فهرست مطالب

Journal of Clinical Research in Paramedical Sciences
Volume:12 Issue: 2, Dec 2023

  • تاریخ انتشار: 1402/09/11
  • تعداد عناوین: 14
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  • Sareh Mousavi, Shokoufeh Mousavi *, MahmoudReza Shahsavari Page 1
    Background

     Given that a significant group of female heads of households face poverty, disability, and powerlessness, particularly in managing household economic affairs, their self-esteem and mental health are affected, which has paved the way for depression, anxiety, and other disorders.

    Objectives

     This study aimed to investigate the effects of compassion-focused therapy (CFT) on social anxiety and rumination among female heads of households.

    Methods

     This study employed a quasi-experimental design with a pretest-posttest and a control group. The study population consisted of all female heads of households visiting the welfare centers in Aligudarz (Iran) in 2022. A sample of 40 individuals (20 women per group) was selected based on the inclusion criteria and randomly assigned to either the intervention group or the control group. The intervention group received 8 sessions of 90 minutes (one session per week) of CFT. After completing the sessions, a posttest was administered to both the intervention and control groups under similar conditions. The research instruments included the Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN) and Rumination Response Scale (RRS). Data analysis was performed using covariance analysis with SPSS version 27.

    Results

     The mean ( ± SD) of the posttest scores of social anxiety and rumination in the intervention group was 29.95 (±4.26) and 39.70 (±4.29) which was significantly different from the control groups (57.75 (±5.59) and 57.90 (±4.71)) (P < 0.001). The results indicated that CFT effectively reduced social anxiety and rumination among female heads of households (P < 0.001).

    Conclusions

     CFT was a suitable method for addressing social anxiety and rumination among female heads of households. These findings highlight the significance of implementing compassion-focused interventions among female heads of households and provide implications for clinical interventions.

    Keywords: Compassion-focused Therapy, Anxiety, Rumination, Women
  • Mohammad Rahimi, Hadi Samadi *, Zohre Nikzade Abbasi, Afsane Rahnama Page 2
    Background

     The objective of this study was to examine the impact of six weeks of core instability training on functional movement screening (FMS) scores and core trunk endurance in female Kyokushin karate athletes.

    Methods

     Thirty female Kyokushin Karate athletes aged 14 - 18 years were recruited and randomly assigned to either an experimental group or a control group (n = 15 per group). Functional movement patterns, including the FMS, Sorenson, and McGill tests, were assessed before and after the intervention. The experimental group underwent six weeks of Kyokushin Karate training, while the control group performed core stability exercises. The statistical analysis involved paired t-tests and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), with a significance level set at P ≤ 0.05.

    Results

     The paired t-test results indicated a significant difference in pre- and post-test scores in both the control and experimental groups (P < 0.05). However, the ANCOVA showed no significant differences between the groups (P > 0.05).

    Conclusions

     Both Kyokushin training and core stability exercises have been found to increase core stability and FMS scores. Therefore, it can be suggested that Kyokushin Karate athletes may not need to perform separate core stability exercises as part of their training routine.

    Keywords: Kyokushin Karate, Core Stability, FMS, Core Muscle Endurance, Movement Pattern
  • Fatemeh Molazamani, Sasan Bavi *, Hamdollah Jayervand Page 3
    Background

     Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a condition that causes poor academic performance. If left untreated, it can lead to different comorbidities such as depression, anxiety, and substance abuse.

    Objectives

     This study compared the effects of a computer-based intervention (Captain's Log MindPower Builder) combined with Ritalin to those of Ritalin alone on sustained attention, divided attention, and impulsivity in children with ADHD.

    Methods

     The statistical population included all boys and girls with ADHD aged 7 - 12 years who visited Baqiyatallah Hospital of Tehran in 2021 (N = 103). Purposive sampling was employed to select 30 eligible children as the research sample. They were then randomly assigned to an intervention group (Captain's Log MindPower Builder + Ritalin) and a waitlist control group (Ritalin alone). The computer-based intervention was performed in twelve 60-minute sessions. The data were collected by conducting the Integrated Visual and Auditory Continuous Performance Test. The analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was then utilized to analyze the research data. SPSS software v26 was used for data analysis.

    Results

     The mean ± SD of sustained attention, divided attention and impulsivity were 78.26 ± 6.90, 80.20 ± 6.01, and 73.70 ± 8.91on the pretest in the intervention group; moreover, it was 88.87 ± 7.19, 90.94 ± 5.45, and 82.41 ± 8.46 on the pretest in the control group. According to the results, the computer-based intervention had significant effects on both sustained attention and divided attention; however, it failed to significantly improve impulsivity (P < 0.001). Additionally, the intervention effects during the 45-day follow-up period only showed stability for sustained attention (P < 0.001). In fact, its effects on divided attention and impulsivity control were not significant.

    Conclusions

     The computer-based intervention enhanced Ritalin's effects in some ways and improved sustained attention. Therefore, education centers for children with ADHD are recommended to adopt this method in order to improve attention in such children. Nevertheless, further studies are needed in this field to gain a better insight into the effectiveness of Captain's Log MindPower Builder.

    Keywords: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Attention, Impulsive Behavior, Children
  • Marzieh Maneshian, Najmeh Kaffash Farkhad, Sarieh Shahraki * Page 4

    The “Cardiorenal Syndrome (CRS) “includes a simultaneous heart-kidney dysfunction in such a way that damage in one organ subsequently leads to damage in another and vice versa. Although for the first time in a classification in 2008, two main groups called cardiorenal and reno-cardiac (based on the onset of the disease in each organ) were used for this term, but today there are five main classifications for it. Various factors take part in this syndrome pathophysiology, including endotoxemia, inflammatory processes, metabolic derangements, infections, imbalance in neurohormones secretion, venous congestion and immunological dysfunction. But the main cause of this syndrome' onset in many cases is over-activity of renal sympathetic nerves and subsequently increased interaction with the stimulated renin-angiotensin system (both classical and non-classical axes). Regarding this fact, today renal denervation is known as a useful therapeutic approach in solving the disorders of this syndrome, which its safety and efficacy have been proven in many experimental and clinical studies.Respecting the above information, the aim of this study is to investigate the therapeutic effects of renal denervation in solving CRS disorders in more details, relying on the results of experimental and human studies in this field. The effects of using renin angiotensin blockers and other treatment methods for this syndrome have also been mentioned.

    Keywords: Renocardiac Syndrome, Renal Denervation, Renin-Angiotensin System, Sympathetic Nerves
  • Shahla Vaghef Zadeh, Nader Monirpour *, Effat Merghati Khoei, Hassan Mirzahosseini Page 5
    Background

     Men suffering from premature ejaculation often report emotional and relational problems, and some of them do not pursue sex due to embarrassment. This condition leads to mental disorders, e.g., anxiety and depression, and the couple's relationship may suffer.

    Objectives

     The present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) and behavior therapy using the start-stop method in improving premature ejaculation.

    Methods

     This was a quasi-experimental study with two experimental groups and a control group. The statistical population comprised all men with premature ejaculation residing in Tehran (2021) who visited sexual health centers in this city. A sample of 45 men aged 25-65 was selected using convenience sampling and divided into three groups of 15. The research instrument included the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF). The data were analyzed in SPSS-23 using the analysis of covariance.

    Results

     The mean ± SD of the pretest of premature ejaculation in the tDCS, start-stop method, and control groups was 13.60 ± 5.45, 12.86 ± 3.24, and 15.68 ± 4.87, respectively; while in the posttest was 23.53 ± 9.65, 18.66 ± 5.25 and 17.53 ± 4.83, respectively. Based on the results, tDCS alleviated premature ejaculation (P < 0.001). The start-stop method also decreased the symptoms of premature ejaculation, but this reduction was not significant. There was a significant difference between the two treatment methods, and tDCS proved more effective.

    Conclusions

     tDCS demonstrated acceptable effectiveness in the treatment of premature ejaculation. Given its effectiveness in increasing marital satisfaction, it should be considered in the treatment of premature ejaculation.

    Keywords: Premature Ejaculation, Sexual Dysfunction, Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation, Men
  • Zahra Afifi Rad, Gholamhossein Khorshidi *, Tahereh Soori Page 6

    Context:

     Patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) need to commit to permanent discipline to minimize the risks of disease. On the other hand, the approach to disease self-management has shifted from a solely biological and doctor-patient-oriented approach to a more comprehensive model with a cooperative approach that takes advantage of social factors such as the community and family. Therefore, it is necessary to comprehensively extract social factors affecting consumer discipline from scientific sources.

    Evidence Acquisition: 

    This narrative review identified social factors T2D self-management. Relevant studies were retrieved from reputable databases including PubMed, Google Scholar, Iran Doc, Emerald, and ScienceDirect through a web search (with no temporal limitations). Out of the 18,082 retrieved articles, 68 studies resonating with research goals were selected and underwent qualitative analysis.

    Results

     Four categories of social factors were identified, including family, diabetes educators, peers, and diabetes online communities. Family member behaviors were classified into three groups: Diabetes self-management facilitators, obstacles, and neutral behaviors. Studies on diabetes educators accentuated their essential capabilities. Also, two face-to-face peer support models were identified. Ultimately, diabetes online communities were investigated as an emerging context capable of identifying and covering the needs of diabetic patients and their families.

    Conclusions

     Social factors, including family, educators, peers, and online communities, play a crucial role in T2D self-management. By recognizing these factors, healthcare professionals can design interventions that ultimately result in better outcomes for patients with T2D.

    Keywords: Self-management, Diabetes, Social Factors, Type 2 Diabetes
  • Mansureh Sohrabi, Saeed Bakhtiarpour *, Faramarz Sohrabi, Zahra Eftekhar Saadi, Parviz Asgari Page 7
    Background

     Individuals are consistently influenced by ineffective core beliefs known as maladaptive schemas that develop during childhood and can pave the way for the appearance of problems such as extreme perfectionism. Therefore, therapeutic approaches are needed that can be effective for these schemas.

    Objectives

     The present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of contextual schema therapy (CST) on perfectionism and emotion regulation in individuals with perfectionism disorder.

    Methods

     In this study, 12 individuals diagnosed with perfectionism disorder visiting the psychological service centers in Tehran in 2022 were purposively selected for this quasi-experimental study with a pre-test, mid-test, and post-test design. The participants underwent CST in 40 one-hour sessions and completed the Positive and Negative Perfectionism Scale and Emotion Regulation Questionnaire in all three stages of the assessment. The data were analyzed using the repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) in SPSS-26.

    Results

     The mean and standard deviation (SD) of perfectionism in the pre-test, mid-test, and post-test phases were 151.08 ± 18.97, 94.25 ± 12.48, and 67.58 ± 5.41, respectively. Moreover, the mean ± SD of emotion regulation in the pre-test, mid-test, and post-test phases were 40.25 ± 8.95, 45.50 ± 8.12, and 50.08 ± 7.94, respectively. The results demonstrated that the CST was effective for perfectionism across all assessment stages (P < 0.001); however, this influence was not significant for emotion regulation during the mid-test stage.

    Conclusions

     Contextual schema therapy led to a reduction in extreme perfectionism and an improvement in emotion regulation in individuals with perfectionism. It is suggested that CST be applied in psychological service centers to reduce perfectionism and emotion regulation strategies in clients.

    Keywords: Schema Therapy, Perfectionism, Emotions, Psychotherapy
  • MohammadEbrahim Abbasi, Mohsen Golmohammadian *, Keivan Kakabraee Page 8
    Background

     Hard of hearing is a prevalent disability among children that presents challenges not only for the children themselves but also for their parents. The identification of a child’s hard of hearing often triggers a series of crises within the family, particularly for the mother.

    Objectives

     This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of integrating mindfulness and spiritual therapy in enhancing the psychological hardiness and distress tolerance among mothers of hard-of-hearing children.

    Methods

     This quasi-experimental study included a pretest-posttest method and two follow-up stages with a control group. A sample 0f 60 mothers who had children with hard of hearing were selected by convenience sampling method and were randomly assigned to either the experimental group, which received mindfulness integrated with spiritual therapy (n = 30), or the control group (n = 30). Two post-test stages were conducted in both experimental and control groups and psychological hardiness and distress tolerance were evaluated using the Ahvaz Hardiness Inventory (AHI) and Distress Tolerance Scale (DTS) data were analyzed using analysis of covariance with repeated measures.

    Results

     The mindfulness integrated with spiritual therapy had a significant effect on enhancing distress tolerance and the psychological hardiness of mothers of hard-of-hearing children There was a significant difference in the total scores of AHI and DTS between the experimental and control groups (P < 0.05). Furthermore, there was a significant difference between the pre-test, post-test, and follow-ups (P < 0.05).

    Conclusions

     The present study supports the efficacy of integrating mindfulness and spiritual therapy for improving psychological hardiness and distress tolerance among mothers of hard-of-hearing children.

    Keywords: Mindfulness, Tolerance, Hard of Hearing
  • Niloofar Arab, Elaheh Asadi-Bidmeshki *, Mozhgan Rahnama, Abdolghani Abdollahimohammad, Mehrbanoo Amirshahi Page 9
    Background

     Various complications of the disease and its treatment can lead to a decrease in life satisfaction among hemophilia patients. As family functioning plays a crucial role in the well-being of patients, this study aimed to determine the effect of family-oriented empowerment on the life satisfaction and happiness of patients with hemophilia.

    Methods

     This quasi-experimental study included 36 hemophilia patients who met the study criteria and were randomly assigned into the control and experiment groups (18 participants in each group). Data were collected using a demographic questionnaire, Diener's life satisfaction questionnaire, and the Oxford happiness questionnaire. The questionnaires were completed before and one month after the intervention. Data were analyzed using SPSS 24.

    Results

     The independent t-test did not reveal a significant difference in the mean scores of life satisfaction and happiness between the control and experiment groups before the intervention. However, a significant difference was observed in the average scores of life satisfaction and happiness between the control and experiment groups after the intervention (P < 0.001).

    Conclusions

     The results demonstrated a positive effect of family-centered empowerment intervention on the life satisfaction and happiness of hemophilia patients.

    Keywords: Empowerment, Family, Happiness, Hemophilia, Satisfaction
  • Javad Aminisaman, Javad Nazari, Yasamin Aminisaman, Rasool Kawyannejad * Page 10
    Background

     Laryngoscopy is the required procedures in general anesthesia that can cause cardiovascular disorders for the patient. Various pharmacological methods are used to reduce unwanted laryngoscopy responses.

    Objectives

     The present study aimed to compare the effects of fentanyl and nitroglycerin spray on hemodynamic responses during laryngoscopy.

    Methods

     In a clinical trial study, 40 patients were divided into two groups. In one group of patients, intravenous fentanyl (2 µg/kg) was given and in the other group, 2 puffs sublingually nitroglycerin spray was given in addition to receiving fentanyl. Hemodynamic variables were measured at one minute before and after laryngoscopy. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 19 software.

    Results

     The study data showed that there is no statistically significant difference between the study groups in terms of demographics. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, as well as heart rate decreased significantly in the group of receiving simultaneous fentanyl and nitroglycerin in comparison to the group receiving fentanyl alone.

    Conclusions

     The results of our study showed that the administration of nitroglycerin spray with fentanyl more weakened the cardiovascular responses induced by laryngoscopy.

    Keywords: Laryngoscopy, Hemodynamic Response, Fentanyl, Nitroglycerin
  • Sahar Gohari, Sarina Nejati khoei, Yasin SarveAhrabi * Page 11
    Background

     Acinetobacter baumannii is an important pathogen due to its ability to cause a wide range of infections, particularly in healthcare settings, and its propensity to develop multidrug resistance, posing significant challenges for treatment and infection control measures. Flavonoid and Oxadiazoles compounds play a significant role in human health due to their biological activities.

    Objectives

     The purpose of this study is to investigate the anti- A. baumannii effects of flavonoid compounds and oxadiazole derivatives.

    Methods

     Structures with oxadiazole central core were re-synthesized. Agar well diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration, and minimum bactericidal concentration methods were performed In vitro. The structure of the oxadiazole derivatives and 10 compounds of flavonoids as ligands were optimized by the mm2 method with Chem3D v20.1.1.125 software. The ligands were evaluated as an inhibitor against the active site of the OXA-23 by AutodackVina software. The output results were analyzed and evaluated by Discovery Studio v16.1.0 software.

    Results

     The results demonstrated that derivatives B (oxadiazole with dibromophenyl) and D (oxadiazole with dimethoxyphenyl) exhibited stronger anti- A. baumannii effects compared to other compounds and the control sample. Furthermore, the In silico results revealed the inhibitory effects of derivatives D from oxadiazole and eriocitrin and narirutin from flavonoid compounds against OXA-23 by forming hydrogen bonds for inhibition.

    Conclusions

     The dimethoxyphenyl structure with the oxadiazole core and eriocitrin and narirutin from flavonoid compounds can be used as an anti- A. baumannii agent in the development of therapeutic drugs.

    Keywords: Acinetobacter Baumannii, Flavonoids, Oxadiazoles, Molecular Docking Simulation
  • Saleh Salehi-Zahabi, Karim Ghazikhanlou, Kasra Talebi *, Zahra Cheraghi, Maryam Veismorady Page 12
    Background

     The emerging COVID-19 virus in the world has resulted in psychological concerns and issues, including anxiety, which in turn causes problems in both mental and physical dimensions in people; In the meantime, it is necessary to study the anxiety of health staff, especially radiographers, who are at the forefront of dealing patients with suspected corona disease.

    Objectives

     To evaluate how the COVID-19 epidemic has affected the anxiety levels of radiographers in Kermanshah, Iran, examining the factors contributing to heightened anxiety and proposing potential strategies for mitigation.

    Methods

     In this cross-sectional study, which employed a descriptive-analytical approach and a readily available sampling method, 102 radiographers who worked in various hospital wards in western Iran's educational and medical centers participated. The Corona Disease Anxiety Scale (CDAS) was the instrument used to collect the data.

    Results

     According to the presented scores, 13 participants (12.7%) had no anxiety or mild mental anxiety, 75 participants (73.5%) had moderate mental anxiety, and 13 participants (12.7%) had severe mental anxiety. 87 participants (85.3%) had moderate physical anxiety, and 15 participants (14.7%) had severe physical anxiety.

    Conclusions

     Radiographers' anxiety should be taken into account, as it can have adverse effects on their mental and physical well-being. It is crucial to prioritize the health of hospital staff and prevent any decrease in the efficiency of radiographers.

    Keywords: COVID-19, Anxiety, Radiographers, Radiology
  • Aynollah Naderi *, Mitra Mohammadi Page 13
    Background

     Regular exercise is beneficial for children and teenagers in terms of physical and mental health, but it is crucial to acknowledge the potential for injuries and the lack of extensive research on the prevalence and consequences of sports-related injuries in this age group.

    Objectives

     This study aims to investigate the occurrence of sports injuries and assess how they may affect students' mental and physical well-being.

    Methods

     The current study was cross-sectional research conducted in Hamedan City from 1401 to 1402. The statistical population of this study consisted of students who participated in team sports. A total of 153 students, with an average age of 14.1 ± 2.8, were selected as the study population. The quality of life was assessed using the SF36 scale, while physical and mental health were evaluated using the PROMIS-2 scales. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS version 21 software and the independent t-test statistical method, with a significance level set at 0.05.

    Results

     The research results have shown that 24.2% of student-athletes in Hamedan City suffer from sports injuries in at least one part of their body. The areas that most commonly affected were the feet and toes (16.2%), ankles (13.5%), and knees (10.8%). Furthermore, the findings from the research indicate that student-athletes with a previous history of sports injuries had a significantly lower average quality of life, physical health, social functioning, and pain interference compared to those who had not experienced such injuries (P < 0.05).

    Conclusions

     Sports injuries are common among student-athletes who participate in team sports, and they can significantly affect both their physical and social well-being. Such injuries can have a detrimental impact on the daily lives and social interactions of adolescent athletes. Therefore, health professionals must be fully aware of these repercussions and make them a key focus when managing sports injuries.

    Keywords: Sports Injuries, Mental Health, Physical Health, Student Athletes
  • Zahra Jahanbakhshi, Jamileh Nowroozi, Zahra Kahrarian, Azin Tariniya Gilani, Mohadeseh Ahmadvand, Nasrollah Sohrabi * Page 14
    Background

     Staphylococcus aureus is the most common agent of nosocomial infections. Macrolide Lincosamide-Streptogramin B (MLSB) antibiotics are the therapeutic choices for treatment of infections due to methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates. The most frequent mechanism for inducible resistance in S. aureus is modification in target site by erm (erythromycin ribosome methylase) genes.

    Objectives

     The aim of this research was to determine inducible MLSB (iMLSB) and detection the erm genes in clinical samples of S. aureus isolated from hospitalized patients in the Imam Reza hospital of Kermanshah, west of Iran.

    Methods

     This study performed on 126 samples of S. aureus. Identification of isolates were performed using microbiological and biochemical procedures. Inducible resistance to clindamycin was tested by D-test. The prevalence of genes, such as femB, mecA, ermA and ermB was assessed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

    Results

     Eighty-three cases (65.9%) of isolates were methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA). The resistance rate against erythromycin and clindamycin was 67.4% and 52.2%, respectively. Totally, 49 cases (38.9%) of isolates were resistant to both erythromycin and clindamycin indicating constitutive MLSB phenotype (cMLSB); 20 cases (15.9%) isolates showed positive D test indicating inducible MLSB phenotype (iMLSB), while 16 cases (12.7%) were negative for D test indicating MS phenotype. Among 20 cases with iMLSB phenotype, ermC and ermA genes were showed in 7 cases (35%) and 4 cases (20%) isolates, respectively. The ermB gene is not detected in any cases and 9 cases (45%) isolates did not have any erm genes.

    Conclusions

     In general, findings of this study showed high frequency of resistance to clindamycin and erythromycin among S. aureus isolates and cMLSB to be the most pattern phenotype and ermC gene is the most common gene in iMLSB phenotype. Because variation of antimicrobial resistance pattern in geographic regions obtaining local results is useful for detecting and more appropriate control of nosocomial infection due to S. aureus isolates.

    Keywords: Staphylococcus aureus, Inducible Resistance, Clindamycin, erma