فهرست مطالب

Journal of Chemical Reviews
Volume:6 Issue: 1, Winter 2024

  • تاریخ انتشار: 1402/10/11
  • تعداد عناوین: 5
  • Rebaz Kareem *, Niyazi Bulut, Omer Kaygili Pages 1-26

    A researcher needs to know all the chemical, physical, biological, structural, and mechanical characteristics of a biomedical material before using it in medical applications. The mineral hydroxyapatite (HAp, Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) is an essential component of the calcium orthophosphate family. It possesses great dielectric and biological compatibility properties, diamagnetic properties, thermal stability, osteoconductivity, and bioactivity, which has a Ca:P molar ratio of 1.67. Since HAp has a chemical makeup that is very similar to that of natural bone and teeth, it has the potential to be utilized as a material for the implantation of implants in broken parts of the human skeletal system. Because of the increasing use of HAp in medicine, many methods for producing HAp nanoparticles have been discovered. The preparation conditions of synthesized HAp determine their physical and chemical characteristics, crystalline structure, and shape. This study gives a comprehensive information on the properties and production methods of the HAp in detail and unveile the structure and its properties in detail.

    Keywords: Hydroxyapatite, Biomaterials, Synthesis methods, Biomedical Application
  • Priya Kumari, Manish Sengar *, Neha Sengar Pages 27-38

    Lactic acidosis is a condition characterized by an abnormal accumulation of lactic acid in the body, leading to a disturbance in the acid-base balance. It can occur due to various factors, including impaired oxygen supply, medication use, and liver dysfunction. The pathophysiology of lactic acidosis involves an imbalance between lactic acid production and elimination or utilization. Diagnosing lactic acidosis involves clinical evaluation, blood tests, and identification of underlying causes. Elevated lactate levels, arterial blood gas analysis, and electrolyte imbalances are commonly assessed. Imaging studies and electrocardiograms may be used to evaluate organ function and identify contributing factors. Treatment of lactic acidosis focuses on addressing the underlying cause and supporting organ function. Prompt resuscitation and oxygen therapy are crucial in cases of impaired oxygen delivery. Medications or toxins that contribute to lactic acidosis may need to be discontinued or managed differently. Fluid and electrolyte management is essential for correcting imbalances and optimizing organ function. In severe cases, interventions such as renal replacement therapy or hemodialysis may be required. Prevention of lactic acidosis involves managing underlying medical conditions and avoiding factors that can contribute to its development. Regular monitoring of medications that can cause lactic acidosis is necessary, with adjustments made if needed. Proper control of chronic conditions such as diabetes or liver disease can minimize the risk of lactic acidosis. Individuals engaging in intense physical activities should receive appropriate training, hydration, and pacing to prevent excessive lactic acid build-up. Lactic acidosis can have significant health effects and complications. Cardiovascular effects can occur, including arrhythmias, decreased cardiac output, and cardiac arrest. Organ dysfunction, such as acute kidney injury, liver failure, and pancreatitis, may result from lactic acidosis. Metabolic acidosis, electrolyte imbalances, and hypoxia are also common consequences. In severe cases, lactic acidosis can lead to confusion, altered mental status, and coma.

    Keywords: Lactic acidosis, Organ dysfunction, cardiovascular effects, Metabolism, Pathodology, Pyruvate dehydrogenase
  • Othman Abdulrahman Hamad, Rebaz Kareem *, Peshang Khdir Omer Pages 39-75

    Phthalocyanines (Pcs) are macrocyclic chemical compounds that have attracted a lot of attention in the last decade due to their varied properties. Over time, the extensive utilization of PCs has been justified due to their exceptional nature, with their numerous desirable qualities stemming from the straightforward and adaptable methods for altering their structure. These modifications have enabled a wide range of applications, including photodynamic therapy for cancer treatment, chemical sensing, solar cells, nonlinear optics, and, most recently, photoinitiator systems for various polymerization processes, including free radical, cationic, and controlled radical polymerizations. Pcs distinctive electrochemical, photochemical, and photophysical properties have made all of these advancements possible. Our motivation to emphasize the significance of phthalocyanines in chemical science is driven by their remarkable success story. This study commences with an exploration of the design and synthesis of Pcs tailored for specific applications, followed by a spotlight on innovative research that harnesses the diverse activation capabilities of these macrocycles to initiate various types and also describes characterization.

    Keywords: Phthalocyanines, Properties, Syntheses, Variety applications, Characterization, Photodynamic therapy
  • MohammadEhsan Mohammadi-Arani, Ramin Zibaseresht, Mohsen Chamanara, Reza Mosaed, Mohammad Mahboubi-Rabbani, Maryam Bayanati, Hossein Fasihi * Pages 76-93

    The present review aims to examine the use of carbamazepine (CBZ) in plasma based on various techniques, such as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and chromatographic analysis. The review considered in this research is narrative, which is based on previous studies. The effects of CBZ in treating seizures and epilepsy are investigated comprehensively. Accordingly, the related studies regarding the effects of CBZ in plasma based on HPLC were investigated in detail. Due to the findings given in the previous studies, it was revealed that the effects of CBZ are positive and negative for people's health. Due to the obtained results, micellar electro-kinetic chromatography (MEKC) is used for specifying CBZ. Furthermore, the benefits of single reference HPLC are well documented in the literature for therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of phenytoin (PHT) and CBZ in plasma. Notably, the use of metal analysis was useful for indicating the positive effect of CBZ in the epilepsy treatment. The combination of chlorpromazine (CPZ) with other drugs can prevent its adverse effects and make it more popular in medicine. The prevention of seizure progression and epilepsy using the CBZ and its counterparts is still a controversial issue that should be tackled in the future.

    Keywords: carbamazepine, TDM, High-performance liquid chromatography, Bipolar disease, Seizure treatment
  • Maaz Khan, Shakeeb Khan, Muhammad Omar, Muhammad Sohail, Ihsan Ullah * Pages 94-114

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have emerged on the central stage in material sciences with diverse applications especially in biomedical and environmental fields. This review focuses on the recent development of nickel and cobalt magnetic nanoparticles. Various methods of synthesis, composition, characterization, and applications have been discussed in this article. The main aim of the review is to highlight that not only iron nanoparticles show magnetic properties and applications, but also nickel and cobalt nanoparticles exhibit such behaviour in different types of smart materials. The findings of this study are that similar methods of synthesis and characterization can be equally applied to Ni and Co MNPs just like Iron MNPs.

    Keywords: Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), nickel, Cobalt, Biomedical, Catalytic