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Poultry Sciences and Avian Diseases - Volume:1 Issue: 4, Autumn 2023

Journal of Poultry Sciences and Avian Diseases
Volume:1 Issue: 4, Autumn 2023

  • تاریخ انتشار: 1402/09/10
  • تعداد عناوین: 6
  • Samad Nejad Ebrahimi* Pages 1-2

    Different pathogens can have a significant impact on the health and productivity of poultry, which in turn affects their welfare and the efficiency of production. This can lead to reduced profits and increased usage of antimicrobial drugs. This is concerning for food safety as it increases the risk of poultry products being contaminated with pathogens that can be transmitted to humans. Additionally, there is a growing demand for organic poultry from consumers. Some pathogens, such as Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp., worsen the situation by forming biofilms, which contribute to the severity of poultry diseases and promote resistance to antimicrobial drugs. These biofilms are complex structures made up of bacterial cells and the substances they produce, creating a protective barrier that makes eradication efforts more challenging

  • Shohreh Alian Samakkhah, Alireza Bahonar*, Seyed Ali Ghafouri, Avesta Sadrzadeh, MohammadHossein Fallah Mehrabadi, Farshad Zaynolabedin Tehrani, Zahra Talebi Pages 3-12

    Due to its high prevalence and rapid spread, Newcastle disease is considered a deadly viral disease for the poultry industry worldwide. The uncontrolled and unplanned use of the Newcastle vaccine by poultry farmers reduces its protective value. This study aims to calculate the effectiveness of vaccination programs against Newcastle disease in Iranian broiler farms. The study method is analytical and case-control. One hundred two case farms and 102 control farms were selected for the study. The case farm was defined as a farm with losses exceeding 7%, accompanied by clinical criteria, post-mortem examination, molecular testing, and a history of regional disease outbreaks. The control farms had natural losses (below 7%) and no history of any disease in the current and previous periods. Control farms were matched with case farms regarding capacity, breed, and provincial distribution. The data were analyzed using the chi-square test and multivariable logistic regression analysis. The statistical software Stata version 14  was used for data analysis and modeling. According to the results, the use of the Vitapest strain vaccine by the spray method on day one, followed by the use of the inactivated vaccine by the injection method, and then two doses of the LaSota strain vaccine by the oral route in the program, (87% with a 95% confidence interval of  35-98%), the use of the inactivated vaccine by the injection method and two doses of LaSota strain vaccine by the oral route, (84% with a 95% confidence interval of 23-97%), the use of the inactivated Newcastle disease vaccine at the age of 7–12 days, (78% with a 95% confidence interval of 25-94%), and the use of the live vaccine against Newcastle disease with more than two doses in the program (66% with a 95% confidence interval of 15-88%) were effective. According to the results of this study, inactivated Newcastle disease vaccines are ineffective in the first week, and it is better to administer them at the ages of 7 to 12 days. It is also recommended to use spray vaccines of viscerotropic strains at one day of age to increase mucosal immunity against the Newcastle virus. Finally, principles of biosecurity and farm hygiene management should also be considered to achieve maximum vaccine effectiveness and have a consistent and regular program on the farm.

    Keywords: Effectiveness, Newcastle disease, Broiler chickens, Case-control study, Vaccine
  • Minoo Jafarzadeh, Niloofar Meamar, Mohammad Mohsenzadeh*, Jamshid Razmyar Pages 13-19

    Staphylococcus aureus is a prevalent bacterial colonizer with zoonotic potential, affecting humans and various animal species, including livestock, poultry, and pets. This study investigates methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates in poultry meat portions using Multiplex PCR methods. A total of 210 samples, including 70 wings, 70 thighs, and 70 necks, were collected from Mashhad, Iran markets. S. aureus identification employed culture and phenotypical methods, while the disk diffusion method assessed antibiotic susceptibility using 14 different disks. The Multiplex PCR assay was developed to confirm S. aureus isolates and detect antibiotic resistance genes. Among the 210 samples, 52 (24.76%) tested positive for S. aureus. Antibiotic susceptibility testing revealed that 17 (32.69%) of the S. aureus isolates were resistant to methicillin. Tetracycline exhibited the highest resistance, followed by ampicillin (61.5%) and penicillin (57%). Conversely, chloramphenicol demonstrated the lowest resistance at 3.8%. All isolates were susceptible to gentamicin, vancomycin, imipenem, and ciprofloxacin. PCR analysis confirmed the presence of 16S rRNA and femA genes in all isolates, while 14 (26.92%) harbored the methicillin-resistant gene (mecA). The study suggests multiplex PCR is a valuable and sensitive technique for detecting antibiotic resistance genes in S. aureus within chicken meat, emphasizing its utility in surveillance and control efforts

    Keywords: Influenza, Surface display, Recombinant vaccine, Pichia pastoris
  • Zahra Mirhosseini, Alireza Khosravi* Pages 20-24

    Due to the high concentrations of nitrogen compounds and nutrients present in bird droppings, bird droppings provide fertile media for the growth and spread of various disease-causing microorganisms. Understanding the prevalence of these significant pathogenic fungi in pet birds' feces is crucial for effective disease prevention and management. Culture and molecular tests are the most common tests for fungal infections. In the present study, 126 fecal samples were taken from different species of birds' Psittacine, Passeriformes, and Columbiformes. The total fungal infection frequency was 83 (65.87%). Among the positive samples, 83 (71.55%) were filamentous fungi, and 33 (28.44%) were yeasts. Aspergillus flavus, Candida albicans, and Cryptococcus neoformans are the most important pathogens that were found in this study, with frequency of 34 (29.31%), 12 (10.34%), and 2 (1.72%), respectively. Since it is possible to isolate and identify potentially pathogenic fungi and molds for humans, this research and investigation is even more valuable. Therefore, examining and finding hygienic solutions for this issue will be particularly important.

    Keywords: Cryptococcus neoformans, Filamentous Fungi, Candida albicans, Ornamental Birds, Aspergillus flavus
  • Alireaz Dibaei, Amirhossein Sharifi Moghadam, Hadi Haghbin Nazarpak*, Nariman Sheikhi, Mahdi Askari Badouei Pages 25-31

    Light is an important factor in the functioning of the body of birds, especially the immune system. Management of the lighting program in closed systems of poultry production, mainly by affecting the concentration of melatonin, can be operational on the effectiveness of vaccination. Newcastle disease can cause extensive damage to the poultry industry. Therefore, its timely diagnosis and assessment of the success of vaccination with methods such as the hemagglutination inhibition test are of particular importance. This study investigated the effect of two photoperiods on antibody titer against Newcastle virus following vaccination. Four groups of Ross broilers were examined for six weeks. Groups A and B received the live Newcastle vaccine twice, and groups C and D were not vaccinated against Newcastle. Groups A and C received a lighting program from the management handbook of Ross Broiler, and groups B and D received the continuous lighting program (23L:1D). During the breeding period, blood samples were taken six times from each group, and the HI test measured the antibody titer. The results showed that despite the higher antibody titer in group B compared to group A, this difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05). The feed conversion rate was higher in the groups that received the continuous photoperiod, and their mortality rate was lower than that of the other two groups. Comparing the results of the present study with those of various studies and articles shows the importance of the lighting regime in the success of vaccination.

    Keywords: Broiler, Photoperiod, Newcastle disease, Lighting program
  • Mahdi Khalilzade Houjaqan, Ali Salavati, Iman Shojaei, Ali Mousavi, Seyed Mostafa Peighambari* Pages 32-37

    This study discusses the significant role of lipids in liver functional disorders, emphasizing their impact on metabolic processes and the evaluation of organism and cell function. Hepatic lipidosis, observed across various species, including birds, results from an imbalance in fatty acid metabolism. The study focuses on a case presentation of a laying hen with severe respiratory symptoms and abdominal distension, diagnosed with hepatic lipidosis due to an inappropriate high-fat diet. Diagnostic methods include clinical examinations, blood tests, radiology, and ultrasonography. Treatment involves atorvastatin, furosemide, and dietary adjustments, resulting in a complete recovery. The discussion highlights the metabolic aspects of hepatic lipidosis in laying hens and the challenges in diagnosing pet birds, suggesting biochemical tests and ultrasonography. Additionally, the article explores the application of atorvastatin in treating hyperlipidemia in birds and emphasizes the importance of maintaining a healthy liver in actively egg-laying birds. Our study and experiences have shown that, alongside chemical compounds, herbal compounds can also be utilized for optimal liver health.

    Keywords: Hepatic Lipidosis, Backyard Poultry, Metabolic Disorders, Atorvastatin