# Current Applied Sciences Volume:2 Issue: 1, Winter and Spring 2022

• تاریخ انتشار: 1401/09/10
• تعداد عناوین: 11
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• MohammadReza Shoar Abouzari * Pages 1-8

Previous experiments show that the ionic conductivity of lithium borate thin films is strongly dependent on the thickness of the layers. A network of electrical resistors has been used as a model to describe the ionic conductivity of lithium borate films. This network consists of a large number of electrical resistors that have two different values. According to the percolation theory, the resistant network model describes the ion-conducting pathways inside the network of lithium borate glass. A MATLAB code has been written to calculate the equivalent network resistance, according to Kirchhoff's laws. The number of resistors in each direction of the network is proportional to the dimensions of the sample. The distribution of resistors in the network is random, but the relative probability of distribution for each of the two types of resistors is one of the parameters of this model. Experimental results show that the specific conductivity in thin films depends on the thickness of the layers, while it is constant in thicker layers. By examining various effective parameters in this model and according to the percolation theory, the non-trivial conductivity increase, observed in very thin layers, is simulated. The simulation performed by this model is satisfactory for both thin and thicker layers.

Keywords: Ion conductivity, Resistors network, Percolation, Ion pathways
• Alireza Doostabadi * Pages 9-12

Let G be a finite group. The power graph of the group G, denoted by P(G), is a graph such that its vertex set is the group G and two distinct elements x,y are adjacent if and only if x = yn or y = xn for some positive integer n. The purpose of this paper is to study finite groups such that their commuting graph is a power graph.

Keywords: Power graph, Commutative elements, Commuting graph, PC-groups
• Surabhi Shukla, Suruchi Singh, Namrata Khanna, Tanushri Chatterji *, Upasana Yadav, Reeta Maurya, Sadanand Pandey Pages 13-30

The spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS Cov-2) as a pandemic has been a catastrophic clinical situation afflicting millions and affecting the socioeconomic scenario across the world. These unprecedented circumstances have evoked the need for an early and accurate diagnosis, followed by immediate and effective treatment of the disease. A reliable, rapid, and correct diagnosis is required to prevent transmission and for early patient management. False-negative results hasten the spread of the contagion, while false-positive results cause nonessential therapy and may result in unwarranted agony to the individual. Therefore, detection of the virus should be through accurate, rapid, and convenient diagnostic tests. Various immunological and nucleic acid amplification-testing kits are currently in use. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is a promising technique for COVID-19 diagnosis, but it is not accessible at the primary hospital level. For accurate detection of the coronavirus, sample collection plays a crucial role. Usually, a nasopharyngeal swab is collected as a sample. However, in some instances, to confirm detection, sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples may be obtained from the lower part of the respiratory tract. The purpose of this review is to provide a brief overview of the specimen selection and laboratory techniques available for detecting SARS Cov-2 so that medical professionals can strategize the setting up of sophisticated and well-equipped diagnostic centers.

Keywords: Coronavirus, COVID-19, Lab diagnosis, Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction, Immunological assay
• Saman Sargazi, Mahmood Barani *, Farshid Zargari, Rabia Arshad, Rakesh K. Sharma Pages 31-48
Colloidal nanocarriers have provided great opportunities in the field of drug delivery. In this study, to achieve the efficient delivery of anti-cancer agents at the site of action, doxorubicin (DOX) was encapsulated within pH-responsive ergosterol-modified niosomes. The niosome-based formulation displayed size of 125 nm, a surface charge of -22.7 mV, a DOX encapsulation efficiency (EE) of 70.8%, and pH-responsive release behavior. An in-silico approach was conducted to analyze the interactions of the loaded drug with the niosome bilayer and to evaluate the structural and dynamical properties of the loaded nanovehicle by constructing a niosome bilayer model containing Tween 60, Span 60, and ergosterol molecules. Computational analyses revealed that the  a-hydroxy ketone and daunosamine moieties of DOX are responsible for its arrangement towards the niosome bilayer. On the other hand, the cytotoxic activity of encapsulated DOX compared with its free form in an MCF7 breast cancer cell line was evaluated. Compared with free administered DOX, we found lower IC50 values for the MCF7 cells exposed to niosomal DOX (1.153 vs. 0.229 after 24 h, 0.796 vs. 0.148 µg/mL after 48 h, and 0.461 vs. 0.081 µg/mL after 72 h of incubation, respectively). Additionally, niosomal DOX-induced apparent morphological alterations in MCF7 cells. Hence, we showed that niosomes are promising nanocarriers that can be used to encapsulate and release well-established anti-cancer drugs in order to improve their release and, thus biological activity and therapeutic efficacy.
Keywords: doxorubicin, Niosomes, In-silico analysis, Nanocarrier, pH-Responsiveness, Vesicle
• Roghayeh Sheervalilou, Fatemeh Haidari, Maryam Razavi * Pages 49-58
Most clinicians prefer to apply more readily accessible clinical techniques for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis, which at the same time are time-conserving and highly accurate. The current cross-sectional study sought to evaluate the bacterial vaginosis diagnostic tests on 87 pregnant women referred to our center due to vaginal discharge using Amsel criteria and the Nugent scoring system. Our results showed that the Amsel criteria had a significantly higher sensitivity/specificity than the Nugent scoring system regarding the number of clue cells in the vaginal wet mount test. The specificity of a combination of the wet mount of clue cells in the vagina with other Amsel criteria along with the Nugent scoring system was much higher than both the Amsel criteria and Nugent scoring system. We observed that due to the high efficacy and the great time-conserving and economically-friendly nature of the Amsel criteria, the method is usually opted for by clinicians.
Keywords: Amsel Criteria, Nugent scoring system, Bacterial vaginosis, Gram staining
• Mehdi Dehghani *, Hamid Beyzaei, Zahra Ebrahimnezhad Pages 59-66

Euphorbia serpens Kunth (Euphorbiaceae) is an exotic annual plant species native to South America but is regarded as a pantropical weed. In this paper, the total phenolic and flavonoid contents of ethanolic, methanolic, dichloromethane, and petroleum ether extracts of shoots and roots of Euphorbia serpens were assessed in vitro. The plant materials were collected from Zabol, Sistan and Baluchestan in June 2022. The Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminum chloride colorimetric instructions were followed to evaluate the total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the extracts, respectively. The methanolic extract of aerial parts contained the highest amount of phenolic compounds (59.205 mg GAE/g), while the lowest content of phenols was found in the dichloromethane extract of roots (29.794 mg GAE/g). Also, the greatest amount of flavonoids was recorded for methanol extracts of aerial parts (34 mg RE/g), whereas the ethanol extract of roots contained the lowest amount of flavonoids (1.204 mg q/g). The aerial parts of Euphorbia serpens, in general, contain higher amounts of polyphenols as compared with the underground parts. The results also showed that phenolic and flavonoid contents vary significantly with the employed solvent. It can be concluded that the aerial parts of Euphorbia serpens are rich sources of polyphenolic compounds, signaling their potential for high antioxidant activity and nutritional and pharmaceutical importance.

Keywords: Euphorbia serpens, Flavonoids, medicinal plants, polyphenols
• Hamid Ahmar * Pages 67-78
A novel nonenzymatic glucose sensor based on palladium‒gold nanoparticles encapsulated on polypropylene amine dendrimer–grafted multi-wall carbon nanotubes (PdAu/PPI‒MWCNTs) has been successfully fabricated and applied to glucose detection. PdAu/PPI‒MWCNTs was prepared in a three‒step process. First, polypropylene amine (PPI) dendrimers were grown on the surface of functionalized multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs‒NH2) by a divergent method; second, metal ions were trapped within the dendrimers; and third, the ions were chemically reduced. Therefore, the well-distributed nanoparticles with an average size range of 1.6-3.2 nm were obtained on the surface of PPI‒MWCNTs. The prepared PdAu/PPI‒MWCNTs nanocomposite was immobilized on screen-printed carbon electrode and its electrocatalytic activity for glucose oxidation reaction was studied. Under the optimized conditions, the glucose oxidation current was linear to its concentration within the range of 0.03 ‒ 3.0 mM, and the detection limit was found to be 0.01 mM (S/N = 3). Finally, the prepared sensor has been successfully applied to determine the glucose content in human blood serum samples.
Keywords: Palladium‒gold nanoparticles, Dendrimer-encapsulated NPs, Glucose, Electrochemical sensor, Carbon nanotubes, screen-printed electrode
• MohammadKazem Momeni, Faroogh Hakimi, Farzaneh Gorgani *, Asadollah Shakeri, Elham Shahreki, Alireza Ansari-Moghaddam, Roghayeh Sheervalilou Pages 79-90

The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and the mortality rate of patients who were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU), starting from the time of discharge until two months later. In this study, 125 patients admitted to the ICU were studied. The patients’ demographic data and physical examination, particularly the exact level of CRP obtained through questionnaires. All discharged patients were followed for 60 days. All data were analyzed with SPSS. The mean CRP was higher in ICU patients who died until two months after discharge (p

Keywords: Intensive care unit (ICU), C-reactive protein (CRP), Discharge, mortality

In this paper, we introduce the concept of state on KU-algebras and prove some of their properties. Also, we analyze the relationship of their mapping with KU-substructures.

Keywords: λ-Commutative, λ-Distributive, KU-algebra, state operator
• Amirarsalan Kavyanifard*, Hamid Darvishnia Pages 101-108

Macrovipera lebetinus is a viper found in North Africa, much of the Middle East, and as far east as Kashmir. Since there is no study about its microbial flora, we conducted this research on the microbiota of its oral and cloacal cavities. Many swabs, both oral and cloacal, were taken from 11 vipers and cultured on Nutrient agar, and grown colonies were purified. Morphological and biochemical tests along with molecular analyses of 16S rRNA were performed for characterization of isolates. The gene homology searches were performed using BlastN, EzTaxon, and RDP Classifier. We identified a total of 29 bacterial species belonging 22 genera and 10 families, including pathogenic, opportunistic pathogen, and no-pathogenic bacteria. This was the first report of bacteria associated with oral and cloaca of M. lebetinus using molecular analysis. This research revealed the existence of a number of pathogenic bacteria in the oral cavity of M. lebetinus viper, and therefore it is necessary to appropriate antibiotic therapy in addition to anti-venom treatment.

Keywords: Bacteria, Flora, Molecular analyses, Pathogen, Macrovipera lebetinus
• Hamid Darvishnia* Pages 109-118

The destruction and disintegration of wildlife habitats are primarily caused by roads, and wildlife-vehicle collisions, are triggered by the close interaction between humans and wildlife habitats around the globe. This study examines all identifiable road collisions of animals in Ilam Province from 2017 to 2022, with the aim of examining variety, seasonality, and the pattern of mammalian roadkill. A total of 317 mammals belonging to 13 species were killed in collisions with vehicles. The highest total number of roadkills was recorded for dogs, jackals, and foxes, which collectively accounted for more than 73% of all recorded accidents. The road mortality rate of mammals at 5 km, the entrance and exit of residential areas, was higher than in other areas. The incidence of road accidents during the cold seasons was slightly higher than during the warm seasons, and this disparity in the average road casualties between seasons may be attributed to the dearth of food resources, the type of diet, and the extent of its availability. The roadkill of wildlife can alter the demographic characteristics of the species, diminish genetic variety, and pose a threat to the survival and longevity of populations. Information regarding the type and quantity of road-killed animals can be utilized in cases such as obtaining information on species distribution and conducting short and long-term surveys of population trends. Also, identifying the environmental factors that influence the frequency and pattern of accidents, particularly those of endangered species, can aid in the implementation of appropriate strategies to mitigate road casualties.

Keywords: Mammals, Wildlife, Road mortality, Species distribution, Decline