 37.5 °C increases the emissions of all the investigated pollutants and greenhouse gases. On the other hand, the findings showed that as the ambient humidity increases from 8% to 98% CO and CH4 emissions increase by 7.3% and 2.13%, respectively; while NOX emissions decrease by 16.84%. However, humidity changes did not have noticeable impact on the emissions of SOX, PM, CO2, and N2O. This study concluded that changes in meteorological parameters over a certain period of time, not only affect global warming, but also the emissions of criteria pollutants.

    Keywords: Sensitivity analysis, meteorological parameters, Vehicular Emissions, IVE model, Tehran
  • Messele Kebede Kassa *, Tilahun Tesfaye Deressu Pages 1819-1837
    Natural radioactivity levels in the eastern coastline of Lake Hawassa sediment samples of Ethiopia’s Sidama Region have been measured. Sediment samples were collected and analyzed using gamma-ray spectrometery (high purity germanium detector) to evaluate the radioisotopes of 238U (214Pb, 214Bi), 232Th (228Ac, 212Pb), and 40K and their ranges of activity concentrations were 11.70 to 29.73 Bq 〖kg〗^(-1), 19.01 to 58.61 Bq 〖kg〗^(-1), and BDL to 827.21 Bq 〖kg〗^(-1) ,with average values of 16.51 ± 1.20 Bq 〖kg〗^(-1) , 28.17 ± 2.27 Bq 〖kg〗^(-1) ,and 673.95 ± 29.92 Bq 〖kg〗^(-1) (dry mass), respectively. The radiological hazard indices average values (radium equivalent (R_eq) (108.69 Bq 〖kg〗^(-1) ); hazard index (H_ex (0.29); excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR) (0.23 x 〖10〗^(-3) ); absorbed dose rate (D_R) (52.70 nGyh^(-1) ); annual effective dose equivalent (AEDE) (0.07 mSv〖yr〗^(-1)); and annual gonadal dose equivalent (AGDE) (0.38 mSv〖yr〗^(-1)) were also evaluated and compared to the worldwide-recommended values. All results of radiological hazard indices obtained in this study were lower than their worldwide-recommended values were 370 Bq 〖kg〗^(-1), ≤1, 59 nGyh^(-1), 0.07mSv〖yr〗^(-1), 0.29 × 〖10〗^(-3), and 0.3mSv〖yr〗^(-1) of radium equivalent activity, external hazard index, outdoor absorbed dose rate, outdoor annual effective dose equivalent, excess lifetime cancer risk, and annual gonadal dose equivalent, respectively. This suggests the eastern coastline of Lake Hawassa is safe from radioactive risk for aquatic species and various human activities, and appears as essential radiometric baseline information for further environmental monitoring programs.
    Keywords: Sediment, natural radioactivity, Radiological hazard index, Lake Hawassa Ethiopia
  • Hassan H. Sultan, Mohammad Abdul Wahab Shaker Al-Aadhami, Noor Nihad Baqer * Pages 1838-1849
    Microplastics are an emerging environmental pollutant detected in different environments, but studies in Iraq are rare, if not nonexistent. Our research aims to detect the presence of microplastics in raw water and drinking water treatment plants in Baghdad. Water samples were collected (1 liter per sample) from four drinking water treatment plants: Al-Fahama station, Al-Fath Al-Mubin station, Al-Dora station, and Al-Madaen station, which receive water from the Tigris River. The microplastic shape was determined by a fluorescent microscope examination after staining with Nile dye. FTIR spectrophotometer used to determine microplastic compounds. The results showed, according to FTIR  examination, that the most critical types of microplastic compounds in water samples were Nylon, Polycarbonate, High-density polyethylene, Polystyrene, Polyamide, Polyethylene terephthalate, and Polyurethane, and Microplastics number were (17-62 MPs /L) in raw water, while in drinking water were (9-40 MPs/L). The fibers form is the predominant form of microplastics in natural and drinking for stations: Al-Fahamah (91.6%, 66.6% respectively), Al-Fath Al-Moubin (58.8%, 77.7% respectively ), Al-Doura (65.3%, 52.5% respectively), Drinking water in Al-Madaen station (40.0%). At the same time, the spherical shape is predominant in the raw water of Al-Madaen station (82.2%).In conclusion, the current study indicated the pollution of drinking water treatment plants with microplastics.
    Keywords: Microplastic, drinking water, FTIR
  • Mahdi Rajabi, Bubak Souri * Pages 1850-1861
    The purpose of this study was to evaluated the origin of the heavy metals amongst nuisance dust particles in Sanandaj, Khorrmabad and Andimeshk cities located in different latitudes in western Iran for the dustiest year during last decade. Samples of dust-fall particles were collected with 10 days intervals from these three cities for the duration of June 2012 to July 2013 using Deposit Gauge Method. Concentration of the heavy metals including iron, manganese, zinc, copper, arsenic, chromium, silver, nickel, lead and cadmium were measured using atomic absorption spectroscopy. The Quantification of Contamination index (QC) was applied to evaluate the origin of heavy metals among dust-fall particles collected in three stations. The results revealed that the annual mean rate of dust-fall was 1.73, 2.66 and 3.37 g/m2 per 10 days for Sanandaj, Khorramabad and Andimeshk, respectively. The highest and the lowest amount of dust-fall were obtained for July and February, respectively, while Fe had the highest concentration among the metals studied. The temperature and wind speed were found to be the most correlated meteorological parameters to dust-fall content throughout the three stations. According to QC index; Ag, Cu, Cd, As, Pb, Mn and Zn (except Pb and Mn for Andimeshk) were derived mainly from similar origins such as anthropogenic activities but the increased values of Fe, Ni, and Cr were ascribed to natural processes. Furthermore, Cu had the highest correlation with other heavy metals measured and was determined the most stable metal amongst dust-fall particles for the three studied stations.
    Keywords: Deposit Gauge Method, Dust-fall, Heavy metals, Quantification of Contamination
  • Shaimaa Fakhri Jasim, Yasamen Raad Humudat *, Suadad Awad Kadhim Pages 1862-1866
    Cold plasma has emerged as a powerful energy-efficient and environmentally friendly advanced oxidation technique in recent decades as a non-thermal approach in a wide range of applications. It is a form of plasma that is created at low temperatures and can be used for various applications, including water treatment This study aims to determine the influence of Cold plasma treatment on endotoxin reduction in dialysis water. A lab-scale unit was built to implement the experiments and synthetic water (feed solution) was prepared with a known level of endotoxin (0.48 EU/mL). The test for Limulus amebocyte lysate was used to assess concentrations of endotoxin in treated water. The experimental results showed reduce of endotoxins in the cold plasma treatment. This type of treatment reduced the concentration of endotoxin to 0.17 ± 0.09 EU/ml. The results of the study indicated that this could be an innovation in cold plasma jet fields, with numerous applications in dialysis fluid preparation.
    Keywords: Cold plasma, Dialysis, Bacterial endotoxin, Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay
  • Soniya Sukumaran Chettiar Rajamma, Sunila Abraham, Jojo Panakal John * Pages 1867-1879
    Radioactive contamination of the earth’s biosphere has always been a source of concern. From the health point of view, radiation exposure and dose delivered to human beings are of prime importance. Certain parts of coastal southwest districts of the state of Kerala in India namely Thiruvananthapuram (Trivandrum), Kollam (Quilon) and Alappuzha (Alleppey) are known high background radiation areas (HBRA) owing to the presence of rich quantities of thorium and uranium. Surface soil samples from these districts' HBRAs and adjoining regions were studied for their primordial radionuclide levels using NaI(Tl) based gamma-ray spectrometry. Specific activities of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K nuclides in soil samples from the whole study area were between 4.7 Bq/kg to 130 Bq/kg, 6.5 Bq/kg to 611 Bq/kg and 101 Bq/kg to 1852 Bq/kg, respectively. Important dosimetric parameters namely radium equivalent activity (Raeq), absorbed gamma dose (D), Indoor and outdoor Annual Effective Dose equivalents (AEDin & AEDout), internal and external hazard indices (Hin & Hex) for gamma exposure, and Excess Lifetime Cancer Risk (ELCR) were also determined to assess probable health effects on human beings residing in these regions. A comparison of average specific radioactivities and average indoor annual effective doses between the HBRA and Normal background Radiation Area (NBRA) is presented. Results show that the neighbouring regions have considerably lower radiation dosimetric parameters.
    Keywords: soil, Primordial radionuclides, Radiation hazard indices, Dose rate, HBRA
  • Alireza Eftekhar *, Qiuomars Yazdanpanah Dero, Alireza Zaker Esfehani Pages 1880-1894
    The present study was aims to explore resilience and transformation capabilities and explore their applicability in the field of energy. It focuses especially on the role of the cognitions of stakeholders and decision-makers in the uptake and management of sustainability transitions. Fuzzy cognitive mapping (FCM) is used to aggregate different stakeholders’ views on the functioning and performance of the urban energy system of the city of Tehran. In the case of Tehran, the urban energy network is analyzed in terms of resilience and transformability by studying the degree of connectivity and its influence on both system characteristics. Three scenarios of policy options are simulated to weight their outcomes in terms of sustainability, Scenario A: Optimization of economic incentives; Scenario B: Strong education and awareness campaigns; and Scenario C: Stronger local institutional initiatives. Scenario A shows a potential perverse effect if the current economic structure is maintained, even if the economic crisis is overcome. Combining Scenarios B and C provides the best results in terms of sustainability. This suggests that successful transformation in cities should pivot on a combination of top-down and bottom-up actions to unlock resilient but unsustainable states, and that special care needs to be taken when managing highly connected and/or influential elements of the system, as contextual dependencies might hinder the agency of change, particularly in the context of cities. Network characteristics, such as connectivity, can be useful indicators to inform resilience and transformation management, although the double-edge sword nature of connectivity should be noted.
    Keywords: Urban planning Energy transition Scenario planning, Fuzzy cognitive mapping (FCM)
  • Rahul Tiwari *, Akshay Botle, Kalpana Rajouriya, Prabal P Singh, Ajay Taneja Pages 1895-1913
    Sampling was conducted on Agra-Delhi national highway NH-2. Samples were collected with the help of Sioutas cascade impactor. During the sampling, PM1.0-0.5 (255.85µg/m3) was higher than PM2.5-1.0 (218.96µg/m3). The AQI value for the average PM2.5 concentration also exceeded the severe AQ limit (401-500). These results showed that PM2.5 pollution has a significant influence on the site as a result of a variety of anthropogenic activities. During the summer season, for PM1.0-0.5 and PM2.5-1.0 highest values (µg/m3) of metals followed the same trend and it was observed as Mg(6.52)> Ca(5.89)> Al(3.64)> while for PM2.5-1.0 it was as Mg(10.12)> Ca(9.5)> Al(5.95) respectively. At roadside, most of these metals are emitted from the resuspension of dust and vehicle activities which causes serious diseases to the human being. Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn were highly enriched at national highway sampling sites, highlighting the crustal source, which has a major impact on metals concentration, followed by anthropogenic sources. The present research was conducted to find out the concentration level of metals in PM2.5-1.0 and PM1.0-0.5 particles in Agra, India to find out the health risk assessment at highway site.From the results, it was observed that all metals bound to larger size PM has high bioavailability. From the health risk assessment, it was found that all the metals bound smaller size particles showed higher HQ except in the case of Ni and Al. Cr, Pb showed carcinogenic risk to children and adults in both size fraction of PM except in the case of Ni.
    Keywords: Bioavailability, Health Risk assessment Particulate Matter, Source Apportionment, Trace metals
  • Reza Omidifar *, Ebrahim Mazari, Rezvan Ostadalidehaghi Pages 1914-1924
    This research aims to investigate the effect of virtual education during the COVID-19 outbreak on air pollution indicators in Tehran. The study uses quantitative methods, including One-Way ANOVA, to analyze the air pollution indicators before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Data on air pollution indicators in Tehran from 2018, 2019, and 2020 were collected from Tehran Air Control Company and compared using statistical tests. The year 2019 represents virtual education, while 2018 and 2020 represent face-to-face education. The examined indicators include particulate matters with a diameter less or equal than 2.5μ (PM2.5), SO2, NOX (i.e., NO2 and NO), O3, and CO. The results of variance analysis show significant differences in the PM2.5and NOX indices between virtual and face-to-face training days. Follow-up tests by Toki and Scheffé indicate that in 2019, when education was fully virtual, the levels of these pollutants were lower compared to 2018 and 2020. However, there were no significant differences in the SO2, O3, and CO indices during the days of virtual education compared to the years before and after. This suggests that virtual education during the COVID-19 outbreak contributed to pollution reduction by reducing traffic to educational organizations and its indirect effects.
    Keywords: Air pollution, Virtual education COVID-19, Tehran
  • Mohsen Samimi, Jafar Nouri * Pages 1925-1934

    Biomass extracted from different plant parts can play a role as a cheap, efficient and ecofriendly adsorbent. In this research, Lantana Camara L. Stem biomass (LSB), a low-cost and useless material, was introduced as efficient biomass for divalent zinc biosorption from aqueous environments. For achieving optimal conditions in the zinc biosorption process, the experimental design was applied by the response surface methodology (RSM) based on a Box- Behnken design (BBD) model. Based on the comparison between the measured and predicted amounts, the values of R2 , 2 adj R , and 2pred R in the Zn(II) biosorption model were 0.9960, 0.9887 and 0.9441. The Zn(II) uptake in the experiments, BBD model-based (p-value of Lack-of-Fit term = 0.228 > 0.05), varied from 15.19% to 81.11%. The maximum analyte uptake at a LSBto- Zn(II) ratio of 8:1, synthetic solution pH of 6.5 and residence time of 75 min was predicted at 97.12%. The maximum Z.R.% based on the validation test performed based on the optimal predicted conditions was also obtained at 94.65%, which is 2.5% different from the model’s data amount, confirming the acceptable accuracy of the quadratic model. The LSB, in optimized conditions, as a low-cost biosorbent, can be a suitable candidate with acceptable potential for heavy metals biosorption from aquatic solutions.

    Keywords: Box-Behnken design, Lantana camara L., stem biomass, Zinc biosorption
  • Mehdi Soltanian, Saba Salmak, Toktam Shahriari * Pages 1935-1951

    Environmental pollution has become and increasing concern due to growing risk to human health. Soil pollution is an aspect of environmental pollution that has received comparatively less attention than water pollution. However, considering direct effects of contaminants transmission through ingestion to the human body, it can lead to greater risks for human health. Arsenic is a highly prevalent environmental pollutant, and considerable number of people worldwide suffer from constant exposure to it. While there are several ways to manage and remediate contaminated soils, phytoremediation has been paid special attention due to its higher social acceptability and lower cost. Nevertheless, this approach faces challenges, including effectively handling significant quantities of contaminated biomass, managing it appropriately, and selecting suitable plant species for the remediation process. In this regard, numerous endeavors have been undertaken to tackle these obstacles like strategies encompass the utilization of amendments, adept management of biomass, and the implementation of hybrid remediation approaches. This study aims to review prior research on mechanisms, challenges, and enhanced phytoremediation of arsenic-contaminated soils, encompassing reduction of contaminated biomass after phytoremediation.

    Keywords: Soil pollution, Potentially toxic elements, Heavy metals, Arsenic, Enhanced phytoremediation