فهرست مطالب

Journal of Poultry Sciences and Avian Diseases
Volume:1 Issue: 3, Summer 2023

  • تاریخ انتشار: 1402/06/10
  • تعداد عناوین: 6
  • MohammadReza Piryaei, Sina Bagheri, Amin Riahi, Jamshid Razmyar* Pages 1-17

    Astroviruses are non-enveloped, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses that can infect a wide range of hosts and are often linked to gastrointestinal sickness. Disease might range from asymptomatic to encephalitis depending on the host and virus genotype. Astroviruses have a significant genetic diversity due to a faulty polymerase and frequent recombination events across strains.Using diverse approaches and animal models to explore virus-host interactions, researchers have uncovered several notable aspects of astroviruses, including the ability of the astrovirus capsid to behave as an enterotoxin, disrupting the gut epithelial barrier.Outside of the gastrointestinal tract, astroviruses have been found to cause sickness. More animal models should be developed to study this phenomenon as well as astrovirus pathogenesis, particularly in strains that might cause extraintestinal infection. The current dogma, as with other viral infections of the gut, argues that astroviruses infect in a species-specific manner; however, mounting evidence of cross-species infection of these viruses has called this notion into question.There are some methods of determining if you have an astrovirus infection. Electron microscopy, cell culture, immunoassays, polymerase chain reaction, and a variety of other molecular methodologies are currently being used in diagnostic and surveillance research. This review will discuss the last updates on pathogenesis and diagnosis of Astroviruses.

    Keywords: Astroviruses, Cell Culture, Electron Microscopy, Gastrointestinal Infection, Immunoassays, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
  • Mahdi Khalilzadeh, Seyed Mostafa Peighambari* Pages 18-25

    Arizona infection or avian arizonosis (AA) is an acute or chronic egg-transmitted disease of primarily young turkey poults characterized by septicemia, neurological signs, blindness, and increased mortality, caused by caused by the bacterium Salmonella enterica subsp. Arizonae  (S. Arizonae ). This study investigated the infection rate of Salmonella Arizonae in backyard and commercial turkeys of Golestan, Mazandaran, Gilan, and Tehran provinces. Fecal samples taken from industrial and backyard turkeys were transferred to cysteine selenite enrichment medium, incubated at 37° C for 24 hours, and then cultured linearly in selected media of Chromagar, Salmonella-Shigela, XLD, and McConkey agar plates and exposed to 37° C for 24 hours. Suspected Salmonella colonies were cultured in differentiated TSI and urea medium for confirmation and incubated at 37° C for 24 h. In this study, the microbial culture method was used by pre-enrichment, specific, and differential media to determine the level of contamination of backyard and industrial turkey flocks in four provinces of Golestan, Mazandaran, Gilan, and Tehran. All samples were tested for Salmonella infection, but positive samples were found for Salmonella. Only 22 specimens were infected with Proteus. Our information about the Iranian turkey industry is limited compared to worldwide studies. This may be due to Iran's less widespread use of turkey production. The non-isolation of Salmonella in this study is inconsistent with some of the few studies in the country, which may be due to differences in the type of sampling, geographical location, and, materials and methods of work. Due to the growth of the turkey industry in the country, the importance of studying Salmonella and other pathogens is felt more than ever.

    Keywords: Salmonella Arizonae, Arizonosis, Birds, Turkey, Iran
  • Mohammad Arad Zandieh, Fatemeh Rahmanzad, Matineh Delrobaei, Setayesh Farokhian, Seyed Jamal Alavinia, Saied Bokaie* Pages 26-41

    Hepatitis-hydropericardium syndrome (HHS) or Angara disease is an immunosuppression and contagious disease that often occurs in broiler poultry farms with a high mortality rate and sudden death. Furthermore, weight loss and sudden death have a significant and apparent economic impact on poultry farms, especially in fast-growing countries. Fowl adenovirus (FAdV) is a causative agent of HHS found in various animals, such as chicken. It causes rapid death and outbreak in young broiler farms, with an accumulation of jelly-like and straw-colored liquid in the heart pericardium, swollen and pale liver, heart muscles petechial and ecchymosis hemorrhages, swollen and pale kidneys, and atrophy thymus seen in gross pathology. Age, host, farm management, biosecurity plan, co-infectious, and level of immunity are risk factors for HHS. Angara is mainly found in Asian countries in Central and South America. The disease is transmitted vertically, like egg-transmitted, and horizontally by oral-fecal route. Rapid diagnostics and active monitoring systems in poultry farms can prevent and control Angara disease in farms. Vaccination and farm-specific biosecurity strategies reduce the initiation of outbreaks in farms. Treatment is based on activating humoral immunity against the virus, similar to vaccination.

    Keywords: Poultry, Angara, Hepatitis Hydropericardium Syndrome, Viral disease, Epidemiology
  • Kimia Mahdavi, Morteza Zendehdel*, Hamed Zarei Pages 42-50

    Understanding the mechanism of food intake is important for comprehending energy balance, obesity, and the body weight regulation. In particular, examining birds' appetite is critical for conservation efforts, managing human-bird interactions, and understanding the environmental implications of bird feeding practices. In this systematic review, using the PRISMA guideline, we investigated the mediators that were identified as factors affecting the birds' appetite in 2022 and 2023. In order to obtain the appropriate studies, suitable keywords were searched in the relevant electronic databases and an anthology of the desired articles was done. According to the findings, the central administration of adrenomedullin, apelin-13, lipopolysaccharide, neuromedins and spexin causes hypophagia in chickens, while the injection of adiponectin, neuropeptide W (NPW) and phonexin-14 increased the food intake of birds. Also, regarding the members of RF-amide peptide family, neuropeptide VF (NPVF) and neuropeptide FF (NPFF) weakened the food consumption of birds, while kisspeptin and prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP) strengthened it. The effects observed in birds were similar to mammals in most cases, indicating the structural and general similarities in the regulatory mechanisms of these strains, on the other hand, the contradictory effects between the two species were probably caused by genetic differences. Finally, despite the progress made in identifying the factors and mechanisms involved in regulating the appetite of birds, it is recommended to conduct future studies using modern laboratory methods, especially cellular-molecular methods.

    Keywords: Appetite, Food intake, Neurotransmitters, Birds
  • Seyed Iman Motamedi Nasab*, Seyed Ali Pourbakhsh, Hadi Haghbin Nazarpak Pages 51-58

    Influenza is a significant poultry disease that can also affect humans, making it a zoonosis. The World Health Organization (WHO) and Contagious Diseases Organization (CDO) have increasingly focused on this disease in recent years. The isolation of influenza, particularly H5N1 and H9N2 subtypes, has dramatically increased, posing a global epidemic threat and causing deaths in various communities, as well as substantial losses in poultry. In response, using inactivated avian influenza vaccines has become common in controlling the disease. A comprehensive study was conducted in broiler farms in Iran to address the importance of influenza control through vaccination. The study involved 50,000 broiler chicks divided into seven groups with different vaccination programs. The groups were vaccinated at different ages and received varying vaccine doses. Serum samples were collected weekly and analyzed for antibody titers using hemagglutination inhibition (HI). The results showed that the groups vaccinated after seven days of age had a more consistent immune response and higher antibody titers than those vaccinated at a younger age or with only one dose. Early vaccination before seven days of age did not effectively stimulate the desired antibody response or achieve expected titers for the H9N2 influenza virus. Therefore, vaccinating older chicks improved immunity and flock protection more effectively.This study highlights the importance of vaccination strategies in controlling influenza in broiler farms. It provides valuable insights into the optimal timing and dosage of vaccines to enhance the immune response and protect against the H9N2 subtype. Implementing appropriate vaccination programs can contribute to mitigating the impact of influenza on poultry and reducing the risk of transmission to humans, ultimately safeguarding both animal and public health.

    Keywords: Broiler, Hemagglutination Inhibition, H9N2, LPAI, Vaccination
  • Ali Salavati, Amin Riahi, Amirhossein Sharifi Moghadam, Maryam Mahdipour, Sara Dolatyabi* Pages 59-63

    Salpingitis is a common inflammatory complication in ornamental chickens that occurs due to infectious and non-infectious agents. This disease can cause symptoms such as depression, halted egg laying, swelling of the abdominal area, and breathing difficulities. This report investigates a 3-year-old Frizzle hen presenting with severe anorexia, halted egg laying, decreased activity, depression, and difficulty breathing. Ultrasound examinations and hematology tests were conducted for further differential diagnosis, confirming an inflammatory lesion in the oviduct. The tests were additionally utilized to assess the effectiveness of antibiotic therapy as a treatment measure. This report details the diagnosis, treatment, and evaluation of its effectiveness in a domestic ornamental chicken exhibiting clinical signs indicative of possible lesions in the reproductive system or the presence of free fluids in the coelomic cavity. Following initial examinations, ultrasonography, and hematology tests, salpingitis was confirmed with active involvement of an infectious agent, and the likelihood of ascites due to liver issues was ruled out.. Due to the bird owner's preference against surgical intervention, a broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment utilizing gentamicin and lincospectin was selected. The clinical condition of the bird improved significantly after five days of treatment, and the ultrasonography and hematology tests were repeated, which showed the progression of the lesion from an active infection to a chronic caseous infection. This report emphasizes the importance of using paraclinical tests in diagnosing genital disorders, especially salpingitis, and evaluating the effectiveness of the treatment strategy.

    Keywords: Antibiotics, Hematology, Ornamental Hen, Salpingitis, Ultrasonography