فهرست مطالب

Nano Dimension - Volume:15 Issue: 1, Winter 2024

International Journal of Nano Dimension
Volume:15 Issue: 1, Winter 2024

  • تاریخ انتشار: 1402/10/11
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
  • Madhavi Darekar *, Praveen B. M. Pages 1-22
    In the present study, highly recommended lead iodide (PbI2) nanoparticles and thin films based on PbI2 nanoparticles have been prepared for optoelectronics and solar cell applications. PbI2 is an anisotropic p-type semiconductor with a band gap of 2.57 eV at room temperature. PbI2 material has large potential applications in optical detector, digital X-ray imaging, gamma ray detector, etc. PbI2 layered semiconductor nanoparticles were stabilized using thioglycerol and investigated by Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) absorption spectroscopy, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The chemical bath deposition (CBD) method was used to deposit PbI2 thin films on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrates. These films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), mapping and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Thicknesses of PbI2 thin films were estimated using a laser profilometer. The blue shift was observed in UV-Vis absorption and PL spectra of PbI2 nanoparticles. TEM was used to obtain quantitative information on the PbI2 particle size distribution. Due to the low solubility of PbI2 in acetonitrile, approximately 20-30 nm sized circular particles are obtained. The variation of 18 Å was observed in the lateral dimensions of PbI2 nanoparticles. Pb4fXPS core level appeared at 138.5 eV corresponding to PbI2. There is no report published wherein the PbI2 nanoparticles and the PbI2 thin films were prepared by the aqueous chemical method and the CBD method respectively. In this study, the characterization results of PbI2 nanoparticles and PbI2 thin films were better than many other materials.
    Keywords: Synthesis, Characterization, nanoparticles, PbI2 thin films, Chemical bath deposition method
  • Elmira Shiri, Akram Eidi *, MohammadReza Bigdeli, Seyed Pejman Mortazavi Pages 23-34

    Cerebral ischemia is one reason for death and loss of movement ability of people, which imposes a large and significant cost on the global health system. Niosomes, as useful tools, can increase drug delivery to the brain. The purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of niosomes containing saponin (NS) on stroke- induced damage in the hippocampus of an animal model. The physicochemical characteristics of nanocarriers, such as zeta potential, size, and release test were investigated after the fabrication of thin film method. In this study, Wistar rats were divided into five experimental groups including sham group, stroke group, stroke group with empty niosome injection, stroke group with saponin injection, and stroke group with niosome saponin injection. The study examined various aspects of ischemia including stroke volume, blood-brain barrier (BBB) damage, neurological defects, levels of inflammatory cytokines, and cellular damage in the hippocampus. The findings indicate that NS, with a size of 85.92nm, zeta potential of -34.7 mv, and an entrapment efficiency (EE%) of  85.70% effectively reduced stroke volume, cerebral edema, BBB damage, expression level of TNF-α, and NF-kB genes and inflammation in hippocampal cells. Additionally, NS improved sensory and motor performance in rats. These results demonstrate that NS can mitigate stroke-induced damage in the hippocampus of the rat model by effectively crossing the BBB.

    Keywords: Hippocampus, Niosome, Neurological Deficits, Saponin, Stroke
  • Najmeh Hajialigol * Pages 35-48
    This research deals with the numerical analysis of the heat transfer characteristics of the unsteady combination of alumina-kerosene nanofluid enclosed in a porous cavity with a moving lid. The governing equations of fluid flow and conjugate heat transfer along with the relevant boundary conditions are applied to express the physical problem mathematically. First, the boundary conditions and governing equations are converted into non-dimensional forms by suitable transformation series. In the next step, the finite element method based on Galerkin residue was used to solve the transformed non-dimensional equations. The evaluation is shown by previous studies and found to be excellent in resolution. Numerical solutions are obtained in a wide range of governing variables. In this study, Solid volume fraction ( ), Richardson number (Ri), Reynolds number (Re), etc. are the governing variables. The numerical results of thermal fields and flow are graphically shown according to the average Nusselt number, streamlines, and isotherms on the cavity’s hot surface. It is found that Ri has a wide influence on the streamlines and isotherms in the cavity as well as in specifying the average rate of heat transfer.
    Keywords: Finite Element Method, heat transfer, Mixed Convection, Nanofluid, Porous Lid-Driven Cavity
  • Zahra Rohani, Azadeh Alsadat Emrani Zarandi * Pages 49-62
    The multiplier circuit is considered to be a significant component of larger circuits, such as the arithmetic and logic unit (ALU), and it is crucial to enhance its energy efficiency. This objective can be easily achieved by utilizing graphene nanoribbon field-effect transistor (GNRFET) devices and adopting ternary logic. Ternary circuit designs demonstrate superior energy efficiency and occupy less space compared to binary ones. The adjustability of the threshold voltage (Vth) in GNRFET devices is directly influenced by the width of the graphene nanoribbon (GNR). This offers significant advantages for ternary circuit designs. This paper presents a 24-transistor low-energy GNRFET-based single-trit ternary multiplier. Our proposed design incorporates an enhanced voltage division technique to achieve logic ‘1’ while minimizing power consumption. The primary design approach employed in our design involves the utilization of unary operators and specialized transistor configurations to reduce the number of transistors and shorten the critical path. We used the Hewlett simulation program with integrated circuit emphasis (HSPICE) and GNRFET technology with a 32-nm channel length operating at 0.9 V and 300˚ K to evaluate the efficiency of our circuit. We then compared it with similar existing ternary multiplier circuits. The suggested circuit displays favorable delay and power consumption characteristics and ranks as the second most optimal design in terms of energy efficiency. Furthermore, it improves the energy-delay-product by at least 2.80%.
    Keywords: Delay, Digital Circuit, Graphene Nanoribbon Field-Effect Transistor (GNRFET), Low-Energy, Multiplier, Ternary Logic
  • Sahar Esfahani, Jafar Akbari *, Somayeh Soleimani-Amiri Pages 63-71
    Drug delivery insights were provided by performing density functional theory (DFT) calculations to investigate the adsorption of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; ibuprofen (IBU), by an iron-doped silicon carbide (FSiC) graphene monolayer. In this regard, the single models of IBU, SiC, and FSiC were optimized to obtain their stabilized geometries and features, in which a remarkable achievement was found for the enhanced FSiC graphene monolayer towards the original SiC graphene monolayer for interacting with the IBU substance. Subsequently, the formation of interacting complex of IBU and each of SiC and FSiC graphene monolayers was investigated by re-optimizing the bimolecular models to obtain IBU@SiC and IBU@FSiC complexes with interaction energies of -1.44 kcal/mol and -43.14 kcal/mol, respectively. Additionally, a remarkable role of iron-doped region for managing the interactions between FSiC and IBU counterparts was found. The existence of O…Fe interaction in the formation IBU@FSiC complex was affirmed by the results of quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) analyses. The electronic molecular orbitals results indicated a softer FSiC graphene monolayer than SiC graphene monolayer for a better participation in interactions with the IBU substance. Comparing the changes of density of states (DOS) diagrams and energy gap (GAP) distances of frontier molecular orbital levels from the single graphene monolayer to the complex state have been revealed an easier IBU detection by the FSiC than the SiC. As a final note, a suitability of IBU@FSiC complex formations was found for working as a proposed drug delivery platform upon further investigation in this field.
    Keywords: DFT, Drug delivery, Graphene Monolayer, Ibuprofen, Molecular Interaction
  • Farshad Taleshi, Reza Moradi *, Leila Sohrabi Pages 72-79
    In this research, we investigate the effect of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as a substrate on the morphology, size, magnetic behavior, and band gap energy (Eg) of nickel ferrite nanoparticles. Synthesis of NiFe2O4 nanoparticles carried out using a direct co-precipitation method in aqueous solution containing carbon nanotubes. The samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-visible Spectrophotometer, and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The results showed that using the CNT as a supporter reduced the size and band gap energy of NiFe2O4 nanoparticles, changed the morphology of the powder from an aggregate state to a filament state and it increased the magnetic saturation properties of nanoparticles.
    Keywords: Band Gap Energy, Carbon Nanotube, Direct Co-Precipitation, Magnetic Saturation, Morphology, Nickel Ferrite Nanoparticle
  • Fatemeh Mokhtari, Majid Poladian *, Amir Shamloo Pages 80-92
    Damage to the central nervous system causes severe consequences for patients and increases medical costs. In spinal cord injuries, due to sensitive nerves, there is a need for a high-precision and non-invasive method to transfer macromolecules to the damaged area of the spinal cord for nerve repair. The main objective of this study is a high-impact strategy for optimal delivery of macromolecules to spinal cord injuries using ultrasound and magnetic fields. Several permanent magnets and transducers of ultrasound waves with different arrangements, sizes, and angles are used. Their effect on the efficiency of delivering macromolecules to the target area is analyzed. The results determined that utilizing three or four magnets along with the transducer of ultrasound waves could have a precise performance in the delivery of macromolecules. Advances in combining ultrasound and magnetic fields in delivering macromolecules to the target area are associated with increased efficiency and accuracy. The interaction between ultrasound and magnetic forces balances the rotation of macromolecules and their useful movement toward the destination.
    Keywords: Central Nervous System, delivery, Magnet, Spinal Cord, ultrasound
  • Javad Ghorbani, Mehdi Ghaffarian *, Hasan Tashakori, Alireza Baradaran Pages 93-101
    This research explores how two-dimensional honeycomb materials can be used in advanced electronics, focusing on zigzag honeycomb nanoribbons. These nanoribbons can create zero-energy band gaps, enabling helical spin current edge states. The study investigates the quantum spin Hall state, showcasing the adaptability of the Kane-Mele model in various honeycomb lattices. In addition to the theoretical discussions, this study presents a detailed Hamiltonian, performs band structure computations, and introduces a novel spin-filtering technique for zigzag nanoribbons. This method enhances our understanding of edge-localized quantum states and can revolutionize spintronics. By revealing the quantum states in honeycomb nanoribbons, this study contributes to the advancement of electronics and offers a promising path for highly efficient spin-based technologies.
    Keywords: Haldane Model, Kane-Mele Model, Pseudo-Graphene, Quantum Spin Hall Effect, Topological Insulator, Two-Dimensional Honeycomb Materials, Zigzag Nanoribbon